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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

1 BACKGROUND OF THE REPORT

This report has been prepared for partial fulfillment of 14 weeks internship period for MBA program. Organizational attachment period is from March 1, 2006 to May 30, 2006. During the organizational attachment period the report named Competency Based Job Analysis and Performance Management of Non-Medical Staff at Apollo Hospitals, Dhaka. was assigned by Mr. Debashish Saha, DGM-HR (ex) at AHD (Apollo Hospitals Dhaka) and approved by institution supervisor Syed Alamgir Jafar at IBA , University of Dhaka. 1.2 INTRODUCTION

As being one of the biggest hospitals in Bangladesh, Apollo Hospitals Dhaka is at the forefront of medical technology and expertise and provides a complete range of the latest diagnostic, medical and surgical facilities for the care of its patients. The hospital is having all the characteristics of a world-class hospital with wide range of services and specialists, equipment, & technology, ambience and service quality. But the quality of a hospital service is not defined by the appearance of its facility. Rather the service quality depends more on the sincerity of the hospital and its human resources to serve the patients. In Bangladesh, the health care sector is not yet developed. A large number of people go abroad for treatment due to low quality of medical facilities in Bangladesh. And the main target market of Apollo Hospitals Dhaka is the people who want to get world class treatment inside the country with affordable cost. To ensure the proper customer satisfaction, the hospital management has to employ the right people in right place. Prior to this a detailed job Analysis is almost essential. With Job Descriptions and a sophisticated Job Evaluation system, management will be able to recruit and determine pay levels better, determine the types of training the hospital staff should go on and have a basis to appraise them. Job Descriptions furnished by business units are current and accurate so that the Job Evaluation exercise will produce the desired outcome. With proper Job documentation, HR will be able to integrate their initiatives towards the personal and career development of

employees. Greater organizational efficiency can be expected when everyone is clear about their roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities to the Company. As I was employed as internee in HR department of Apollo Hospitals Dhaka, I had to come in a close contact to this core HR process. The department along with the whole hospital is in its embryonic stage. There was a lots of area still unexplored. But as an effective and efficient Job Analysis is the prerequisite of the entire HR cycle, I decided to start working ob Job Analysis. Here I used competency based Job Analysis and Performance Management style under the supervision of Mr. Debashish Saha, DGM HR. As I was and still am not so familiar with the literature, it provided me with a great learning opportunity. At the same time in course of preparing the Job Description, a general familiarity with hospital operation with its diversified work force could be recognized. The areas, that need improvement, can also be addressed. Being relatively new organization, Apollo does not have any study as such, which would help the hospital to develop HR Strategy for the better recruitment and retention schedule. So I think this report will help the organization as well as the HR department to identify loopholes and improve performance. And at the same time I will be able to understand the HR practices in this industry and organization from a close point of view. I believe that a better understanding of the Job Description and Job Specification would help HR policy and decision makers to implement programs tailored to organizations needs and available HR quality as perceived by both internal and external customers of HR department. I hope that the report will play a role, no matter how small, in developing the HR practices for promoting and improving the Human Resources available at Apollo Hospitals Dhaka

1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE REPORT

The objective of the internship program is to explore real life business situation to business graduates so that they can utilize theoretical learning in the real life situations. It helps internee students to integrate their four years academic learning with real life business problems. For this particular report, the objectives are: 1. To review all job descriptions for the non-medical staff and finalize the format of job descriptions. 2. To identify the measurable performance standards of each designation. 3. To develop the performance appraisal format keeping the options for full circle appraisal. 4. To develop a training program for the appraisers for introducing the new appraisal system 2

1.4

SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of the report is limited to the non medical category of employees in Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. The medical side comprised of Consultant Physicians, Nurses and paramedics are supervised by the Medical Service Department. The report covered the administrative side of the hospitals. The covered departments are Accounting & Finance, Billing, HR, Business Development, Material, Operation and Engineering. 1.5 LIMITATION As being a relatively new organization, all the information regarding the Job Analysis and Performance management is not readily available. As the hospital is in almost at its beginning stage, there exist role conflict and role ambiguity among the staff. So the true picture of the job is not so easy to identify. No prior study has been done in any section, so very less number of documents is available. In direct person to person interview, it was not that convenient to have free time from the person as everyone is occupied with hospital development. METHODOLOGY

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This report will be based upon qualitative methods. This is type of case study. A method for learning about a complex instance, based on a comprehensive understanding of that instance, obtained by extensive description and analysis of the instance, taken as a whole and in its context. Case study research is a time-honored, traditional approach to the study of topics in social science and management. In case studies, in comparison, one is generalizing to a theory based on cases selected to represent dimensions of that theory. In this project I tried to find out the applicability of competency based HR practice in Apollo Hospitals. Before doing the qualitative study, a detailed background study will be conducted. This background study will determine the current Job Analysis scenario in Apollo Hospital. As the whole process is not structured enough, this study will be done through exploratory and observation method. 1.6.1 Academic literature review A detailed academic literature review were done on Competency based Job Analysis process, Training manual preparation and Performance Appraisal format designing.

1.6.2

Review of existing documents in HR department As a totally new organization, AHDs HR department lacks of necessary documentation. The documents present in the department from the beginning of hospital operation, will be studies thoroughly. The objective is to become familiar with the HR operation and at the same time sort out the improving plan and program of the existing HR documentation. Interview, Focus group and panel discussion with the employees Primary and secondary data were collected for preparing this report. Primary data were collected interviewing the employees of different levels of different functional areas. Secondary data were collected from various publications, various documents stated in written form and other periodic publications. Interviews will be conducted for the positions which are individual in nature. Theyre usually of executive category. They are of managerial positions and executive positions. Focus group research is based on facilitating an organized discussion with a group of individuals selected because they were believed to be representative of some class (ex., the class of consumers of a product, the class of voters). Discussion is used to bring out insights and understandings in ways which simple questionnaire items may not be able to tap. Focus Group discussion will be conducted for those categories whose jobs are more or less similar in nature. Here Focus Group discussion is more appropriate as the employees with similar background and job profile will depict their job more profoundly while theyre in a group. Structured questionnaire For collecting data from the non medical in Apollo Hospitals, questionnaires will be used. The questionnaire will be based on competency based analysis Model. And will be targeted to the analysis of observable occurrences. The respondents will be the non medical staff of any level of AHD. After preparing the draft questionnaire, a pre-test will be conducted. Analyzing the results of the pre-test, changes will be done in research design and as well as in questionnaire, if required. After finalizing the questionnaire, interview will be conducted among the non medical staffs in Apollo Hospital. Based on the response, the Job analysis will be developed.

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1.6.4

CHAPTER 2 HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH


2.1 HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

The healthcare Scenario of Bangladesh resembles that of other countries in the Indian subcontinent. The industry is a blend of government and private sector facilities, with the government medical college hospitals and a few specialties institute on one end of the spectrum and a network of basic, primary level of facilities on the other. The private sector is largely disorganized, comprising of a large number of Nursing Homes, providing primary and secondary level of health care. These Nursing Homes are severely limited in terms of range of facilities, services and equipment. In spite of these drawbacks most private facilities have high occupancy levels, since patients have few other alternatives. The quality of our medical services is still in question and is still in need of much development It is also found out that there have been efforts to improve the health care delivery system in Bangladesh. The government as well as other non-government organizations have increasingly emphasized on the quality of care. In accordance with the suggestions of the World Bank, the new Health and Population Program of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), which began operating in July 1998, has been trying to recommend a thorough organizational restructuring of the entire sector with the aim of establishing health care services that meet international standards. A common observable fact in the health care services including both treatment and diagnostic services is the lack of faith patients feel in their reliability. Hence many prefer to travel to foreign countries for even small medical problems. 2.2 COMPETITION

The health care industry is growing very fast as there is huge market potential for the sector. Some competitors of Apollo are: BIRDEM Hospital This is a 390 bed multi-speciality Hospital which has established itself as the best hospital of the country and stands as a workable model in private sector. Important departments in addition to Diabetology are Cardiology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Gastroenterology. The hospital is now in the process of expanding its bed capacity to 515. Plans are also being implemented for expansion of Coronary Intensive Care Unit.

Holy Family (Red Crescent) Hospital This is a multi speciality hospital with 347 bed and a nursing school, run by the international Red Crescent Societies( Red Cross) due to lack of financial resources it could complete only 50% construction expect for medical equipment, patient room furnishing etc. The hospital has first MRI set up in the country. Approximately it has 1000 staff with 190 physicians; 50% are specialists and 321 nurses. The hospital is estimated to be overstaffed by 25% - 40% in specific areas. The average length of stay is 6 8 days. Tahirunnessa Memorial Center Limited This hospital is currently under construction and is located close to the international airport with capacity of 80 beds private for cardiology, maternity and oncology. International agencies like WHO, UNICEF also play an important role in the healthcare system. The WHO provides a variety of technical assistance, supplies, equipment and teaching material. The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDRB) deserves special mention for the development of ORS in the late 70s. it is recognised as a centre of excellence throughout the world. In addition to a high standard of research in its field, its aid in epidemic control, training and dissemination of information. 2.3 EMERGING COMPETITION There is a very good potential for Corporate Hospital offering a complete range of high secondary care facilities. However in the recent years, there has been an increasing awareness among the medical community and investors alike, that there is a great potential in healthcare industry. As a result a number of new and expanded projects are underway in different stages of execution. Some important ventures are as follows: Continental Hospital Continental Hospital at Gulshan -- is expected to be ready for services by June this year. The project involving around $37.5 million is being jointly implemented by United Group of Bangladesh and K P J Healthcare, Berhad, of Malaysia. Square Hospital 450-bed Square Hospital managed and run by Thailand's Bumrungrad Hospital International in cooperation with local Square Hospitals Ltd begins functioning in June. Construction of the hospital on Panthapath involving an investment of $42 million is nearing completion.

American Hospital Consortium An American private healthcare giant has invested $ 30 million to provide specialized hospital services by the end of this year. American Hospital Consortium llc (AHCL) envisages use and expansion of the 10-storey building of Kuwait Moitry Hospital and other structures on its premises at Sector-6 in Uttara, lying vacant for the last eight years. Another 200-bed hospital is likely to open by mid-next year at Nikunja, Uttara, jointly managed by Escort Hospital of India and Japan-Bangladesh-Friendship-Hospital. Foreign and local investment for the project is estimated at about Tk 80 crore. Under strict foreign management, the joint venture hospitals will offer services ranging from simple medical consultation to complex brain, spine, bone, kidney, eye, heart and even plastic surgeries by foreign doctors, enabling many Bangladeshi patients to avoid costly and troublesome trips to neighboring countries for treatment. Apollo Hospital Dhaka at Bashundhara, the largest of 37 hospitals of India's Apollo group, being built on a 400,000-square foot area is the largest commercially-run healthcare provider in Asia. Funded by local business group STS Holdings and managed by American staff, the 10-storey hospital with 450 beds will also have facilities for handling helicopter ambulance. The hospital with the capacity of 450 beds will be able to meet only 10% of the current demand gap in the industry.

CHAPTER 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE


3.1 APOLLO GROUP

Over two decades ago, the first brick was laid at Apollo Chennai, the first corporate hospital in India. Since that momentous day, the Apollo Group has ascended to a position of leadership in healthcare across Asia and abroad. Driven by the vision of its Chairman, Dr. P.C. Reddy, Apollo Hospitals has transformed the landscape of healthcare in India. The group owns and manages 38 hospitals in and around India today. It is the largest private healthcare provider in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. In the years since its modest beginning, Apollo has founded various group companies to empower its flagship concern, Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited, to create a healthcare powerhouse that has a leadership position in every sphere of healthcare it has entered. With nursing and hospital management colleges, pharmacies, diagnostic clinics, medical transcription, third-party administration and telemedicine, Apollos leadership status extends to all aspects of the healthcare spectrum.Apollo Hospitals Group is the acknowledged leader in bringing super specialty world-class healthcare to Asia.

3.1.1

APOLLO HOSPITAL GROUP at A Glance

Overview Patients Total Number of Employees Total Number of Surgeries Heart Surgeries Neuro Surgeries Total Number of Renal Transplants Total Number of Master Health Check-ups Total Number of Beds Owned Beds Managed Beds

7.4 million over 10000 280,000 major + 500,000 minor 48,000 - success rate of 98.5% 10,538 over 5000 315,000 4148 2471 1677

Total Number of Hospitals Owned Managed Total Number of Clinics Total Number of Projects Owned Managed Total Number of Pharmacies Hospitals Clinic Convenios (Indian Oil Outlets) Stand Alone

45 13 22 10 37 4 33 70 12 04 12 42

The Apollo Hospitals mission began with the establishment of Indias first corporate hospital in Chennai in 1983. Today Apollo Hospitals Group is the single largest healthcare provider in Asia and commands leadership in providing quality healthcare to large number of nations in the Afro-Asian continent through 37 hospitals and 6400 hospital beds. The Government of India has declared Apollo Hospitals, India, a Center of Excellence. The Apollo Hospitals Delhi is one of the largest corporate hospitals in the region. The Group, with its unique ability of resource management and able deployment of technology and knowledge is now coming up with another international venture in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Fig: Global Map of Apollo Hospitals and Other Organizations through Out the Fig World

3.2

APOLLO HOSPITALS DHAKA

Apollo Hospitals Dhaka, a joint project of Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited and STS Holdings Limited. India-based Apollo Hospitals started its services in Bangladesh and becoming the first private multi-purpose facility in the country that would pave the way for better treatment of the people. It is a 450-bed super specialty facility poised to deliver advanced tertiary care of international standards to the people of Bangladesh. Apollo Hospitals Dhaka is the facility that would be able to deliver advanced tertiary care of international standards through a world-class service at an affordable price in the country. The hospital, built at a cost of US$35 million on four acres of land at Plot 81, Block E, Bashundhara Residential Area, is a joint-venture project of Indian Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Ltd and STS Holdings Ltd.

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The Hospital is at the forefront of medical technology and expertise and provides a complete range of the latest diagnostic, medical and surgical facilities for the care of its patients. The hospital is having all the characteristics of a world-class hospital with wide range of services and specialists, equipment, & technology, ambience and service quality. Apollo Hospitals, Dhaka is a showcase of the synergy of medical technology and advances in IT through paperless medical records. Equipped with modern facilities, the hospital will provide the most advanced international standard treatment for the countrymen. The hospital with 4,00,000 square feet area has focused on the Department of Advanced Cardiology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurology, Neuro-Surgery, Urology, UroSurgery, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Critical care, Orthopedics, and other secondary care departments. The Hospital is at the forefront of medical technology and expertise and provides a complete range of the latest diagnostic, medical and surgical facilities for the care of its patients. The hospital is having all the characteristics of a world-class hospital with wide range of services and specialists, equipment, & technology, ambience and service quality. The skilled nurses, technologists and administrators at Apollo Hospital Dhaka, aided by state-of-the-art equipment provides a congenial infrastructure for the medical professional in providing healthcare of international standards. The hospital introduced an advanced computerized Tomography (CT) machine. Relevant to mention that, apart from Japan Bangladesh is the only country to have this. It helps to keep all information about any single patient that has been register or treated for any treatment for 72 years. Objective of AHD For a long time the people of our country are going abroad and spending huge amount of foreign currency to get quality treatment facilities. Apollo Hospitals Dhaka will deliver international standard services at affordable costs and give overseas-dependent patients a local option.

