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# Orthogonal Machining

Mohak Patel

## 16th September, 2011 9003045

Background
All metal cutting processes can be generally stated as a process by which a wedge shaped tool with a straight cutting edge is constrained to move relative to the workpiece in such a way that a layer of metal is removed in the form of a chip. And if the cutting edge of the tool is arranged to be perpendicular to the direction of the relative work-tool motion, the process is known as orthogonal cutting. The other type of cutting in which cutting edge is not perpendicular is called oblique cutting. Since orthogonal cutting represents a two dimensional problem rather than a three dimensional one, it has a lesser number of process parameters and make research investigations easier. Thus this type of cutting is widely employed in machining related research. The most significant parameters of the cutting tool in orthogonal cutting are rake angle () and the clearance angle (). They are defined as shown in the image below.

## Now we define cutting ratio rc as,

Now the shear angle , the angle that the plane along which the workpiece is sheared makes with the horizontal, is given by,

Advantages: It gives a simpler analysis model and has fewer process parameters. Thus modelling of orthogonal cutting process is easier compared to oblique. Setting up an orthogonal cutting machine is also faster

Disadvantages: The direction of chip flow cannot be adjusted. In oblique cutting the chip flow direction can be adjusted in such a way that the chip being formed doesnt scratch the newly generated surface.

Aim
To perform orthogonal machining on aluminium, plastic and mild steel plates on a shaper, at different depth of cut and rpm settings and obtain the shear angle in each case

Procedure
Measure the rake angle of the tool being used. Fix the plastic plate on the vice and make sure it is gripped properly. Perform orthogonal machining at depth of cuts of 0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 mms at a constant strokes/min. Repeat the previous two steps again at two more different stroke rates. Measure the thickness of chip produced in each case and thus calculate shear angle. Repeat the whole process for aluminium plate. Also repeat the same with a mild steel plate but at depth of cuts of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mms.

Experimental Data and Calculations Rake Angle = 1750 Plastic: Stokes/min 20 20 20 36 36 36 50 50 50 Depth of cut (ao) in mm 0.25 0.75 1.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 Chip Thickness (ac) in mm 0.11 0.19 0.34 0.09 0.2 0.33 0.14 0.2 0.32 rc 2.27 3.95 3.68 2.78 3.75 3.79 1.79 3.75 3.91 tan 6.84 -20.20 -33.40 16.05 -28.14 -26.09 3.68 -28.14 -21.40 81.7 -87.2 -88.3 86.5 -88.0 -87.8 74.8 -88.0 -87.4

Aluminium Stokes/min 20 20 20 36 36 36 50 50 50 Depth of cut (ao) in mm 0.25 0.75 1.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 Chip Thickness (ac) in mm 0.78 0.9 1.78 0.49 1.09 1.42 0.41 1.18 1.99 rc 0.32 0.83 0.70 0.51 0.69 0.88 0.61 0.64 0.63 tan 0.34 1.06 0.85 0.57 0.83 1.14 0.71 0.75 0.74 18.7 46.7 40.4 29.9 39.6 48.8 35.5 36.9 36.5

Mild steel: Stokes/min 20 20 20 36 36 36 50 50 50 Depth of cut (ao) in mm 0.25 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.5 0.75 Chip Thickness (ac) in mm 0.5 0.92 0.92 0.33 0.66 0.68 0.32 0.68 0.75 rc 0.50 0.54 0.82 0.76 0.76 1.10 0.78 0.74 1.00 tan 0.56 0.62 1.03 0.94 0.94 1.57 0.97 0.90 1.36 29.3 31.8 45.9 43.1 43.1 57.6 44.3 42.0 53.8

Analysis
As expected plastic got sheared the most as its a soft material. Also it was observed that the thickness of the chip in case of plastic was very much lower than the depth of cut and thus plastic had cutting ratio values more than 1. This was because of the high amount of plastic deformation that occurred in plastic during shearing/cutting which doesnt recover and also the higher velocity of chip. But in the case of aluminium and mild steel the opposite was observed. This chip had more thickness than what was the depth of cut. This is because the velocity of the chip flow is less than the cutting velocity.

Error Analysis
The chips of aluminium formed were of non-uniform thickness and very small in size, making thickness measurement tough.

Conclusions
Plastic was found to have maximum shear angle and no strict relation was found between the shear angle and stroke rate.