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Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

Biostratigraphy and Environments of the wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

A Biostratigraphy Report Prepared For:

Karoon KEI (Peru Z-38) Pty Ltd.

Prepared By: Biostratigraphic Associates International Biostratigraphic and Geological Consultants November 2010

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................................3 1.1 INTRODUCTION AND W ELL LOCATIONS ............................................................................................................3 1.2 STRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK AND ZONATIONS ...............................................................................................4 1.3 PALAEOENVIRONMENTS AND PALAEOBATHYMETRY..........................................................................................4 1.4 PALAEONTOLOGY METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................4 1.5 PERSONNEL ..................................................................................................................................................5 2. STRATIGRAPHIC AND SEQUENCE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................6 2.1 DELF B 5X (= 391X)..................................................................................................................................7 2.2 LA CRUZ 5215 ..............................................................................................................................................7 3. WELL SUMMARIES .........................................................................................................................................9 3.1 DELF B 5X (=TENNECO 39 1 X).................................................................................................................9 3.1.1 Stratigraphic Summary .........................................................................................................................9 3.1.2 Stratigraphic Discussion .....................................................................................................................10 3.2 LA CRUZ 5215 ............................................................................................................................................14 3.2.1 Stratigraphic Summary .......................................................................................................................14 3.1.2 Stratigraphic Discussion .....................................................................................................................15 4. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................................................21 APPENDIX I: MICROFAUNA ECOLOGY ..........................................................................................................24 APPENDIX II: PALYNOMORPH ECOLOGY & VEGETATION ..........................................................................30 APPENDIX III: GLOSSARY OF STANDARDS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...........................................................37 APPENDIX IV: SAMPLE LISTS .........................................................................................................................37 FIGURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Block Z1 Study Well Locations Schematic Summary of the main Surfaces and Sequences Delf B 5X Stratigraphic Summary La Cruz 5215 Stratigraphic Summary Generalised distribution of agglutinating foraminifera, flooded lowland to bathyal. Generalised distribution of calcareous and planktic foraminifera, flooded lowland to bathyal. Vegetation map of Peru Generalised distribution of principal palynomorphs and associated vegetation belts.

ENCLOSURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tumbes Basin N. Peru S Ecuador Oligocene Pleistocene Stratigraphic framework Delf B 5X Stratigraphic Summary and Palaeontological Frequency Delf B 5X Micropalaeontological Distribution Chart Delf B 5X Palynology Distribution Chart La Cruz 5215 Stratigraphic Summary and Palaeontological Frequency La Cruz 5215 Micropalaeontological and Nannoplankton Distribution Chart La Cruz 5215 Palynology Distribution Chart Stratigraphic relationships of Wells 15X 1, 8X 2, CX 11 16, Delf B 5X, Z1 40 10X and CX 13 - 17

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction and Well Locations This report presents the summary results of the biostratigraphic analysis of selected ditch cuttings samples from wells Delf B 5X (= 391X) and La Cruz 5215 drilled in the Tumbes Basin Peru. The report was prepared for Karoon KEI (Peru Z-38) Pty Ltd. The study wells and samples analysed are as follows:Well Studied Interval 3210 8340 3470 10380 Micropalaeontology & Lithofacies Samples 46 43 Palynology Samples 32 42 Nannofossils Samples 3 9

Delf B 5X La Cruz 5215

It is extremely important in the context of this study and interpretations presented here to appreciate the limitations of the data. This report with some rare exceptions, presents data that has been collected on the basis of wide to very wide sampling intervals. (see Appendix IV for detail). For this reason (with rare exceptions) the paleontology data entrained in the reports is not adequate for high resolution stratigraphic interpretations and in certain instances only a wide interpretation can be applied. Additionally, and as a consequence of the wide sampling interval, identification of caved versus in situ elements can be difficult and in the case of Delf B 5X initially led to a provisional interpretation (e-mail 30/7/10) that has been revised herein. Interpretations presented herein are based on our current understanding of the sub-regional stratigraphy and current 2010 thinking re. the bio-chronostratigraphic distribution of key fossil elements cited in the reports within the framework below.

Pacific Ocean Block Z-1


15X-1 8X-2

Albacora

CX-11-16X

Z-40-10X

CX-13-17

Tumbes

Corvina
Delf B 5X

La Cruz 5215

CN-18X

Peru

Piedra Redonda
Figure 1: Block Z1 Study Well Locations

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

1.2 Stratigraphic Framework and Zonations Enclosure 1 presents a summary of our understanding of the Tumbes Basin Neogene sequences for northern Peru and southern Ecuador. The principal stratigraphic framework that forms the basis of this figure is based on:Planktic foraminiferids, utilising distribution and zonation generally sensu Berggren et. al. (1995), as tied to Gradstein et al. (2004) but with certain modifications. Palynology Zonation as developed by BioSTRAT for northern Latin America and the Caribbean. This zonation is based on miospores, dinocysts and major vegetation changes (related to climatic changes). In some measure it also acknowledges the tropical miospore ranges/distributions of Germeraad et al. (1968) and Muller et al. (1985). Nannoplankton data sets utilising Martini (1971), Okada & Bukry (1980) as tied to Gradstein et al. (2004) incorporating Hine and Weaver (1998). Local sequence stratigraphic events and bio-events deemed to have correlative value on a sub-regional basis. Lithostratigraphic framework as interpreted from client supplied data 1.3 Palaeoenvironments and Palaeobathymetry The environmental and palaeobathymetric interpretations herein are derived by utilising the known or inferred ecological preferences of the various microfauna genera/species, and in particular are derived from analogue comparison to extant faunas that characterise the coastal plain, neritic and bathyal sequences of the shorelines and sea beds of the subtropical and tropical Americas. Summary environmental and paleobathymetry distributions of the main elements of the floras and faunas relevant to the data sets presented herein are described in Appendices I and II and summarised in Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8. The palynoflora and micropaleontological biofacies interpretation derived from each individual sample studied forms the basis for palaeobathymetric data presentation on the well composite logs. It should be noted that stratigraphic interpretations presented herein are derived solely from sample data sets and the gamma ray wireline, and are independent of other stratigraphic criteria such as seismic stratigraphy.

1.4 Palaeontology Methodology Micropalaeontology All data is quantitative and derived from a standard count technique as follows. The washed residue is sieved into four fractions - 500 +, 500-250, 250- 125 and 125 - 63. Each sieve size fraction is scattered over a standard gridded micropalaeontology picking tray (10*5 cms) and systematically searched and picked. A maximum of 5 trays of residue per size fraction is picked to a maximum of 80 foraminiferids and the count stopped although may be further searched for key planktic foraminiferids. Total residue content is obtained by multiplying by a factor that accounts for the total number of trays per sieve fraction. Counts and/or estimates are also made for other miscellaneous non-foraminiferal elements that can provide information to aid environmental interpretation. Palynology All data is quantitative. Palynomorph counts of c. 200 specimens were made for each sample and the remaining coverslip(s) scanned for other significant taxa. Counts below 200 represent the entire palynomorph recovery. In addition a semi-quantitative kerogen assessment was made for each of the samples.

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

Nannofossils For each sample a 12cm composite traverse of the slide has been made using a wide field transmitted light microscope at a magnification of X1000. The nannofossils observed in this traverse have been counted and estimated in the following way: All fossils are counted in the first 20 fields of view; species that are sufficiently abundant are then multiplied by 15 and counted no further. The count of the less abundant species continues to 100 fields of view and species that are sufficiently abundant are multiplied by 3 and counted no further. The count of the less abundant species continues for the entire traverse. The number of fields of view before the first and second multiplication is varied in cases of exceptionally abundant or sparse nannofossils assemblages.

1.5 Personnel BioSTRATIGRAPHIC ASSOCIATES and associate personnel involved in this study were: Tony King Dave Shaw Flor Luna Co-ordination, micropalaeontology and sequence comments Palynology & Stratabugs () Nannoplankton

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

2. STRATIGRAPHIC AND SEQUENCE SUMMARY

This section presents a commentary on the main aspects of the stratigraphy of the Neogene sections of Tumbes Basin wells Delf B 5X (= 391X) and La Cruz 5215. The stratigraphy of each well is discussed historically from the base upwards and cross referenced to the main sequence framework established by BioSTRAT (2009) and as summarised in Figure 2 below. This is discussed more fully in BioSTRAT (2009).
Palaeoenv ironment Peru Env ironment

Sub-Series/Sub-Stage

Coastal/Nearshore Inner Shelf/Bay

Coastal Plain (marine influenced)

Nannofossil Zones

Flood/Coastal Plain Transition

Series/Stage

System

Formation

Surface
Flood Plain

Holocene Pleistocene 2.5 Pliocene

late - middle early late middle early La Cruz RSB MFS2 MFS3

PT1b PT1a PL5/6 PL4 RTS1 Mal Pelo N17 PL3 - M14

NN21 NN20 NN19 NN18/17 NN16 NN15/14 NN13 NN12 NN11

TP14 TP13 TP12 TP11 TP10

5.0

7.5 late N16 10.0 Neogene 12.5 middle Cardalitos RTS2 Miocene 15.0 Zorritos ?Heath transition RSB Tumbes N15 N14 RSB MFS4 N13 N12 N11 N10 N9 N8 Heath 17.5 N7 NN3 early 20.0 Mancora N4 NN1 NN2 N6/N5 NN10 TP9 NN9 NN8 NN7 NN6 NN5 TP8a NN4 TP7b TP8b

22.5

TP7a

25.0 late Paleogene 27.5 Oligocene

Plateritos

P22

NP25

P21 early 30.0 P20

NP24 NP23

TP6

Figure 2: Schematic Summary of the main Surfaces and Sequences

BioSTRAT

Palynolgy Zones

Planktic Zones

Inner Shelf/Bay

Age (ma)

