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Khalifa Rasul Abu Bakr
For other people named Abu Bakr, see Abu
Bakr (name).

Abū Bakr (Arabic: ••• ••• ••••••) (c. 573–


[1]
August 23, 634/13 AH) was an early
convert to Islam and a senior companion of
Muhammad. Upon Muhammad's death he
became the first Muslim ruler (632–634),
regarded by Sunnis as the Rashidun (four
[2] The caliphate under Abu Bakr at its greatest extent
righteously guided Caliphs]). His caliphate
lasted two years and three months in which he Abu Bakr
fought the Ridda wars against various Arab 573, Makkah, Saudi arabia
Born
tribes and conquered the lands of Syria and
[3] Died 23 August 634, Madinah, Saudi arabia
Iraq.
Reign 8 June 632–23 August 634
Contents Title(s) Sadiq al Akber, Khalifa Rasul
Buried Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
[hide]
Predecessor -
● 1 Early life Successor Umar
● 2 During Muhammad's era edit
❍ 2.1 Conversion to Islam

❍ 2.2 After conversion to Islam

❍ 2.3 Persecution of the Quraish

❍ 2.4 Last years in Mecca

● 3 Migration to Medina
❍ 3.1 Life in Medina

● 4 Death of Muhammad
● 5 Election of Abu Bakr as a Caliph
● 6 Reign as a Caliph

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❍6.1 Ridda Wars


■ 6.1.1 Shia view

● 7 The Qur'an
❍ 7.1 Military expansion

❍ 7.2 Invasion of Sasannid

Persian Empire
❍ 7.3 Invasion of Eastern

Roman Empire
● 8 Death
❍ 8.1 Family

● 9 Legacy
❍ 9.1 Sunni view

❍ 9.2 Shia view

❍ 9.3 Non-Muslims view

● 10 References
● 11 See also
● 12 External links

[edit] Early life

Abu Bakr was born at Makkah some time in the year 573CE, in the Banu Taim branch of Quraish. Abu
Bakr's father name was Uthman ibn Amar nicknamed Abu Qahafa, and his mother was Salma
nicknamed Umm-ul-Khair. The birth name of Abu Bakr was Abdul Kaaba (servant of Kaaba), when
converted to Islam in 610 he was named Abdullah (servant of Allah) by Muhammad. Al-Suyuti relates
through Ibn Sa`d’s report from Ayesha her description of Abu Bakr:

"He was a man with fair skin, thin, emaciated, with a sparse beard, a slightly hunched
“ frame, sunken eyes and protruding forehead, and the bases of his fingers were hairless." ”
By all standards he was beautiful, and for his beauty he earned the nickname of Atiq. He was born in a
rich family. He spent his early childhood like other Arab children of the time among the Bedouins who
called themselves Ahl-i-Ba'eer- the people of the camel, he developed particular fondness for camels.

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Wazir Khan Mosque, (16th


century) Sayings of the
companions of Muhammad on the
northern wall of the arched
gateway of the central prayer
chamber.

In his early years he played with the young ones of camels, and his love for camels earned him the
[4]
nickname of Abu Bakr-the father of the foal of the camel. It is said that he didn't worship idols since
his youth. When Abu Bakr was 10 years old he went to Syria along with his father with the merchants'
caravan. Muhammad who was 12 years old the time, was also with the caravan. Like other Arab
children of the time he was illiterate but has developed fondness with poetry. He used to attend the
annual fair at Ukaz, and participate in poetical symposia. He had a very good memory. In 591 at the age
of 18, Abu Bakr went into trade and adopted the profession of a cloth merchant which was the family's
business. In the coming years Abu Bakr traveled extensively with caravans. Business trips took him to
Yemen, Syria, and elsewhere. These travels brought him wealth, added to his experience. His business
flourished and he rose in the scale of social importance. Though his Father Uthman ibn Amar was still
alive, he become to be recognized as chief of his tribe. Abu Bakr was assigned the office of awarding
[5]
blood money in cases of murder. His office was something like the office of an Honorary Magistrate.
Abu Bakr was an expert in genealogical lore. He knew intimately who was who in Makkah, and what
his ancestry was.

[edit] During Muhammad's era

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When Muhammad married Khadija and moved to her house, he became a neighbor of Abu Bakr who
lived in the same locality. That was the quarter of Makkan aristocracy. Like the house of Khadija, the
house of Abu Bakr was double storied and palatial in structure. As neighbors Muhammad and Abu Bakr
came in contact with each other. Both of them were of the same age. Both of them were traders and
good managers.

