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Code: R7410101 IV B.Tech I Semester (R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November/December 2011 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-II (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) What are the phases in a complete subsurface exploration and explain them in detail. (b) How would you obtain a hand-carved sample? 2 (a) Discuss the various factors of safety used in the stability analysis of slopes. Show that factor of safety with respect to cohesion gives the same concept as that of factor of safety with respect to height. (b) Find the critical height of a slope of infinite extent having a slope of 30. The slope is made of stiff clay having cohesion of 20kN/m2, angle internal friction of 20, void ratio of 0.7 and specific gravity of 2.7 Consider the following cases for the analysis. (i) the soil is dry (ii) the water seeps parallel to the surface of slope (iii) the slope is submerged. 3 (a) What are the various types of earth pressures? Give field example for each type. (b) A 10m high retaining wall with smooth vertical back supports a horizontal backfill ) =33 , c=25kPa,density above water table 15kN/m3 and below water table 18kN/m3). The water table is at a depth of 3m below the surface of the backfill. The backfill supports a surcharge of 10kPa. Determine the magnitude and line of action of passive earth pressure. 4 A trapezoidal masonry retaining wall 1m wide at top and 3m wide at its bottom is 4m high. The vertical face is retaining soil ( =30) at a surcharge angle of 20 with the horizontal. Determine the maximum and minimum intensities of pressure at the base of the retaining wall. Unit weights of soil and masonry are 20kN/m3 and 24kN/m3 respectively. Assuming the coefficient of friction at the base of the wall as 0.45, determine the factor of safety against overturning.

5 (a) What are the criteria for deciding the depth of foundation? Write short notes on factors affecting bearing capacity of soil. (b) A strip footing 1.5 m wide is supported on soil with its base at a depth of 1.2 m below ground surface. The soil properties are as under: c =20 kN/m2, =20, =18kN/m3 and =10kN/m3. Determine the net ultimate bearing capacity and the safe bearing capacity using Terzaghis equation for general shear failure, when water table is at the level of the base of the footing. Take factor of safety =2.5 .For =20, assume Nc =15 , Nq =6.4 and =5.4.

Contd. in Page 2

Page 2 6 (a) Briefly outline the plate load test method of determining the safe bearing capacity of soils. What are its limitations? (b) A footing 2.0 m x2.0m is located at a depth of 1.5 m in a sand deposit. Borings have indicated that the average corrected N value at the site is 25. Water table is at a depth of 2 m below the ground surface. Determine the net allowable bearing pressure for a factor of safety of 3 against shear failure and a permissible settlement of 25 mm. Use Tengs equation. 7 (a) Classify the piles according to(i) materials and (ii) functions. (b) Explain the negative skin friction. (c) A precast concrete pile is driven with a 50kN hammer, having a free fall of 1.0 m. If the penetration in the last blow is 0.5 cm, determine the load carrying capacity of the pile using engineering news regard formula. Take F.S=6. 8 (a) Describe briefly about the elements of well foundation with a neat sketch. Enumerate the forces acting on the well foundation. (b) Discuss the problems associated with the well sinking and how to overcome them? *****

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Code: R7410101 IV B.Tech I Semester (R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November/December 2011 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-II (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) Discuss with neat sketches any two boring methods used in soil exploration. (b) Write a brief note on Geophysical method Electrical Resistivity Method. 2 (a) How a slope is analyzed using Swedish circle method? Derive an expression for the factor of safety. (b) An embankment 10m high is inclined at an angle of 36 to the horizontal. A stability analysis by the method of slices gives the following forces per running meter: Shearing forces =450kN; Normal forces=900kN; Neutral forces=216kN. The length of the failure arc is 27m. Laboratory tests on the soil indicate the effective values c and as 20kN/m2 and 18 , respectively. Determine the factor of safety of the slope with respect to (a) shear strength, (b) cohesion. 3 (a) Explain the similarities and differences between the coulomb and the rankine classical theories of earth pressure. (b) A retaining wall 8m high with a smooth vertical back retains a dry backfill with c=15kN/m2; =15 and =18kN/m3. Calculate the total active thrust, passive thrust, depth of tension crack and point of application of active thrust. 4 Design a gravity retaining wall, 5m, high with vertical back to retain a dry cohesionless backfill of unit weight 18kN/m3 and angle of shearing resistance 28 . Find also the factor of safety against sliding assuming the angle of friction between the base of the wall and the foundation soil as 30 . The wall is to be 1.2 m wide at top, and to be constructed of brick masonry having unit weight 20kN/m3. Use Rankines theory

5 (a) State assumptions and limitations of Terzaghis bearing capacity theory and differentiate between local shear failure and general shear failure. (b) A square footing 2.5mx2.5m and carries a load of 2000kN. Find the factor of safety against bearing failure if the soil below the footing has following values:c=50 kN/m2 , =15 , =17.5kN/m3 and foundation is taken to a depth of 1.5m.Take Nc =12.5 , Nq =4.5 and =2.5.

