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INTRODUCTION

WATER the most abundant resource on our planet and we can use it as a fuel!!! That's Right, a supplementary Fuel FuelFromH2o Hydrogen Generators [Est.2004] have become an essential fuel assistant for internal combustion engine applications. By converting water into its primary elements of Hydrogen and Oxygen (HHO) and introducing the hydrogen/oxygen gas in conjunction with regular fuel, Hydrogen Generator can improve the fuel economy of your engine from 15 - 45%+ as well as drastically lower emissions to exceptionally clean standards . They can be used in any type vehicle, car, truck, diesel truck, boat or stationary engine such as power generators and irrigation pumps. FuelfromH2o systems work with any type of fuel, Gasoline, Diesel, Biodiesel, Vegetable Oil, Ethanol, E85, E10, CNG. By converting your vehicle to a Hydrogen Hybrid, this alternative renewable energy will not only improve fuel economy but it will also drastically reduce emission exhaust levels. FuelFromH2o Hydrogen Generators are an on demand supplemental fuel system. HHO Generator will use electricity from car's battery to separate water into a gas called HHO (2 Hydrogen + 1 Oxygen). HHO, also called Brown Gas or Hydrogen, burns smoothly and provides significant energy - while the end product is just H2O! HHO provides the atomic power of Hydrogen, while maintaining the stability of water.

WHAT IS HHO GAS? A DEFINATION FOR HHO GAS.


The chemical name of HHO gas is oxyhydrogen. HHO gas is thought to increase the car efficiency in which it is formed by the process of water electrolysis. It does not mean that the car will run purely on HHO gas but rather it is the hybrid of HHO gas and petroleum based fuel which will provide sufficient energy for running the car. HHO gas is known to increase the efficiency of car by 30 to 60 percent. Chemically HHO gas is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the atomic ratio of two is to one. As we can see this is in the same proportion as that of water. Combustion is a process by which a substance burns to produce heat energy and it is brought about when a substance is heated to its autoignition temperature. This temperature is defined to be the minimum temperature at which the substance will ignite spontaneously in a normal atmosphere without the help of an external source such as a spark or flame. For HHO gas, the autoignition temperature is 1065 F and the minimum energy required for its ignition with an external source is 20 Micro joules. Once ignited, HHO gas converts into water vapors and releases energy, which automatically sustains the reaction.

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WHAT IS A HHO WET CELL?


Wet Cells are comprised of an electrolyte-filled container in which the electrodes are either fully or partially submerged. They are generally made of stainless steel plates, wound wire, bolts or various other materials.The main feature of a Wet Cell is that it is self-contained. The container houses the electrodes and reservoir together.When power is applied the electrodes produce the HHO, which bubbles up through the electrolytic bath and escapes through a port installed in the top. This type of electrolyzer is generally less efficient, but poses some advantages over Dry Cells, in that they are easy to build and have fewer components.

HOW A HHO GENERATOR WORK


An HHO generator is the device which is primarily involved with the production of HHO gas. Basically, HHO generator is involved in the production of hydrogen and oxygen through the process of electrolysis. In this process, a direct current (DC) is passed through water, as a result of which it is divided into its primary constituent's viz. Hydrogen and oxygen. A common myth which exists in abundance is that the energy required for breaking HHO is more than the released energy. This is simply not true. In fact, the generator is designed in such a way that it outputs maximum energy with minimal input. The input energy is supplied by the car battery in the form of a direct current. So, in essence, a direct current is passed through two bare ended rods which are dipped in a bucket of water, to which a small electrolyte is added. This produces HHO in very small quantity. This is the basic principle of a HHO generator. The electrical current required is in the range of 1.5 to 2 volts DC. Until the suspended HHO gas is sucked off by the air intake valve, the power switch of the battery remains turned off. This happens automatically since the accumulation of HHO might prove explosive. A detailed specifics of the entire process. After adding the water, an electrolyte is added. Sodium Bicarbonate is usually used for this. Once the battery starts supplying direct current, the water starts disintegrating into its constituent's viz. hydrogen and oxygen gas, with HHO being released simultaneously. This HHO then travels into the air intake valve, at the end of which it combines with gasoline and air in the combustion chamber. This is followed by combustion of HHO, which converts it back to water. Also, due to the simultaneous combustion of gasoline, the inside temperature of engine begins to rise upto 500 F. This high temperature is controlled by the cooling effect of water, which brings it down to 350 to 400F. This reduction in temperature is also responsible for enhancing the life of the engine since it is protected from unnecessary heating effects. At the end of this temperature control, water
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is converted into super heated steam. This steam is then released out towards the end of exhaust stroke, at which point it gets converted back to water which is then ejected through the exhaust pipe and into the atmosphere. During exhaust, the water vapors also mixes with the usual exhausts of gasoline and hence, limits their environmental degrading effects. These additional exhausts mainly include carbon dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide. The water actually gets released in the form of vapors as burning of gasoline produces sufficient heat during combustion to eject HHO in the state of vapors. Hence, even at exhaust stage, water provides an additional advantage of purifying the by products of Gasoline combustion. This ensures greater environmental benefits in addition to increasing the fuel efficiency of car. Although this technology has been around since 1900's, nobody took it seriously since oil based products provided an easier alternative. This is no more the case and hence the time is ripe to switch to water for gas systems.