[edit] Conversion to Islam

Main article: Identity of first male Muslim

On his return from a business trip from Yemen, he was informed by some of his friends that in his
absence Muhammad had declared himself as the Messenger of God, and proclaimed a new religion. Abu
[6]
Bakr converted to Islam. He was fourth person to accept Islam, and was the first person outside the
family of the Muhammad to become a Muslim. Abu Bakr was a rich merchant, and his business
depended on the goodwill of the people around him, his conversion to the new faith made him unpopular
with people around him, and that adversely affect his business. According to a sunni tradition,
Muhammad once said:

Whenever I offered Islam to any one, he always showed some reluctance and hesitation
“ [7]
and tried to enter into an argument. Abu Bakr was one of the few persons who

accepted Islam without any reluctance or hesitation, and without any argument

[edit] After conversion to Islam

His birth name Abdul Kaaba was changed to Abdullah, because the former was indicative of paganism.
His wife Qutaila did not accept Islam and he divorced her. His other wife Umm Ruman became a
Muslim at his instance. All his children except ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr accepted Islam, and Abu
Bakr separated from his son Abdur Rahman.

Abu Bakr's missionary efforts brought many people to Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends to
[8]
convert to Islam. He presented Islam to others in such a way that many of his friends opted for Islam.
Those who converted to Islam at the instance of Abu Bakr were:

1. Uthman bin Affan (who would became the 3rd Caliph )


2. Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (part of the Islamic conquest of Egypt )
3. Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah
4. Abdur Rahman bin Awf ( who would remain an important part of the Rashidun Caliphate)
5. Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas (part of the Islamic conquest of Persia)
6. Umar ibb Masoan

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7. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah ( who remained commander in chief of Islamic armies in Syria )
8. Abdullah bin Abdul Asad
9. Abu Salma
10. Khalid ibn Sa`id
11. Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah

Abu Bakr's conversion proved to be a milestone in Muhammad's mission. Slavery was common in
Makkah, and many slaves converted to Islam. When an ordinary free man converted to Islam, despite
opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves however, there was no such protection,
and the converts were subjected to persecution. Abu Bakr felt for these slaves, so he purchased them and
set them free. Abu Bakr purchased the freedom of eight slaves-four men and four women. The men were:

1. Bilal
2. Abu Fakih
3. Ammar ibn Yasir
4. Abu Fuhayra
5. Lubaynah
6. Al-Nahdiah
7. Umm Ubays
8. Zinnira.

[9]
Most of the slaves liberated by Abu Bakr were either women or old and frail men. The father of Abu
Bakr asked him to for why doesn't he liberate strong and young slaves who could be a source of strength
for him, Abu Bakr replied that he was freeing the slaves for the sake of God, and not for his own sake.
According to Sunni tradition the following verses of the Quran were revealed due to this:

"He who gives in charity and fears Allah And in all sincerity testifies to the Truth; We
“ shall indeed make smooth for him the path of Bliss {92:5-7}. ”
Those who spend their wealth for increase in self-purification; And have in their minds
“ no favor from any one For which a reward is expected in return, But only the desire to
seek the Countenance, Of their Lord, Most High; And soon they shall attain complete
satisfaction. {92:8-21}.

[edit] Persecution of the Quraish

Main article: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans

For three years after the advent of Islam, Muslims kept secret their faith, and prayed in secret. In 613

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Muhammad received a revelation to call people to Islam openly. The first public address inviting people
to offer allegiance to Muhammad was delivered by Abu Bakr. In a fit of fury the Quraish young men
[10]
rushed at Abu Bakr, and beat him mercilessly till he lost consciousness. Following this incident Abu
Bakr's mother converted to Islam. Abu Bakr received many persecutions from the Quraish.