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Mission Statement "Our mission is to bring healthcare of international standards within the reach of every individual. We are committed to the achievement and maintenance of excellence in education, research and healthcare benefit of humanity."

Promoters STS Holdings Limited, a dynamic and reputed business Group in Dhaka, is engaged in education, banking, real estate, manufacturing and exports, freight consolidation and container services etc. The group owns International School Dhaka (ISD); managed by Council of International Schools (CIS), a global organization facilitating education with its headquarters in the UK. The board members of STS Holdings Ltd. are Bhagwan W. Kundanmal, Chairman Khondoker Moniruddin, Managing Director Mohammad A. Moyeen, Director Tipu Munshi, Director ADMINISTRATION CEO - Richard Larison Director Medical Services - Praful B. Pawar Director Operations- Grant R. Muddle Director Finance- Shahjahan Majumder Director Nursing- Rosalind Conway GM IT- A. K. M. Nazrul Haider GM Material- Iftikhar Husain DGM Operations- Shatrujeet Kumar Rai DGM Operations- Shahana Rahman DGM - Business Development- Jahangir Hyder

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

DIRECTOROPERATIONS

DIRECTORFINANCE GM-HR

DIRECTORMEDICAL SERVICES GM- IT GMMATERIAL

DIRECTORNURSING SERVICES GM-BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

DGM- OPS1 DGM-OPS2 MANAGERBIOMEDICAL


MANAGERMAINTANANCE

MANAGER FINANCE

MANAGER- IT

MANAGERCORPORATE MARKETING MANAGERPHYSICIAN SALES

MANAGERPHARMACY MANAGEROPERATIONS

3.3 SERVICES AND FACILITIES OFFERED IN BANGLADESH The hospital provides health care in a number of disciplines where there is well perceived demand. These discipline equipped with state-of-the-art medical equipment for diagnostics and treatment purpose. Cardiology, Neurology, Orthopaedics, radiology and Imaging, Critical Care Unit, etc is supported by advanced diagnostics and therapeutic facilities. 3.3.1 DEPARTMENTS

A brief description about the functioning of various departments in Apollo Hospitals Dhaka is presented in the following paragraphs. Each department is having two or three specialist doctors in the respective area of medicines. 13

Department of Neurology It is one of the well equipped Neurology departments. The department has latest investigative facilities like Electroencephalograph, Nerve conduction studies which is presently available in only few centers in Bangladesh. The department is well supported by CT scan, Neurosurgical department and Physiotherapy department. It has its own ICU and semi ICU for maximum care for critical patients Department of Urology It is one of the superspeciality departments of Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. Open Renel, Bladder and Urethra surgeries and Andrological surgeries are being done here. Department of General Medicine The normal procedures looked into in this department are severe Bronchial Asthma, Leptospirosis, , Diabetic mellitus, Hypertension, Tuberculosis etc. Department of Pediatric surgery All pediatric surgical cases both elective and emergencies are being managed here. Cosmetic surgeries like repair of cleft lip palate etc. and foreign body removal both from oesophagus and bronchus are being done here. Department of Orthopedics: The Apollo Hospitals Dhaka is having one of the most modern orthopedic departments in the region. The Orthopedic department has a very well equipped exclusive operation theatre and a C-ARM image intensifier. C-ARM image intensifier is used for minimally invasive surgeries. The fracture reduction and fixation are done under image intensifier control. This leads to faster healing of the fractures. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation The Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation provides comprehensive rehabilitation care to patients with disabilities, complex neurological problems as well as bone diseases. There is a good exercise therapy unit equipped with parallel bars, pulley exercisers, rowing machine etc Department of Ophthalmology Department of Ophthalmology has a well equipped outpatient department with instruments like slit lamp biomicroscope, direct and indirect opthalmoscope etc. A

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separate operation theatre with facilities like operating microscope, automated vitrectomy machine etc. is also there, where a number of arterior segment surgeries are being done.

Department of ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) This department is having well modern equipments. Other than ENT surgeries micro ear surgery, nasal endoscopy etc. are being done here. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology This department is equipped with large and spacious labour room, first stage room immediate post partum room, baby warmer and most modern colour scanning. At present the department provides all routine preventive, promotive and curative service in Obstetrics and Gynaecology including health education. Department of Radiology The facility of Whole Body CT scanner attracts a number of referred cases to this hospital. Scanning service is available from this department round the clock. Department of Anesthesiology There are six operation theatres in the hospital. All operation theatres are built and equipped to international standards. Latest boiler machines for Anesthesia, ECG and pulse oximeter for patient monitoring are available with these operation theatres. More over infusion pumps are available for intra-operative and post-operative anesthesia. Blood Bank Apollo Hospitals Dhaka is having one of the well equipped blood banks in Bangladesh which is specially designed for collection, safe storage and distribution of human blood. There are separate rooms for medical examination, blood donation, and group serology and infection serology. This blood bank is having a capacity to store 200 units of blood. Both whole blood and blood components are issued from the bank. Further more 24 hour round the clock service is provided here.

3.3.2 OTHER FEATURES emergency calling system 24 hours laboratory 15

24 hours pharmacy 24 hours emergency power Ambulance (mobile hospital) Helicopter ambulance

3.2.3 Specialties Anaesthesiology General Surgery CT Geriatrics Cardiology Haematology-Clinical Cardiothoracic Surgery Haematology Cosmetic Surgery ICCU/ICU/CTCU Clinical Pathology Microbiology Dental Master Health Check Dermatology MRI Diabetology Neonatology ENT Nephrology EndocrinologyNeurology Medical EndocrinologyNeurology-Paediatrics Surgery Emergency Medicine Neurosurgery Faciomaxillary Obstetrics and Gynaecology GastroenterologyOncology-Medical Medical GastroenterologyOncology-Radiation Surgical General Medicine Oncology-Surgical 3.2.4 Services

Ophthalmology Orthopedics Paediatries-Medical Paediatries-Surgical Plastic Surgery Physiotherapy Psychiatry Respiratory Medicine Rheumatology Radiology & Imaging Services Transfusion Medicine/Blood Bank Traumatology Ultrasound Urology Vascular Surgery X-ray

Radiology 1.5 Tesla MRI Spiral Whole Body CT Scanner (64 Slice) with CT Coronary Angiogram Gamma Camera X-ray Units Color Doppler Ultrasound Scanners Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories Videoendoscopy 11 Operation Theatres 107 Bed Critical Care Units Patient Rooms and Wards 16

Mammography ECG Treadmil 1 Echocardiography Holter Monitor EEG EMG 24 Hours Ambulance Service Physiotherapy Center Health Check Center

24 Hours Trauma Care & Emergency

Fully Equipped PACS + I.W.M. [Picture Archiving & Communication System] [Imaging Workflow Management] Lab Services Biochemistry Haematology Microbiology Histopathology Transplantation Immunology Transfusion Medicine

Quality Initiatives Apollo Clinical Excellence (ACE) Division of Innovation and Clinical Excellence (DICE) Infection Control Protocols Disaster Management Golden Hour Emergency Management Medical Ethics Telemedicine

Catering Services In Apollo hospitals Dhaka the support services like house keeping, laundry, food & beverages are maintained by the worlds leading hospitality company - Compass Group . With a large gap between the need and availability of hospitals facilities, the focus is to increase the bed capacity by about 30% every year. Major thrust fields of activities of the group consist of Hospitals and Clinics, Hospitals Consultancy, Information Technology including internet based technology, Telemedicine, Education and Training, Virtual Medical University, Home Healthcare and Pharmacy Retailing. 3.4 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY

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The second 64-slice computed tomography scanner ever produced by Philips Medical Imaging, and the first to reach the United States, has been installed and is now in clinical use at the University of Chicago Hospitals. The scanner, which has four times as many detectors as a typical multi-detector CT scanner, combines unrivaled image quality with remarkable speed. It can produce detailed pictures of any organ in a few seconds and provide sharp, clear, threedimensional images, including 3-D views of the blood vessels, in an instant. A 40-slice scanner collects images covering 20 to 32 millimeters in a single pass and a tightly packed 64-slice device can cover about 40 millimeters at a pass, which takes 0.4 seconds. At that rate, a 64-slice scanner can gather a high-resolution image of a heart, brain or a pair of lungs in about five seconds. A scan of the whole body, (in search of a blood clot, for example, that has become a source of emboli) takes about 30 seconds. The technology has been particularly exciting for studying the beating heart, providing the first clear non-invasive images of the heart and its major vessels. The scans can be timed to use only images gathered between contractions, so that the heart and its vessels can be seen without the blurring caused by motion. Other promising indications for multi-slice scanners include evaluation of plaque within the carotid arteries (5 to 8 seconds), searching for pulmonary emboli (5 seconds, less than an easy breath hold), coronary artery imaging (10 seconds, including distal segments and multiple arterial branches). The scans have their own limitations. Although the scanner table is built to support up to 450 pounds, it can be difficult to accommodate patients who are morbidly obese. Each scanner costs between $1.5 million to $2 million.

3.5

APOLLO PREVENTIVE HEALTH SCREENING PROGRAM

MASTER HEALTH CHECK Apollo hospitals Dhaka provide a spatial health check program which is called Master Health Check. This package many individual diagnosis and consultation in a suitable rate. This individual package is unique and it maintains standard of Apollo which cant be found in other health care organizations of Bangladesh. The followings are the package differentiated for different individual.

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APOLLO HEALTH CHECK TAKA 3000 Recommended for men and women above the age of 16. APOLLO EXECUTIVE HEALTH CHECK TAKA 4350 Recommended for men and women above 25 years, for Smokers and those who lead stressful lives. APOLLO HEART CHECK TAKA 6000 Recommended for people with cardiac symptoms or with a Strong family history APOLLO CHILD HEALTH CHECK TAKA 1150 Recommended for children between the ages 4 and 16. APOLLO WHOLE BODY CHECK TAKA 9300 Recommended for people desirous of a more comprehensive check up APOLLO WELL WOMEN CHECK TAKA 2850 Recommended for woman above the age of 25. APOLLO DIABETIC CHECK TAKA 4500 Recommended for diabetic persons APOLLO BREAST CHECK TAKA 1350 Recommended for early detection of Breast Cancer 3.6 PRICING POLICY

The various services offered in Apollo hospital are unique in the country. So the company asks for a premium price for that. The cost of all the usual services that are prevailing in the market, are kept on the basis of competitors pricing policy. The hospital fix price for various special services offered by it only after comparing with the foreign competitors price. However, hospital management is keen to see that such charges for service lies in between that charged by international standard hospitals as well as private hospitals. Charges are fixed in such a way that the hospital earns a certain amount as a profit over the cost. The operating cost of Apollo is very high in the context of Bangladesh. So its also explainable for the management for seeking such a high price for the services. 3.7 SWOT ANALYSIS

The followings are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. 19

STRENGTHS

Latest State-of-the-art technology The multinational brand name and image of APOLLO 1st multi specialized tertiary care hospital Pioneer in corporate health care provider in Bangladesh Sound financial position Skilled human resources ( medical ) Excellent relations with media Good relationship with regulatory body Multi specialized departments of treatments Structured Information Technology System ( HMS)

WEAKNESSES Poor coordination between departments High operating cost High price for services Inadequate promotion in this competitive market Unavailability of quality medical consumables in local market. Inadequate use of IT by the employees Language barrier between management and staff because of low expertise in English among the nurses and technicians

OPPORTUNITIES Economic growth of Bangladesh Large untapped market Growing demand for world class health care among the citizens Corporate agreements with corporate houses Initiatives showed by Govt in promoting health care industry.

Rigid govt regulations with regard to expatriate employees. Emerging competition from the other international hospitals Price war with local hospitals 20

THREATS

Yellow journalism

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CHAPTER 4 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF HR PRACTICES IN A HOSPITAL

4.1 CATEGORY OF EMPLOYMENT AT APOLLO HOSPITALS DHAKA All employees at Apollo Hospitals Dhaka are broadly classified into two categories: Local and Expatriate. Outside the classification of local and expatriate, employees at Apollo Hospitals Dhaka are generally categorized as per following:

Regular Employees who have completed 3- 6 months probation period and who are regularly scheduled to work at least 48 hours per week. Based on the necessities of organization, there is a reasonable expectation of continued funding for these positions. Contract Employees who have been granted a contract for more than one year and are regularly scheduled to work at least 48 hours per week to render services against a specific job assigned to him/her. Short-term Contract Employees who are contracted with an expected termination date less than one year for specific tasks/assignments having approved terms of reference. Probationer An employee who is provisionally employed to fill a permanent vacancy and who is now under probation. Unless confirmed in writing a probationer will continue to be a probationer. Temporary An employee who has been engaged for work which is essentially of temporary nature or for a specified period or for work of a permanent nature but of a temporary duration. Merely working on a permanent job will not make an employee a permanent employee. Casual An employee who is engaged for work, which is essentially of an occasion or casual nature and includes an employee who is temporarily employed in the place of a permanent employee or probationer who is temporarily absent. 22

Apprentice Apprentice is a person who is undergoing apprenticeship training in pursuance of a contract of apprenticeship. Trainee Trainee is one who is engaged for specific period of time as learner who may be paid or may not be paid stipend during the period of learning, as may be prescribed by the Management. The training is liable to be terminated at any time without any notice and without assigning any reason whatsoever. The management on no account shall be under any obligation to provide any trainee with a job after completion of the stipulated training period. Consultant Physicians According to employment contract awarded to Consultant Physicians they will be classified into following categories: a. Consultant under Guaranteed Money, b) Consultant under Fixed Pay, (c) Consultant under Fee for Services (d) Part Time Consultant, e) Visiting Consultant. If you have any confusion to categorize your employment with Apollo Hospitals Dhaka please contact the Office of Human Resources for necessary explanations and help.

4.2

GENERAL POLICIES Enabling Work Environment For fostering an enabling environment you as Apollo Family Member are expected to: Demonstrate a positive attitude towards work and create an enabling working atmosphere in the hospital. Practice a culture of performance and contribute to the organizational learning. Demonstrate gender consciousness and sensitivity to the gender issues through your behavior, beliefs, values and attitudes. Express views, ideas, issues, etc openly and confidently without fear of repercussions on your employment and working relationship. Keep the work place safe and be committed to equal opportunity.