HIGH VOLTAGE LOW CURRENT OR LOW VOLTAGE HIGH CURRENT, WHAT IS BETTER TO HAVE?
Electrolysis can be used for many purposes. You can use it to split particularly hard compounds, electroplate metals and form new compounds that without it would otherwise be impossible. These only name a few of its possibilities. As long as we choose the correct electrolyte that does not react during the process, we can split water molecules into Hydrogen and Oxygen. It is true, that the more power you apply to a cell, the more product you get. Unfortunately, as we apply more power to our cell in an effort to get the most HHO possible, we run the risk of producing more heat. This heat generated is wasted energy, and can wreak havoc on your entire setup. It can melt down components and even boil the electrolyte, sending unwanted moisture and caustic condensate down the line. If you are using an electrolyzer in your automobile, this can mean disaster to the internal engine components. Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) condensate will dissolve an engine's aluminum internal components! Many have tried to combat this issue by applying cooling alternatives to reduce the temperature of the electrolyte and electrolyzer. Regardless of how you try to keep the heat at bay, dumping too much power into your cell is not the answer. So with all this possibility of ruin and catastrophe, what can we do?

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Isn't it amazing that in the midst of higher efficiency automobiles, the more expensive the price of fuel is? But what does that have to do with you and your electrolyzer? Well, my point in all that was to say, keep it simple. Sure we want to make the most efficient electrolyzer, but an electrolyzer that produces 3LPM (liter per minute) and has a super high efficiency still only produces 3LPM. It doesn't matter how elaborate the design is, the output of an electrolyzer is limited by the amount of surface area of its electrodes. An elaborate design won't necessarily get ahead. When we are designing our electrolyzer setup, keep in mind what it is costing you, vs how much HHO you think you will need. Back to Voltage vs Amperage. The more surface area an electrolyzer has, the more HHO it can produce using the same wattage. This is the main factor that determines how much HHO an electrolyzer can produce. For the most part, we have found that using higher voltage with lower amperage produces better results with less effort and less waste in the form of heat. It's like using a sprinkler pump hooked up to 110 volts, vs 220 volts. The pump wired for 220 volts doesn't work as hard to produce the same result. Why? because a 110 volt motor will require twice as much amperage as a 220 volt motor. The same principle applies to an electrolyzer. If we can produce the same amount of HHO using far less amperage then we are far better off. This means our electrolyzer is less likely to heat up and break down the electrolyte , or worse, start overheating and melting wires.

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ELECTROLYZER
The device you see in the photo is meant to be installed as a gas saving device and pollution preventer, between other benefits, on vehicles or Generators with all types of internal combustion engines. This includes gasoline and diesels, hybrids, flex-fuel (alcohol), bio-diesel and other types. This device, or the technology (as you will see later), revolves around "splitting" water so it can be turned into energy. A totally balanced mixture of hydrogen fuel and oxygen is easily obtained by water electrolysis which is why the device is called Electrolyzer. It burns perfectly because the exact amount of oxygen needed to burn hydrogen is already contained in the water. We get a perfect balance of hydrogen and oxygen without sweat, and the result is a pair of gases ready to burn beautifully a perfect fuel.

Electrolysis of water means using an electric current to dissociate the water molecules. Heres the cycle of action: Electrolysis: 2 H2O 2 H2 + O2 (2 molecules of water turn into 2 atoms of Hydrogen, plus one Oxygen pair) Combustion (the burning of the above gases): 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O (the same in reverse - 2 atoms of Hydrogen and the Oxygen pair turn back to pure water, releasing some energy in the process). The device shown above is called Electrolyzer. Some call it "Hydrogen Generator" but it does not produce Hydrogen. It produces what we call "HHO" it separates two water particles (molecules) into a different arrangement: 2 atoms of Hydrogen, plus one Oxygen pair, or in other words two H (Hydrogen) for each O (Oxygen). This combination, in its gaseous state, is called HHO. Also called Rhodes' Gas or Browns Gas after its famous researchers, William A Rhodes and Professor Yull Brown, respectively. HHO burns beautifully and provides TONS of energy. The device uses little electricity and very little water.

The first recorded successes in decomposing water using electrolysis: In 1789, Dutch chemist Adriaan Paets van Troostwijk (17521837) and medical doctor Jan Rudolph Deiman (1743-1808) used an electrostatic machine and a Leyden jar for the first electrolysis of water. In 1800 it was done by renowned English chemist William Nicholson (1753-1815) and English surgeon Sir Anthony Carlisle (1768-1842).

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HOW DOES AN ELECTROLYZER PRODUCE HYDROGEN FROM WATER?


1. An Electrolyzer (the entire device in the diagram) uses an electric current to separate water into its components hydrogen and oxygen, 2. The electricity enters the water at the cathode (a negatively charged electrode), 3. The electricity passes through the water and exists via the anode (the positively charged electrode), 4. The hydrogen is collected at the cathode, 5. Oxygen is collected at the anode.