Middle Slope

Upper Slope

Middle Shelf

Outer Shelf

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

2.1 Delf B 5X (= 391X) Heath Formation The deepest section penetrated at this well location (based on samples from 7380 to 8340) is of basal Middle Miocene age (on the basis of the combined bio-chronostratigraphic criteria). The section comprises a marine, predominantly inner to middle neritic/shelf, mud dominated sequence. The microfaunas and style of preservation suggest a stressed environmental situation, both depositional and diagenetic, probably in a pro-deltaic setting. On this basis the sequence is considered as representing the highest part of the Heath Formation. Zorritos Formation The Heath/Zorritos formational contact is marked at this well location by an up-section basin facies shift from neritic/shelf deposition to coastal and coastal plain dominated sediments that mark the presence of the Zorritos Formation and which on the basis of the samples dominate the section from 7380 to 5070'. The vegetation includes ferns, mangroves, tropical forest, palms, semi-aquatic plants and fungi, all derived from coastal swamps, marshes and forests. Cardalitos Formation The Zorritos/Cardalitos formational contact is considered to occur between samples 5070 and 4980. This contact is considered as a response to regional marine transgression (RTS2). The formation, on the basis of the samples, is considered to extend from 5070 to 3810 and on wireline criteria may have an upper limit at c.3600. Based on benthic foraminiferids a late Middle Miocene age is suggested but it is noted that on palynological criteria interpretation is relatively obscured by the presence of Pliocene - Late Miocene elements that are likely present due to caving. The sequence comprises a mud dominated section deposited under marine, predominantly inner to middle neritic/shelf conditions. The microfaunas and style of preservation suggest a stressed environmental situation, both depositional and diagenetic, probably in a prodeltaic setting. Mal Pelo Formation The highest samples examined from 3600, 3450 and 3240 based on palynological criteria are considered as most probably Early Pliocene (Zone TP11) to ?latest Miocene in age. As such there is no firm evidence for the presence of sediments of older Late Miocene age (Tumbes Foramation) in the section, but in view of the wide sample spacing this cannot be entirely excluded. On the basis of age and lithofacies this section of the well can be assigned to the Mal Pelo Formation. The up-section Cardalitos/Mal Pelo Formational contact it is considered as representing a basin facies shift (SB) and at this location may also be associated with unconformity. Deposition of the Mal Pelo occurred within a marine influenced coastal plain to a nearshore inner neritic/coastal setting. The vegetation includes ferns, mangroves, semi-aquatic plants and fungi derived from coastal swamps and marshes. In addition there is a significant input from the surrounding savannah and mountains. The principal stratigraphic realationships of Delf B 5Z to nearby wells Z1 40 -10X and CX 11 16 is illustrated in Enclosure 8. 2.2 La Cruz 5215 Plateritos and Mancora Formations The deepest section penetrated at this location (based on samples from 10380 to 9930) comprises sandstones, possibly granular to conglomeratic in part, with some interbedded claystone and locally common coal fragments. The depositional system is considered as probable non marine flood plain to coastal plain transition. The oxidized nature of some of the lithology may suggest sub-aerial weathering and the presence of pedogenic horizons. A

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

probable Oligocene age (Zone TP6) is suggested based on palynological criteria. On this basis the lower section of this well can be assigned to the Plateritos Formation. Up-section within the formation (between samples 9930 and 9840) there is a transgressive event marked by marine flooding of the overlying sequence, under a predominantly inner neritic to middle neritic/shelf setting, on the basis of the foraminiferid biofacies. Sands entrained in this interval are probably of near shore, inner neritic coastal origin and can be assigned to the higher part of the Plateritos Formation of Late Oligocene age. The up-section Plateritos/Mancora formational contact is not closely constrained but above 9040 further deepening is suggested by the biofacies and the section from 9040 to 8140 comprises mud and silty muds with some generally thin sands deposited under a mainly middle neritic/shelf setting. This latter sequence from 9040 represents at least in part, the Mancora Formation. Heath The Mancora/Heath formational contact (based on the samples and a wireline of limited quality) is not closely constrained but may be between samples 8140 and 8000, above which to the sample at 6090 the section comprises mainly muds deposited mainly under middle neritic shelf condition with occasional deeper water possibly outer neritic episodes. This entire section can be assigned to the Heath Formation but which in contrast to time equivalent section at the previously studied Z1 and Cni18 location which are deep water outer neritic and bathyal, this section based on the biofacies associations is significantly shallower with indications of environmental stressing probable due to proximal pro-deltaic influences. The section is of Early Miocene (Zone TP7b pars) to basal Middle Miocene in age. Undated: Samples 3480 and 4550 Above sample 6090 only two samples were available at 4550 and 3480. No constrained information was recovered from these samples to provide further commentary.

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

3. WELL SUMMARIES
Biostratigraphic and lithofacies analyses were carried out on two wells (Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215). The results of these analyses are described below (Sections 3.1 and 3.2) and the interpretations and palaeontological data are presented in Enclosures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. 3.1 Delf B 5X (=Tenneco 39 1 X) 3.1.1 Stratigraphic Summary Figure 3 below present the summary stratigraphy with environmental profile of Well Delf B 5X as discussed more fully in section 3.1.2.

Coastal/Nearshore Inner Shelf/Bay

Coastal Plain (marine influenced)

Chronostrat

Palynology

Palaeoenv ironment Peru Env ironment

Lithostrat

Planktics

Flood/Coastal Plain Transition

Formation

Inner Shelf/Bay

3000' 3500' 4000' 4500' 5000' 5500' 6000' Zorritos 6500' 7000' 7500' 8000' 8500' N14/N13 or older N8 - N7 Middle Miocene (with Pliocene - Late Miocene caving) TP8 Heath transition Heath Cardalitos late Middle Miocene (with Pliocene Late Miocene caving) Mal Pelo Early Pliocene - ?latest Miocene TP11

basal Middle Mi ocene

Figure 3: Delf B 5X Stratigraphic Summary

BioSTRAT

Middle Slope

Middle Shelf

Upper Slope

Flood Plain

Outer Shelf

Depth

Zone

Zone

Age

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

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3.1.2 Stratigraphic Discussion This section presents a discussion of the main aspects of the stratigraphic succession penetrated at the Delf B 5X location with commentary on the bio-chronostratigraphy biostratigraphy, depositional environments and lithostratigraphic affinities as appropriate. 3240' - 3600': Early Pliocene - ?latest Miocene Principal Lithofacies: The highest sample examined at 3240 is of poor quality, with a high proportion of casing cement and a residue dominated by sand/sandstone, poorly consolidated, coarse to very fine grained, subrounded, edge worn subangular. Some claystone, soft, light to medium grey, sub-platy, silty was also recorded and in the two lowest samples from this interval form the dominant lithology. Some ferroan nodule fragments (siderite) were also recorded. The samples are fossiliferous with abundant molluscan shell fragments and other bioclastic fragments (as detailed in Enclosure 3), suggesting the presence of probable shell beds within this section. Lithostratigraphy: Mal Pelo Formation. Micropalaeontology: No foraminiferids were recorded from this higher section, but macrofossil debris represented mainly by shell fragments is frequent to very abundant. The shell rich sample comprises fragments that are principally of molluscan origin (gastropods and bivalves). Palynology: Palynomorph recovery is variable, from low at 3240 to high abundance at 3450 and very high at 3600. The miospore assemblages recorded at 3450 and 3600 tend to be dominated by fern spores (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis). In addition savannah derived Monoporites annulatus (grass) is common, and Asteraceae spp. (Echitricolporites spinosus) are generally rare. The semi-aquatic Cyperaceae spp. (sedge) occurs in low numbers, and the mangrove Zonocostites ramonae is rare/common. Mountain derived Podocarpus spp. (conifers) are also rare/common. Dinocysts are particularly abundant at 3450 and 3600. They include Lejeunecysta spp., Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Selenopemphix brevispinosus, Selenopemphix nephroides and Spiniferites spp. Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae are common/very common. Nannoplankton: No samples were analysed from this interval; Bio-chronostratigraphy: Palynology: The common savannah pollen most strongly suggests an age not older than palynozone TP11, possibly towards the base of the Pliocene. Environment: Deposition within a marine influenced coastal plain to a nearshore inner neritic/coastal setting. The vegetation includes ferns, mangroves, semi-aquatic plants and fungi derived from coastal swamps and marshes. In addition there is a significant input from the surrounding savannah and mountains. 3810' - 5070' late Middle Miocene (Pliocene - Late Miocene caving) Principal Lithofacies: Residues comprising predominantly claystone, soft, light to slightly medium brownish grey, sub-platy to sub-fissile, silty, trace micromicaceous and carbonaceous. At and below 4680 the claystones are visibly locally fossiliferous with corroded bioclasts.