Office Hours Offices of AHD will remain open for business in the following manner:

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Administrative offices will remain open from 9 AM 5 PM for all days except Friday with a lunch break of 30 minutes. In Patient Departments will remain open round the clock everyday. Employees will follow their shift hours as per the duty roster. Outpatient Departments will remain open from 9 AM 5:30 PM for all days except Friday. The general shift of the Hospital will be from 9 AM 5:30 PM with a lunch break of one hour. There is no established "Tea/Coffee break" policy at AHD. Supervisors in each office determine whether a short break in the daily routine for purposes of refreshment is appropriate. Such periods of refreshment should not interfere with or take precedence over any work of AHD. Attendance It is the duty of all employees to report IN and OUT Time for work every official working day unless they are on leave, on tour, or ill. All employees except CEO/Directors/Consultants/GMs will have to swipe ID card in the Time Office for recording IN Time and OUT Time. Failing to record IN and OUT time as per the duty roster will be treated as absence from duty unless appropriately informed, e.g., leaves, tour, illness. In general employees needing to be absent or tardy to work for any reason are responsible for notifying their supervisor as soon as possible upon determining that they will be absent from work. Employees found tardy for 3 days in a month will get a deduction of one day annual leave or one day leave without pay if leave balance is not adequate. We consider every position at AHD to be essential; therefore, it is important for you to report to work, as scheduled, during inclement weather. In the event hazardous weather conditions exist, your arrival time will be considered by your supervisor. Professional Appearance Employees are expected to maintain high standards of personal cleanliness and to present a neat professional appearance at all times. Employees who are provided with uniform must wear those while they are on duty. Employees who are dealing with patients must follow the departmental guidelines for wearing jewelry/ headgears/other items that may affect the patients under his/her care. Employees who choose to wear fragrance in the workplace must be aware of the sensitivities or allergies of their coworkers.

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Courtesy It is essential that high standards of personal conduct and courtesy be maintained at all times. Courtesy is a language that everyone understands and should be extended to everyone. Good manners, cooperation and consideration for others are fundamental to the enhancement of AHDs image.

Identification Card All employees will be provided with an identification card and employees must wear his/her identification card while they are on the office premises. The Identification card is the property of AHD and must be presented upon the request of an appropriate AHD Official, and may be revoked at any time by AHD. Performance Expectations There is a basic expectation that all employees will perform successfully in their jobs based on the various policies of AHD. Failure to meet performance expectations can have a variety of workplace consequences. Honesty Dishonesty cannot be condoned and will be dealt with promptly in the following or related circumstances: stealing; lying about matters connected with work; falsifying time records; unauthorized personal use of AHD property; doing unauthorized private work on AHD business hours; and giving or receiving a bribe in any form. Serious disciplinary actions against dishonesty will be taken as per the AHDs HR policy. Telephone Usage AHDs phones are intended for the use of serving its clients and in conducting the hospitals business. Personal usage during business hours is discouraged except for emergencies. All personal telephone calls should be kept brief to avoid congestion on the telephone line. To respect the rights of all employees and avoid miscommunication in the office employees should inform family members and friends to limit personal telephone calls during working hours. Employee should record if they make any personal NWD and ISD calls from office numbers and will be invoiced at the end of month accordingly. Computer and Internet Use AHDs computing facilities are intended to support the business of AHD. AHDs computing facilities include any computer, computer-based network,

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internet access, computer peripheral, operating system, software or any combination thereof, owned by AHD or under the custody or control of AHD. The following principles apply to all employees and all users of AHD computing facilities. Users shall: Be accountable for using these facilities in an effective, ethical and lawful manner. Use only those facilities for which they have authorization whether these facilities are at AHD or at any other locations accessible through a network. Take all reasonable steps to protect the integrity and privacy of AHD computing facilities including software and data. In particular, users shall not share with others the access codes, account numbers, passwords, or other authorization which has been assigned to them. Adhere to the copyright laws regarding software, data, and authored files. Not use the AHD computing facilities for unauthorized commercial activities. Not allow any unauthorized persons to use the AHDs computing facilities. Use the internet when appropriate to access information needed to conduct business of the company. Employees may use e-mil when appropriate for AHD Business correspondence. Not disrupt operation of the company computer network or the employees productivity by the use of internet. Employees are responsible for using the internet in a manner that is ethical and lawful. Understand that Internet messages are public and not private. AHD reserves the right to access and monitor all files and messages on its systems. Not use the AHDs computing facilities for any illegal purposes. Such acts include accessing, destruction of, or alteration of data owned by others, interference with access to computing facilities, or harassment of users of such facilities at AHD computing facilities or elsewhere; unauthorized disruption of AHD computing facilities; attempts to discover or alter passwords or to subvert security systems in any computing or network facility.

Any violation of this Policy may result in disciplinary action in accordance with AHDs HR policies, or prosecution in accordance with State laws. By obtaining a user ID and Password, it is implied that the user will adhere to the above policies. 26

Visitors in the Workplace To provide for the safety and security of employees, visitors, and the facilities at AHD, only authorized visitors are allowed in the workplace. Restricting unauthorized visitors helps ensure security, decreases insurance liability, protects confidential information, safeguards employee welfare, and avoids potential distractions and disturbances. All visitors must enter through the main reception area, sign-in and sign-out at the front desk and receive a Visitor badge to wear while on premises. Authorized visitors will be escorted to their destination and should be accompanied by an employee all times. Political Activity An employee may engage in political activity outside assigned work hours, but shall not allow his/her interest in a particular party, candidate, or political issue to affect his/her performance, job responsibilities, or relationships with coworkers or other employees. An employee shall not, directly or by implication, use the name of AHD or his/her affiliation with AHD in the endorsement of political candidates, initiatives, referenda, or in supporting or opposing a position on other political issues. An employee who plans to campaign for public office or who is elected to public office should request a leave of absence, if his/her candidacy or public office prevents him/her from being available to perform his/her assigned duties and responsibilities. Use of AHD property for political activity is prohibited. Tobacco Products The use of tobacco products is not permitted anywhere on the AHD Office premises except in authorized and designated locations. Employees must follow all rules posted in designated smoking areas. Substance Abuse AHD is committed to providing a safe and productive workplace for its employees. In keeping with this commitment, the following rules regarding alcohol and drugs of abuse have been established for al employees, regardless of rank or position, including regular, contractual, probationary and casual employees. The rules apply during working hours to all employees of the organization while they are on AHD premises or elsewhere on AHD business: The manufacture, distribution, possession, sale, or purchase of controlled substances of abuse on AHD property is prohibited. 27

Being under the influence of illegal drugs, alcohol, or substance of abuse on AHD property is prohibited. Working while under the influence of prescription drugs that impair performance is prohibited.

Solicitation Solicitations are discouraged on the premises of AHD Office, unless an employee is acting for a charitable or service organization, and then such solicitation is not be done during working hours of either the solicitor or the solicitee and with the understanding that AHD reserves the right to cancel all such solicitation privileges. Permission to solicit requires a written formal request to, and written approval from the supervisor. Such request shall be in writing. Solicitation includes electioneering of any kind. Official Asset Any official assets assigned to the employees are the property of AHD. The employee will be held responsible for the loss, damage or misuse of the official asset. However it is Chief Executive Officers discretion to consider if the loss or damage occurs by external force/circumstances, which shall be strongly justified with evidence. All equipment belonging to AHD which the employee has obtained permission to use at home, such as computer, etc., must be returned to AHD upon a supervisors request or at the time of separation from employment. Vehicle Use AHDs vehicles shall be used for official purposes only unless otherwise authorized by the Supervisor/Chief Executive Officer or by the Employment Contract. Only the authorized employees who are assigned with/entitled to vehicles and who have valid driving licenses shall be allowed to drive AHD vehicles. All drivers shall drive in a responsible, defensive manner and at reasonable and safe speeds. Drivers shall obey all traffic laws and rules. Any violation of traffic laws by a driver is the responsibility of drivers and not AHD Bangladesh. Driving under the influence of drink or drugs is considered as major infraction and will be subject to disciplinary action. Any accidents or traffic violations by official vehicles must be reported to the office immediately by the driver and the passengers. If the driver is found guilty of violation of traffic rules, disciplinary action will be taken against him/her.

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Personal Property Employees are responsible for the safekeeping of their personal properties used or left at the office. AHD assumes no risk for any loss or damage to personal property. Health Related Issues Employees who become aware of any health-related issue, and which may affect other employees should notify their supervisor of health status. A written permission to work from the employees physician is required at the time or shortly after notice has been given. The physicians note should specify whether the employee is able to perform regular duties as outlined in his/her job description. Personal Data Changes It is the responsibility of each employee to promptly notify his or her supervisor or the Office of Human Resources of any changes in personnel data such as: Mailing address, Telephone Numbers, Name and number of dependents, and individuals to be contacted in the event of any emergency. An employees personnel data should be accurate and current at all times. Office Security Employees who are issued keys to the office are responsible for their safekeeping. The last employee, or a designated employee who leaves the office at the end of business day assumes the responsibility to ensure that all doors are securely locked, the alarm system (if any) is armed, thermostats are set on appropriated evening and/or weekend setting, and all appliances and lights are turned off with exception of the lights normally left on for security purposes. This policy does not apply to the appliances that are required to keep on round the clock. Sleeping on duty Under normal working circumstances, no employee will be allowed to sleep on duty or while providing care for a patient in their home. Employees under 24 hours duty can sleep at Night with the verbal permission from supervisor or as per the duty guidelines. Employees found violating this policy will be subject to disciplinary action up to and including termination.

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Fire Safety Fire is one of the greatest dangers in a hospital as it threatens the safety of patients, visitors and staff. While not a common occurrence, fires and smoky conditions unfortunately do occur at AHD. For this reason, it is important that you know how to prevent fires and respond in the event of a fire or smoke situation so that you can protect not only your own life but the lives of others, as well. For additional information and necessary training, please contact our Fire Safety Team. Emergency Closings At times emergencies such as severe weather, fires, or power failures can disrupt operations of AHD. The decision to close the office will be made by the Supervisor with the approval of Chief Executive Officer. When such decision is made, employees will receive official notification from their supervisors.

4.3

CODE OF CONDUCT

All employees of AHD must follow the Code of Conduct. They will sign in the space provided in Code of Conduct Form to show that the Code has been read and its contents are understood. The signed document will be kept in the employee file or office file when employee file is not created. The contents of the Code of Conduct are stated below: Law and Regulations Employees must at all times observe the Laws, Rules and Regulations of the territorial jurisdiction of the country to which they are assigned. Political Contributions AHD will make no contributions, directly or indirectly to any political candidate or party. AHD will not give employees time off with pay for political activity. Gifts and Entertainment When dealing with government personnel, beneficiaries, donors, suppliers and other persons, employees must be guided by two principles - never to use his/her position to obtain personal gain and never to be obligated to persons with whom AHD does business. Employees also must conduct themselves at all times in a manner that avoids suspicion of such behavior. Employees must not be involved

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in paying or accepting any gift kickback or other unlawful payment or benefit to secure any concession, contract or other favorable treatment. Concern for Beneficiaries An employee must do nothing that may cause emotional, physical or financial harm to the patients, individuals, families or communities that AHD is dedicated to serving. Conflict of Interest AHD respects each employee's right to privacy in the conduct of his/her personal affairs. Employees should be free, however, of outside interests and activities which might impair the exercise of the employee's independent judgment in carrying out his/her duties as an employee to act solely in the best interest of AHD. Disclosure and Use of AHD Information Employees who have access to AHDs technical or financial information are in a position of trust. They must not disclose or use such information outside the normal requirements of their job. Personal Conduct outside Work `Unlawful or other conduct by AHD employees which may jeopardize AHDs reputation or position whether during or after business hours will not be permitted. Such conduct includes, but not limited to, any unlawful activity, sexual harassment, physically/verbally abusive behavior or public disorderly conduct. Dealings with Beneficiaries Employees are not to use the property of or employ the efforts of beneficiaries, families or communities for the benefit of the employee or the benefit of the employee's family. Remuneration from Other Organizations No AHD employee can take remuneration from any other organization, for being a resource person unless otherwise is authorized by Chief Executive Officer.

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4.4 New Employee Probation Period If you are a new employee, the first 90 days of your employment is considered a mutual evaluation period. This is a trial period, which provides both you and your supervisor the opportunity to evaluate your ability to proficiently perform job requirements. During this time, attendance, attitude, ability to learn and perform the job for which you are hired, along with your ability to work as a team member will be evaluated by your supervisor. AHD reserves the right to extend the probationary period should the supervisor need more time thoroughly evaluate your performance. Such extensions must be submitted to the Office of Human Resources by the Supervisor prior to the end of the probationary period for an additional period of time, up to three months. If any time during the probationary period the supervisor decides that you are not suitable for the position, your employment will be terminated. No advance notice more than one day or progressive discipline is required. Supervisor must complete a performance evaluation on all new regular staff employees by the end of the initial three (3) month probationary evaluation period.

4.5

Employee Personnel Files

The Human Resources Department establishes and maintains an employee personnel file for each employee. Your employment application and/or resume as well as documentation reviewed, completed and signed at your employee orientation are included to initiate your file. During your employment tenure, other documents may be added, such as performance evaluations, documentation of personnel transactions and other employment related information. Keeping your employment record up-todate is important. Accurate information in your records prevent errors and ensures that your benefits coverage is current. Please provide your supervisor and HRD written notification of any of the following changes: Legal Name; Marital Status; Address, Phone Numbers; Educational Achievements and Emergency Contact Information. Notify the Human Resources Department of any changes of family status which might affect your benefits coverage, beneficiary designation, or tax status. These changes include: Birth of adoption of a child; death of spouse or child, Marriage; divorce; address change; marriage of a dependent or dependent reaching majority age

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All new employees must report to HRD for in-processing on or before their first day of employment. In processing includes, but is not limited to the issuance of an Employee handbook that includes and overview of the organizations history, mission amd vision, and prohibition against sexual harassment, drug free workplace and other available ongoing programs brochure. The Human Resources Department coordinates a comprehensive monthly orientation session to welcome new employees and provide a formal introduction to key staff, policies and procedures, work rules and facilities. 4.6 Performance Evaluation

All regular employees will receive periodic performance evaluations. Your immediate supervisor is responsible for conducting at least one annual evaluation. The evaluation is based upon specific documented performance expectations discussed with you prior to the period the evaluation will cover. AHDs evaluation program provides a planned opportunity for you and your supervisor to meet and mutually discuss and document accomplishments, standards, expectations and overall job performance.

4.7 Employee Recognition Programs AHD believes in rewarding employees for outstanding job performance. Our employee recognition program includes and Employee of Year program that provides a gift and recognition certificate to an employee in each year. The employee of the year program seeks to recognize outstanding employee performance including attitude, attendance and leadership. To be considered and individual must be employed for at least one year. Other means of recognition include the catch of Shining Star Award, On the Spot Awards and Manager of Year. These are recognized at the Annual Rewards and Recognition Ceremony.