BROWN'S GAS THEORY


Brown's gas is a mixed gas of hydrogen and oxygen (2:1, by volume) created by electrolysis of water. It is thought that Brown's gas also contains considerable water vapor. Generally, electrolysis of water produces a hydrogen gas at cathode and an oxygen gas at anode. These gases are captured at the same time without being separated, and the captured mixed gas is generally known as "Brown's gas." Experimental results acquired to date show that a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen generated by a brown's gas generator has remarkably larger reactivity than an equal amount of another mixture of oxygen and hydrogen. The recently published third theory is that electrolysis of water produces third gas bubbles between a cathode and an anode, in addition to a molecular hydrogen gas at the cathode and a molecular oxygen gas at the anode. According to this third theory, it is thought that Brown's gas is a special water gas in which the hydrogen gas, the oxygen gas, and the third gas bubbles are mixed, i.e., Brown's gas is not steam but "electrically expanded water." Further, Brown's gas is lighter than air, diffuses rapidly in air, and has a high initial flammability limit, which makes it safer than other combustible gases. Due to these characteristics, Brown's gas has received interest as a next generation fuel, in particular, as a clean fuel that produces no pollutants, unlike a waste fuel producing pollutants, and thus, research into utility of Brown's gas as a fuel has been actively conducted.

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BUILDING AN ELECTROLYZER
The Electrolyzer is the heart of the system that generates HHO and cools down the Engine

The base of the device is, of course, the jar itself (not numbered here) and then the rest is build on the white plastic cap, the jar lid. The lid carries the Bubbler Cap (1) that lets air in from the atmosphere and regulates the bubbling, electrical terminals (2) and (3) that let the electric power enter the electrodes (5). The electrodes (5) are stainless steel wires wrapped around an acrylic tower.

CLARIFICATION REGARDING THE CHECK VALVES


Part 4, the Pressure Release Valve , It is there for safety reasons only. In normal operation, it is dormant, inactive. This is a "check valve", meaning it will allow air/liquid flow in one direction only. In our application, we glue it on top of the device POINTING UPWARD. It will let air flow OUT but not in. What for? In normal operation, the engine sucks all the HHO out of the device. Just in case the engine stops doing that, or for some reason there is a blockage of the output hose, we DO NOT WANT PRESSURE BUILDUP inside the device. If pressure starts to build up inside (water expands into gas) the
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Pressure Release Valve will release that pressure into the atmosphere (once HHO mixes with atmospheric air, it will not be explosive).So again, this is a check valve pointing upward - or in other words letting flow out of the device but not in. In normal operation the vacuum inside the device will make sure that the Pressure Release Valve stays closed at all times. Remember that all three check valves - Part 4 and Part 6 are both pointing OUTward of the jar. The valve on top acts as a pressure release valve, to be opened only in the rare case of totally clogged (both) lines, in which case we do not want pressure build up inside the device.

ELECTRODES
The electrodes inside the device are made from stainless steel wire, which is spiraled and glued around a core of Plexiglas. Never use aluminum or copper wires these are great electricity conductors, but they would be destroyed by the electrolysis process. Galvanized wire may work for a SHORT while but will create a lot of mud fast, and is not half as durable as stainless steel.

316L stainless steel. Works best with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). PWM is needed to prevent the HHO cell from overheating. Best efficiency is obtained when distance between the plates is 3-4 millimeters.

Stainless steel bolts. Not recommended because the HHO Cell is overheating. Also when using bolts in your HHO Cell the current tends to go straight from Anode to Cathode, so you can't use inter plate system and the gas production is low.

Stainless steel tubes. Depending on size and setup HHO cells with tubes works very good and you don't even need a PWM. Just fill it up with tap water. This HHO design is the most used.

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THE BEST HHO ELECTROLYZER CATALYST FOR HHO GAS CONVERTER


Tap Water - H2O (containing minerals, salts etc.)
Advantages:

Available everywhere Cheap Safe

Disadvantages:

Water might turn brown with smudge on the electrodes Water that contains chlorine should not be used

White Vinegar - acetic acid - H3C-COOH


Advantages:

Stainless electrodes stay clean Available everywhere Cheap Safe

Disadvantages:

Smells

A good mix for medium distance electrodes: 100% vinegar with (only if necessary) some baking soda. (If do so be carefull, because the reaction will produce co2 and some other gasses!)

Baking Soda ( Natriumbicarbonate ) NaHCO3


Advantages:

Available everywhere Cheap

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Disadvantages:

Electrodes and water might turn brown Produces Co2 (30%) and Co (4%). For this reason not recommended

Pure Baking Soda might leave a brown tinted residue.

Sodium Hydroxide also called Lye = NaOH


Advantages:

Electrodes stay clean Cheap 95 - 100% pure HHO (oxygen hydrogen) Gas production with right generator design Safe Available in the Grocery store recommended

Disadvantages:

Limited dangerous to work with

Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid; available in pellets, flakes, granules and as a 50% saturated solution. It is deliquescent and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, so it should be stored in an airtight container. It is very soluble in water with liberation of heat. Use with distilled water.