[edit] Last years in Mecca

In 617, the Quraish enforced a boycott against the Banu Hashim. Muhammad along with his supporters
from Banu Hashim, were shut up in a pass away from Mecca. All social relations with the Banu Hashim
were cut off and their state was that of imprisonment. Before it many Muslims migrated to Abyssinia.
Abu Bakr, feeling distress, set out for Yemen and then to Abyssinia from there. He met a friend of him
named Ad-Dughna outside Mecca, who invited Abu Bakr to seek his protection against the Quraish, he
was chief of the Qarah tribe. Abu Bakr went back to Mecca, it was a relief for him, but soon due to the
pressure of Quraish, Ad-Dughna was forced to renounce his protection. Once again the Quraish were
free to persecute Abu Bakr. In the year 620 Muhammad's wife and uncle died. Abu Bakr's daughter
Ayesha was engaged to Muhammad, however it was decided that the actual marriage ceremony would
[11]
be held later. In the year 620 Abu Bakr was the first person to testify to Muhammad's night Journey.
According to Sunni traditions, he was given title al-Siddîq, meaning "the truthful," "the upright," or "the
one who counts true," due to his immediate belief of the journey. During the Roman-Persian Wars, the
sympathies of the Quraish of Mecca was with the Persians who were polytheists. The Muslims on the
other hand had their sympathies for the Byzantines who were Christians and were the People of the book
with a belief in God. After the Persian victories over Byzantine, verses of Quran revealed of Surah rum
with the prophesy that Byzantine (Romans) will regain what they lost and Persians will be defeated with
in few years. Over this Abu Bakr had a wager with Ubaiy bin Khalf, it was decided that one who lost the
wager will pay one hundred camels. With a decisive Byzantine victory in 627 against the Persians, Abu
Bakr won the wager, though Ubaiy bin Khalf was not alive but his heirs honored the agreement and gave
Abu Bakr one hundred camels. Abu Bakr gave away all the camels as charity.

[edit] Migration to Medina

In 622 on the invitation of the Muslims of Medina, Muhammad ordered Muslims to migrate to Medina.
The migration began in batches. Abu Bakr acompained Muhammad in his migration for Medina. Due to
the danger of the Quraish, they did not take the road to Medina. They moved in the opposite direction,
and took refuge in a cave in Mount Thaur some five miles south of Mecca. `Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr the
son of Abu Bakr would listen to the plans and talks of the Quraish, and at night he would carry the news
to the fugitives in the cave. Asma bint Abu Bakr the daughter of Abu Bakr brought them meals every
[12]
day. Aamir a servant of Abu Bakr would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night
where they were milked. The Quraish sent search parties in all directions. One party came close to the

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entrance to the cave, but was unable to sight them. Due to this the following verse of the Quran was
revealed:

He being the second of the two When they were in the cave, And when Muhammad
“ said to his companion, 'Grieve not, surely God is with us'. Then God came to their help.
And protected them with an army Which they saw not. {9:40}.

After staying at the cave for three days and three nights, Abu Bakr and Muhammad proceed to Medina,
staying for some time at Quba, a suburb of Medina.

[edit] Life in Medina

In Medina Muhammad decided to construct a mosque. A piece of land was chosen and the price of the
land was paid for by Abu Bakr. Muslims constructed a mosque named Al-Masjid al-Nabawi at the site,
Abu Bakr also took part in construction. Abu Bakr was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari as a
brother in faith. Abu Bakr's relationship with his brother-in-Islam was most cordial which was further
strengthened when Abu Bakr married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah. Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari used
to live at sukh in the suburb of Medina. Abu Bakr also settled there. After Abu Bakr's family arrived in
[13]
Medina he bought another house near Muhammad's house. The climate of Mecca was dry, but the
climate of Medina was damp. That adversely affected the health of the emigrants. On arrival at Medina
most of the immigrants fell sick. Abu Bakr also suffered from fever for several days. During his sickness
he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family. At Mecca, Abu Bakr was a trader in cloth. He started
the same business at Medina. He was a wholesaler, and had his store at Sukh, and from there cloth was
supplied to the market at Medina. Soon his business flourished at Medina. Early in 623 Ayesha, Abu
Bakr's daughter who was already engaged to Muhammad was handed over to Muhammad in a simple
marriage ceremony. This further strengthen the relation between Abu Bakr and Muhammad.

In 624 Abu Bakr participated in the first Battle between muslims and the Quraish of Mecca known as
the Battle of Badr. In 625 he participated in The Battle of Uhud. Before the battle begun Abu Bakr's son
‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr who was still non-Muslim and was fighting from the side of the Quraish,
came forward and threw down a challenge for a duel. Abu Bakr accepted the challenge but was stopped
by Muhammad. His son later converted to Islam and gained fame in Muslim conquest of Syria as a
fierce warrior. In the second phase of Battle when Khalid ibn Walid’s Cavalry attacked (who was still
non-Muslim) Muslims from behind changing the victory of Muslims in to defeat many muslim warriors
routed from the battle field but Abu Bakr remained guarding Muhammad from the attacks of Quraish
Soldiers. During one such attack two discs from Muhammad’s shield penetrated into his cheeks. Abu
Bakr went forward with the intention of extracting these discs but Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah requested
he leave the matter to him. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah lost his two incisors during the process. Abu Bakr
along with other campanions led Muhammad to a place of safety. Later this year Abu Bakr was a part of
campaign again the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir.