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

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Micropalaeontology: Section comprising frequent to rare foraminiferid faunas that are dominated by benthic forms, and in particular by the association of Ammonia beccarii var. sobrina, Brizalina aff. spissa/spp., Bulimina uvigerinaformis, Hanzawaia concentricus/spp. and Pseudononion pizarrensis amongst others. Many forms are indeterminate by virtue of preservation. Agglutinating foraminiferids are almost completely absent form the assemblages. Planktic foraminiferids are also of rare and sporadic occurrence comprising mainly Globigerina spp. and some indeterminate forms. It is probable that the faunas recorded are understated due to poor preservation and decalcification. Palynology: This interval can be divided into an upper section of high abundance palynomorph recovery with abundant dinocysts (3810 4440), and a lower section of significantly reduced palynomorph recovery (4650 4980). 3810 4440: The assemblages are of high abundance and tend to be dominated by dinocysts. These mainly comprise common/abundant Lejeunecysta spp. and Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides) with common Spiniferites spp. Mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae) is generally common to abundant. Savannah derived Monoporites annulatus (grass pollen) is common in the upper part of the interval (absent in the lower part) and the mountain derived Podocarpus spp. (conifers) are common. These are considered as likely to be caved from the overlying Pliocene. 4650 4980: The assemblages are of similar composition to the overlying interval but are of significantly lower abundance. These assemblages include low numbers of dinocysts (mainly Selenopemphix spp.) with ferns spores and Zonocostites ramonae. Nannoplankton: No samples were analysed from this interval; Bio-chronostratigraphy: Benthic foraminiferids: late Middle Miocene or older based on the occurrence of Bulimina uvigerinaformis at 3810. This taxon, although wide ranging is typical for late Middle Miocene or older sediments in the Tumbes basin. Environment: Marine predominantly inner to middle neritic/shelf. The microfaunas and style of preservation suggest a stressed environmental situation, both depositional and diagenetic, probably in a pro-deltaic setting.

5070' - 7380' Middle Miocene (Pliocene - Late Miocene caving) Principal Lithofacies: This interval comprises an interbedded sequences of sands, poorly consolidated, bit disaggregated, coarse, medium, fine and very fine grained, subrounded to edge worn subangular with at times a high lithic component, some locally cemented fragments, calcareous and claystones, soft, light to medium grey and black, sub-blocky sub-platy to subfissile, silty, trace micromicaceous and locally carbonaceous: coal fragments may be frequent to abundant. Siderite and pyrite are locally common accessories. Micropalaeontology: Samples examined from this interval are characteristically sparse or barren for foraminiferids, but in the higher part of the section agglutinants include Ammobaculites salsus at 5070 and relatively common Trochammina sp. at 5130. Sporadic rare occurrences of calcareous forms include occurrences of Ammonia beccarii at 6780 and below. Molluscan shell fragments are common in samples at 5520 and 5670. Rare to abundant coal/lignite fragments were recorded in some samples.

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

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Palynology: Assemblages are variable in abundance, from high to very high, and tend to be dominated by miospores. Marine dinocysts are generally common, and with increased abundance at 5880, 6990 and 7200. The assemblages include Lejeunecysta spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides), Spiniferites spp. and Trinovantodinium spp. A significant component of the miospore assemblages are mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae) which is particularly abundant at 5520 and from 6660 7200. Tropical forest pollen are common, mainly Euphorbiaceae spp., Psilatricolporites spp. and Sapotaceae spp. In addition Multimarginites vanderhammeni occurs in low numbers but is consistent at and below 5670. Semi-aquatic herbs (mainly Sagittaria spp.) and palm pollen (mainly Monocolpites spp. and Echimonocolpites spp.) are particularly common in the lower part of the interval (6660 7200). Ferns (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis) are common/abundant throughout. The pollen Echitricolporites spinosus is recorded as single specimens at 5370 and 5880. Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae occur throughout and become increasingly abundant below 6150. Nannoplankton: No samples were selected for analysis from this section. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Benthic foraminiferids: The occurrence of relatively common Trochammina sp. at 5130 may identify a correlative local bio-event also observed at the CX1317 location. Palynology: The consistent occurrence of Multimarginites vanderhammeni (from 5670) indicates palynozone TP8 and a Middle Miocene age. The occurrence of Echitricolporites spinosus at 5370 and 5880 suggests the lowermost part of the Late Miocene/uppermost part of the Middle Miocene (or possibly caving from the overlying interval). Environment: Sediments entrained in this interval are considered to have been deposited within a marine influenced coastal plain to a nearshore inner neritic/coastal setting. The vegetation includes ferns, mangroves, tropical forest, palms, semi-aquatic plants and fungi, all derived from coastal swamps, marshes and forests. The presence of abundant coal fragments at 5520 may identify the presence of a coal back swamp. This is supported by very abundant mangrove pollen. 7380' - 8340' basal Middle Miocene Principal Lithofacies: This interval is interpreted as comprising a mainly claystone section that has largely been disaggregated through processing. Observed claystones are light to medium grey, grey brown and red, very soft, silty, locally calcareous. Low amounts of sands, poorly consolidated, coarse to very fine grained, subangular, recorded in some of the residues are probably in the main present due to caving. Some ferroan nodule fragments and locally fairly common shell fragments were recorded. Micropalaeontology: The higher part of this section (7380 to 7800) is characterised by relatively sparse foraminiferids with an association of the calcareous benthics Pseudononion pizarrensis/spp. and miliolids. Bulimina uvigerinaformis has a down section re-occurrence at 7470'. At and below 7890 there is significant increase in abundance and diversification to the benthic assemblage that in addition to the forms note include the occurrences of relatively

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

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frequent Hanzawaia concentricus/spp., Brizalina gr. mantaensis and lenticulinids amongst others. Planktic foraminiferids are of rare occurrence but in addition to long ranging Globigerina spp. significant occurrences include Globorotalia continuosa at 7380 together with a possible Globorotalia mayeri. Globigerinoides subquadratus has an occurrence at 7470 and Globigerinoides subquadratus diminutus at 7890. A number of indeterminate forms by virtue of preservation were also recorded. Palynology: The assemblages from this interval are of high abundance. The marine dinocyst assemblages are generally abundant and diverse. They include Hystrichokolpoma rigaudiae, Hystrichosphaeropsis spp., Lejeunecysta spp., Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Multispinula quanta, Operculodinium centrocarpum, Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides) and Spiniferites spp. The miospores include an abundance of mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae) and ferns (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis), with significant tropical forest pollen (mainly Euphorbiaceae spp., Multimarginites vanderhammeni, Psilatricolporites spp. and Sapotaceae spp.), semi-aquatic herbs (mainly Sagittaria spp.) and palm pollen (mainly Monocolpites spp. and Echimonocolpites spp.). Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae occur in abundance throughout the interval. Nannoplankton: Three samples selected from this interval on the basis of possible recovery at 7890, 8040 and 8100 but were found to be barren of nannofossils. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Planktic foraminiferids: base Late Miocene N14/13 or older based on the occurrence of Globorotalia continuosa at 7380 together with a possible Globorotalia mayeri and Globigerinoides subquadratus that has an occurrence at 7470. The occurrence of Globigerinoides subquadratus diminutus at 7890 supports a basal Middle Miocene N8 or older late N7 age. Benthic foraminiferids: At and below 7890 the occurrence of Brizalina gr. mantaensis suggests an age no older than basal Middle Miocene Zone N8, based on its distribution in the Borbon and Manabi basins, Ecuador (Whittaker 1988). Palynology: The consistent occurrence of Multimarginites vanderhammeni (down to 8100) indicates palynozone TP8 and an age not older than Middle Miocene. Environment: Marine, predominantly inner to middle neritic/shelf. The microfaunas and style of preservation suggest a stressed environmental situation, both depositional and diagenetic, probably in a pro-deltaic setting. A variety of ferns, mangroves, tropical forest, palms, semi-aquatic plants and fungi are considered derived from coastal swamps, marshes and forests.

BioSTRAT

Tumbes Basin: Biostratigraphy and environments of wells Delf B 5X and La Cruz 5215

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3.2 La Cruz 5215 3.2.1 Stratigraphic Summary Figure 4 below present the summary stratigraphy with environmental profile of Well La Cruz 5215 as discussed more fully in section 3.2.1.

Palynology

Palaeoenv ironment Peru Env ironment

Lithostrat

Coastal/Nearshore Inner Shelf/Bay

Coastal Plain (marine influenced)

Chronostrat

Planktics

Flood/Coastal Plain Transition

Formation

Inner Shelf/Bay

3000' 3500' 4000' 4500' 5000' 5500' 6000' 6500' 7000' 7500' 8000' 8500' 9000' 9500' 10000' Late Oligocene - ?older ?Mancora Plateritos probably Oligocene ?TP6 Mancora Early Miocene - Late Oligocene TP7a P22 or older Heath Early Miocene TP7b basal Middle Mi ocene - Early Miocene N9 - N6
*1

N9 - N6

Figure 4: La Cruz 5215 Stratigraphic Summary

BioSTRAT

Middle Slope

Upper Slope

Middle Shelf

Flood Plain

Outer Shelf

Depth

Zone

Zone

Age

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3.1.2 Stratigraphic Discussion This section presents a discussion of the main aspects of the stratigraphic succession penetrated at the La Cruz location with commentary on the bio-chronostratigraphy biostratigraphy, depositional environments as appropriate. Undated: Samples 3480 and 4550 Principal Lithofacies 3480: Sand, granular, coarse-medium and very fine, subrounded to subangular: trace claystone, soft, light buff, silty. 4550: Sand, granular, coarse-medium and very fine, subrounded to subangular grained, some rock fragments and claystone, light buff and grey, silty, trace carbonaceous. Micropalaeontology: The two samples were barren for all microfauna. Palynology: The sample at 3480 yielded only single specimens of the mangrove pollen Zonocostites ramonae and a fungal spore. The sample at 4550 yielded a low abundance assemblage of mainly fern spores, with Monoporites annulatus (grass), Podocarpus sp. (conifer) and rare dinocysts. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Uncertain.