KOH Also called potassium hydroxide.


Advantages:

Electrodes stay clean 95 - 100% pure HHO gas production along with the right generator design strong and pure electrolyte

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Disadvantages:

Not available everywhere dangerous to work with


(recommended by Honda in 2001)

Recommended as very good electrolyte

K2CO3
Advantages:

Pottassium Carbonate.

Maximum HHO gas production Very pure HHO gas production along with the right generator design Efficient Safe to work with

Disadvantages:

Not available everywhere It is possible (sometimes necessary) to mix it with a little Naoh to draw more amps

Winter Electrolyte

Developed by mr. M. Moldoveanu Water+Ethyl Glycol+KOH will provide the benefit the technical of low freezing point but high boiling point at the same time.

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WHAT IS ANODE PROTECTION? AND WHY WOULD WE WANT?


The cathode does not have a problem and can stay 302/304 stainless steel, because that's where the hydrogen is generated and hydrogen does not attack the steel. It's the anode that gets corroded by the constant proximity of oxygen and should therefore be protected. Usually we do it by using Stainless Steel of grade 316L for the anode, or better yet for BOTH anode and cathode because after a length of time the user can switch between plus-minus voltage terminals thus switching the newly untouched cathode to be the new anode. This is a simple method to double the lifespan of the electrodes, and is popular. However have found that some exotic metals are far better for the anode (in which case you can use 302/304 - or 316L if you want - for the cathode). Platinum, for example, is one of the 'noble' or precious metals which are excellent electrode materials. Platinum is conductive, chemically stable and highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion. Being highly conductive and having a low consumption rate (low corrosion), Platinum makes a good anode material. Platinum is too expensive to be used by itself, therefore it is made affordable by electroplating a thin layer of Platinum over a high-corrosion resistance substrate such as Titanium, Niobium or Tantalum.

VAPORIZER
A device that adds water vapor to the air/fuel mixture of a vehicle's engine in order to boost its power, improve combustion (and in many cases also fuel economy) and reduce harmful emissions.

WHAT IS THE BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BROWN'S GAS AND HYDROGEN?


As mentioned above HHO, or Brown's Gas, comprises (by volume) two parts Hydrogen gas and one part Oxygen gas. It has the same Oxygen and Hydrogen elements and in the same proportions as in water or in water vapor - therefore Brown's gas is sometimes mistaken to be "water vapor" or something similar. What William Rhodes and Professor Yull Brown discovered was, that HHO is NOT water vapor. It's very different. They discovered that water has more than the usual three states, namely solid (which we call "ice"), liquid (we call it "water") and gas (we call it "water vapor"). It has a forth state called Brown's Gas (HHO). Brown's Gas is NOT Oxygen plus Hydrogen, like those gases that you might get from a factory supply. Ordinary Hydrogen and Oxygen gas, when purchased commercially, or when produced by Electrolyzers that separate Hydrogen from Oxygen and LEAVE THEM SEPARATED, these gas mixture comes in the form of O2 and H2. That is, the molecules of both gases form molecules of TWO ATOMS EACH. What we call "diatomic" structure , unlike "mono-atomic" This is the STABLE STATE for these gases. When

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individual atoms are separate as molecules (charged ions) of one atom each, they are not stable - they want to pair up. Now let's try to burn these atom pairs, O2 and H2. It IS a combustible gas mixture, however the problem is that before they can react together (the burning process) to make H2O, we must first break apart each atom pair into separate H and O atoms. Now here's the real problem: the energy we need to do break them apart makes the process non efficient. In other words it can be done, but it does not pay for itself. What makes Brown's gas unique - and highly valuable for our energy needs - is the fact that the Hydrogen and Oxygen have not formed into O2 and H2 molecules. They are in their monatomic state - a single atom per molecule! In this state, which is an UNSTABLE STATE, we will get 3.8 times more energy when we burn the Hydrogen with the Oxygen. The reasons: a) We have the monatomic state which is perfect for the burning process b) We have the perfect balance of ingredients - just the right amount of Oxygen necessary for the Hydrogen to fully and effectively burn.

WHAT IS HAPPENING INSIDE THE ENGINE???


Adding Brown's Gas to the fuel/air mixture has the immediate effect of increasing the octane rating of any fuel. Octane Rating means how much that fuel can be compressed before it ignites. Low grade gasoline (what's called Regular or 87 octane) ignites faster than higher octane fuels. It takes less compression to ignite. This fact causes the gasoline to ignite before TDC (Top Dead Center, the point where the piston is at the highest point of its motion), making it less efficient because the explosion of gas fumes pushes the piston down and out of sequence (it's too early so it goes a bit in reverse) and therefore the pinging noise and we get less power from Regular gasoline. Brown's gas or water vapor causes regular low-grade fuel to ignite more slowly (and more evenly over the combustion cycle), making it perform like a high octane fuel. A higher octane rating means stronger horse power due to combustion occurring much closer to TDC, where it has a chance to turn into mechanical torque (rotary push) the right way and without pinging. Each piston transfers more energy during its combustion cycle, so combustion becomes more efficient as well as SMOOTH. More efficient combustion translates to less fuel being needed to produce the same power. This technology does not mean we're running on water, but by introducing HHO simply and effectively we create the effect of using the same bad gasoline/diesel fuel in a more economical way. It supplements and actually CORRECTS the behavior of normal fuel.