Contd. in Page 2

Page 2 6 (a) Describe how a standard penetration test is performed in a cohestionless soil. Give all the specifications of the test. What corrections are needed to be applied? Why are the corrections needed? (b) Write the notes on allowable settlements of various structures. 7 (a) Discuss various dynamic formulae. What are their limitations and validity? (b) Using a drop hammer of 20kN capacity and the height of drop being 4m. The average penetration over the last 5 blows was 10 mm. Determine the allowable load on the pile using Engineering news formula. 8 (a) Explain briefly the construction and sinking of an open well foundation and how do you correct shift and tilt of a well foundation? (b) How do you arrive at depth and bearing capacity of a well foundation constructed across a river? *****

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Code: R7410101 IV B.Tech I Semester (R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November/December 2011 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-II (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) How would you decide the depth of exploration and the lateral extent of the investigation? (b) A sampling tube has an outer diameter of 75 mm and wall thickness of 1.7 mm. Find the area ratio of the tube, and comment on whether the tube could be used for obtaining undisturbed soil samples. 2 (a) Explain various possible causes of failure of slopes. (b) An infinite slope is made of clay with the following properties: =18kN/m3; =9kN/m3; =25 kN/m2; =28 . If the slope has an inclination of 35 and height equal to 12m, determine the stability of the slope, when (i) the slope is submerged, and (b) there is seepage parallel to the slope. 3 (a) What are the assumptions made in Coulombs theory? Compare Rankines theory with Coulombs theory. (b) A wall with a smooth vertical back 9m high supports a purely cohesive soil with c=20kN/m2 and =18kN/m3. Determine:i) Depth of tension crack. ii) Critical depth. iii) Total active thrust per metre run iv) Total passive thrust and v) Points of action of active and passive thrusts from the base. 4 (a) Explain how the stability of a gravity retaining wall is checked against: i) Sliding. ii) Overturning and iii) Bearing capacity failure. (b) A trapezoidal masonry retaining wall 1 m wide at top and 3m wide at bottom is 4m high. The vertical face of the wall is retaining a soil( =18kN/m3 and =30 at a surcharge angle of 20 with the horizontal. Check the stability of retaining wall against sliding, overturning and for No tension condition. The safe bearing capacity of the soil is 100kN/m2. 5 (a) Discuss the various types of foundations and their selection with respect to different situations. (b) Write down Skemptons equations, which can help us to determine the bearing capacity in clays, for a footing having depth more than the width, if(i) footing is a strip footing,(ii) footing is circular, and (iii) footing is rectangular. Contd. in Page 2

Page 2 6 (a) What are the corrections to be applied to observed SPT value and why? (b) Determine the allowable bearing capacity of a 2m square footing placed at a depth of 1.5m in a sand deposit of uniform weight 20kN/m3 with an average corrected SPT value of 27. Water table is at 2m from the ground level. Assume a factor of safety 3 against a shear failure and maximum allowable settlement of 40mm. 7 (a) Briefly explain how the load carrying capacity of a pile is determined using pile load test. (b) A symmetrical 16 pile group in soft clay, with unconfined compressive strength of 40 kN/m2 , is to be used as foundation for a column. The piles are 300mm in diameter and 10m long and spaced at 900mm centers. Determine the maximum load the group can carry with the piles falling (i) individually, and (ii) as a block. 8 (a) Discuss the different shapes of cross-sections of wells used in practice, giving the merits and demerits of each. (b) Discuss the various kinds of forces likely to act on a well foundation. *****

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Code: R7410101 IV B.Tech I Semester (R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November/December 2011 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-II (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) Describe, in brief, various geophysical methods. Discuss their limitations and uses. (b) What is a bore log? Give a typical example. 2 (a) Show that the factor of safety of an infinite slope in a cohesionless soil is independent of its height and the unit weights of soil. (b) The unit weight of a soil of slope is 17.5 kN/m3. The shear parameters for c and for the soil are 10 kN/m2 and 20 respectively. Given that the height of the slope is 12 m and the stability number obtained from the charts for the given slope and angle of internal friction is 0.025, compute the factor of safety. 3 (a) Define the term earth pressure at rest/ Derive the expression for coefficient of earth pressure at rest condition in terms of Poissons ratio. (b) A retaining wall has a smooth vertical back and is 8.5m in height. It retains a horizontal backfill of sand with =33 . Find out the total active earth pressure per metre length of wall if =18kN/m3. (i) The water table is far below the base of the wall. (ii) The water table rises up to 4.5 ml level above the base. Take =20.5kN/m3; 4 (a) Discuss with neat sketches various types of retaining walls. (b) What are the design criteria to be satisfied for stability of a gravity retaining wall? Indicate briefly how you will ensure the same. 5 (a) What are the differences between Terzaghis bearing capacity theory and Meyerhofs bearing capacity theory? Explain with neat sketch. (b) Find the ultimate bearing capacity of wall footing, given: width of footing=1.2m, depth of footing=1.0m depth of water table below ground surface=1.5m. For the foundation soil, unconfined compressive strength is 48 kN/m2, =20 (Nc =14 , Nq =6.7 and =2.8) 6 (a) What are the limitations of plate load test? Discuss them. (b) Proportion a square footing to carry a load of 1500 KN from a column. The depth of foundation is to be kept at 2m below ground surface. Maximum settlement of the footing is 40mm and a factor of safety of 3 is required against shear failure. The subsoil is sand with an average corrected N value of 18 as established from borings. Water table is at a large depth. Use Tengs correlations. Contd. in Page 2

Page 2 7 (a) Define group efficiency of piles. What is Felds rule? How the efficiency of pile is reduced in different arrangements of piles as per Felds rule. (b) A group of 9 piles, 8 m long is used as the foundation for a column. The piles are 30cm diameter with centre to centre spacing at 90cm. The subsoil consists of clay with unconfined compressive strength of 200kN/m2. Estimate the safe load. Take F.S=3.0. 8 Describe briefly the sinking of a sell foundation and mention the situations where such types of foundations are used. Also discuss the forces for which a well foundation is designed. *****

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