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[14]
Later In 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza. .In
[15]
628 he participated in Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and was made one of the witness over the pact. . In the
year 628 he was a part of Muslim’s campaign to Khaybar. In 629 Muhammad sent Amr ibn al-Aas to
Zaat-ul-Sallasal from where he called for reinforcement and Muhammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
commanding an army under him were serves Abu Bakr and Umar they attacked and defeated the enemy.
[16]
. In 630 when Muslim armies rushed for the Conquest of Mecca Abu Bakr was a part of that army.
Before the conquest of Mecca his father Uthman ibn Amar converted to Islam. In 630 he was part of
Battle of Hunayn and Siege of Ta'if. He was part of Muslim's army in the campaign of Tabouk under
Muhammad's command, he was reported to have given all his wealth for the preparation of this
expedition. In 631, Muhammad sent from Medina a delegation of three hundred Muslims to perform the
Hajj according to the new Islamic way. Abu Bakr was appointed as the leader of the delegates. Abu
Bakr had thus the honor of being the first Amir-ul-Haj in the history of Islam. In the year 632 Abu Bakr
followed Muhammad to Mecca for the farewell Hajj.

[edit] Death of Muhammad

A short time after returning from the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell sick. When the fever became
violent, Muhammad directed Abu Bakr to lead the prayers in the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi during his illness.
On 8th June 632 Muhammad died. The news reached Abu Bakr while he was in his home at Sukh.
Muslims gathered in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, there were suppressed sobs and sighs. Many campanions
were in state of disbelieve that Muhammad was not dead. Abu Bakr came in the mosque and addressed
the people, he said:

Listen to me, ye people. Those of you who worshipped Muhammad know that he is
“ dead like any other mortal. But those of you who worship the God of Muhammad know
that He is alive and would live for ever.

Abu Bakr then recited the following verses of Quran:

Muhammad is nothing but a messenger of Allah, Messengers of God have passed away
“ before him; What, if he dies or is killed? Will you turn back upon your heels? And
whosoever turns back upon his heels will by no means do harm to Allah, and Allah will
reward the thankful.

[edit] Election of Abu Bakr as a Caliph

Main article: Succession to Muhammad

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After Muhammad's death, previously dormant tensions between the Meccan immigrants, the Muhajirun,
and the Medinahn converts, the Ansar, threatened to break out and split the Ummah. The Ansar, the
leaders of the tribes of Medinah, met in a hall or house called saqifah, to discuss whom they would
support as their new leader. When Abu Bakr was informed of the meeting, he, Umar,Abu Ubaidah ibn al-
Jarrah and a few others rushed to prevent the Ansar from making a premature decision. Accounts of this
meeting vary greatly. All agree that during the meeting Umar declared that Abu Bakr should be the new
leader, and declared his allegiance to Abu Bakr, followed by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah and Abu Bakr
became the first Muslim caliph with the title Khalifa-tul-Rasool(Successor of messenger of Allah).

After the meeting at Saqifah, the Muslims who were not present were asked to submit to Abu Bakr, to
give their pledge of allegiance. Most accounts agree that Ali ibn Abi Talib and his supporters initially
refused to submit. After a period of time, whose duration is disputed, the dissidents gave their bay'ah.
Whether or not the process involved violence and intimidation, and whether or not Ali willingly swore
allegiance to Abu Bakr have remained enduring controversies.
The Shi'a believe that Muhammad divinely ordained his cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, in
accordance with God's command, making Ali and his descendants Muhammad's true successors. The
largest denomination in Islam, the Sunnis, hold that Abu Bakr and all caliphs should be chosen by
community consensus, that this method of choosing or electing leaders (Shura) is endorsed by the
Qur'an.
(See also Hadiths of Ali's succession)

[edit] Reign as a Caliph

After assuming the office of Caliphate Abu Bakr's first address was as follow:

"I have been given the authority over you, and I am not the best of you. If I do well,
“ help me; and if I do wrong, set me right. Sincere regard for truth is loyalty and
disregard for truth is treachery. The weak amongst you shall be strong with me until I
have secured his rights, if God will; and the strong amongst you shall be weak with me
until I have wrested from him the rights of others, if God will. Obey me so long as I
obey God and His Messenger. But if I disobey God and His Messenger, ye owe me no
obedience. Arise for your prayer, God have mercy upon you."