6090' - 7020' basal Middle Miocene - Early Miocene Principal Lithofacies: This interval is interpreted as comprising a mainly claystone section that has largely been disaggregated through processing. Observed claystones are soft, light to slightly medium brownish grey, sub-fissile to fissile, silty, trace micromicaceous and carbonaceous, some shell fragments. Some coarse sand was recorded in the highest samples from this interval that is probably present due to caving. Gypsum is relatively common in samples below 6520. Micropalaeontology: The microfauna of this interval is frequent to sparse in occurrence, and dominated by calcareous benthics that include Bolivina floridana, Hanzawaia americana, Pseudononion pizarrensis/spp., Uvigerina peregrina (at 6090) and lenticulinids amongst others. A single specimen of Bulimina uvigerinaformis was recorded at 6520. Agglutinating foraminiferids are of rare occurrence. Planktic foraminiferids are very rare but include a single occurrence of Globorotalia mayeri at 6380. Molluscan shell fragments were recorded in all samples. Palynology: High abundance miospore dominated assemblages were recorded. Marine dinocysts are common and include Lejeunecysta spp., Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Operculodinium centrocarpum, Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides) and Spiniferites spp., with single specimens of ?Cribroperidinium sp. A (6380) and Heteraulacysta campanula (6520). The miospore assemblages include common/abundant mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae) and ferns (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis).

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Common tropical forest pollen include Euphorbiaceae spp., Psilatricolporites spp., Sapotaceae spp. and Striatricolpites catatumbus. Semi-aquatic herbs (mainly Sagittaria spp.) and palm pollen (mainly Mauritiidites franciscoi, Monocolpites spp. and Echimonocolpites spp.) are rare/common. Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae occur in abundance throughout the interval. Nannoplankton: Two samples selected from this interval were barren for nannoplankton. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Planktic foraminiferids: Based on the single occurrence of Globorotalia mayeri at 6380 a Miocene, Zone N14 or older age is indicated. Benthic foraminiferids: The occurrence of Bolivina floridana. Although relatively long ranging this taxon is particularly characteristic of early Middle Miocene and late Early Miocene assemblages in Ecuador. Palynology: The occurrence of Heteraulacysta campanula (6520) indicates palynosubzone TP8a (or older) and an early Middle Miocene age (or older). The additional occurrence of ?Cribroperidinium sp. A (6380) further suggests a slightly older Early Miocene age (palynosubzone TP7b). Environment: Marine, predominantly middle neritic/shelf possibly deepening to outer neritic/shelf in the highest part of the interval. A vegetation of mangroves, ferns, tropical forest, palms, semi-aquatic plants and fungi is considered derived from coastal swamps, marshes and forests. 7020' - 8000' Early Miocene Principal Lithofacies: Claystone, soft, light to slightly medium brownish grey, sub-platy to subfissile, silty, trace micromicaceous, variably fossiliferous with corroded uncertain bioclasts (probably molluscs). Some sand, bit disaggregated, coarse, medium, fine and very fine grained, subrounded to edge worn subangular, lithic was noted in samples at 7740 and 7920; Micropalaeontology: Similar to the overlying interval this section is dominated by frequent to rare calcareous benthics comprising forms recorded above with additionally, occurrences of Ecuadorata bristowi at 7110 and below and Brizalina gr. mantaensis at 7740 and 7860 amongst others. Planktic foraminiferids are more frequent in occurrence than in the overlying interval but are still sporadic and relatively rare. Many forms are indeterminate by virtue of preservation. Forms recorded include Globorotalia mayeri, Globigerinoides o. obliquus, Globigerina venezuelana, Globorotalia continuosa and Globigerina praebulloides. Molluscan shell fragments are relatively common in the higher part of this interval. Palynology: The assemblages recorded from this interval are of very high abundance and tend to be dominated by miospores. Dinocysts are variably common to abundant. They include rare/common Hystrichokolpoma rigaudiae, Lejeunecysta spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides) and Spiniferites spp., with generally rare Cribroperidinium sp. A, Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum and Heteraulacysta campanula. The miospore assemblages are similar to the overlying interval. They include common/abundant mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae) and ferns (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis), generally common tropical forest

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pollen (including Bombacacidites spp., Euphorbiaceae spp., Psilatricolporites spp., Sapotaceae spp.), rare/common semi-aquatic herbs (mainly Sagittaria spp.) and generally rare palms. Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae occur in high abundance throughout the interval. Nannoplankton: Two samples were selected for analysis at 7380 and 7860. The former sample yielded a moderate assemblage that includes Cyclicargolithus floridanus, Helicosphaera ampliaperta, Reticulofenestra haqii, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, Sphenolithus moriformis and Reticulofenestra minuta. The sample at 7860 was barren. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Planktic foraminiferids: The forms recorded range throughout the Middle and Early Miocene but support an age not older than Early Miocene, Zone late N4 based on the overall association. Benthic foraminiferids: Age in range of Middle Early Miocene Zone N9 to N5 based on the occurrence Ecuadorata bristowi at 7110 and below. Nannoplankton: base Middle Miocene to Early Miocene, Zone NN4 based on the co-occurrence of Helicosphaera ampliaperta (NN4 - NN2) and Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus (NN15- NN4). Palynology: The occurrence of Cribroperidinium sp. A and Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum provides positive evidence for palynosubzone TP7b and an Early Miocene age. Environment: Marine, predominantly middle neritic/shelf to locally inner outer neritic/shelf. The microfaunas and style of preservation suggest a stressed environmental situation, both depositional and diagenetic, possibly suggesting a pro-deltaic setting. The vegetation comprises mangroves, ferns, tropical forest, palms, semi-aquatic plants and fungi. This is considered derived from coastal swamps, marshes and forests.

8000' - 8830' Early Miocene - Late Oligocene Principal Lithofacies: Claystone, soft, light to medium brownish grey and medium to dark grey, sub-platy to sub-blocky, carbonaceous, generally fossiliferous with frequent to abundant shell fragments. Some interbedded siltstone, light grey/off white, blocky argillaceous, grading to sandstone, very fine to fine grained, weakly calcareous. Micropalaeontology: Sparse assemblages that are sporadically distributed comprising predominantly calcareous benthics as documented above. Planktic foraminiferids are of rare and sporadic occurrence comprising Globigerina praebulloides, indeterminate forms and a single occurrence of Globorotalia continuosa at 8450. Molluscan shell fragments are relatively common throughout and are abundant in the sample at 8720. Palynology: Very high abundance assemblages were recorded. The microplankton includes an abundance of dinocysts, mainly common/abundant Hystrichokolpoma rigaudiae and Operculodinium spp., with rare/common Lejeunecysta spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides) and Spiniferites spp., and generally rare Chiropteridium spp. (including C. lobospinosum), Cribroperidinium sp. A, Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum. The microplankton from this interval is also characterized by particularly high abundances of microforam test linings.

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The miospores mainly comprise variably common/abundant fern spores (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis), very common mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae), generally common tropical forest pollen (mainly Euphorbiaceae spp., Psilatricolporites spp. and Sapotaceae spp.), rare/common semi-aquatic herbs (mainly Sagittaria spp.) and generally rare palms. Compared with the overlying intervals there is an increase in the abundance of Podocarpus spp. (mountain conifers). Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae occur in high abundance throughout the interval. Nannoplankton: No samples were selected for analysis from this interval. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Planktic foraminiferids: The single occurrence of the planktic Globorotalia continuosa support an age no older than Early Miocene Zone N5/4 at this depth if in situ. may

Palynology: The occurrence of Chiropteridium lobospinosum, in association with Cribroperidinium sp. A, provides positive evidence for palynosubzone TP7a and an age within the Early Miocene. Environment: Marine, predominantly inner neritic to middle neritic/shelf.

8830' - 9930' Late Oligocene - ?older Principal Lithofacies: Claystone, soft, light to medium brownish grey and medium to dark grey, sub-platy to sub-blocky, carbonaceous, generally fossiliferous with frequent to abundant shell fragments. Some interbedded siltstone light grey/off white, blocky argillaceous, grading to sandstone, very fine to fine grained, weakly calcareous. At sample 9230 and below some interbeds of sand/sandstone, light grey, medium and coarse grained, argillaceous, calcareous to very calcareous, locally quartzitic, and visibly fossiliferous with common molluscan shell debris. Micropalaeontology: The microfauna of the higher part of this interval is frequent to sparse in occurrence and dominated by calcareous benthics that include continued occurrences of Bolivina floridana, Ecuadorata bristowi, Hanzawaia americana, Hanzawaia concentricus, Pseudononion pizarrensis/spp., lenticulinids and miliolids amongst others. Agglutinating foraminiferids are of rare occurrence. At 9540 there is a marked down section influx of benthic foraminiferids with moderate to common occurrences of Pseudononion pizarrensis/spp., Hanzawaia concentricus and miliolids. Planktic foraminiferids by contrast are relatively sparse but include at 8830 and 8900 single occurrences of Globorotalia opima nana together with Globigerina spp. and indeterminate forms. A single occurrence of Globigerinoides subquadratus was also noted at 8900. Molluscan shell fragments are common to abundant in the majority of samples examined. Palynology: The assemblages are of very high abundance and can be divided into two intervals, 8830 - 9230 and 9320 9840. 8830 - 9230: This interval is characterized by a high abundance of marine dinocysts and microforam test linings. The dinocysts include common/abundant Operculodinium spp., common Spiniferites spp., rare/common Lejeunecysta spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Selenopemphix spp. (including S. brevispinosus and S. nephroides), and generally rare Chiropteridium lobospinosum, Cribroperidinium sp. A and Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum. Similar to the overlying interval the miospores include common/abundant fern spores, common/very common mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae), generally common tropical forest pollen, rare/common Podocarpus spp. (mountain conifers), low numbers of semi-