WikiPedia.org says: The average automobile engine is only about 18% efficient, quoting Advanced technologies and energy efficiency, Fuel Economy Guide published by the U.S. Department of Energy, 2009. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv.shtml
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Only about 15% of the energy from the fuel you put in your tank gets used to move your car down the road or run useful accessories, such as air conditioning. The rest of the energy is lost to engine and driveline inefficiencies and idling. Therefore, the potential to improve fuel efficiency with advanced technologies is enormous.

The diagram explains a bit more: if 100% is what we put in at the gas pump, then 18.2% is all that's left after engine+transmission+accessories losses. To actually turn the wheels, after driveline losses, only 12.6% of the energy is left... There are many areas that can be improved in any vehicle design, and billions of dollars are invested by vehicle engineers to try and improve their designs.

In CURRENT column of the diagram we see the everyday reality of modern internalcombustionengine vehicles, cars and trucks: let's say you fuel your vehicle with a 100 worth of gasoline or diesel fuel. However, the amount that you get back, effectively out of the engine, is 37.60 worth of energy to move your vehicle and its systems. Unwillingly WE ARE WASTING 62.40 to: (1) Heat, plus (2) Harmful, stinking emissions (3) Inefficient combustion and pinging that make the ride rough, noisy and unpleasant
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(4) Carbon deposits and vibrations that wreck your engine and transmission. Carbon deposits is a bigger problem than just dirt inside the engine, Not a lot of electrical energy is consumed, because we do not need HHO to drive the car we only need it to boost the way REGULAR FUEL is being burned. Or a simple analogy of a match: we are using HHO like a match to the fire we throw a match to light the oil - the HHO is the match that helps the oil ignite and burn but not the oil itself.

THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEANING CARBON DEPOSITS


When we combust (burn) carbon-based fuel such as all those used by gasoline and diesel engines, one byproduct of such combustion is carbon. That's the black soot that collects and hardens on the cylinder head, cylinder walls, pistons and valves. Carbon deposits in the combustion chamber affect engine performance by reducing fuel efficiency, loss of lubrication oil, engine knocking and overheating. Actually, it is considered that the majority of engine wear and tear is caused by friction from carbon deposits. Another ill effect is the buildup of varnish (dirt) in the fuel injectors, fuel pump and fuel lines. In these parts it appears as a brown layer that forms on all surfaces. It creates friction as the fuel passes through, and may even block small fuel passages through fuel injector nozzles. When the fuel explodes in the cylinder, unburned carbons are forced up against the piston's upper surface and against the cylinder walls. It sticks to these surfaces and never come off unless we take the engine apart and scrapes it off. The inside walls of any cylinder are not smooth; they are build deliberately with "hone marks" which are tiny scratches on the cylinder walls. These scratches are there to carry and hold oil up the cylinder walls. Clean hone marks are vital for proper engine lubrication. The problem with carbon deposits, then, is not the beauty of the engine's guts, but the clogging of these tiny scratches. Assisted by the extreme heat of fuel combustion, the unburned fuel carbon transforms into a shiny, very hard coating and we get what's called "glazed cylinders". Now the oil - even the best of oils - cannot do much lubrication, missing the "hone marks" to reside in and flow through. Now we'll be getting "bypass gases" or "blow-by gases" (gases and gasoline blowing past the piston rings), simply because the rings cannot seal without lubrication. The blow-by gases get into the wrong parts of the engine, contaminate more spaces and passages (as well as the clean oil) and the engine's performance deteriorates quickly. HHO has the ability to clean carbon deposits that have already formed and hardened "forever." It not only cleans the engine, but keeps it clean ever after, resulting in smoother operation with less noise and less wear. It gives new life to "old" engines.

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HHO FUEL FOR COMBUSTION ENGINE FROM WATER


Igniting the HHO mixture will release energy (a proper mix can reach temperatures of 2800 degrees C, steel melts at 1500 degrees C) and cause the two gases to re-combine producing water vapor It's an exothermic reaction. If properly harnessed, that heat energy will do work the same way a gasoline/air mixture does when ignited in car's engine. Same method of technical application, just different fuels. So through electrolysis, water acts as an energy storage medium. From where is the energy stored and when? The energy is stored during the electrolysis process at the instant The H2O molecule is split and the HHO gases form. In engine cylinder, on ignition, the energy is released to do work, resulting in increased combustion efficiency. Note, at no point can water (H2O) "burn" for fuel. It's just not chemically possible. Why? Simple. When, by whatever means, hydrogen and oxygen have formed an H2O molecule, it's useful exothermic energy is depleted and the molecule becomes relatively (chemically) stable. In such case, there's no way for it (the water molecule) to form an additional exothermic reaction using more oxygen because it's hydrogen is already oxygen-bonded. Since the hydrogen is trapped and not available for additional exothermic reaction, water is simply useless as a fuel energy source to car engine. Water can be further oxidized (i.e. hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) but the reaction required is a net consumer of energy (endothermic reaction) as opposed to one that releases energy (exothermic reaction). Advocates of HHO fuel point out that car can run on a mixture of gasoline and HHO gas as a hybrid fuel. It supplements and improves combustion in engine producing much cleaner vehicle exhaust emissions (very good for the environment). The higher the percentage of HHO used by the car's engine to generate power, the less gasoline fuel it needs to burn. The less gasoline it burns, the more money is saved. However, in a hybrid fuel application the HHO itself only adds an insignificant amount of kinetic energy toward piston movement. How does it help? What does HHO actually do? HHO primarily functions as a very effective and cheap fuel combustion enhancement additive. It has the effect of increasing the engine's ability to draw more power from each gallon of gasoline (combustion efficiency). To understand this, we need to look closely at engine fuel combustion, air/fuel ratios and fuel configuration.