Abu Bakr's Caliphate lasted for two years three months. During which he crush the rebellion in Arab
tribes through out Arabia in successful campaign against Apostasy. He launched campaigns against the
Sassanid Persian Empire and Eastern Roman Empire and thus set in motion a historical trajectory that in
just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. He got little time to pay
attention to the administration of state, though the state affairs remain alright during his Caliphate. On

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the advise of Umar and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah he agreed to have a salary from state treasury and
abolish his business of cloth trade.

[edit] Ridda Wars

Main article: Ridda wars

Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, threatening the unity and stability of the new
community and state. The chief cause of the apostasy was lack of true faith. Most of the tribes,
converted in the ninth and tenth years of the Hijra, had taken to Islam for political reasons. The apostasy
had become so general that it affected every tribe in Arabia with the exception of the people in Makkah
and Madinah and the tribe of Thaqeef at Taif. In some cases the entire tribe apostatised. In other cases
part of the tribe apostatised while part continued to follow the true faith; and among those who remained
Muslims, many had to pay with their lives for their faith. Some withheld the zakat, the alms tax, though
they did not otherwise challenge Islam. Many tribal leaders made claims to prophethood, most
prominent was Musaylima. The tribes claimed that they had submitted to Muhammad and that with
Muhammad's death, their allegiance was ended. Abu Bakr insisted that they had not just submitted to a
leader but joined the Muslim religious community, of which he was the new head. Apostasy is a capital
offense under traditional interpretations of Islamic law, and Abu Bakr declared war on the rebels. This
was the start of the Ridda wars (Arabic for the Wars of Apostasy). The apostasy of central Arabia was
led by self-proclaimed prophet Musaylima, while the other centers were to the south and east in Bahrain,
Oman, Mahra and Yemen. Abu Bakr planned his strategy accordingly. He formed the Muslim army into
11 corps. The strongest corps, and this was the main punch of the Muslims army, was the corps of
Khalid ibn Walid. This was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel forces. Other corps were given
areas of secondary importance in which to bring the less dangerous apostate tribes. Abu Bakr's plan was
first to clear the area of West and Central Arabia (the area nearest Madinah), then tackle Malik ibn
Nuwayrah, and finally concentrate against the most dangerous enemy Musaylima. After series of
[17]
successful campaigns Khalid ibn Walid finally defeated Musaylima in the Battle of Yamama . The
Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the eleventh year of the Hijri. The year 12
Hijri dawned, on March 18, 633, with Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at Madinah.

[edit] Shia view

The Shi'a Muslims believe that, although there were some people that took the opportunity to proclaim
themselves as prophets, the majority of people who battled against Abu Bakr were people who expected
citation needed
[ ]
Ali to be the next Caliph, since they claimed to have heard Muhammad express this wish at
the Hadith of the two weighty things. According to Shi'a views Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to
[18]
kill, loot and slaughter the particians of Ali. . and Thus claim that Abu Bakr violated Muhammad's

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direct orders and orchestrated a coup d'état.

[edit] The Qur'an

Main article: Origin and development of the Qur'an

Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving it in written form. It is said that after the hard-won victory over
Musailimah in the Battle of Yamama fought in 632, Umar ibn al-Khattab (the later Caliph Umar), saw
that many of the Muslims who had memorized the Qur'an had died in battle. Abu Bakr made a
committee which included the memorizers of Quran, including Umar and Zayd ibn Thabit to oversee the
collection of the revelations. The record, when completed, were collected in the form of a book. After
the death of Abu Bakr that Quran goes to Umar and after his death it was deposited with Hafsa bint
Umar, daughter of Umar, and one of the wives of Muhammad. Later it became the basis of Uthman ibn
Affan's definitive text of the Qur'an. However, other historians give Uthman the principal credit for
collecting and preserving the Qur'an. Shi'as strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr or Umar were
instrumental in the collection or preservation of the Qur'an, rather that they refused to accept Ali's
[19]
Qur'an.

[edit] Military expansion

Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest. Whether or not he intended
a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in
just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. Abu Bakr began with Iraq,
the richest province of Persian empire. He sent his most brilliant general Khalid ibn Walid to invade the
Sassanid Persian empire.