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aquatic herbs and generally rare palms. Marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae occur in high abundance. 9320 9840: Assemblages from this interval are similar to those recorded above, but there is a very distinct reduction in dinocysts and a significant increase in marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae. Nannoplankton: Five samples were selected for analysis from this interval at 9040, 9230, 9320, 9630 and 9760. With the exception of the sample at 9230' which yielded a single specimen of the long ranging Coccolithus pelagicus, the other samples were barren for nannoplankton. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Planktic foraminiferids: Late Oligocene Zone P22 or older based on the occurrence of Globorotalia opima nana at 8830. A single occurrence of Globigerinoides subquadratus at 8900 (no older than late Zone N4) is probably present due to caving. Palynology: The lowest occurrence of the dinocysts Chiropteridium lobospinosum and Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum is recorded at 9230. This indicates an age not older than palynosubzone TP7a, not older than Late Oligocene. Environment: Marine, predominantly inner neritic to middle neritic/shelf on the basis of the foraminiferid biofacies. Sands entrained in this interval are probably of near shore, inner neritic coastal origin. 9930'- 10380' probably Oligocene Principal Lithofacies: Two principal subdivisions of this interval can be recognised:9930 10100: Sandstone, off white to light brown, poorly sorted, coarse to very fine grained, patchy red ferroan clays and cements, locally very argillaceous, micaceous with abundant dark mineral grains. Some interbedded claystone, soft, medium - dark grey and red brown, sub-platy, silty, slightly micromicaceous. 10190- - 10380: Sandstone, off white to light pink, poorly sorted, granular?, coarse to very fine grained, fairly common lithic fragments which include quartzites,?quartz diorite and chert. Some interbedded claystone, soft, medium - dark grey and grey brown and black, sub-platy, silty, carbonaceous and coal, black, bright, blocky. A glassy fragment of ?volcanic origin was observed at 10190. Micropalaeontology: At sample 9930 and in underlying samples there is a marked down section decrease in the abundance of the microfauna with some samples that are barren or almost barren of foraminiferids. The extent to which the microfauna in the lowest section of the well are in situ is difficult to assess but is mainly considered present due to caving. Coal fragments were recorded in a number of samples and are abundant in the sample at 10290. Palynology: The palynology assemblages are of high to very high abundance, and are characterized by a dominance (abundant/very abundant) of marsh derived fungal spores and hyphae. The miospore assemblage include common/very common ferns (mainly Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis) with generally common mangrove pollen (mainly Zonocostites ramonae). Tropical forest pollen mainly comprise Bombacacidites spp., Euphorbiaceae spp. and Psilatricolporites spp.). Mountain derived Podocarpus spp. (conifers) are rare/common within this interval.

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Marine dinocysts are common and include Hystrichokolpoma rigaudiae, Lejeunecysta spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Selenopemphix nephroides and Spiniferites spp. Nannoplankton: No samples were analysed from this section of the well. Bio-chronostratigraphy: Palynology: Positive evidence for an Oligocene age is lacking, but the continued occurrence of common Podocarpus spp. and an absence of Cribroperidinium sp. A does suggest palynozone TP6 and a probable Oligocene age. Environment: Flood to flood coastal plain transition. The oxidized nature of some of the lithology may suggest sub-aerial weathering and the presence of pedogenic horizons. The very high abundance of fungal spores and hyphae may suggest the active erosion of coastal marshes.

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4. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Armentrout, J. M., Fearn. L. B., Kodgers, K., Root, S., Lyle, W. D., Herrick, D. C., Bloch, R. B., Sneddon, J. W. & Nwankwp, B. (1999) High-resolution sequence biostratigraphy of a low stand prograding deltaic wedge: Oso Field (late Miocene), Nigeria. In Jones, R. W. and Simmons, M. D. (eds) Biostratigraphy in Production and Development Geology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 152, pp. 259 - 290. Batjes, D. A. J. (1968) Palaeoecology of foraminiferal assemblages in the Late Miocene Cruse and Forest Formations of Trinidad, Antilles. Fourth Caribbean Geological Conference, Trinidad 1965. Berggren, W. A., Kent, D. V., Swisher, C. C. & Aubry, M. P. (1995) A revised Cenozoic Geochronology and Chronostratigraphy. In: W. A. Berggren et al. (eds.) Geochronology and Chronostratigraphy, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. SEPM Special Publication, 54, 129-212. BioSTRAT (2009) Biostratigraphy and environments of the wells 8X-2, 15X-1, CN-18X, CX-11-16, CX13-17 & Z1-40-10X from Block Z1, offshore Peru. An exclusive Industry Report Prepared For: Karoon KEI (Peru Z-38) Pty Ltd. Bolli, H. M., Beckman J. P. & Saunders, J. B. (1994) Benthic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the South Caribbean. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521415217. Cambridge, UK, pp. 420. Bolli, H. M. & Saunders, J. B. (1985) Oligocene to Holocene low latitude planktic foraminifera. In: Bolli H. M., Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neison, K (eds), Plankton Stratigraphy, Cambridge University Press, 155 - 262 Colinvaux, P., De Oliveira, P.E. & Patio, J. E. P. (1999) Amazon Pollen Manual and Atlas. Harwood Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-5702-587-6. Gartner, S. (1977) Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and revised zonation of the Pleistocene. Mar. Micropaleontol., 2, 1-25. Germeraad, J.H., Hopping, C.A. & Muller, J. (1968) Palynology of Tertiary sediments from tropical areas. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 6: 189-348. Gradstein, F., Ogg, J. and Smith, A. (2004) A Geological Timescale. Cambridge University Press. Gregory-Wodzicki, K. M. (2000) Uplift history of the Central and Northern Andes : A Review. GSA Bullitin, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1091-1105. Hardenbol, J., Thierry, J., Farley, M., Thierry, J., De Graciansky, P. C. & Vail, P. R. (1998) Mesozoic and Cenozoic Stratigraphy of European Basins. SEPM Special Publication 60. Higley, D. (2004) The Talara Basin Province of Northwestern Peru: Cretaceous Tertiary Total Petroleum System, U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2206-A.

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Hine, N. & Weaver, P. P. E. (1998) Quaternary. In: Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. Bown, P. R. (ed.)., British Micropaeontological Society Publications Series, Chapman & Hall, The University Press, Cambridge, 266-283 Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan M. S. (1983) Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera: A Phylogenetic Atlas. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, pp. 230. Lorente, M.A. (1986) Palynology and Palynofacies of the Upper Tertiary in Venezuela. Doctoral Thesis. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. Martini, E. (1971) Standard Tertiary and Quaternary Calcareous Nannoplankton Zonation. In: Farinacci, A. (ed.), Proceedings of the Second Planktonic Conference Roma 1970, Vol. 2, 739-785. Matsuoka, H. & Okada, H. (1990) Time-progressive morphometric changes of the genus Gephyrocapsa in the Quaternary sequence of the tropical Indian Ocean, site 709. In: Eds: Duncan, R. A., Backman, J., Peterson, L. C. et al., Proc. ODP Sci. Repts, 115, Muller, J. (1959) Palynology of Recent Orinoco Delta and shelf sediments. Micropaleontology, 5: 1-32. Moreno, T. & Gibbons, W. (2007). Geology of Chile. Geol. Soc. Of London, ISBN 978-86239-220-5, pp. 424. Muller J., De Giacomo, E. & Van Erwe, A.W. (1985) A palynological zonation for the Cretaceous Tertiary and Quaternary of Northern South America. Palynology, Contribution series number 19. Okada, H. & Bukry, D. (1980). Supplementary modification and introduction of code numbers to the low-latitude coccolith biostratigraphic zonation. Mar. Micropaleontol., 5, 321-325. Parker, F. L. (1952) Foraminiferal Distribution in the Long Island Sound - Buzzards Bay Area. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, Vol. 106, No. 10. Phleger, F. B, & Walton, W.R (1950) Ecology of Marsh and Bay Foraminifera, Barnstable, Mass. Am, Jour. Science, 218, pp. 274 - 294 Poag, Wylie, C. (1981) Ecologic Atlas of benthic Foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico. Hutchinson Ross Powell, A. J. (editor) (1992) A Stratigraphic Index of Dinoflagellate Cysts. Chapman and Hall, ISBN 0-412-36280-5, pp. 290. Roubik, D. & Moreno Patino, J. E. (1991) Pollen and Spores of Barro Colorado Island. Missouri Botanical Garden. Saunders, J. B. (1958) Recent foraminifera of mangrove swamps and river estuaries and their fossil counterparts in Trinidad. Micropaleontology vol 4 p. 79-92.

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Steyermark, J. A., Berry, P. E. & Holst, B. K. (1995) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Volume 1, Introduction. Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis) and Timber Press (Portland, Oregon), ISBN 0-88192-313-3. Todd, R. & Bronnimann, P. (1957) Recent Foraminifera and Thecamoebina from the Eastern Gulf of Paria. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication No. 3. Villamil, T, & Pindell, J. L. (1998) The Mesozoic of Northern South America: foundations for sequence stratigraphic studies in passive margin strata deposited during non-glacial times. In SEPM Spec. Pub 58. Whittaker, J. E. (1988) Benthic Cenozoic Foraminifera from Ecuador. British Museum (Natural History) London, pp. 1-194. Williams, G.L. & Bujak, J.P. (1985) Mesozoic and Cenozoic dinoflagellates. Plankton Stratigraphy, Cambridge University Press, pp. 847-964.