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4.8

MONEY MATTERS

4.8.1 Compensation AHD Recognizes the importance of attracting, retaining and motivating those who have the skills and abilities to make strong contributions to our organizations to do this AHD implements salary ranges and that are internally equitable and externally competitive.

4.8.2

Regular Pay Procedures

All AHD employees are normally paid on monthly basis and on the 25th day of the month. If a scheduled payday fall on holiday, you will usually be paid on the day preceding the holiday. All authorized deductions such as Income tax, insurance premium, Cell phone bills, utility bills, food bills and all authorized voluntary deductions will be deducted from the monthly pay. When an error has been made in an employees pay, AHD will make the appropriate corrections. It is an employees responsibility to check for and immediately report errors to the Office of Human Resources.

4.8.3

Pay Increases

AHD has three types of pay increases. Merit increases are based on job performance. Promotional increases may be granted when an employee moves to a different position with a higher salary range. Market adjustments may be made to compete with the external market or internal factors when employees with similar jobrelated experience, skills and performance have different pay.

4.8.4

Birthday and Marriage Gift

All employees will be given a gift voucher of Taka 500 to celebrate his birth day. A gift voucher of Taka. 2000 will be given to an employee for his/her marriage ceremony purpose.

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4.9

HOLIDAYS AND LEAVE

4.9.1

HOLIDAYS

All employees shall be provided with paid holidays in observance of the following holidays unless the conditions of work or assignment are set otherwise: Holiday Eid-ul-Azha Shaheed Day Independence Day Shab-e-Quadar Bijoya Eid-ul-Fitr Victory Day X-Mas Budha Purnima Days 3 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 3 days 1 day 1 day 1 day OPD Closed Closed Closed Closed Open Closed Closed Open Open Admin Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed IPD Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open

The Office of Human Resources will prepare a list of yearly holidays each year on the basis of Government holidays. Once the holiday list is approved by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), the list will be issued before the calendar year starts for applying in all AHD Offices. No additional day will be allowed in the event of a holiday falls on weekend. If the Government of Bangladesh announces any additional public holiday, it is at the discretion of the CEO to allow this holiday to employees. Employees irrespective of Executive or Staff category required to work on the approved holidays will be entitled to one day alternative leave against each holiday.

4.9.2

LEAVE ENTITLEMENTS

All local employees are entitled to 10 days casual leave, 14 days sick leave and 18 days annual leave per year. All expatriate employees are entitled to 10 days casual leave, 14 days sick leave and 30 days annual leave per year. The leave year for each employee will be started from January and will be ended in December. Leave records for all employees will be updated in the month of January accordingly.

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Casual Leave shall not be granted in combination with any other kind of leave and can not be taken more than 3 days at a stretch. Casual Leave shall be noncumulative and will lapse automatically at the close of every leave year. Approved holidays and weekly offs intervening the period of sanctioned Casual Leave will not be treated as part of Casual Leave. In the first year of services casual leave will be given to employee on pro-rata basis, i.e. on the basis of the number of months he/she has worked. An employee shall be eligible for sick leave up to a maximum of 14 days. Sick leave for 3 days or more shall be granted only on production of a medical certificate from a registered Medical Practitioner. In case medical certificate is obtained from a registered medical practitioner for sickness lasting for five days or more the same has to be endorsed by the Medical Officer of the hospital, failing which sick leave will not be granted. The Management will have right to curb sick leave obtained on false ground. In the first year of services sick leave will be given to employee on pro-rata basis, i.e. on the basis of the number of months he/she worked. Sick Leave can be accumulated for a period of 28 days.

All regular employees who have worked for a continuous period of one year shall be eligible for annual leave. In the first year of employment a total of 6 days annual leave can be obtained by the employee during the second six months of service. No annual leave can be taken during the first six months of employment. Any approved holidays intervening the period of sanctioned annual leave will be treated as part of annual leave. Any pregnant employee is entitled to a total of 90 calendar days maternity leave (immediately before and after child birth, i.e. 45 days maternity leave before delivery and 45 days after delivery), This duration is subject to change to conform with the Country laws and regulations, if applicable for the organization.

A female employee who is pregnant shall notify the office at least 3 (three) months prior to the expected delivery date.

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Employees are entitled to Compensatory Time Off (CTO) which is a rest day given to employees whenever they are called upon to work on a weekend or during any time of a period of eight hours other than the scheduled hours of work. CTO must be availed within one week time of its earning otherwise CTOs will be exhausted automatically. Record of such CTOs will be maintained in the department. Leave without pay shall be granted to an employee when no other leave is due to him only at the discretion of the Management. Except in exceptional circumstances, the duration of leave without pay shall not exceed 6 (six) months on any occasion for which special sanction has to be obtained from the Management. An employee donating blood at the blood bank will be granted one day special leave only on production of a certificate from the Blood Bank Officer of the hospital to that effect. Special leave can be availed within a month from the date of donating the blood. Special leave will not be granted to employees who donate blood to their relatives in a private capacity. Special leave shall also be granted to employees in the event of any ailments or accidents arising out of or in the course of employment. The limit for sanctioning, such special leave will be at the discretion of the management. Employee will be entitled to leave for attending seminar/conference/training programs for professional development. The amount of leave will be decided by the duration of programs and subject to approval of management for attending such programs. 4.9.3 PROCEDURE FOR AVAILING LEAVE

1. An employee who desires to obtain leave must obtain approval on a prescribed Leave Card from the supervisor. Leave Card will be issued and preserved by the Office of HR. 2. An employee desiring to be absent in excess of any period granted shall apply to the Supervisor if possible in person prior to expiry of the leave already granted. Such approval also needs to be passed on to HR department for updating concerned employees leave records.

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3. Leave of any kind cannot be claimed as a matter of right. When the exigency of the services is so required, an authority authorized to grant the leave reserves discretion to refuse/defer or revoke leave of any kind. 4. An employee who overstays on leave except under the circumstances beyond his/her control should give a satisfactory explanation. If the explanation is found unsatisfactory by the management he/she shall not be paid wages for the period overstayed and shall be further liable for disciplinary action as the management may think fit to impose. An employee before proceeding on leave shall intimate the sanctioning authority his/her contact address while on leave. Leave shall not be granted to an employee who is under suspension are against the disciplinary proceedings are pending. Employee remains absent for duty for a continuous period of more than 7 days without prior intimation are sanctioned suitable action shall be initiated against him/her. An employee on leave may be recalled for duty by the Management whenever deems fit to do so. In the event of the employee resigning the services, he/she shall not avail any type of leave during the notice period, as active service during such period is mandatory.

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4.10

GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND HEALTHCARE

1. All AHD employees will be provided with a group life insurance scheme as per the assured sum shown in the following table. Insurance premium will be given on co-pay basis.
Category of Employee CEO/Consultants Sr. Management Team Members HoDs, Registrars and Managers Assistant Managers/ Executives/Residents/Officers/Superintendents Staff (Level-I) Staff (Level II) Assured Sum (BDT) 15,00,000 12,00,000 8,00,00 500,000 350,000 200,000

2. All AHD employees will be provided with Out-patient and In-patient treatment facilities with discounted rate as given below: 4.10.1 For Out-Patient Treatment Facilities

3. Any AHD employee needs to have OP treatment must go through the Staff Clinic first. Staff Clinic will refer the concerned employee to the specialized department or consultant as deemed appropriate. 4. Dependants and parents of employee can visit the consultants by appointment as referred by their physician or deemed appropriate. 5. Discount will be given to AHD employees, dependants and their parents for OPD services as given below:
Services Registration and Consultation fees Investigations Patient Employee, and Parents Employee Dependents Parents Discount Dependant 100% and 50% 20 %

Medicines

Employee, Dependants No discount and parents

4.10.2 For In-Patient Treatment facilities: 6. All AHD employees and their dependents will only be charged for Consumables and Medicine costs when they are admitted in Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. Parents of

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AHD employees will be provided with 20% discount on the total bill when they are admitted to Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. 7. For any special discount which is beyond this policy approval must be taken from CEO on case to case basis. 8. Individuals/ Departments are not allowed to make any interpretation regarding this policy on their own. Any matter of confusion/concern should be reflected back to HR department for further clarification.

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4.11

MISCONDUCTS AND DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS

By accepting an appointment with AHD Bangladesh an employee agrees to work in a responsible, disciplined, harmonious and productive manner, to be loyal to the organization and to act in a manner conducive to the accomplishment of the organizational objectives. Any act of misconduct or violation of organizational Code of Conduct shall be dealt with the disciplinary guidelines. Misconduct means willful conduct by an employee which is unsatisfactory. Misconducts are classified in to two categories: Minor misconduct and Serious Misconduct Minor Misconduct' is the misconduct that have little effect on the continuity, efficiency, and safety of AHD work, but cannot be tolerated if repeated. The following are a few examples and the list is in no way all inclusive: Unexplained, inexcusable, or unauthorized absence or tardiness. Failure to notify supervisor as soon as possible on first day of absence. Failure to observe assigned work schedules (starting time, quitting times, rest and lunch periods). Soliciting or collecting contributions for any purpose on AHD premises without management permission. Loafing or other abuse of time during assigned working hours. Interfering with an employee's work performance or duties by talking or other distractions. Distributing written or printed matter of any description on office premises without management permission. Leaving regularly assigned work location during normal working hours without notifying immediate supervisor. Violations of confidentiality which do not significantly affect the operations of AHD or the operations of the department/division. Performing unauthorized personal work on office time. Violations of safety rules. Failure to maintain time card or record card as instructed. Discourteous treatment of the public or other employees. Violation of internal department work rules. Engaging in excessive visiting, personal conversations, or using the telephone or computer for personal use.

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Accepting any gifts or favors which influence or tend to influence performance of duties or the granting of services or favors of other AHD employees, applicants, clients, or other persons. Failure to follow any reasonable instructions issued by supervisor related to performing of tasks and/or job duties.

'Serious Misconduct' includes, but is no way limited to serious misbehavior of a kind which constitutes a serious impediment to the carrying out of a employees duties or to an employees colleagues carrying out their duties; conviction by a Court of competent jurisdiction of an offence of a kind that may be reasonably regarded as constituting a serious impediment to the discharge by an employee of his or her functions or duties, or to the employees colleagues carrying out their functions or duties;

Serious Dereliction of Duties

Examples of 'serious misconduct' in the course of employment include but not limited to: willful insubordination or disobedience, whether alone or in combination with others, to any lawful or reasonable order of a superior; Gross negligence of patient care. Major improper administration, preparation and/or dispensing of medication and / or patient care. Knowingly harboring a physical or mental disease that may constitute a hazard to patients, visitors, or co-workers. theft, misappropriation of funds, fraud or dishonesty in connection with the employers business or property; taking or giving bribes or any illegal gratification in connection with his/her or any other employees employment under the employer; habitual absence without leave; habitual late attendance; riotous or disorderly behavior in the office premises or any act subversive of discipline; falsifying, tampering with, damaging or causing loss of employer official records; serious harassment, a serious or habitual breach of the AHD Bangladeshs policies or regulations; and Repeated actions of minor misconduct.

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4.12

SEXUAL HARASSMENT

AHD does not tolerate sexual harassment by any of its employees, supervisors, and by any other person associated with AHD. AHD affirms its commitment to maintaining a working environment that is fair, respectful, and free from sexual harassment The determination of what constitutes sexual harassment will vary with the particular circumstances, but may be described generally as: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when: a. Submission to such conduct is made a term or condition of an individual's employment. b. Submission to or rejection of such conduct is used as a basis for employment decisions affecting such individuals; or c. Such conduct has the purpose or effect of interfering with an individual's work performance or creating an intimidating, offensive or hostile work environment. Employees who believe they are victims of sexual harassment should immediately report to the Supervisor. If supervisor is the alleged person then employee must report to the Office of Human Resources. The Office of Human Resources will advise the employees for the next steps as per the policy laid down against sexual harassment. Employees who present a charge pursuant to the policy against Sexual Harassment will not suffer any adverse employment consequences for making a complaint nor for taking part in the investigation of a complaint.

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4.13

PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING COMPLAINTS AND GRIEVANCES

A grievance is an employee's expression of disagreement or dissatisfaction with aspects of employment such as working conditions, hours of work, work environment, relationship with supervisor and other employees, performance evaluations, or policies or decisions of the department considered by the employee to be inappropriate, harmful or unfair. AHDs grievance policy assures that individuals may seek answers to questions and resolutions to complaints without fear of restraint, interference, correction or reprisal. Many problems can be resolved informally. However, if attempts at informal resolution are not satisfactory they can be addressed through the grievance procedure. The employee, in the event s/he has any grievance, will observe the following procedures: First Step If you have a work related problem or sufficient grounds to express a grievance, you have 15 days from the time of the incident to submit your grievance in writing to your supervisor. If the problem involves your immediate supervisor, you may submit the grievance to the person at the next level of Management. All complaints must be in writing, signed and dated. Second Step The supervisor at every step is allowed to 5 days to submit a written response to your grievance. If you are not satisfied with the answer you receive at the first step, you should submit a written statement of the problem to the person at the next management level. You must also submit a signed copy of your grievance and the supervisors response to the Office of Human Resources. Third Step If you do not receive satisfactory resolution at the second step, you may appeal the decision to Chief Executive Officer The Chief executive officer is the final authority to make a final decision binding on all parties.

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4.14

SEPARATION FROM EMPLOYMENT

Separation of employment with AHD can take place in the following process: 1. Voluntary Separation: Resignation is considered as voluntary separation. Sometimes, employees leave AHD because they move, find themselves in different circumstances, or simply want a change. Employment at AHD is at will and is subject to termination by either the employee or AHD. If you plan to resign AHD requires an appropriate written notice which is usually 30 days or as specified in your employment contract. 2. Involuntary Separation: When AHD terminates your employment such action is called Involuntary Separation. Termination of employment by the employer, discharge or dismissal can be considered as involuntary separation. Regular employees who have suffered involuntary separation have appeal rights in accordance with the AHDs general Grievance procedure. 3. Job Abandonment: An employee is deemed to have abandoned his/her job when for a period of 15 consecutive days the employee has been absent without permission. 4. Reduction in Force: From time to time, it may become necessary to eliminate positions to meet organizational needs or restructuring process. Departmental reduction in force or position abolishment is coordinated through the Office of Human resources. Institutional reductions in force re coordinated through the Office of Chief Executive Officer. 5. Retirement: Retirement from service is mandatory upon a regular employee attaining his/her 60th birthday. 6. Death: Departments are responsible for notifying Human Resources of the death of an active employee. The nominee or next to kin should receive the final paycheck. When you would like to proceed for voluntary separation you should place your resignation to CEO through your Immediate Supervisor. Your immediate supervisor will forward this to Office of Human Resources for necessary actions. Upon separation of employment, all employees are required to receive documented clearance from their department. The clearance from is available at Common/HR/Forms in our system. The Office of Human Resources will conduct exit interviews with all employees separating from Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. You immediate supervisor is

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responsible for notify the office of Human resources of your separation. You are responsible for scheduling an exit interview. During the exit interview, you will be given the opportunity to discuss your work experience at AHD and reasons for separation, If you cant attend a face to face interview, a questionnaire will be mailed to you for completion. The completed questionnaire must be returned to the Human Resources Department.