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Combustion and air/fuel ratio


Gasoline from fuel tank is broken into tiny droplets, mixed with atmospheric oxygen (air) and drawn by vacuum into engine cylinders (for fuel injection systems, fuel injectors break-up and spray gasoline directly into the cylinders). The piston compresses this mixture and when ignited by the sparkplug, the explosion (combustion) supplies power to car. One of the variables that determines how much energy (power) is extracted from the combustion reaction is the air/fuel ratio (ratio of gasoline to air). Too much air (or too little fuel) produces a "lean" fuel mixture. Power output may suffer in this condition because the engine isn't getting enough fuel to burn. Too much fuel (or too little air) produces a "rich" fuel mixture. In extreme conditions, this can also cause power loss because there's not sufficient oxygen in the cylinder to burn enough of the droplets to sustain a useful (power generating) reaction. A rich condition also wastes fuel because unburned droplets are thrown away with the exhaust. Car manufacturers historically have tuned the air/fuel ratio for optimum power but also tune it heavily to the rich side to accommodate fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen quality/quantity conditions (i.e. altitude, temperature, moisture content, etc..). This has helped engines maintain a smooth and consistent power curve over a wide range of operating conditions. However, the droplets that aren't burned as a result of the rich ratio setting (read as, gasoline not converted into engine power) to this day, are still thrown away as exhaust (in the 1970's the EPA, horrified by this practice and it's environmental impact, mandated tailpipe emission controls = catalytic converters to finish burning the unburned throw-away fuel). This means, today, car engine throws away a huge amount of fuel as a hedge against losing power due to changing environmental conditions as we travel. We pay for that hedge every time we turn the key. Manufacturers have allowed the car driving public to drive their cars for decades with this fairly expensive trade-off in place, completely unaware of the money being throwing away.

Fuel Configuration
Another variable that affects combustion efficiency is fuel configuration. This is difficult to control and is a way of understanding how much fuel is actually available for combustion due to fuel unit size. For instance, the smaller the unit of fuel, the faster and more completely the combustion reaction. In the cylinder at ignition time, the exothermic reaction fans out from the sparkplug as a flame front or wave. Each gasoline droplet ignites in turn from the heat generated by a neighboring droplet. This sustains the reaction as long as oxygen is present. However, it is only the surface of the droplet that burns because it's the surface that is in contact with the cylinder's oxygen. The gasoline in the droplet's interior must wait for the reaction to reach it (like a charcoal briquet that burns from the outside in). Meanwhile, traveling around the sides of the droplet (where there's oxygen), the reaction is heating and igniting neighboring
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droplets, propagating the flame front. A droplet may or may not burn completely, depending on it's size. Larger droplets take longer to burn. In addition, this reduces the velocity of the flame front because it takes longer for the reaction to heat neighboring droplets to their point of ignition (ignition propagation delay). Here's a somewhat familiar example to illustrate. Throw a small piece of coal on a campfire and note how long it takes to ignite and burn. Then, take another piece, the same size and weight, but first crush it into fine powder, then toss the powder into the fire (be careful). Of course, it burns literally, in a flash because the fuel that was previously unavailable (on the interior) is now exposed to oxygen and ready for combustion. That flash was the movement of the flame front through the powder as each particle ignited and burned. This illustrates how fuel configuration affects combustion. Smaller pieces burn faster, collectively hotter and speed flame propagation. The gasoline droplet in your cylinder is a different type of fuel, but it's governed by the same laws of matter. Big units of fuel take longer to burn completely. Smaller units burn faster, more completely. Fuel configuration.