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APPENDIX I: MICROFAUNA ECOLOGY Following is a discussion of some of the principal foraminiferid associations that characterise the Neogene coastal plain, neritic and bathyal sequences of the shorelines and sea beds of subtropical and tropical Americas In many cases, an assemblage can readily be characterised by its dominant components which may comprise a few genera/species or in some cases a single genus/species. Such associations may be referred to as biofacies that can be characterised by the dominant genus, as was the approach used by Batjes (1968). This approach is closely similar to that of Poag (1981) who used generic pre-dominance for characterisation of recent benthic foraminiferids in the Gulf of Mexico and that approach is followed herein. Analogue models The coastal neritic/shelf and bathyal/ slope foraminiferal assemblages recorded during the course of this study are very closely comparable to modern day extant assemblages described from various sub-environments in the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific coast and Caribbean including the Orinoco shelf and the Gulf of Paria. Schematic summary of the principal taxon/taxa distributions relative to paleobathymetry is summarised in Figures 11 and 12 below. Following is a discussion of some but not all, of the principal biofacies assemblages that characterise the Neogene shelf and slope depositional systems the Tumbes Basin wells that form the basis of this study.

Thecamoebina spp. Miliammina spp. A.mexicana Ammobaculites spp. Trochammina spp. Eggerella spp. G.gordialis S.schlumbergeri R.charoides R.higgensi / obsoletum M.communis/pallida A.suteri / A.pozonensis ?

? Cyclammina spp.

Coastal Forest

Mangroves

Permanently Flooded Lowland Areas

Tidally Influenced Coastal Areas

Inner Shelf <200

Middle Shelf 200 - 400

Outer Shelf 400 - 600

Upper Bathyal >600

Middle Bathyal <1500

Figure 5 : Generalised distribution of agglutinating foraminifera, flooded lowland to bathyal.

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Planktics : dwarf juvenile forms Planktics A.beccarii / tepida Elphidium spp. P.atlanticum B.hastata / striata Buliminella spp. H.concentricus A.lessonii Miliolids B.marginata U.peregrina / var B.aculeata / trans C.pachyderma B.subaenariensis B.mexicana ? ? ?

Coastal Forest

Mangroves

Permanently Flooded Lowland Areas

Tidally Influenced Coastal Areas

Inner Shelf <200

Middle Shelf 200 - 400

Outer Shelf 400 - 600

Upper Bathyal >600

Middle Bathyal <1500

Figure 6 : Generalised distribution of calcareous and planktic foraminifera, flooded lowland to bathyal.

a) Bathyal associations Cyclammina assemblages General characteristics Assemblages in which Cyclammina spp. occurs in moderate numbers are characteristically rich and diverse and can in certain instances comprise 100% agglutinants. Associated agglutinating taxa may include Ammodiscus spp., Glomospira spp., Haplophragmoides coronatum, H. carinatum, Recurvoides spp. Valvulina flexilis, Martinotiella spp., Alveovalvulinella pozonensis and Silicosigmoilina sp. These comprise a very distinctive association as noted by many authors. Calcareous benthics when present may comprise elemnent of the striate and hispid Bulimina biofacies association and Uvigerina/Cibicidoides biofacies. Environment/paleobathymetry This association has no direct close modern day counterpart but on the basis of the occurrence of Cyclammina spp. (often large) a bathyal slope or local basin floor distribution is suggested.

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Jones R. W. in Jones et al. (1999) suggests a 500m plus depth distribution within a peri-deltaic framework and a relationship with tectono-eustatic sea -level lowstand system tracts. Wood (2000) regards similar assemblages as characteristic for basin floor fan facies. Distribution Tumbes wells Documented herein only within the Early Miocene sections of Wells CN 18 and ZI 40 10X Striate Bulimina and Cibicidoides assemblages Biofacies characterised by occurrences of striate buliminids that may include but are not necessarily limited to Bulimina alazanensis, Bulimina striata (mexicana), Bulimina sculptilis and Bulimina uvigerinaformis together Cibicidoides spp. (particularly C. pachyderma and C. pseudoungerianus), Anomalimides trinitatensis and Sphaeroidina bulloides. Uvigerinids in the association may include fine hispid and hispid forms (U. auberiana and U. hispida) and smooth/weakly striate forms that may include Uvigerina carapitana and U. schwageri amongst others Individual components of this association are considered predominantly as upper and or upper middle bathyal species. When this biofacies is developed under open marine conditions, planktic foraminiferids are common to abundant. Under more turbid conditions elements of the Cyclammina biofacies discussed above may occur. Distribution Tumbes wells Documented herein only within the Early Miocene to Late Oligocene section of Wells CN 18 and the Early Miocene of ZI 40 10X
b) Neritic associations

Uvigerina (striate forms) and Bulimina marginata/uvigerinaformis assemblages General characteristics Biofacies characterised by the presence of frequent to common striate Uvigerina spp. (predominantly U. peregrina) which comprise the dominant form present. Buliminids represented by predominantly by B. marginata with Brizalina subaenariensis may also occur commonly in younger Neogene assemblages. Bulimina uvigerinaeformis may be an associated in older Miocene assembablges. Associated taxa are often very diverse but generally low frequency and include components of a number of both calcareous benthic and agglutinating biofacies as documented herein of both neritic and bathyal aspect. Additionally this biofacies may include the presence of planktic foraminiferids as an additional component. Environment/paleobathymetry These biofacies are considered to characterise relatively open marine and clearer water episodes (as supported by its association with planktic foraminiferids in certain instances) and can develop in middle, outer neritic/shelf and shelf edge/slope environments as determined by associated taxa. Modern day these biofacies is well developed on the northern Trinidad Caribbean shelf margin (Figure 1). The Uvigerina biofacies is similarly developed on the outer shelf off panhandle Florida, Mississippi and Alabama (Poag 1981).
Distribution

These biofacies are particularly well developed in the Late Pliocene La Cruz sequences at the 8X- 2 and CX 11 16 locations Similar to modern distributions they are considered to define the presence of middle and outer neritic/shelf sediments. Elements of these biofacies also occur in shallower water inner and middle neritic sediments of the Recent, La Cruz and upper Mal Pelo Formations (Pleistocene, Late Early Pliocene and higher parts of the Early Pliocene as determined by associated taxa at the 15X- 1, 8X 2, CX 11 16 and CX 13 17 locations. Occurrences in association with planktic foraminiferids in these sequences with a neritic/shelf baseline deposition appear closely associated with flooding events.

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Bolivina/Hanzawaia/Pseudononion assemblages General characteristics Assemblages characterised by a significant component of either small bolivinids (predominantly B. hastata, B. sp. A), Pseudononion spp. (P. atlanticum, P. pizarrensis P. grateloupi) and Hanzawaia spr. (principally H. concentricus, H. americana and H. carstensi) or an association of these genera/species. Commonly associated taxa include Elphidium spp. and Ammonia spp. In certain instances small Uvigerina sp. and Bulimina marginata may also occur together with miliolids (Quinqueloculina spp.). Environment/paleobathymetry On the basis of associated taxa these biofacies associations are is considered to characterise mainly the inner - middle neritic/shelf. Assemblages in which the calcareous benthic Hanzawaia spp. comprises a significant component may indicate relatively clear water shallow open marine environments. It is noted that modern day Pseudononion pizarrensis has been recorded in 20m water depths offshore Peru, Distribution These biofacies are locally well developed at levels within the study wells both in the marine late Middle Miocene Cardalitos Formation section at the Delf B 5X, 15X 2, 8X 2 and Z1 40 10X locations and at levels within the younger late Early Pliocene, Late Pliocene and Pleistocene Mal Pelo, La Cruz and Recent Formations at the 15X 1, 8X 2, CX 11 16 and CX 13 17 locations. Where present, depending on association these biofacies are used to define inner and middle neritic/shelf conditions. This association is also well developed at levels within the Heath, Mancora and Plateritos Formation at the La Cruz 5215 location. c) Inner neritic and coastal associations Ammonia and Elphidium assemblages General characteristics Assemblages in which Ammonia beccarii, sub species, A. tepida and Elphidium spp. dominate/occur are generally of low to high diversity, low to high abundance and often high dominance. They may occur in two distinct associations: with other calcareous benthics including Hanzawaia spp., Pseudononion sp. and Bolivina spp. amongst others. in monospecific assemblages comprising the nominate taxon only, or with other agglutinants of the Ammobaculites or Miliammina biofacies.

Environment/paleobathymetry Modern day analogues where Ammonia spp. and Elphidium spp. occurs in relatively diverse assemblages with other calcareous benthics are the nearshore zone of the Gulf of Paria and in the nearshore inner shelf fronting the modern day Orinoco Delta. These taxa appear tolerant of variable salinity environments and relatively high turbidity regimes. Ammonia and Elphidium may also occur at the seaward end of the coastal transition zone in an estuarine situation where they may be associated with a high proportion of agglutinants including Ammobaculites and Miliammina spp. Widely documented in the Gulf of Mexico where they occur in similar environmental settings (Poag 1981). Distribution