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4.15

CORE COMPETENCIES

AHD strives to create an environment where extraordinary services to our patients and their families to our guests and visitors and to each other happen every day. And every employee at AHD is therefore expected to demonstrate the observable behaviors that mentioned against each area.

Areas Customer Relations

Observable Behaviors Treats customers (guest, patients, physicians and other employees) with courtesy, respect and caring behaviors. Responds quickly and appropriately to customer requests. Anticipates customer needs and initiates action to meet those needs.

Selfmanagement

Presents a positive image of AHD through processional appearance and behavior. Identifies and seeks opportunities for personal and professional growth. Carries out responsibilities in a timely fashion, requesting assistance as needed. Follows the policies and procedures of AHD.

Teamwork

Works cooperatively within own/department and with other units and/or departments Willingly accepts additional responsibility; tries to make others jobs easier. Recognizes and supports the skill and qualities of others Willingly exchanges appropriate and professional information with co-workers.

Communications

Listens to customer needs and responds in a courteous and a tactful manner. Provides timely feedback to the appropriate customer in a clear and concise manner. Use professional judgment in providing information, based on the situation, and is sensitive to individual and

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organizational concerns. Consistently ensures the information known about the customer is kept private and confidential.

Accountability

Treats customers property and AHD property with care and respect. Demonstrates conservation and responsible use of resources. Contributes to the safety and security of AHDs environment through personal actions

Continuous drive for performance improvement

Effectively and efficiently fulfills responsibilities to achieve the greatest benefit at an acceptable cost. Continuously strives to suggest and implement ways to improve personal, departmental and institutional goals.

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CHAPTER 5 COMPETENCY BASED HR PRACTICE A BRIEF OVERVIEW


5.1 COMPETENCY BASED HR PRACTICE

The underlying factor of this Job Analysis is the behavioral language to build robust core competencies, core values, priorities and skills that describe, guide and link the actions at work. Describing what was done helps performance measurement, describing what is being done helps training and describing what should be done helps define selection standards and performance goals. This is about having the employees of the organization align their actions with the organizational identity and goals. The most effective way of achieving the same is to allow the concerned employees to participate in the process of strategic decision making. This participation generates a sense of belonging among the employees towards the organization and they feel motivated to work towards achieving the goals that the organization may have set for itself. A very effective way of building alignment is to behavioral language to convert the vision and mission statements into clear actions, which need to be performed and conveying these actions to the employees. The employees can be involved with the framing of the vision and the mission statements. It can help if all the employees speak the same language, i.e. they have the same interpretation of the ultimate goals of the organization. Using the vision and mission statements in the selection procedures can do this. This allows an initial filter, which allows only those people who fit into the mould of the organization to join in. Identity, process and strategy are crucial for survival in todays world of cutthroat competition. Conceptual leadership is becoming more crucial and the time available for critical thinking is diminishing by the day. The need of the day is of robust solutions to practical problems. Robust solutions are those, which work in the face of adversities. Behavioral competencies can be an asset to any organization. They are robust and are useful but can be hampered by abstract language and personality traits. Therefore it becomes imperative that the building of robust human resource competencies should be preceded by explicit explanation of the same such that everyone is able to easily understand. There may arise many situations where there is a lot of ambiguity. In such situations, simple decisions become difficult and ineffective. To avoid this state, one needs to be 49

very clear about the existing situation and equally lucid about the course of action to be adopted from thereon to resolve the situation. Competencies help develop the required clarity. Here one need to understand what is meant by the term competency. Competency means different things to different people based upon their perception and context of application. In the field of Human Resources, competencies often deal with the characteristics of a person. An individuals competency is defined as A written description of measurable work habits and personal skills used to achieve a work objective. To make the description clearer, following are a few points to keep in mind: - An individual competency is different from the organizational competencies, capabilities, values and priorities - A written description communicates exactly what the term competency means - Measurable work habits and personal skills implies that competencies are a fair measure of an individuals actions - Individual competencies contribute to achieving a common work objective Competencies are looked at differently by different people depending upon their context of work. Human Resources professionals look at competencies more on an individual level but business strategist concentrate more on the organizational competencies. Core competencies are stores of technical knowledge and skills which gives the organization an edge over other organizations and makes an impact on its services and products. Individual competencies along with organizational competencies help in avoiding and solving people problems. Capabilities are other things that the organization is capable of doing to achieve its goals. Currently, there is a high degree of discontent regarding individuals not being able to meet their targets. This discontent can be taken care of by improving the selection procedures, performance appraisal systems and coaching schedules according to the individual competencies of the employee. Thus task allocation should be done in accordance with the competencies of the concerned individual. Competencies define the coaching schedules. On the basis of individual competencies, one can decide to what extent the individual should be trained and what should be the contents of the training. Thus competencies, by helping correct job allocation, helps avoid the ambiguity and hence increase productivity. The best way to express competencies is by the use of Behavioral Language. It allows a clear understandable description of the actions needed to be performed in order to achieve the organizational goals. Individual competencies can also help 50

diffuse conflicts and disagreements because they help put forward the situation in a very lucid format and give a different perspective to the entire matter. Behavioral language allows easy communication of standards, expectations, goals and objectives, thus making it the ideal way to build robust competencies. Competency models comprise of groups of competencies. Some models are generic lists of individual characteristics that can be used in HR systems. Other competency models are specially designed for a particular organization. The primary reason for constructing a competency model was to link the processes like interviews, appraisals, training and compensation to vision, mission, values and culture. Some other reasons were planning to grow newer skills within the organization, communicating the behaviors that are desired in the organization and clarifying the leadership focus. The gist of the matter is competencies help managers and other employees to link, plan, communicate and clarify. 5.2 CHALLENGES OF COMPETENCY MODEL

There are certain problems related to competency models though. Expensive competency model not being applied or off-the-shelf competency models which do not fit the bill of the specific organization in terms of correctly defining the uniqueness of the jobs or the organization. Expense incurred in getting the competency model designed, developed and installed can be prohibitive. Acceptance of the model is another common problem that the competency models may face. A competency model thus has to be developed very carefully. There are some challenges involved with the development and installation of the model. These challenges can be listed as participation, measurement, negative feedback, jobrelatedness and expense. 5.2.1 THE CHALLENGE OF PARTICIPATION

One of the major challenges is participation. There may be two types of competency developments. One, which is faster and the other which is better. The faster model of development may be efficient in terms of the time taken for the development of the competency model, but eventually it may turn out to be more expensive. Executives sitting behind a closed door trying to formulate the competencies required and the competency model is not a feasible idea since the employees who are going to be subjected to that change might not like the model and refuses to use it. Participation is absolutely critical for acceptance and application of the competency model. Participation is not a manipulative ploy, but a mechanism for making your competencies more reflective of the true cause of performance. For the model to persist in the organization there should be broader participation in terms of multiple opinions and the ability to think and argue. Participation becomes a huge factor in the 51

successful implementation of the competency system. Behavioral language is used to link what needs to be done with individual actions. Competencies become tools for direction and change. Assimilation of competencies into the everyday communications helps specific and explicit expression of feelings and opinions. 5.2.2 THE CHALLENGES OF MEASUREMENT

The next challenge is measurement. Measurement is very crucial since the progress of a project or the performance of an employee can be tracked only when it is measured. Also in situations where the employee demands an explanation the only way out is by having hard evidence on our hands. This evidence is provided by measurements. Measurement can be used to fathom the skill level of any employee which is being selected for a particular assignment. Measurement systems though have to be validated before they are pout into action. For this purpose, they are put through a battery of test and the results observed to check whether they are in keeping with the characteristics observed. Negative feedback and the way it is taken is another big challenge that any organization may face. Some employees may not take a negative feedback constructively and cause harm to the organizational goals. Therefore the organization should have the courage to face the conflict that would arise when negative feedback is given. It is extremely important to have accurate performance measures when it influences compensation, promotion and career opportunities. Many managers shy away from giving negative feedback because of the awkwardness or the fear of a legal battle. To resolve these matters, there are models which have a cap on how low the measurements can go or there are a few other models which use a threshold of minimum acceptable performance. These models may avoid the unpleasantaries but at the cost of overlooking and actually accepting negative or undesirable performance into the organization. Thus, negative measurement or feedback though extremely necessary, should be handled with care since it is very difficult to accept. 5.2.3 THE CHALLENGE OF EXPENSES

The one other challenge that the competency system must face is that of the expense incurred in designing and implementing the system. Development of competency systems which may function as performance appraisal systems and their implementation is an expensive option and should be exercised only after taking all the considerations. These days the use of computers is relaxing the stranglehold of price on such systems. Softwares are being developed to automate and handle each and every task like structuring the interviews or groupware to encourage the groups to work on a problem and find the solution collectively.

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To fully garner the benefits of the competency system, they need to be in sync with the current requirements of the organization and its goals. Competencies when in service of customers are powerful business tools. But it is extremely imperative to understand the meaning of the term competency in the given context. The competency scope does just that. It outlines what needs to be done in order to meet the requirements of the customers. In a competency scope, competencies are discussed with special attention on two factors; viz: the LEVEL factor which specifies how an organization can be effective in the marketplace or how an individual can be effective in doing a particular job and the TYPE factor which distinguishes between the use of concepts. Coming back to the core competency model, it is partitioned into four parts: Slice I: Core Competencies and Capabilities The combination of knowledge and skills with tools is reflected at the organizational level in core competencies and capabilities. A core competency is a unique bundle of technical know-how that is central to the organizations purpose. A capability is also important to the organizations effectiveness and is perceived to be valuable by customers. It is a set of business processes strategically understood. Core competencies and capabilities are ideally expressed in a mission statement that specifically communicates what the organization will do for its customers. Slice II: Core values and priorities Core values complement the technical aspects of work by explaining why the work is performed. At one level it encourages shared beliefs of people in the organization and its culture, including norms on how to act. Priorities reflect an organizations emphasis on the use of individual competencies such as working habits and people skills to make business processes and work systems more efficient or effective. It is different from capabilities that emphasize the deployment of technical know-how, physical or financial resources to improve performance. An important priority lies in an organizations willingness to use participation to improve performance and create a competitive advantage. This priority is seen in the commitment to encourage associates to express their opinions on work issues. In addition, managers must be willing to listen to others opinions, accept them when appropriate and disagree when necessary. There always this uncertainty while distinguishing between a businesses process that defines a capability and the people skills that define a priority. When people can easily be asked to join a business process, they are supporting a business capability. On the other hand, when the process requires a person with a specific set of skills, it is an organizational priority that is being dealt with. A statement of core values and priorities describes how people actually do their work. It expresses norms and boundaries of acceptable behavior and business practices.

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Slice III: Technical knowledge and job skills Individuals use their technical knowledge and skills with tools to carry out their job responsibilities. Technical knowledge and job skills should be in support of the organizations core competencies and capabilities. Technical skills provide a logical way fro an organization to maintain and extend its core competencies and capabilities. Slice IV: Performance skills and competencies Performance skills and competencies include work habits, communication styles, leadership and teamwork. They are easily transferred across different industries and jobs and they reflect a persons efficiency or effectiveness in using technical knowledge and skills. Commitment to a task is a performance skill that shows the extent to which a person will work hard to get results. A performance skill can be directly observed and described at a behavioral level. A competency involves an inference about what a person is like. Organizational characteristics: When the slices I and II are combined, the organizations identity is reflected, including the work context in which the individual is to perform. The more familiar components of organizational identity include vision, mission, values and culture. Core competencies provide the basis for an organization to define itself beyond its specific end products. Core values and priorities are quite different from core competencies. Individual characteristics: Slices III and IV pertain to the skills used by the individuals to perform their specific jobs. They reflect the job content including specific tasks to be performed and the individual characteristics needed to carry them out. Assessment technology offers a perspective that distinguishes between a performance skill and a competency. The behavioral approach to assessment would say that a performance skill can be directly observed and described in terms of the things a person is observed to say or do. It is very important to describe operational skills in very clear and precise words. In many instances the organization successfully draws its competency model but fails to clearly mention the actions to be taken in order to achieve the organizational goals. Consequently, even though the organization competency model is ready and in place, it does not deliver the expected returns. Therefore, it becomes imperative to put down the steps to be taken by an employee to be explicitly mentioned in the competency plan so that there is no haziness or ambiguity in the understanding of the model. The statements of the competency plan should be put down in the form of operational definitions, which explain a concept in the form of steps to be taken to observe it. However, defining a statement in terms of operational definition is not the job a single person. It becomes necessary to involve others in the process of defining the steps to perform a certain task. 54

5.3

BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

Generally, behavioral language is used to define the actions and whenever a higher degree of detail is required operational definitions are used. Behavioral language is very concrete. It describes what one can see or hear being done. A performance skill written in behavioral language is the sequence of actions to be performed to the job well. Behavioral language is robust because the actions required to perform the task can be defined through the written or the spoken word such that any other person wanting to understand the action can do so, very easily and reasonably accurately. Verification in the case helps by showing the extent to which two or more people agree on a behavioral description. A performance skill is more concrete than personality traits or abilities. A competency system based on personality traits is not preferred because it would use terms which may be ambiguous. The tangible nature of performance skills means that it is helps reduce the influence of biases on people. The focus is on making reasonable inferences about people, based on verifiable information. Performance skills and descriptive rating scales are the foundation of the behavioral approach in objective decision-making. The three steps of the behavioral approach are: Step I: Observe what a person says or does. Snap judgments are not allowed. Only observation is what one is supposed to do. Step II: Describe what is observed in relation to the performance skill. The real test of the second step is whether another person can verify what has been described. Step III: Draw an inference from the description. The thumb rule is that this expansion of the description should be reasonable in light of what was observed and subsequently described. The perception of a person depends upon the reactions of one towards that person. But with the behavioral approach, perception is not reality. The three steps of behavioral approach enable the development of a reasonable understanding of the other person by substituting observation, description and inference for perception. A robust performance skill supports the steps of the behavioral approach. It will not contain abstract words and references. A behavior-based vision statement is a word picture that describes the future statement for work and the actions that associates will take in it. The ideal mission statement includes movement. The behavior-based vision is more dynamic than static.