[edit] Invasion of Sasannid Persian Empire

Further information: Islamic conquest of Persia

After the wars of apostasy, a tribal chief of north eastern Arabia along with Persian frontier Misnah ibn
Haris raided the Persian towns in Iraq. With the success in raids a considerable amount of booty was
collected. Misnah ibn Haris went to Madinah to inform Caliph Abu Bakr about his success, Abu Bakr
appointed him commander of his people and he begun to raid Iraq even deeper. Using the mobility of his
Light cavalry he could easy raid any town near desert and with in moments could disappear again in to
the desert, Sassanid army was unable to chase them in desert. Misnah’s this act made Abu Bakr to think
[20]
about the expansion of the Islamic empire. Abu Bakr started with the invasion of Iraq. The problems
faced by Abu Bakr were that the Arabs feared the Persians with a deep, unreasoning fear which ran in

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the tribal consciousness as a racial complex and was the result of centuries of Persian power and glory.
In return the Persian regarded the Arab with contempt. It was important not to suffer a defeat, for that
would confirm and strengthen this instinctive fear. To make certain of victory, Abu Bakr decided on two
measures that the invading army would consist entirely of volunteers; and he put in command of the
army his best general Khalid ibn Walid. After defeating the self-proclaimed prophet Musailima in the
Battle of Yamama Khalid was still at Yammama district when Abu Bakr sent him orders to invade the
Sassanid Persian Empire. Making Hira the objective of Khalid, Abu Bakr sent reinforcement and
ordered the tribal chiefs of north eastern Arabia Misnah ibn Haris, Mazhur bin Adi, Harmala and Sulma
to operate under the command of Khalid along with there men. In about third week of March 633 (first
[21]
week of Muharram 12th Hijrah) Khalid set out from yammama with an army of 10,000 (strong). The
tribal chiefs with there warriors’ 2000 each joined Khalid; Thus Khalid entered the Persian Empire with
18,000 troops.

After entering Iraq (Mesopotamia) with his army of 18,000, Khalid won decisive victories in four
consecutive battles: Battle of Chains, fought in April 633 CE; Battle of River, fought in the 3rd week of
April 633 CE; Battle of Walaja, fought in May 633 CE (where he successfully used a double
[22]
envelopment maneuver), and Battle of Ullais, fought in the mid of May, 633 CE. By now the Persian
court was down and out. In the last week of May 633 CE, the capital city of Iraq Hira fell to the Muslims
[23]
after resistance in the Battle of Hira. Thereafter the Siege of Al-Anbar during June-July 633 resulted
in surrender of the city after strong resistance. Khalid then moved towards the south, and conquered the
city of Ein ul Tamr after the Battle of ein-ul-tamr in the last week of July, 633 CE. By now, almost the
[24]
whole of Iraq was under Islamic control. Khalid got a call of help from northern Arabia at daumat-ul-
jandal, where another Muslim Arab general, Ayaz bin Ghanam, was trapped among the rebel tribes.
Khalid went to Daumat-ul-jandal and defeated the rebels in the Battle of Daumat-ul-jandal in the last
[25]
week of August, 633 CE. Returning from Arabia, he got news of the assembling of a large Persian
army. Within a few weeks, he decided to defeat them all separately to avoid the risk of defeat to a large
unified Persian army. Four divisions of Persian and Christian Arab auxiliaries were present at Hanafiz,
[26]
Zumiel, Sanni and Muzieh. Khalid divided his army in three units, and decided to attack these
auxiliaries one by one from three different sides at night, starting from the Battle of Muzieh, then the
[27]
Battle of Sanni, and finally the Battle of Zumail. In November 633 CE, Khalid defeated those armies
in his series of three sided attacks at night. These devastating defeats ended Persian control over Iraq. In
December 633 CE, Khalid reached the border city of Firaz, where he defeated the combined forces of
the Sassanid Persians, Byzantine Romans and Christian Arabs in the Battle of Firaz.

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Caliph Abu Bakr's empire at its peak in August 634.

[28][29]
This was the last battle in his conquest of Iraq.