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Both biofacies association cited above have been identified in the Tumbes study wells. Occurrences in association with Pseudononion and Hanzawaia spp. have been documented in late Early Pliocene, Late Pliocene and Pleistocene Mal Pelo, La Cruz and Recent Formations at the 8X 2, CX 11 16 and CX 13 17 locations. Where present these associations are used to define coastal and inner neritic/shelf conditions. Generally rare Ammonia and or Elphidium sp. also occur within the coastal plain sequences of both the Zorritos and more commonly in the Mal Pelo Formations as seen at the 8X 2, CX 11 16 and CX 13 17 location. When present they are considered to define the estuarine seaward end of the coastal plain. At the Delf B 5X and 8X 2 location this biofacies association is well developed within the late Middle Miocene ? Cardalitos Formation (pars) d) Coastal and coastal plain associations Trochammina and Arenoparrella assemblages General characteristics Trochammina spp. generally are subordinate components within the framework of other associations (Ammonia, Ammobaculites, Miliammina), but in certain instance may be the dominant component. Such assemblages comprise small agglutinants amongst which Trochammina spp. and/or Arenoparrella sp. and small Haplophragmoides sp. predominate. Ammobaculites spp. (A salsus, A. dilatatus) may be important components together with rarer occurrences of taxa more typical of the Miliammina biofacies including Miliammina spp. Generally this biofacies is of low dominance, frequency and diversity, but may also comprise high diversity, high frequency assemblages. Environment/paleobathymetry With the exception of Arenoparrella the trochamminids may occur across a relatively wide range of environments but generally as a subordinate component of any assemblage. Modern day analogues where trochamminids form a dominant component of the foraminiferid assemblage in the Gulf of Paria occur at the seaward end of the coastal transition zone (river/distributary mouths). Distribution Sporadically distributed in the Mal Pelo and Zorritos Formations. When present they are used to define the coastal transition zone in the absence of stronger marine indicators. A level with common trochamminids within the Mal Pelo Formation at the CX 13 17 location may define a possible restricted marine coastal bay setting. Ammobaculites assemblages General characteristics Ammobaculites spp. may occur as subordinate components within the framework of other associations (e.g. Miliammina and Ammonia biofacies) but in certain instances may be the dominant component of the assemblage and define a biofacies. Such assemblages may be of low dominance, frequency and diversity, but may also comprise high diversity, high frequency assemblages characterised by the presence of diverse Ammobaculites spp. which include A. salsus, A. directus, A. dilatatus and several un-described forms. Environment/paleobathymetry Species of Ammobaculites may be relatively widely dispersed, occurring in both the transition zone coastal plain environment and as a component of near shore marine assemblages. When Ammobaculites spp. occurs in the absence of other biofacies components, the occurrence is

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considered likely characteristic for the middle and lower tidal part of the coastal plain (cf. Ortoire River distribution, Figure 2). Distribution Sporadically distributed in the Mal Pelo and Zorritos Formations and may occur in association with the trochamminid assemblages discussed above.

Miliammina assemblages General characteristics Miliammina spp. may occur as a subordinate component within the framework of other associations (Ammonia and Ammobaculites), but are usually present in low numbers. Its most characteristic occurrence is as the dominant form in otherwise low diversity assemblages and in certain instances may comprise 100% of the assemblage and may occur in very high numbers. Accessory species when present include Arenoparrella mexicana, Ammostuta inepta, Tiphotrocha comprimata, Trochammina spp. and Ammobaculites spp. Environment/paleobathymetry The modern counterparts are well documented from the transition zone, river estuaries, swamps and mudflats of Trinidad. Saunders (1958) illustrates a clear zonation for the tidally influenced Ortoire River with respect to assemblage composition essentially reflecting distance/decreasing saline influence upriver from the shoreline mouth with Miliammina spp. exhibiting the highest tolerance to very low salinities and which in the upper reaches of the river forms a monospecific Miliammina biofacies at approximately 15 km from the shoreline. Similar distributions are noted by in Barnstable Bay, Massachusetts (Phleger & Walton) where the highest frequencies are observed in the "high marsh". Distribution Rare elements of this association have been documented at three locations within the Middle Miocene Zorritos Formation at the 8X 2, CX 11 16 and CX 13 17 locations.

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APPENDIX II: PALYNOMORPH ECOLOGY & VEGETATION Vegetation Components and Palaeoenvironment The majority of pollen and spores identified in this study can be related to parent plants (generally to generic or species level) and specific environments. The recognition of the main vegetation belts is summarised in Figure 14, and the vegetation belts/climatic phases are discussed below.

Figure 7 : Vegetation map of Peru (this is a public domain map from work of the CIA)

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Modern Vegetation The modern distribution of vegetation in Peru is illustrated in Figure 13. This shows a vegetation dominated by coastal desert and scrub, with mountain grasslands and scrub. Mountain and tropical rain forest is mainly confined to the eastern slopes of the Andes draining into the Amazon Basin. The central and southern coast of Peru is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. It consists mainly of a subtropical desert climate composed of sandy or rocky shores and inland cutting valleys. Coastal stands of relict meadows bloom only in the winter. In contrast the northern coast has a curious tropical-dry climate, which is generally referred to as tropical savannah. The region differs from the southern coast in being wetter, and by the presence of shrubs, equatorial dry forest, mangroves, and tropical valleys near rivers such as the Chira and Tumbes. In the Andes rain is frequent during summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes. Neogene Vegetation The major factors affecting Neogene climate and vegetation on the west coast of South America are the development of the Andean mountain chain, Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and the Humboldt Current. According to Gregory-Wodzicky (2000) the Andean range in the Early Miocene to early Late Miocene had a moderately low elevation, with the main and rapid uplift occurring after 10 ma. This uplift, associated with Northern Hemisphere glaciation, caused a significant cooling and drier climate. An additional factor was the opening of the Panama land bridge within the Early Pliocene which allowed the southerly migration of Northern Hemisphere plants and animals. The main vegetation changes are as follows : intra-Late Pliocene major increase in savannah associated with onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation major increase in savannah, first occurrence of Alnipollenites verus associated with the opening of the Panama land bridge significant increase in savannah and Podocarpus coastal marshes and swamps with palms, fungi and Multiareolites vanderhammeni consistent grass ?base common Podocarpus

intra-Early Pliocene

base Pliocene Middle Miocene

base Middle Miocene base Oligocene

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Vegetation Components

A.verus (birch), Ilexpollenites (holly) & Ericaceae (heather) Podocarpus (conifer) Bombacacidites, Euphorbia, Psilatricolporites, Sapotaceae etc. (tropical forest) fungal spores & hyphae, freshwater plants (marsh & swamp) Asteraceae & Chenopodiaceae M.annulatus (grass) Z.ramonae (mangroves) Microforam test linings Dinocysts

mountain conifer forest, & savannah

tropical forest, swamp & marsh

coastal savannah & desert scrub

mangroves

tidally influenced coastal areas

inner neritic/shelf <200

middle - outer neritic/shelf 200 - 600

upper - middle bathyal/slope 600 - 1500

Figure 8 : Generalised distribution of principal palynomorphs and associated vegetation belts

Coastal Mangrove Swamps In Peru, there are two extant patches of mangrove associated with the two major northern rivers that drain into the Pacific (the Tumbes and the Piura). These represent the southernmost limit of mangrove distribution on the Pacific coast of South America. Mangrove pollen may be common from the Late Eocene Early Miocene, increasing in the Miocene but with the main abundance in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The dominant mangrove pollen is Zonocostites ramonae, a taxon which tolerates waters of high salinity. Occasional and rare Laguncularia racemosa has also been identified (this taxon tolerates more brackish conditions) along with Psilatricolporites crassus. Coastal Freshwater Swamps Palms Palms, which are derived from coastal swamps and more open vegetation include Echimonocolpites spp., Mauritiidites franciscoi, Monocolpites spp. and Proxapertites spp, together with a variety of indeterminate baculate, clavate and echinate forms. Palms occur throughout the Neogene but are most common in the Early and Middle Miocene. Ferns

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Ferns spores are generally abundant throughout the Neogene. They include a wide variety of forms which are derived from a variety of habitats (including swamps, stream-sides, forests and areas of open vegetation). Pteridophyte spores (Filicopsida) derived from ferns mainly comprise Cyathidites spp., Laevigatosporites spp. and Verrucatosporites usmensis, but also include Asplenium spp., Blechnum spp., Crassoretitriletes vandraadshooveni, Cyathaecidites spp. Hemitelia spp., Hymenophyllum spp., Magnastriatites howardii, Murospora spp., Nijssenosporites fossulatus, Polypodiaceoisporites pseudopsilatus, and Verrucosisporites spp. Cyathaecidites spp., Hemitelia spp. and possibly Murospora spp. are spores of tree ferns. These are found in tropical forest and lowland freshwater swamps. Asplenium spp. and Blechnum spp. may form part of the savannah vegetation. Magnastriatites howardii is an aquatic plant of freshwater ponds and swamps. Crassoretitriletes vandraadshooveni and Verrucosisporites spp. are derived from climbing ferns of tropical forests and swamps. Fern Allies (clubmoss and spikemoss) The fern allies (Lycopsida) include Acanthotriletes spp., Foveotriletes spp., Lycopodiacidites spp., Lycopodiumsporites spp. and Selaginella spp. These may be derived from mountain or lowland tropical forest and wet habitats near to streams. Savannah and Meadows The main component of savannah is the grass pollen Monoporites annulatus. Areas of open vegetation with extensive grass occur on the coastal plain, alluvial plains in river valleys, or inland in mountainous areas. It is noted that in general a drier climate with marked rainy seasons favours the development of extensive grass areas more than a humid climate. Additional taxa derived from savannah include the Asteraceae (daisy family), which include Artemisia spp., Echitricolporites spinosus, E. maristellae, E. mcneillyi and F. spinosus), Caryophyllaceae spp., Malvaceae spp. and Perfotricolpites digitatus. The ferns Asplenium spp. and Blechnum spp. may form part of the savannah vegetation. Chenopodiaceae spp. are derived from salt tolerant (halophytic) plants which may be part of the savannah vegetation, but also grow in coastal salt marshes and sand dunes behind the wave affected zone. They are tolerant of occasional submergence in salt water and the high salt content of sandy beaches. Tribulus spp. may also be part of the savannah, but it is noted that these plants can thrive in deserts. Cycadopites spp. and Mimosa spp. may be components of savannah or tropical forest. Savannah pollen occur in low numbers in the Oligocene and Early Miocene, increasing in the Middle Miocene, and with significant increases in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. This expansion of grassland is a consequence of a more arid climate related to the combined effect of uplift of the Andes and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Marshes Marshes are generally characterised by an abundance of fungal hyphae and fungal spores. They are particularly significant in the Middle Miocene.