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A behavior-based mission statement explains why the organization exists in terms of its overall purpose, the nature of its business and the principles that it follows when doing business. A behavior-based mission statement describes purpose and priority in a way that suggests the direction for most of the people in the organization to take. A mission statement provides a sense of identity and direction, thus unifying individuals and establishing the basis for future actions. There should be a reciprocal relationship between a mission statement and core competencies, each should influence the other. A behavior-based value-statement describes the shared beliefs and norms that characterize the organization. Often the shared values can be traced to the business philosophy held by the founders and the opinion leaders. An organizations culture is a reflection of these shared values. They represent one of the important components of the same. One challenge in generating a value statement involves going beyond feelings about the work situation. The statement must use behavioral language to describe what people will do when they are using the value. When an identity statement is written in behavioral language, there is an opportunity to align it with the organizational level of the competency scope. Many HR systems are practical are tactical. They respond to governmental regulations and specific needs. They become more strategic however when connected with the organizations identity through behavioral language. When this is done one can say that the organization has a strategic HR system that reinforces its identity in day-to-day decisions about people. When the content of an identity statement is reflected in the content of HR forms and processes, it is said that content linkage exists. A cramped vision restricts the scope of an organization while an open vision can help align more and more people with the organizations goals. There are four organizational approaches that influence the type of Human Resource systems that are put into place. The four approaches can be summarized as follows: 1. Perception-driven 2. Experience-driven 3. Attribute-driven 4. Behavior-driven Perception-driven The perception-driven organization is more intuitive and feeling-oriented. The HR system in this organization places less emphasis on being specific, gathering information and measuring. Its HR efforts will rely on gut-feel interviews, likeability appraisal, motivational coaching and smile training. There is a de-emphasis on structured job-related HR systems.

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Experience-driven The experience-driven organization uses work-experience in an intuitive way. A few features that characterize this approach are: - Conversational interviews - Counselor appraisal - mentor coaching - Hands-on training Attribute-driven An organization that emphasizes attributes uses trait words to describe people. All of a persons characteristics are considered regardless of the extent to which they are used in a current work assignment. A few features that characterize this approach are: - Trait interviews - Recognition appraisal - Personal growth coaching - Instrument training Behavior-driven When an organization adopts the behavior-driven strategy, it emphasizes organization, description and cautious inferences about people. One of the most difficult challenges faced by a new interviewer is to go beyond the gut-feeling and gather behavioral information about a candidates job related skills. A second challenge faced by todays interviewer is to avoid the temptation to asses only a candidates fit to the organization. An interview that is based on only the candidates fit to the organization will not measure the skills needed to do the job itself. The behavior-based interviewing strategy can asses the extent to which a person is both a fit for the organization and able to do a particular job. 5.4 JOB DESCRIPTION The Job Description is a management tool that assists in clarifying work functions, accountabilities and reporting relationships of a position. This clarity will in term helps the employee understand his role better, the work association with other positions and the impact he has on his department and/or the Companys performance. To facilitate this understanding, a comprehensive and objectively written Job description as the common reference is necessary. This documentation, in fact, is the roadmap to link the many Human Resources-related activities such as job evaluation, organizational design, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management and career planning processes. However, before the line manager goes about writing the Job Description, he will need to gather information on the job before creating the documentation.

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This process of gathering job information is called Job Analysis. 5.6 JOB ANALYSIS

Job analysis provides managers with data on the job requirement which are then used to develop a job description (what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of person to hire for the job). This information is the main segment of the Position Description. The types of information to collect are:

job content of the job; job requirements :

describes the duties and responsibilities

identify the formal qualifications, knowledge, skills, abilities and personal attributes which the employee needs to perform the content of the job; refers to situational and supporting information regarding the job its hierarchical standing, limit of authority, magnitude on financial, human and resources managed, interpersonal relationships and the environment/culture he is expected to work in.

job context

The manager should bear in mind that the objective of job analysis is not to describe the person for the job but rather the job itself and later, determine the type of person suitable for the job. Once the essential functions and information are determined, a formal Job description can be compiled. The Job Description (JD) should provide a positive overall feeling of the job and is also specific in stating the pre-requisites of the incumbent who can perform the job at an acceptable level. It is important that the JD is current, relevant and precise. This importance is not overstated if we look at the other benefits that we can derive from it: Recruitment & Selection Guide recruitment so that better qualified candidates are selected for jobs. Performance Appraisal Establish the performance standards on which actual performance is assessed.

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Training & Development Identify the training and development needs an employee needs to gain competency on the job or to prepare the employees for a job with higher or vastly different responsibilities. Compensation & Benefits Provide the basis to evaluate the worth of a job so that a competitive remuneration package can be determined. Job orientation Reinforce employees understanding of his/her role and responsibilities when these are clearly spelled out. Work assignment Enable supervisors to manage assignment of work to employees.

RESPONSIBILITY The Manager is responsible for ensuring that each staff member has an updated JD, in the correct format. Often employees will be involved in the creation and updating of this documentation as they know their job best. 5.5 OFFICIAL FORMATS OF JOB DESCRIPTION

Maintaining consistency in the documentation of JDs is a requirement and managers are advised to use the appropriate formats as stated (the templates in soft version are available from the HR Department): The elements contained in the Job Description are: Position Identification State the job title, name of the department, designation of the supervisor and supervisee, salary range, grade etc. Job Summary (Principal Responsibility) Provides specific information about the outcomes required of the role. It covers the what, how and why the tasks/duties are done. Principal Tasks

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Divide the job into tasks. Principal Subtasks Divide each task in to subtasks Job Specification (Education, Experience and required knowledge and skills) Describes what skills, experience and qualifications a Person needs in order to perform the role competently. Acceptance Note It is the written approval of the supervisor and position holder. :

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CHAPTER 6 JOB SPECIFICATION FORMAT (of AHD)


6.1 JOB SPECIFICATION FORMAT (of AHD) Job title: Department: Reports to: Supervises: Grade: Category: Executive Hiring scale: JOB SUMMARY The core responsibility of this position will be written down here. This should be the summary of the job in 2-3 lines It is WHAT the position is responsible for, HOW these responsibilities are achieved and WHY are they done. The latter element looks at the Key Result Areas which will become the standards for measuring the actual performance

Break down of the jobs in to tasks. Usually a job consists of 4-6 major tasks. Task 1 Break down of the task in to several sub tasks. a. Subtask 1 b. Subtask 2 c. Subtask 3 Task 2 Break down of the task in to several sub tasks. Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Task 3 Break down of the task in to several sub tasks. Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Task 4 Break down of the task in to several sub tasks. a. Subtask 1 b. Subtask 2 c. Subtask 3

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BASIC QUALIFICATION Minimum education and experience required to complete this job. The educational should be clearly mentioned. And the experience should be the minimum the job holder needs to complete the job.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE It is required knowledge the job holder need to perform well in the position. It is more or less the theoretical knowledge associated with some practical expertise.

REQUIRED SKILLS
This is the practical know-how the person needs to fulfill the job successfully. Itll be an all inclusive list of skill set.

PHYSICAL ABILITIES This is the physical fitness a person requires for this job. This should highly non discriminatory. And it should provide the required provisions for differently able people.

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REFERENCE CHECK Here the employees past work habit needs to be assessed. Here again this should be objective and non discriminatory.

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS A set performance measurement indicators will be sorted out here. Here we focus on observable behavior or what we call competency based Performance Management. Again it should be objective, performance biased and relevant.

APPROVAL & RECORD Once the JD is completed to a first draft stage, it is recommended that this document be reviewed by the Manager and the jobholder before it is signed off by all designated parties. A copy of the approved JD should be forwarded to the HR Department preferably in soft copy (electronically signed) for retention or to be evaluated if the position has been substantially altered

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TIPS Before writing a JD, you may want to consider these suggestions: Keep sentence structure as simple as possible, omit unnecessary words or jargon that do not contribute to pertinent information; Begin each duty/task with an action verb; Avoid the narrative form; Refer to position titles rather than name (example Reports to the Marketing Manager instead of Mr XXX); Be precise. This is critical for accurate job evaluation and analysis; Focus on critical activities. Disregard minor occasional tasks which are not unique to the position;

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6.2 6.2.1

SAMPLE JOB SPECIFICATION ANALYSIS MANAGEMENT

JOB SPECIFICATION Job title: Head of Department-HR Department: Human Resources Reports to: CEO Supervises Grade: AM Category: Hiring scale: Service weightage JOB SUMMARY The incumbent is responsible for Human Resources Strategy formulation and execution, establishment and installation of HR policy, staff as well as organizational development and employees contribution enhancement. STRATEGIC PARTNER 1. Defines the strategic fit of HR in parallel with the whole organizations. a. Realizes the organization cause of existence along with its mission, vision, goal and objective. b. Realizes the parallelism of HR department with the overall organizations objective. c. Establishes the linkage between HR with other departments as well as the whole AHD as an attempt towards an integrative strategy formulation. d. Institutes departmental causes of existence along with its own mission, vision, goal and objective. 2. Conducts environmental study to identify critical strategical premises. a. Recognizes environmental issues, both task and general that will affect functions of HR in foreseeable future. b. Performs research as needed on the impact of environment on AHDs employee pool. c. Comprises a clear idea of upcoming environmental threat as well as opportunities 3. Decides on a particular strategy after evaluating alternatives.

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a. Decides on several courses of future action in response to the environmental analysis. b. Analyses the alternatives on cost-benefit perspectives. c. Determines the impact of individual alternative on organizational mission and objective. d. Selects a particular strategy regarding specific HR goal. 4. Executes the strategy with necessary facilitations. a. Prepare the Budget supporting the strategy decided on. b. Arranges for logistics and system support to facilitate the execution of the strategy. c. Accomplishes the execution of strategy within prescribed time frame. d. Evaluates the actual outcome with the expected outcome for identifying the lacking. e. Modifies strategy accordingly. ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERT 1. Devises policies regarding overall HR functions. a. Evolves a code of HR policy and procedures for the hospital, and implement it in consultation with those concerned. b. Evolve and systemize HR management practices in the area of manpower planning, training, promotion, leave attendance, salary, administration etc. c. Evolves and implement rules and regulations of services for all employees. d. Obtains approvals from other departments on the formulated policies. 2. Installs the procedures of performing every HR function on the basis of approved policies. a. Coordinates employment activities such as interviewing, selecting and hiring candidates. b. Oversees the maintenance of records and statistical reports concerning recruitment, performance appraisal. c. Manages and oversees compensation programs in the organization. d. Direct development and application of techniques of job analysis, job descriptions, evaluation and grading. e. Plan, coordinates and direct personnel training and staff development programs. f. Evolves and implement rules and regulations of services for all employees. g. Interpret causes of disputes and grievances and suggest and implement remedial measures. 66

h.

Deals with employment related legal issues.

3. Communicates the policy through out the organization. a. Obtains necessary effective measures to communicate the policies and the relevant procedures through all departments in AHD. b. Ensures the progression messages without any deviation. c. Ask for any modification needed in the recommended system. d. If applicable, alter the system accordingly. CHANGE AGENT 1. Implements Performance Appraisal system to identify organizational performance pitfalls. a. Designs the jobs of all the positions with specific description and specification with the aid of concerned departmental head and management. b. Set up the performance standard for individual job. c. Develops a performance appraisal system appropriate for the hospital. d. Installs the system along with concerned management. e. Reviews the findings from staff development perspectives. 2. Installs elaborate training program for every level of employees according to their needs. a. Designs HR training and staff development programs. b. Confer with management and supervisory personnel in order to determine training needs. c. Analyses past and current year training requirements to prepare budgets and justify funds requested. d. Formulates training policies and schedules utilizing knowledge of identified training needs. e. Trains assigned instructors and supervisors in effective techniques for training in areas such as new employee orientation, on the job training, apprenticeship programs, performance appraisal etc. 3. Communicates the performance improvement throughout the organization. a. Implements the result of training and development session in day to day operation. b. Evaluates the implementation result of a particular department as a whole along with individual performance. c. Selects the highest improvement achiever as the benchmark for other departments. d. Facilitates the way to replicate the benchmark department by others. 67

4. Designs a multidirectional and flexible process of communication. a. Designs two way communication in own department and at the same time encourages the whole organization to follow the system. b. Eliminates the cost of bureaucracy to a minimum level to facilitate effective communication channel. c. Develops the system to utilize the result of communication in a productive way in time. 5. Attempts to improve the organization as a whole. a. Focuses on the advance of the organization as a whole. b. Creates an environment of employee ownership. c. Institutionalizes the concept of organizational strengthening in respect of every employee. d. Strives for continuous improvement in performance of every employee. EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION 1. Recognizes the humanitarian issues in every HR decision. a. Checks for any discriminatory policies to ensure equal employment opportunities. b. Analyses the organizational competencies in attracting potential workforce. c. Attempts to match AHDs policies with the HR market trend in attracting competent personnel. d. Studies the causes of absenteeism, tardiness, turnover and other discouraging factors. e. Recognizes the motivational factors in favor of acceptable performance. f. Ensures proper centralization and decentralization of authority in HR as well as other departments. 2. Attempts to develop psychic benefits of the employees from AHD. a. Plan and direct implementation and administration of financial benefit program such as insurance and pension plans, paid time off, bonus pay and special employer sponsored activities. b. Institutionalizes the system of employees entertainment and recreation such as, yearly picnic, movie night, cultural program and other similar programs. c. Develops a system of outstanding performance recognition for the staffs as well as executive level suitable for AHDs policies. d. Devises a system of continuous training, coaching and overall assistance to supervisees in all departments continuously. 68

e. Manages employees conflict and grievance in a Win-Win approach. f. Provides career counseling to concerned employees.

3. Develops an organization oriented employee base. a. Designs an employee friendly and flexible organizational culture. b. Advocates for the flat hierarchy throughout AHD. c. Endeavors for employee ownership culture.

Basic Qualifications: DGM-HR must have a post graduation qualification in HRM preferably an MBA with at least 4-5 years of management experience in a hospital of comparable size. He/she should be able to demonstrate good communication skills, ability to manage diversified tasks simultaneously and computer literacy.

Required Job, Knowledge, skills and abilities Experience in managing the provision of human resources management in a large hospital Ability to blend HR knowledge with administrative knowledge to achieve quality service. Knowledge of accreditation and certification requirements Excellent communication, team building and persuasion skills in working with administrative and line personnel. Understanding of principles of continuous quality improvement. Ability to supervise and train employees, to include organizing, prioritizing and scheduling work assignments. Ability to develop, plan and implement short and long range strategy and goals. Skills in examining and re-engineering operations and procedures. Knowledge of hospital management along with common medical terminology. Knowledge of computers.

Physical Abilities The physical abilities described here are representative of that must be met by an employee to accomplish the essential responsibilities of the job. However, reasonable accommodations may be made for the differently able individuals. The incumbent must be able to use hands, fingers and must have appropriate level of eyesight to work on spreadsheets. A routine pre-employment medical examination is required.