[edit] Invasion of Eastern Roman Empire

Further information: Byzantine-Arab Wars

Caliph Abu Bakr congratulated Khalid ibn Walid over his victories and gave him a new task to enter the
Byzantine province of Syria and command Islamic armies there. The Byzantine province of Syria in
those days consisted of modern day Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Lebanon and
[30]
Southern Turkey. Passing through the Syrian Desert, Khalid with his half army of 9000 warriors
entered Syria in June 634 and commanded the 23000 Muslim army present there under the command of
4 generals, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan, Sharjeel bin Hosanna and Amr ibn al-
A'as. After only one day of his arrival, Khalid set out for conquest of Syria. He reached the town of
Sawa, and defiant forces present there resisted a bit but later in the evening surrendered the city and
agreed to pay tribute. He moved to Aarak city in the same day, and this city too surrendered and agreed
[31]
to pay tribute. The next day Khalid moved to Tarmad city, which surrendered as well. He moved
further and cities of Sakhna and Qadma also surrendered and agree to pay tribute. The next day city of
Qarteen and Hawwareen were captured after small battle of Qarteen and battle of Hawareen. After
dealing with all these cities, Khalid moved towards Damascus, after three days journey he reached a
mountain pass, 20 miles from Damascus which is now known as Sanita-al-Uqab(Uqab pass) after the
name of Khalid's army standard. From here he moved away from Damascus towards rest of the Islamic
armies which were still near the Syrian-Arabia border. At Maraj-al-Rahab, Khalid defeated a Ghassanid
army of Christian Arabs in a short Battle of Marj-al-Rahit. By now he was moving away from
Damascus, the stronghold of Byzantines, and towards the city of Basra. Khalid reached Basra after 3
[32]
days at a time when Sharjeel bin Hassana's 4000 army was fighting the 12000 Roman army. As soon
as Khalid reached there with his 9000 warriors, the Roman army retreated and fortified themselves in the

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castle. After few days they came out and were defeated in the Battle of Basra and again retreated to
castle and surrendered the city. 130 Muslims died, and by now it was almost mid of July 634. Muslims
soon heard of gathering of 90,000 Roman army at Ajnadayn, after which all the divisions of Muslim
army joined Khalid at Ajnadayn on 24 July 634, and the Muslim army became 32,000 in number. Khalid
defeated Roman there on 30 July 634 in Battle of Ajnadayn. After one week Khalid moved to
Damascus, and on his way there he defeated another Roman army in the battle of Yakosa in mid-August
634. Tomur, the son-in-law of Emperor Heraclius, sent another army to stop Khalid but they too were
defeated in the battle of Maraj-al-Safar on 19 August 634. The next day Khalid finally reached
Damascus and besieged the city for 30 days, having defeated the Roman reinforcement sent by emperor
Heraclius at battle of Sanita-al-Uqab 20 miles from Damascus. Khalid's forces withstood 3 Roman
attacks that tried to break the siege, and finally attacked and conquered the city on 18 September 634
[33]
after Conquest of Damascus. The Byzantine army was given a deadline of 3 days to go as far as they
can, with their families and treasure, or simply agree to stay in Damascus and pay tribute. After the three
days deadline was over, the Muslim cavalry under Khalid's command attacked the Roman army by
catching up to them using an unknown shortcut at battle of Maraj-al-Debaj. Abu Bakr died during the
siege of Damascus and Umar became the new Caliph. He dismissed his cousin Khalid ibn Walid from
the command and appointed Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah the new commander in chief of Islamic army in
Syria. Abu Ubaidah got the letter of his appointment and Khalid's disposal during the siege, but he
delayed to unvail the news until the city was conquered.

[edit] Death

On 8 August 634, Abu Bakr fell sick, and out of this sickness he never recovered. There are two
accounts about the sickness of Abu Bakr. One account is that the 8th of August 634 was a cold day,
when Abu Bakr took a bath and caught a chill. Another account is that about a year ago, along with
some other companions Harith bin Kaladah, and Attab bin Usaid he had eaten some food which was
poisoned, and which was to have its effect after a year. Abu Bakr developed high fever, and was
confined to bed. His illness prolonged, and when his condition worsened, he felt that his end was near.
Realizing that his end was drawing near, Abu Bakr felt that he should nominate his successor so that the
[34]
issue should not be a cause of dissension among the Muslims after his death.

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The hole second from the right gives


view of Abu Bakr's grave.

He appointed Umar as his successor after discussing with some companions, among them some
favoured the nomination and other disliked it due to the tough nature of Umar.

Abu Bakr thus dictated the testament to Uthman ibn Affan in the following terms:

"In the name of Most Merciful God. This is the last will and testament of Abu Bakr bin
“ Abu Qahafa, when he is in the last hour of the world, and the first of the next; an hour
in which the infidel must believe, the wicked be convinced of their evil ways, I
nominate Umar bin al Khattab as my successor. Therefore, hear to him and obey him. If
he acts right, confirm his actions. My intentions are good, but I cannot see the future
results. However, those who do ill shall render themselves liable to severe account
hereafter. Fare you well. May you be ever attended by the Divine favor of blessing."

.

Abu Bakr next asked Ayesha as to how many pieces of cloth were used for Muhammad's coffin. Ayesha
said that three pieces had been used. Abu Bakr thereupon desired that for his coffin as well, three pieces
should be used. On Monday 23 August 634 Abu Bakr died. The funeral prayer was led by Umar. He was
buried the same night by the side of Muhammad's grave in Masjid-e-Nabawi.

