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Linking words

Linking words help you to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can follow your ideas.

Giving examples: For example, For instance, Namely


The most common way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance. Namely refers to something by name. Ex "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."

Adding information:

And, In addition, As well as, Also, Too, Furthermore, Moreover, Apart from, In addition to, Besides. Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and. Ex "We discussed training, education and the budget." Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing." You can use also with not only to give emphasis. Ex "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition." We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence. Ex "As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition." Ex "We are interested in costs as well as the competition." Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well. Ex "They were concerned too." Ex "I, too, was concerned." Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to. Ex "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." Ex "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making. Ex "Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."

Summarising: In short, In brief, In summary, To summarise, In a nutshell, To conclude, In conclusion


We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.

Sequencing ideas: The former, the latter, Firstly, secondly, finally, The first point is, Lastly, The following
former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points. Ex: "Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term." Firstly, secondly, finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas. It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on. The following is a good way of starting a list. Ex "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."

The

Giving a reason: Due to / due to the fact that, Owing to / owing to the fact that, Because, Because of, Since, As
Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. Ex "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." Ex "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks." If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that. Ex "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." Ex "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders." Because / because of Because of is followed by a noun. Ex "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed." Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was raining, the match was postponed." Ex "We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive." Since / as Since and as mean because. Ex "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." Ex "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

Giving a result: Therefore, So, Consequently, This means that, As a result


Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way. Ex "The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff." So is more informal.
that, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, While, Whereas, Unlike, In theory in practice

Contrasting ideas: But, However, Although / even though, Despite / despite the fact that, In spite of / in spite of the fact ,

But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence.

Ex "He works hard, but he doesn't earn much." Ex "He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much." Although, despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence. Ex "Although it was cold, she went out in shorts." Ex "In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts." Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. They must be followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use the fact that. Ex "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees." Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. Ex "The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.) Ex "The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year." While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other. Ex "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown." Ex "Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down." Ex "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol." In theory in practice show an unexpected result. Ex "In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."

Linking Words An introduction by Viv Quarry (www.vivquarry.com).


Linking words are essential for your writing to be natural and clear. Linking devices vary in three ways: 1. Position in the text. Some linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words: and but so because then until such as

are examples of this type of linking word. Another type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words must start with a capital letter and are usually immediately followed by a comma: Furthermore, Moreover, are used in this way. Most linking words, however, can either start a sentence or form a link between sentences. The choice is up to the writer. 2. The function of linking words However, Nevertheless, Therefore, In conclusion,

Linking devices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide. Adding extra information to the main point, contrasting ideas, expressing cause and effect, showing exactly when something happened (narrating), expressing purpose (why?) and opinion, listing examples, making conclusions and giving emphasis. 3. Grammatical differences

Some linking words must be followed by a clause (Subject + Verb + Object). Eg. while why because although so whereas when

Other linking words should be followed by a noun phrase (Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund) Eg. because of despite during in spite of

The majority of linking devices can be followed by either a noun phrase or a clause. Here is a list of the principal linking words in English, their function and if their position is usually fixed.

Linking words - by Viv Quarry


Adding and
*and as well as besides Moreover, Furthermore, What is more, In addition, not only .... but also another point is that relative clauses who that whose when why where ,which to whom what

Contrasting
*but However, Although despite In spite of Nevertheless, On the contrary, on the one hand on the other hand, whereas while but while For one thing, In contrast, Neither...nor

Expressing cause / reason


because as since As a result, This is why because of Due to Owing to For this reason, Expressing effect / result *so so....that such a...that Therefore Thus Consequently, too...for/to not enough...for/to Expressing purpose to so as to in order that so that for (Non-specific) Expressing opinion I would say that In my opinion, I think (that) I believe (that) Personally Apparently,

Narration First (of all) At first At the beginning In the beginning then next Before After After that afterwards When While during Soon prior to

immediately Once Suddenly As soon as on No sooner....than Hardly...when Finally Eventually At the end In the end At last To begin with, until

Giving examples
for example, for instance, this includes such as eg. (for example) i.e. (that is)

Summing up / concluding
All in all overall generally In conclusion, on the whole in the main To sum up,

Emphasis
especially particularly Naturally, exactly because above all Whatever Whenever too / enough The more ....

* Avoid starting a sentence with these words. The linking words beginning with a capital letter often start a sentence, For those without, position in a sentence is optional.