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Working Conditions Comfortable working environment is provided with necessary system supports. Reference check Reference check must be carried out with immediate supervisor or previous employers for confirmation about the honesty and integrity. Performance Indicators: 1. All supervisory personnel in the HR department are guided and supervised to achieve their departmental objectives. 2. A quality control program is designed, installed and monitored on regular basis. 3. Customers complaints regarding HR issues are properly recorded, analyzed and root causes are corrected. 4. HRl control mechanisms are in place, sentinel events are recorded and proper measures are taken to increase the level of monetary accuracy. 5. Appropriate polices are formulated, implemented with approval and monitored for effectiveness. 6. Departments are accurately staffed in terms of approved requirements. 7. Staff development programs for HR departments staff are in place and professional developments are evaluated and recognized. 8. HR budgets for the department are timely prepared, presented and funds are mobilized. 9. All HR planning for medical services are clearly structured and competitive. 10. Target groups inside and outside the organization are timely and appropriately communicated and images of organization are increased. 11. Standards for JCIA are well communicated; assistance, guidance and training are provided to achieve those with a monitoring system in place. 12. Board members are accurately reported; feedbacks are received and implemented accordingly. 13. Committees are formed, participated and empowered by the implementation of decisions taken from time to time.

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ANALYSIS

Here we followed David Ulrichs HR matrix. In the Job Specification of DGM-HR or Head of HR, I tried to segregate his/her job according to David Ulrichs HR model. It focuses on the diversities and complexities of this position. The role will be much clearer if we have a brief overview on this HR model.

1. Strategic Partner HR must ensure that its practices, processes and policies complement the overall organizational strategy and develop a capacity to execute that strategy. In these times of rapid change, HR must minimize the time it takes to implement the strategy. 2. Change Agent All organizations change. In recent years the rate of change has increased dramatically, due in part to the organization of the economy and enhancements in communication. The HR role is to facilitate the change in organizations. This includes modeling change to other departments, advocating change across the entire organization, resolving issues that arise from change, and institutionalizing changes by implementing efficient and flexible processes. Future Strategy

Strategic Partner

Change Agent

Processes

People

Administrative Expert

Employee Contribution

Day to Day Operation

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3. Administrative Expert This is the role to which HR dedicates most of the time, and rightfully so. The role involves HR infrastructure, such as recruiting, hiring, compensating, rewarding and disciplining, training, record keeping, and terminating and any other process that involves people. HR must ensure that these processes are efficient and optimized, which requires tracking, monitoring, and continuously improving. 4. Employee Contribution This too is a traditional HR role. To be employee contributor, HR must know the employees well and spend time meeting with and listening to employees. HR must promote communication, which can include employee surveys, employee suggestion programs, all-employee meetings, on-going communication of business status, and any other program that can make employees feel part of the team and dedicated to customer service. This role also includes ensured that employees who are having problems get a fair hearing.

The skill set required in this position are more elaborately depicts the needed intensity and depth required in this position.

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6.2.2

EXECUTIVE

JOB SPECIFICATION Job title: Senior Executive-Employee Relations Department: Human Resources Reports to: General Manager Human Resources Supervises: Grade: Category: Executive Hiring scale: JOB SUMMARY The incumbent is responsible for the coordination of job analysis process, performance management, recognition and reward scheme management, disciplinary actions, and facilitation of employee relations under the supervision of General Manager Human Resources. 1. Conducts job analysis and updates the employee job description as and when necessary. a. Carryout job analysis process methodically and develops job description and specifications. b. Facilitates performance indicators to the staff category employees. c. Collects inputs from the appraisal process and other sources to update the job descriptions and specifications periodically 2. Installs the appropriate Performance Appraisal system in the departments. a. Assists supervisor in designing performance appraisal format. b. Educates staff category employee about their participation process in performance management. c. Assists supervisors in facilitating installation of performance appraisal process for the executive category staff. d. Forwards and collects the Appraisal forms to concerned management. e. Prepare reports for staff development needs, reward and recognition schemes and unsatisfactory performance management initiatives. 3. Facilitates the employee relations programs initiated by the authority a. Conducts regular meeting with different category of the employees for gathering and reporting their concerns. b. Analyses different sources of information for identifying employee relation issues and reports to supervisor for proactive solutions. 73

c. Conducts employee satisfaction survey as and when required. d. Reviews the effectiveness of existing welfare schemes and suggests the ways to make those programs more effective. e. Provides inputs in designing new welfare and recognition schemes. f. Identifies the areas of employees concerns and reports to the supervisor for resolution. 4. Arranges the entertaining and recreational activities a. Organizes the recreational activities, such as movie night, picnic, cultural functions etc. b. Prepares the program budget with due approval. c. Communicates the program schedule through out AHD. d. Arranges for necessary logistical support for the programs. 5. Coordinates the grievance management procedure and facilitates disciplinary actions for the staff category employees. a. Identifies and/or collects staff grievances and reports to supervisor. b. Educates the staff about how grievance can be placed to management for resolution. c. Conducts primary investigation for the reported misconducts for the staff category staff and reports to the supervisor. d. Acts as a point person for addressing any sexual harassment and offers technical assistance to the complainants to move forward as per policy in place. e. Conducts counseling sessions for the staff category level as advised by the management. f. Acts as a champion of gender issues and assists the HR team to uphold the equal opportunity employer policies.

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BASIC QUALIFICATIONS Masters in Social Sciences with at least 3years experience in HR related job or in Administration MBA with major in Human Resources Management from a reputed institute like IBA/NSU, For an MBA experience is not essential. REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE A clear understanding about formal Human Resources Management A clear understanding of HR policies and procedures commonly practiced in organization Thorough knowledge on Participatory Performance Management process and Equal Opportunity Employment philosophy and practices Basic knowledge regarding Labor Law in Bangladesh REQUIRED SKILLS An advanced level user of spreadsheet along with other Microsoft office tools necessary arithmetical skills along with necessary IT skills Experience or training on any commercial Administration or Human Resources Management Software is preferable. Experience or training on any HR Planning courses is highly preferable. Ability to conduct both small-scale qualitative and quantitative research An advanced level of Business Communication skills Communication skills in English and Bangla PHYSICAL ABILITIES The physical abilities described here are representative of that must be met by an employee to accomplish the essential responsibilities of the job. However, reasonable accommodations may be made for the differently able individuals. The incumbent must be able to use hands, fingers and must have appropriate level of eyesight to work on spreadsheets. A routine pre-employment medical examination is required. WORKING CONDITIONS Comfortable working environment is provided with necessary system supports. REFERENCE CHECK For the experienced applicants reference check must be carried out with immediate supervisor for confirmation about the honesty and integrity. For a fresh graduate at least two respectable persons must provide a testimonial for the incumbents.

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PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Job designs are prepared according to the latest change in jobs responsibilities. Performance Appraisal systems are forwarded to concerned management with required explanation and clarification. Data related to performance assessment are collected and managed in prescribed interval. Analysis/Findings/reports are communicated to concerned authority in time. Work related complaints are identified and addressed in time and in proper manner. Grievances are handled according to the merit of grievances and advices are taken from the supervisors whenever required. Reinforcements are conferred to employees according to their correspondence with AHD policies and code of conduct. Recreational activities are arranged according to the respective budget. Relevant HR policy compliances are maintained with documentary evidences. Whistles are blown against any malpractices with regard to Equal Employment Opportunity

The Job Specification designed above is subject to change time to time according to the job requirement. Approved by Date:

Accepted by (Incumbents signature)

Date:

Supervisors signature

Date:

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ANALYSIS This position encompasses a little managerial level job to exercise its responsibility and authority. This position is given enough discretion to nurture itself for the future top level position. In most case executive reports to manager or to the departmental head himself. Executives job is a mixture of both routine as well as initiative tasks. Now its supervisors responsibility to draw a clear balance between repetitive and creative tasks. Executives are to supervise the day to day activities and to jobs of Assistants. He/she is responsible for carry out the functions mainly designed by the top management. In the Job of Senior Executive Employee Relation, we can see this well blending of both types of tasks. At one extreme he/she is to look after the job analysis process, data analysis of performance management process. And at other extreme, he/she is to look after the employee relations activities, which is almost self-driven. Here the opportunity for the individual career growth is provided along with proper functioning of departmental regular activities. The executive position must be given enough scope to accumulate and exercise innovation in workplace. In basic qualification, the required education should be tailored according to the position needs. The proper functioning of this position requires some relevant experience. Nevertheless in case of highly relevant educational background, experience is not mandatory. The required knowledge is also highly job related as to perform the responsibility in a sound manner he/she must be familiar with the terms and definition of the process he/she will have to work with. As in this specific position, along with the basic knowledge of human resources management, /she should know about the performance management style, currently practiced job analysis method, labor law in Bangladesh for the betterment of this position. In required skills part, the incumbent requires specific attributes to fit in that position. Particularly any sort of training or exposure in related field will be mutually beneficial. Along with this to be self driven and initiative, the incumbent should have research capability, some special tailored skill. In performance indicators set up, I tried to have some measurable indicators of this initiative tasks. The results are perceived quantitatively. The focus is on to identify observable behavior, competency based measurement.

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6.2.3

ASSISTANT

JOB SPECIFICATION Job title: Time Office Assistant Department: Human Resources Reports to: Senior Executive-Payroll Supervises Grade: AM Category: Hiring scale: Service weightage JOB SUMMARY The incumbent is responsible for time office regulation, duty roster maintenance and accounting opening procedures. 1. Maintains updated duty roster in HMS. a. Collects duty roster from each department and places it into HMS. b. Changes the roster according to the requisition. c. Informs the due authority if anyone forgets to bring the ID card. 2. Assists employees in Bank Account opening. a. Assists new employees in Bank Account form fill up. b. Maintains liaison with bank for account opening procedures. c. Delivers Cheque Book to employees. d. Delivers any official papers to STS. 3. Provides assistance to HR department if ordered to do so. a. Conduct hospitals visit for new employees. b. Attaches any notice from HR in AHDs notice board. c. Provides support to any programs organized from HR. d. Supervises the works of Mailing Assistance.

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BASIC QUALIFICATIONS Graduate in any fields with 1years experience in Time Office regulation or any other similar jobs REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE A clear understanding about formal Duty Roster Preparation A clear conception of Bank Account opening procedures REQUIRED SKILLS An advanced level user of spreadsheet along with other Microsoft office tools necessary arithmetical skills Communication skills in English and Bangla PHYSICAL ABILITIES The physical abilities described here are representative of that must be met by an employee to accomplish the essential responsibilities of the job. However, reasonable accommodations may be made for the differently able individuals. A routine preemployment medical examination is required. WORKING CONDITIONS Comfortable working environment is provided with necessary system supports. REFERENCE CHECK For the experienced applicants reference check must be carried out with immediate supervisor for confirmation about the honesty and integrity. For a fresh graduate at least two respectable persons must provide a testimonial for the incumbents. Performance Indicators Error free Duty Roster is prepared reflecting the demand from each department. Bank accounts are opened with proper process and without any time lag. Supporting documents are collected, reviewed and updated in HMS to satisfy the policies of AHD. Employees as well as other external clients are communicated timely with all of the necessary information. Errors are treated with the merit of errors and advices are taken from the supervisors as deemed appropriate.

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The Job Specification designed above is subject to change time to time according to the job requirement. Approved by Date:

Accepted by (Incumbents signature)

Date:

Supervisors signature

Date:

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ANALYSIS In the Job Specification of the position of Time Office Assistant I can observe some clear difference with that of Executive position Now the proper functioning of assistant level position becomes the responsibility of executive level position holder. The job is almost routine in nature with little option for discretion. The assistant is to carry on the routine task properly. The numbers of tasks as well as the subtasks are also diminishing as compared to that of executive. Here again these tasks are more and more routine. They are as the name implies is to assist the main and core job of the department. In job profile formulation, I mentioned minimum experience. I can accept any fresher in this position with an average academic background. Here as the job of Time Office Assistant is to supplement the Duty Roaster and Compensation Management, itll be better if the department has a science graduate for this position. Again as the duty roaster and other related functions are based upon software an intermediate level of computer skill is essential. We have to remember that for any assistant level job, the level of required computer literacy should be fixed according to the actual requirement of the job. The designing of performance indicators are relatively easy as the maximum of the tasks are repetitive in nature. It involves no of errors, rapidness in service, maintaining of supporting documents which are more or less similar to that of other assistant level position. I use action verbs to designing this job specification. I tried to focus on observable behavior through out this Job Analysis.

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CHAPTER 7 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FORMAT

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FORMAT

Apollo Hospitals Dhaka

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Apollo Hospitals Dhaka Performance Planning and Review (PPR) Form PPR Cycle From: . To:

Employees Name: Employee ID: Position Title: Section/Department: Name of Supervisor: Designation:

Use of this form: This form is to be used by all regular, probationary and long-term contractual employees who are eligible to participate in performance management system of Apollo Hospitals Dhaka (AHD)

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1.

Job Summary List the major job responsibilities of the employee on the basis of present job description. This should not be more than one paragraph.

2.

Performance Objective (PO) and standards List the agreed performance objectives that employee will achieve and the performance standard by which employees achievement will be measured. PO 1:

Performance Standards for PO1:

PO 2:

Performance Standards for PO2:

PO 3:

Performance Standards for PO 3:

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PO 4:

Performance Standards for PO 4:

Signature of Supervisor: Date

Signature of Employee: Date:

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Employee Development Plans Identify any employee development needs regarded as important for the present performance cycle in order to assist performance or for professional development. Also consider the assessment of the previous performance cycle and the ratings on the essential competencies of employee, if any.

Identified areas for performance Specific improvement, contribution, or activities enhancement attain target

Completion Approximate to date or time expenses in frame BDT

Signature of Supervisor Date:

Signature of Employee: Date:

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Interim Review At least one interim progress review must be conducted no later than 6 months into the 12-month PPR cycle. For probationary employee the frequency would be decided as per the Probation Period Policy of AHD. 2.1. Summary of the Discussion: [This review will focus on the achievements of the employee and the performance constraints issues during the last six months particularly. The employee or the supervisor can write this in a consultative manner.]

Signature of Supervisor Date:

Signature of Employee Date:

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Annual Review (From: ..To: ) Overall self-assessment of employee [The employee should complete this section prior to meeting with his/her supervisor. The self-assessment should focus on the level of achievements against the agreed performance objectives, lessons learned during this performance cycle, the process employee followed for sharing his /her learning and the ways employee can do better in the future.]

3.

Supervisor's Observations: Supervisor should focus on achievements against performance objectives, current skills, competencies and identified development potentials. This assessment should follow a meeting between the supervisor and employee.