[edit] Family

Main article: Family tree of Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr's father name was Uthman ibn Amir aka Abu Quafah, his mother name Salma was grand

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father name was Amir ibn Amr In history name of his only one brother is mention which is Quafah ibn
Uthman.

● From his wife Qutaylah bint Abd al-Uzza he had his daughter Asma bint Abu Bakr and son
`Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr

● From his wife Um Ruman he had his daughter Aisha and son ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr

● From his wife Asma bint Umais he had his daughter Umm Khultum bint Abu Bakr and son
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr-after the death of Abu Bakr, Asma bint Umais married Ali and moved
to his household with her son and daghter.

● From his wife Habeebah bint Khaarijah, He also had a son named Qasim ibn Abu Bakr.

[edit] Legacy

Abu Bakr became the Caliph on the 8th of June 632 C.E. and he died on 23rd August 634 C.E. Though
the period of his caliphate covers two years, two months and fifteen days only, but his achievements
were remarkable. His glorious triumph in Ridda Wars and successful invasions of the two most powerful
empires of the time the Sassanid Persian Empire and Eastern Roman Empire. Abu Bakr had the
distinction of being the first Caliph in the history of Islam. He was the first Caliph to nominate a
successor. He was the only Caliph in the history of Islam who refunded to the state treasury at the time
of his death the entire amount of the allowance that he had drawn during the period of his caliphate. He
was the first Muslim ruler to establish Baitul Mal. He was the first Muslim ruler to establish crown
pasture. He was the first Muslim ruler to establish 'Ijtihad'. He have distinction of purchasing the land
for Masjid-e-Nabawi. According to Sunni Muslims, in the matter of virtue, Abu Bakr excelled all other
companions of the Mohammad. Both Abu Bakr and Uthman ibn Affan had relinquished drinking wine
even in the time before Islam. He was the foremost genealogist of the Quraysh and the best of them at
interpreting dreams after Muhammad according to Ibn Sirin.

[edit] Sunni view

According to the Sunni account of Abu Bakr, he was Muhammad's father-in-law and his daughter
Ayesha was Muhammad's most beloved wife. Sunni Muslims also consider Abu Bakr as one of the ten
Sahaba (companions) for whom Muhammad had testified that they were destined for Paradise. He is
regarded as Khalifa Rasulullah The successor of Messenger of Allah, and first of the Rightly guided
caliphs.

[edit] Shia view

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Main article: Shi'a view of Abu Bakr

Shia have a very unfavorable view of Abu Bakr. They believe he and Umar conspired to take over
power over the Muslim nation after Muhammad's death – a coup d'état against Ali. Shi'a do not view
Abu Bakr's being with Muhammad in the cave as a meritorious act.

Abu Bakr returned to Medinah after the news of Muhammad's death reached him. At that point, Umar
stopped threatening people with death if they spread the news of Muhammad's death. While Abu Bakr
was in the house where Muhammad's body was kept, accompanied with the rest of Banu Hashim, Umar
informed him of the meeting of Saqifah.

Shi'a believe that Abu Bakr leaving the house without informing anyone of the meeting, proves that he
went there in bad faith.

Shi'a criticize Abu Bakr for the dispute between him and Mohammad's daughter Fatimah that ended
with Fatimah becoming angry with Abu Bakr and refusing to talk with him for the rest of her life, she
died six months later.

Shia believe that Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn Walid to crush those who were in favour of Ali's caliphate.

Shi'as strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr or Umar were instrumental in the collection or preservation
[35]
of the Qur'an, rather that they refused to accept Ali's Qur'an.

[edit] Non-Muslims view

Edward Gibbon wrote about Abu Bakr as:

[36]
“ "The moderation, and the veracity of Abu Bakr confirmed the new religion,
furnished an example for invitation.
and

Willaim Muir states that:

"Abu Bakr's judgment was sound and impartial; his conversation agreeable and his
“ demeanor affable and much sought after by the Quraish and he was popular throughout
the city.... The faith of Abu Bakr was the greatest guarantee of Muhammad's sincerity
[37]
in the beginning of his career, and indeed, in a modified sense, throughout his life.
To have such a person as a staunch adherent of his claim, was for Muhammad a most
important step."

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Montgomery Watt writes:

"From 622 to 632 he (Abu Bakr) was Mohammed's chief adviser, but had no prominent public
“ functions except that he conducted the pilgrimage to Mecca in 631, and led the public prayers
[38]
in Medina during Mohammed's last illness."

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