Enter HHO
HHO is extremely efficient in terms of fuel configuration. As a nascent gas mixture, it's hydrogen (and oxygen) exist as tiny independent clusters of no more than two atoms per combustible unit (diatomic molecules of H2, O2). Comparatively, a gasoline droplet is monstrously large (many thousands of very large hydrocarbon molecules). This diatomic configuration of HHO results in extremely efficient combustion because the H2 and O2 molecules interact directly without any ignition propagation delays due to surface travel time of the reaction. Unlike a gasoline/air fuel mix, there are no mammoth globs (droplets) that burn from one side to the other, slowing the ignition flame front. HHO's ignition propagation is immediate and direct (atom to atom). When HHO is mixed with gasoline/air fuel it's hydrogen surrounds the gasoline droplets. On ignition, it's flame front flashes through the cylinder at a much higher velocity than in ordinary gasoline/air combustion. The heat and pressure wave HHO generates crushes and fragments the gasoline droplets, exposing fuel from their interior to oxygen and the combustion reaction. This effectively enriches the air/fuel ratio since more fuel is now available to burn. Simultaneously, the HHO flame front ignites the crushed fragments thereby releasing more of their energy, more quickly -- the same way crushed coal powder liberates its energy more quickly than that same coal as a single large piece (see "Fuel Configuration" above). In addition, since HHO is dispersed throughout the cylinder, the gasoline/air mixture no longer waits for its own slow, sequential droplet to droplet ignition process. HHO, because of its very high combustion velocity, detonates all the "crushed" fuel virtually at once (behaving as an explosive primer). The additionally exposed and burning fuel applies more pressure on the piston in a shorter time interval. Most importantly, the reaction burns and extracts power from fuel that previously would have been thrown away with the exhaust. More precisely, droplet fragmentation makes more gasoline fuel (or diesel fuel) available for combustion to convert into
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power, without drawing more fuel from your gas tank. Therefore HHO increases gas mileage by forcing the engine to burn gasoline more efficiently and completely, thus delivering more work from each gallon purchase. Increasing the amount of cylinder HHO means an increase in droplet fragmentation = higher combustion efficiency. In other words, HHO delivers it's primary benefit by modifying the engine's fuel, not by acting as an engine fuel. A very important distinction.

HHO - Mis-characterized and Misunderstood


So, HHO is a powerful combustion enhancer, very cheaply made through an on-demand electrolyer (you just need water and electric power). Some researchers are even looking for ways to produce a car that runs 100% on it's own HHO, generated from water on-board the vehicle . Very very good for the environment, very very bad for oil companies. It would represent a HUGE shift in global economic power, if nearly free and clean (remember, the only by-product of HHO combustion is water vapor) energy became available to anyone/everyone. No wonder some advocates see suppression conspiracies surrounding the technology.

So where is the problem?


Why do some see the application of this old technology as some sort of scam or hustle? There are several misconceptions and a lot of discussion where people are simply misinformed and talking at cross purposes. The chief problem is one of education and terminology. The way in which water can be used to supplement power to your engine (with HHO gas) is simply communicated very very poorly to the public at large. Described by some as a way for cars to "run on water", or "burn water for gas" cause most people to instinctively view such claims with skepticism -- and rightfully so. Such phrases and statements, on their own merit, are non-sensical and/or downright fraudulent. As you've read now to this point, what reaches your engine for combustion is not water (it's HHO gas). The powerful combustion enhancer has been mis-characterized as being equivalent to water or as a new spiffy source of fuel energy that you can somehow use, instead of gasoline, to run your car (both ideas are ridiculous!). Still, such statements make for great sounding marketing and conspiracy sizzle. The type of sizzle that makes people look up and take notice. The truth, on the other hand, is just plain old boring science and not very exciting. At least not until gasoline fuel hit an average price of $3.60/gal nationwide. Other's are doubtful of HHO as an effective fuel booster/enhancer. For them, entertaining the idea that something derived from water can be used this way is difficult. Why? It may be they suffer from a type of cultural, historical and educational (or lack thereof) hypnosis. For the last century our main source of power (especially for trasportation) has been fosil fuels (oil, coal, etc...). It's comparatively easy to see
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that gasoline is flammable (as with most fosil fuels). Whether in liquid or air/fuel mixture form, it's violently and readily reactive when exposed to the slightest spark. Not so with water. If you set an acetylene torch to water, the most it will do is boil and convert to steam. It just doesn't seem to make sense (to some) that water, a substance critical to your engine's cooling system, can also have an important role in conveying useful energy to that same engine for power enhancement. In fact, initially, we were rather skeptical of the conversion plans and guidebook claims, as presented (perhaps just like you before reading this far). That was before doing this research and getting the real facts. To be sure, vehicular application of electrolysis technology is still maturing and may never be ready for use in a distributed storage infrastructure such as gas stations because HHO compression would be involved. In fact, since many of you have been asking, we'll mention that compressing and storing hydrogen gas (especially HHO in any form), is *** EXTREMELY *** DANGEROUS (we strongly recommend against attempting to do so) especially at home. This can't be overstressed because HHO is, by it's very nature, unstable, difficult to store (the H2 molecule is so tiny, it can actually migrate through the walls of metal containers) and is extraordinarily predisposed to explosive combustion because of its oxygen component. When HHO forms, it forms with everything needed for a perfectly balanced (and violent) exothermic reaction. All it needs is a little thermal push. Any thermal energy source that brings it to it's ignition temperature will do it. Remember, gasses heat as they're compressed. This adds thermal energy. Compression also has the effect of lowering the autoignition temperature. In addition, the presence of oxygen further lowers the reaction threshhold. This means compressing HHO is a sure recipe for disaster. Make no mistake. Lethal results are quite possible. Burning at 2800 degrees C, any significant compressed amount, ignited, will rip most pressure vessels apart like tissue paper, resulting in near-molten flying shrapnel. The human body makes a very poor absorber of this kind of punishment (not to mention the fire danger). Compressing HHO is similar to trying to sucessfully make nitro glycerin in your kitchen sink. There are too many variables to control. Any one mistake (wrong temperature or a random spark).....can be your last. Again, we strongly recommend against attempting to compress and/or store HHO gas. Happily, the HHO on-demand technique for your car consumes HHO gas as it's produced so no storage is required. A very important safety fact. The most important problem and limiting observation for a 100% vehicular HHO on-demand application concerns overall efficiency and understanding it's effect. Current electrolysis methods are inefficient (25 50% efficiency is typical). In addition, overall system efficiency, defined as the amount of power required to generate HHO compared to the amount of energy it delivers under combustion will always be significantly less than 100% (there are energy losses due to heat energy transfer, electrolytic
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conductivity/resistance, etc...). There is no way known to counter those losses by extracting more energy from HHO (through combustion) than has been stored electrically by your car's alternator and battery (using on-board water electrolysis). According to the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics, it's impossible. If it were possible, your engine could run on 100% HHO by endlessly creating and consuming it's own fuel for propulsion (the very definition of a perpetual motion machine). Not possible by any physics we understand today. However, for a given hybrid fuel application, your objective is to produce just enough HHO to increase and maximize your engine's overall combustion efficiency. Though HHO delivers it's own combustion energy at a loss, you make-up for that loss by increasing the combustion efficiency of your engine's gasoline/air fuel mixture. In fact, as mentioned before, normal engine combustion is so inefficient (20 - 30 percent max) even a relatively small amount of HHO is able to deliver sizeable overall net gains to engine output. That's where the real savings are for any HHO on-demand system that you can build and install today. In other words, again, HHO can boost your car's miles per gallon (MPG) by making it a more efficient gasoline engine. After you've reached maximum combustion efficiency, you've reached the point of diminishing returns. Generating more HHO than this would actually decrease your MPG as your engine works to produce HHO that costs much more energy to produce than it delivers through combustion.