Signature of Supervisor Date

Signature of Employee Date

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Rating of essential competencies The employee should be rated by the supervisor for the essential competencies demonstrated by the employee during this performance cycle. Rating should be done in presence of employee and on the basis of following scale: O Outstanding; HS Highly Satisfactory; S Satisfactory, M Marginal, U- Unsatisfactory, NA Not Applicable

Rating Areas Customer Relations

Observable behaviors Treats customers (guest, patients, physicians and other employees) with courtesy, respect and caring behaviors. Responds quickly and appropriately to customer requests. Anticipates customer needs and initiates action to meet those needs.

Selfmanagement

Presents a positive image of AHD through processional appearance and behavior. Identifies and seeks opportunities for personal and professional growth. Carries out responsibilities in a timely fashion, requesting assistance as needed. Follows the policies and procedures of AHD.

Teamwork

Works cooperatively within own/department and with other units and/or departments Willingly accepts additional responsibility; tries to make others jobs easier. Recognizes and supports the skill and qualities of others

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Willingly exchanges appropriate and professional information with co-workers.

Communications

Listens to customer needs and responds in a courteous and a tactful manner. Provides timely feedback to the appropriate customer in a clear and concise manner. Use professional judgment in providing information, based on the situation, and is sensitive to individual and organizational concerns. Consistently ensures the information known about the customer is kept private and confidential.

Accountability

Treats customers property and AHD property with care and respect. Demonstrates conservation and responsible use of resources. Contributes to the safety and security of AHDs environment through personal actions

Continuous drive for performance improvement

Effectively and efficiently fulfills responsibilities to achieve the greatest benefit at an acceptable cost. Continuously strives to suggest and implement ways to improve personal, departmental and institutional goals.

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Overall rating on the level of performance demonstrated by the employee This needs to be rated in presence of employee and on the basis of following scale Please place in the blank box nearest your rating choice Performance consistently exceeds all requirements of the Outstanding job. Outstanding performance is clearly obvious to all. Unique, exceptional accomplishments that obviously very far above what is required and which relatively few employees would be expected to achieve. Accomplishment clearly and consistently above what is Highly required. This level is usually achieved only by highly Satisfactory competent, seasoned incumbents. Performance meets standards. Most qualified incumbents Satisfactory should be able to attain this level. Performance does not meet acceptable levels in all areas, Provisional but employee exhibits the potential to become proficient with continued training or development. Interim reviews should be done quarterly. Overall performance of employee does not meet Marginal acceptable level; appropriate corrective action is being formally initiated. Interim reviews will be done quarterly Performance remains significantly below standard; Unsatisfactor particularly in one or more critical areas of responsibility; y Employee should be at an appropriate stage of unsatisfactory performance management procedure.

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Overall recommendations [The supervisor needs to recommend for percentage of annual increment/no increment/confirmation of probation/extension of probation/promotion or other relevant performance related decisions.]

10.

Acknowledgment of appraisal by the employee [Employee needs to express his level of satisfaction about the process and the ratings.]

Signature of Employee: Signature of Supervisor

Date: Date:

When complete, please make copies for your office file and the employee and send the original to the Office of Human Resources for preserving in employee file.

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CHAPTER 8 TRAINING MANUAL ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

TRAINING MANUAL ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Apollo Hospitals Dhaka

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8.1 TRAINING CURRICULUM PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Learning Objectives After completion of this training program, participants will be able to: 1. Define the structure of the prescribed Performance Appraisal system in respect of their overall departmental functions. 2. Explain the Performance Appraisal system to the employees of respective department. 3. Exercise the prescribed Performance Appraisal system with respect to their department. 4. Assist the employees with performance feedback through an evaluative interview. Total Hours Two Hours Methodology Lecture Group Discussion Question-Answer session Facilitators HOD, Human Resources Department Training Manager, Human Resources Department Participants HOD and Mid-level managers of all non-medical departments. Job Behavior Level Objectives After completion of this training program, participants will be able to: 1. Install prescribed Performance Appraisal system according to the training. 2. Provide necessary feedbacks and support to their employees. 3. Monitor the performance of the employees under the supervision. 4. Assess the performances of employees in regular interval.

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Impact Level Objectives Performances of the employees are recognized and reinforced according to their level of competencies. A healthy and competitive environment will prevail at workplace.

Training Evaluation Learning Level Evaluation Classroom/Immediate assessment. Impact Level Evaluation Focus Group Discussion of both appraisers and appraisees separately. Pilot testing of participants in three-month interval.

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8.2 Session 1.1 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

OBJECTIVES On completion of the session, participants will be able to: Identify the elements of performance appraisal system on the basis of their respective departments Define the psychological errors that take place in performance appraisal process. Evaluate the performances appraised and provide necessary feedback. METHODS Lecturette, Question and Answer, Visual aid, Hand out MATERIALS Handout DURATION 60 minutes GROUP SIZE A maximum of 24 participants PHYSICAL FACILITIES A room large enough to accommodate twenty four participants in a sitting arrangement so that they can see and interact with each other as well as with the facilitator

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES Introduction Facilitator will describe the overall learning objectives of this training as described in the training curriculum. Alongside he/she will receive any feedback from the participants. Method: Lectures, Discussion and Questions & Answers Visuals: Power point display on the main learning objectives Duration: 5 minutes Learning objective Identify the elements of performance appraisal system on the basis of their respective departments Duration: 10minutes Learning Activities The facilitator will ask for the previous experience of participants in Performance Appraisal system. The experiences can be of as the Appraisers as well as Apraisees. He/she will carry on the session by discussing what the participants think would be the basic performance standard for the employees of their departments. They can give their idea on performance measurement. Facilitator along with the participants will discuss the pros and cons of subjective judgment and objective judgment. The purpose of this discussion is to reach a final agreement about the use of Objective scale. And the facilitator should guide the dialogue in that direction. Visual Aids White board and makers (three different colors) to write down the general findings of question-answer session The facilitator can also draw the flow diagram of basic performance appraisal system Power point presentation with the Flow chart on Performance Appraisal process session, example of different measurement approaches and measurement scales Hand outs on the theory of Performance Appraisal System with main focus on performance measurement approaches. The write ups are to be distributed at the end of the session. But the participants should be informed about the provision of handouts so that they wont be busy during the session in taking notes.

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Learning objective Define the psychological errors that take place in performance appraisal process. Duration: 13 minutes Learning Activities He/she will continue the session by asking about the problems or discrimination they faced in Appraisal process. The discussion will gradually come across with common psychological errors which are observed in Performance Appraisal System. He/she then will invite the participants to suggest remedies in eliminating the discrepancies in Appraisal system. In this session the facilitator and participants will share their experiences, stories relevant to the subject Visual Aids White Board and markers of different color to write down the general finding of the Question and Answer session Power point presentation with name the psychological errors in different slide supported by relevant cartoons Hand outs on the theory of psychological errors and their common remedies. The write ups are to be distributed at the end of the session. But the participants should be informed about the provision of handouts so that they wont be busy during the session in taking notes.

Learning objective Evaluate the performances appraised and provide necessary feedback. Duration: 13 minutes Learning Activities The facilitator will then carry on dialogue regarding practical application of a Performance Appraisal System. The focus will be on frequency of employing the Appraisal system, the assessment process, the employee feedback and the aftermath (placement and training decision) of Performance Appraisal system. The Facilitator will relate the teaching according to the prescribed Performance Appraisal format to be introduced in next session.

Visual Aids White Board and markers of different color to write down the general finding of the Question and Answer session 98

Hand outs on the performance appraisal form. The write ups are to be distributed at the end of the session. But the participants should be informed about the provision of handouts so that they wont be busy during the session in taking notes.

Learning Summarization Summarize the learning of this session. Duration: 5minutes Learning Activities The facilitator will sum up the session with major learning objectives achieved in this session. He/she will ask the participants about their learning in this session. If the session goes well their responses will correlate with the learning objectives identified previously for this session. He/she will also tell about the abstract of this session. Visual Aids White Board and markers of different color to write down the general finding of the Question and Answer session Power point presentation with the list of learning objectives in this session Learning Evaluation Evaluate the learning of the participants in Session 1. Duration: 10minutes Learning Activities In this final part of the session the facilitator will evaluate the system. He/she can give a small case on the topic of setting performance standard for their own position or any other position in their own department. Or they can be given the performance standard of a particular position (such as Secretary, which is almost familiar to all of the participants) and asked to design the measurement approach. Along side they are to given a small test to evaluate their learning of the remedies of psychological errors. Visual Aids White sheets with attached questions

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Facilitation Evaluation Duration: 4minutes Learning Activities In this final part of the session the facilitator will evaluate his/her performance by the participants. He/she will circulate the evaluation sheet to all of the participants. The sheet will contain Multiple Choice Questionnaire. The sheet will cover all aspect of the session and have provision for the individual evaluation of the two sessions. Visual Aids White sheets with attached questionnaire

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8.3 Session 1.2 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

OBJECTIVES On completion of the session, participants will be able to: Learn about the Performance Appraisal Format to be introduced in AHD Assess the applicability and reliability of the format through a focus group discussion Provide significant feedbacks to improve the content of the format

METHODS Lectures, Discussion, Focus Group Discussion, Reading and Questions & Answers MATERIALS Handout DURATION 60 minutes GROUP SIZE A maximum of 24 participants PHYSICAL FACILITIES A room large enough to accommodate twenty four participants in a sitting arrangement so that they can see and interact with each other as well as with the facilitator

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES Learning Objective Learn about the Performance appraisal format to be introduced in AHD. Duration: 25 minutes Learning Activities In this session facilitator will introduce the designed performance appraisal system. He/she will explain each section of the form. He/she will brief them about the Job Summary, Performance Objective (PO) and standards for different grades of employees, employment development plan, core competencies, and grading system. The facilitator will design the discussion in a participatory style. He/she will ask for any other more suitable explanation regarding this topic. He/she will discuss about the installation of PO on the basis of observable behavior. He/she will clarify the difference of core competency expected from each position and the PO and standard expected from each position. Then he/she will allow them to go through the form for 10 minutes for the focus group discussion. Visual Aids White board and makers (three different colors) to write down the general findings of question-answer session Power point display on the major area of appraisal form such as, Job Summary, PO and so on Copy of Performance Appraisal form to each participant Learning Objective Assess the applicability and reliability of the format through a focus group discussion Duration: 25 minutes Learning Activities In this part of the session the facilitator will arrange for a focus group discussion regarding the suitability of the Appraisal format. The facilitator will start discussion about the pros and cons of the appraisal form. This will be a participatory discussion. The facilitator will ask for the participants opinions regarding the applicability of the form. He/she will lead the discussion in such a way so that the participants can share their experience on this topic candidly. The discussion will be unstructured (or loosely structured), and the facilitator will encourage the free flow of ideas. He/she will make the participants talk about the disadvantages they are likely to experience in implementing this form. He/she will discuss about the alterations needed in the form. He/she will note down the consented suggestions of every participant. 102

Visual Aids White board and makers (three different colors) to write down the consented suggestions obtained in Focus Group Discussion Learning Summarization Summarize the learning of this session. Duration: 6minutes Learning Activities The facilitator will sum up the session with major learning objectives achieved in this session. He/she will ask the participants about their learning in this session. If the session goes well their responses will correlate with the learning objectives identified previously for this session. He/she will also tell about the abstract of this session. The abstract will depict the plan of modifications in the form if any. Visual Aids White Board and markers of different color to write down the general finding of the session Facilitation Evaluation Duration: 4minutes Learning Activities In this final part of the session the facilitator will evaluate his/her performance by the participants. He/she will circulate the evaluation sheet to all of the participants. The sheet will contain Multiple Choice Questionnaire. The sheet will cover all aspect of the session and have provision for the individual evaluation of the two sessions. Visual Aids White sheets with attached questionnaire

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RECOMMENDATION HR practices in health care aims at achieving utmost utilization of potential human resources through excellence in individual and organizational performance. It is of high relevance to the hospitals in order to survive in the competitive market. Competency based performance appraisal should also be given similar importance as that of job analysis, since performance appraisal is the outcome of job analysis. Some suggestions emerged in the process of analysis of applicability of Competency based human Resources Management Apollo Hospitals Dhaka. They are as follows: A detailed job creation and identification should be done in top managerial level and then it should be communicated to the respective implementer. The tasks should be got rid from repetitiveness. An attempt should be made on implementing competency based job analysis process. The jobs should be designed according to the requirements of the organization, not according to the current status of that particular incumbent. The skill set should be the minimum what is required for the proper functioning of the position. A detailed job designing methodology needs to be done with the involvement of the supervisor as well as the incumbents. An easy to implement Performance appraisal format should be followed. Prior to the performance appraisal implementation the performance indicators should be set up and communicated to the respective supervisors and the incumbents. The appraisers training should be more real life oriented. Remedy from psychological errors in appraisal procedure should be addressed in due manner. In near future there should be a provision for appraisees training also.

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The mid level manager should have training on task identification also.

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CONCLUSION

Hospital industry possesses a vast growing potential in Bangladeshs business sector. Corporate Hospital is a relatively new entrant to this private dominated industry. Severe competition in the market compelled the hospitals to strive for survival. As a consequence the idea of health care HRM emerged. Apollo hospitals Dhaka, though it is a small venture compared to the large potential market, has proved its competence and secured a prominent place in the health care scenario of Bangladesh as well as the learning paradise especially for the HR practitioner. The success of a hospital is largely determined by its management ability to lead the human resource in most productive manner. The present study attempted to analyze the perception of non medical staff towards their jobs and management orientation of performance assessment of Apollo Hospital indicates that the human resources management of hospital is just average in both these aspects. Hence the recommendations are to give conscious efforts to rectify the defects in HR practices and to make the HR department performance oriented in order to attain better results. In summary, the above research tells us that, in order to define a job, it is not enough to look at subjective mannered description. The concept of competency based HR model has many dimensions, some of which are difficult to practice at this stage, but no less essential to its definition. The study identifies that apart from the HR department the whole organization is responsible to set up the prescribed practice. It is highly appreciable what the HR department has done so far. But there is unlimited scope of development which is still remained untouched. We will need to attain that extent of progression, pave the way of further development. We can then incorporate these components into a more comprehensive service quality measurement plan in health care.

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REFERENCES

JOURNAL ARTICLE 1. Plan Bangladesh, Organizational Assessment, 2005 BOOK 1. Green C. Paul, Building Robust Competency, HR Folks International 2. Morgan Gareth, Images of Organization, 2nd edition, SAGE publication, California, USA> OFFICIAL REPORT 1. Apollo Hospital Enterprise Limited 2004, Human Resources Manual for Apollo Hospitals Dhaka, Chennai, India 2. Aus Guide Line 2005, The Logical Framework Approach, Australian Government Press, Australia. WEBSITES 1. www.apollodhaka.com 2. www.apollogroup.com 3. Health care bd\Bangladesh - Health Care Facilities1.htm 4. www.cbmkau.org 5. www.natpact.nhs.uk

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APPENDICES

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