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They include a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic herbs, including Alisma spp., Cyperaceae spp. (sedges), Lemna spp. (duckweed), Sagittaria spp., Triorites spp., Typha spp. (bulrush) and Polygonum spp., together with the aquatic fern Magnastriatites howardii. The freshwater algae Botryococcus spp. and Pediastrum spp. are typical of ponds and marshes. Tropical Forest Tropical forest taxa are generally common throughout the Neogene, but never abundant. This is a probable reflection of the limited distribution of tropical forest in the coastal areas, where they are confined to river valleys. Although low in abundance the tropical forest component of the flora includes a variety of taxa. These include trees and shrubs (Acanthaceae spp., Alchornea spp., Apocyanaceae spp., Bombacacidites spp, Croton spp., Euphorbia spp., Hedyosmum spp., Loranthaceae spp., Multimarginites vanderhammeni, Oryctanthus spp., Pachydermites diederixi, Perisyncolporites pokornyi, Proteacidites spp., Psilatricolporites spp., Sapotaceae spp. and Tournefortia spp., together with a variety of indeterminate tricolpate and tricolporate forms), the herb Costus spp. and the climber Striatricolpites catatumbus. Mountain Forest Pollen derived from the mountainous areas of the Andes or possibly coastal highlands and transported by wind and rivers mainly includes Podocarpus spp. (conifer), but also includes Alnipollenites verus (alder), Ericaceae spp. (heather) and Ilexpollenites spp. (holly). Alnipollenites verus is part of the birch family (Betulaceae) and is well documented in Northern South America. Other members of this family include Betula (birch) and Corylus (hazel). These taxa (recorded particularly in 8X-2, 15X-1 and CX-13-17) migrated into South America with the opening of the Panama land bridge in the Early Pliocene. They could in part be in situ but their distribution in the study wells suggests they are more likely a product of drilling mud contamination. Nothofagidites betuloides (southern beech) has been recorded from the Miocene of CX-11-16 and CX-13-17).

Marine Palynomorphs Marine palynomorphs include dinocysts, microforam test linings, marine algae and scolecodonts, which are derived from restricted marine to fully marine settings. Dinocysts Dinoflagellates (Pyrrophyta) are single celled organisms which display both "plant" and "animal" characteristics. They are, however, usually considered as plants because of the presence of cellulose in the cell wall and chlorophyll pigments in the protoplasm. Most, if not all, fossil dinoflagellates are cysts. It is noted that only a few living genera are known to encyst, either in response to adverse environmental conditions or following sexual reproduction. Problems arise in the interpretation of the palaeoecology of fossil dinocysts, some of which are as follows: 1. It is not easy to relate dinocysts of pre-Quaternary age to living taxa of known habitat, although in a few cases lineages can be traced with some certainty. 2. Some dinocysts may not encyst and so leave no fossil record.

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3. The cysts which are formed may sink and drift to be preserved at depths and conditions beyond the tolerance of the species. However, studies do suggest that modern cyst assemblages collected from the sea floor are strongly related to the main overlying water mass distribution, so the transport of cysts is probably not very great. Dinocysts are widely distributed in marine and paralic environments. The majority of taxa are marine, although a few fresh water forms are known. Dinoflagellates are sensitive to changes in the water mass, and it has been suggested that consistent variations in cyst morphology might be associated with variations in water depth, turbulence, local facies control and salinity. In this context it has been demonstrated that in general terms thick walled, weakly spined cysts (proximates and cavates) are characteristic of shallow marine settings, whilst offshore, deeper water sediments are characterised by elaborate chorate cysts with relatively thin walls but large, more complex processes. The ratio of dinocysts : land derived palynomorphs is a good indicator of the marine influence. As a general rule proportions of dinocysts, together with the species diversity, gradually increase in the transition from nearshore to more open marine environments. Observed trends may be as follows: 1. An upsection trend of increasing proportions of dinocysts generally corresponds to an increase in marine influence and may reflect a transgressive event. 2. An upsection decrease in proportions of dinocysts may reflect a regressive event. 3. A specific influx of dinocysts may reflect a marine pulse or flooding surface. However, complications may arise in certain environmental settings. For instance in nearshore settings, due to the close proximity to a terrestrial source, the palynomorph assemblages may be dominated by land derived miospores. This may result in the dilution of the marine components, and in such cases even very low proportions of dinocysts may have considerable significance. In some restricted/stressed marine settings, under specific conditions, the microplankton may be dominated by one particular taxon. It is important to differentiate this type of monospecific ''microplankton bloom'' from true marine influences of high diversity assemblages. Microforam Test Linings Microforam test linings are either the organic pseudochitinous linings of the proloculus of adult foraminifera or small adult planktonics, and they often occur in sediments which are barren of any microfauna. As a group they are distributed in a variety of saline settings, from coastal margins and lagoons to upper slope regimes, and they can be particularly abundant in offshore pro - delta shelf environments. Acritarchs Acritarchs include both spinose forms (acanthomorphs) and smooth forms (leiospheres). They are widely distributed in marine environments (fresh water examples are first reported from Recent (Holocene) sediments). The distribution of acritarchs is clearly related to environmental parameters. In general terms the small spinose forms with short spines (e.g. Micrhystridium) are characteristic of inshore, high energy environments, whilst the quieter offshore environments are reflected by larger taxa with longer, more delicate and elaborate processes and crests. Leiosphaeridia spp. occur in a variety of environments, although they tend to be abundant in stressed marine settings of unusual salinity or restricted circulation. Lagoonal facies are characterised by low diversity or monospecific assemblages of Leiosphaeridia, or the related Tasmanites, Pterospermella, and Crassosphaera.

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In the Palaeozoic (particularly the Lower Palaeozoic Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian) dinocysts are absent and the marine assemblages are dominated by acritarchs. In the Mesozoic dinocysts tend to dominate the marine assemblages and apart from in some stressed environments acritarchs are generally rare. Prasinophycean and Related Marine Algae Species of Crassosphaera, Cymatiosphaera, Pterospermella and Tasmanites occur in a variety of marine environments, although they may be most common in restricted marine settings. They display a similar distribution pattern to Leiosphaeridia spp. Freshwater Algae and Fungal Bodies Fungi Fungal bodies include a variety of fungal spores, fruiting bodies and hyphae. They occur in the soil litter, and particularly in freshwater and brackish coastal marshes and swamps. Freshwater Algae Freshwater algae, notably Botryococcus and Pediastrum are derived from freshwater ponds, lakes and swamps. They tend to be fragile and rarely survive high energy transportation, and as a general rule are most abundant as an autochthonous component in coastal and deltaic sediments. Their occurrence in marine sediments may suggest draining of coastal swamps.

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APPENDIX III: GLOSSARY OF STANDARDS AND ABBREVIATIONS Glossary of standards and abbreviations utlised herein and on accompanying charts. A) Microfaunal and nannoplankton abundance Single occurrence Rare Sparse Moderate Frequent Common Abundant Superabundant (SO) (r) (s) (m) (f) (c) (a) (SA)

1 specimen 2 specimens 2-5 specimens 6-10 specimens 11-20 specimens 21-50 specimens 51- 100 specimens 100 specimens + B) Palynology abundances 1 specimen 2-3 specimens 3-5 specimens 5-15 specimens 15-30 specimens 30 100 specimens 100 specimens + C) Biostratigraphy

Rare Rare/present Relatively common Common Very common Abundant Very abundant

(r) (p) (rc) (c) (vc) (a) (va)

First appearance datum (= evolutionary appearance/stratigraphic base) Last appearance datum (= extinction/top/first downhole occurrence) D) Sequence stratigraphy Flooding surface Maximum flooding surface Parasequence boundary Sequence boundary Trangressive surface FS MFS PSB SB TS

FO LO

E) Paleoenvironment/paleobathymetry classification Flood Plain Coastal Plain Coastal/nearshore/inner shelf Inner neritic/shelf Middle neritic/shelf Outer neritic/shelf Upper bathyal/slope Middle bathyal/slope Lower bathyal/slope Continental - beyond marine influence Tidal limit to shoreline ( transition zone) Shoreline to 20 20 200 200 400 400 600 600 1500 1500 3000 3000 6000

APPENDIX IV: SAMPLE LISTS

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The following list details the samples analysed for micropalaeontology & lithofacies, nannofossils and palynology. DELF B 5X (Tenneco 39-1-X) 3210-3240 3420-3450 3570-3600 3780-3810 3900-3930 4050-4080 4170-4200 4290-4320 4410-4440 4620-4650 4770-4800 4830-4860 4950-4980 5040-5070 5100-5130 5220-5250 5340-5360 5460-5490 5520-5520 5640-5670 5760-5790 5850-5880 6120-6150 6240-6270 6360-6390 6420-6450 6630-6600 6750-6780 6840-6870 6960-6990 7080-7110 7170-7200 7200-7230 7350-7380 7440-7470 7500-7530 7650-7680 7740 7800 7890 7950-7980 8010-8040 8070-8100 8160-8190 8280-8310 8310-8340 Total 46
Micropal Nanno Palynology Micropal Nanno Palynology

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 46

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 32

x x x

La Cruz 5215 3470-3480 4540-4550 6090 6180 6340 6380 6520 6640 7020 7110 7200 7320 7380 7560 7740 7860 7920 8000 8140 8270 8310 8430 8530 8620 8720 8830 8900 9040 9230 9320 9450 9540 9630 9760 9840 9930 10010 10100 10190 10210 10240 10290 10380

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x

x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Total 43

43

42

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