The bottom line: Will it work in your car?


This question really has two practical parts. The first is: "Can my car be made to produce HHO?". If you currently use gasoline in your car as a fuel, the answer is an absolute, unconditional, "Yes!". All you really need is your battery, some hardware odds and ends and a conversion guidebook. With those prerequisites in place, you can initiate and sustain water electrolysis to produce HHO. The second question, "Will my car utilize the HHO fuel once it's produced and delivered to my engine?". Actually the better question is how much of a savings will you realize using hybrided gasoline + HHO for fuel?. Someone who has added the technology to your make and model vehicle can best tell you what to expect, based on their experience. That's why we think support is so important for the guidebooks (and why we rated Water4gas as a first choice). However, we spoke with several parties using the techniques on different vehicles. From trucks to compacts each user has realized anywhere from 10 to 40 percent savings, initially. Very respectable performance for a little container of water, some wire, metal fittings and a couple of lengths of rubber tubing. Tuning and scaling (see below) can bring much higher returns. Keep in mind that a main factor causing the varied levels of initial success among all guidebook/plan customers, seemed to be one of application scaling. Customers applying the technology to smaller engines tended to have better initial results. This stands to reason as a given amount of HHO will have a
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larger effect on a smaller engine. Although intuitively obvious, this must be taken into proper account for your first system build. We think failure to do so has caused some customers to experience disappointment to where they abandon their HHO gas car crossover project prematurely and chalk their failure up to having been "scammed". They believe the additional required analysis and tuning effort was "not what they paid for" or they're unaware of the need for system scaling and tuning for m

OVERVIEW ON SAFETY
Is HHO safe? Is HHO production safe? Will it hurt or endanger the engine? These are frequent questions asked . Much safer than gasoline when considering spillage. Gasoline, when spilled, is obviously heavier than air and will collect at lower areas. Gasoline evaporation rate is relatively slow, posing a fire hazard long after it has been spilled. But being lighter than air, when HHO is spilled for any reason or accidental leakage, it will dissipate very rapidly into the atmosphere without exerting any polluting toxins or chemicals and without causing a fire hazard. An environmentally friendly fuel, that returns to water when combusted and does NOT pollute the environment by itself and reduces pollution of fossil fuel combustion a great safety point for passengers and workers. The way it interacts with all hydrocarbon fuels, HHO cause a lower temperature ignition point, therefore it adds that much safety to the overall operation conditions of a vehicle's engine or stationary generator/compressor.

STORING HHO
Due to the presence of oxygen, HHO is unstable and not safe to store. The oxygen is a great advantage for combustion, but not for storage. Even at low concentration of oxygen, a mixture of hydrogen and (a small percentage of) oxygen is too volatile to store safely, especially if somebody tried to compress it which is a big no-no That's why we are producing hydrogen on demand with Electrolyzers. We never store it and every drop of HHO is consumed immediately.

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