Linking words - Difficult cases


So AVOID STARTING A SENTENCE WITH THIS WORD! 'So' can be used in two ways: 1. To show RESULT. Eg. It was raining, so we decided not to go to the beach. NOTE! 'because' shows the REASON. The above sentence could be expressed like this: Eg. We decided not to go to the beach because it was raining. NOTE! To show a REASON LINK BETWEEN SENTENCES use 'Therefore,'. 2. So & such used for EMPHASIS. When used for emphasis, 'So' must be followed by either an adjective or an adverb and must be linked to an explanation CLAUSE. Eg. It was so hot that we decided not to go to the beach. OR We decided not to go to the beach because it was so hot. NOTE! 'such' is used in the same way, but must be followed by a NOUN or ADJECTIVE+NOUN. Eg. It was such a hot day that we decided not to go to the beach. OR We decided not to go to the beach because it was such a hot day. NOTE! When there is no explanation clause, use 'VERY', unless referring to a present situation. Eg. It was very hot yesterday, wasn't it? It's so nice to see you again! Enough and too 'enough' goes AFTER ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS but BEFORE NOUNS. Eg. You won't pass the exam if you don't work hard enough. OR He didn't get the job because he didn't have enough experience. 'enough' can also be used alone. Eg. I'll lend you some money if you haven't got enough. 'too' means 'more than necessary' and comes BEFORE ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS ONLY. Eg. The coffee was too hot to drink. But and However, 'but' is used to CONTRAST clauses WITHIN A SENTENCE. Eg. I like going to the beach, but I never go at midday. 'However,' has the same function, but is used to show CONTRAST BETWEEN SENTENCES. Eg. I've always enjoyed going to the beach. However, I never go there at midday. Although, though, even though & In spite of / despite, 'Although' must join two clauses, but it's position can change. It can either start a sentence or come in the middle. Eg. Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed the holiday. OR We enjoyed the holiday although it rained a lot. In spoken English 'though' can be used instead of 'although' when it is used for the second clause. Eg. "I didn't get the job though I had all the necessary qualifications." 'though' can also come at the end of a sentence. Eg. "The house isn't very nice. I like the garden though." 'Even though' is a stronger form of 'although'. Eg. Even though I was really tired, I couldn't sleep. 'In spite of' or 'Despite' must be followed by a NOUN, PRONOUN (this, that, what etc.) or ~ING. Eg. In spite of the rain, we went to the beach. OR We went to the beach in spite of the rain. It is common to use the expression 'In spite of the fact (that)....' or 'Despite the fact (that)....' Eg. She's quite fit in spite of the fact that she smokes 40 cigarettes a day. Linking words of time - Still, yet and already 'Still' tells us that an action is continuing, or hasn't happened yet. It has positive, negative and question forms. Eg. It's 10 o'clock and John's still in bed. or She said that she would be here an hour ago and she still hasn't come. or Are you still living in Botofogo?

'yet' asks if something has happened, or to say that something hasn't happened. It is mainly used in NEGATIVES & QUESTIONS and comes at the end of a sentence. 'Yet' is usually used with the present perfect tense. Eg. He hasn't finished the report yet. OR Is dinner ready yet? 'Already' is used to say that something happened before expected, it usually comes in middle position, but can also come in final position. 'Already' is not used in negatives and in British English is only used in questions to show considerable surprise. Eg. I'll tell her that dinner is ready. She already knows. Have you finished already?! I thought it would take you longer! In order to understand this type of linking word, you must be clear about the concepts of 'a point in time' and 'a period of time'. A point in time is the answer to a 'when' question, and a period of time is the answer to a 'how long' question. Eg. Points of time = 6pm, Wednesday, she arrived, summer, 1999, Christmas, five minutes ago. Periods of time = 3 seconds, 4 days, ages, 100 years, the Christmas holiday, five minutes. During and while Both 'during' and 'while' tell us WHEN something happened. The difference between them is that 'during' is followed by a noun phrase (no verb), and 'while' is followed by a clause (subject + verb + object). Eg. When did you go to Barcelona? I went there during my holiday in Europe. OR I went there while I was on holiday in Europe. 'By' means 'at some time before' and tells us when something happens. It is followed by point in time and can be used for both past and future time. Eg. This report must be finished by 6pm. 'By the time' has the same meaning but is followed by a clause. It is common with perfect tenses. For, since and until These words all tell us how long something happens. 'For' focuses on duration and can be used in most tenses. It is followed by a period of time. 'Since' is only used with perfect tenses and must be followed by a point in time. Eg. They stayed in Barcelona for two weeks. OR They've been in Barcelona since last Friday. = They are still in Barcelona now. 'Until' also tells us how long something happens, but the focus is on the end of the action or situation. It is followed by a point in time. Eg. They stayed in Barcelona until last Friday. = They left Barcelona last Friday. Not....any more/longer and no longer These expressions tell us that a situation has changed. 'not....any more/longer' go at the end of a sentence and 'no longer' is used in the middle of a sentence. Eg. Mr. Jones doesn't work here any longer. OR She no longer works here. As & like 'As' and 'like' can be used in COMPARISONS. However, 'As' MUST BE FOLLOWED BY A CLAUSE, and 'like' MUST BE FOLLOWED BY A NOUN. Eg. He worked for the company, as his father had done before him. OR She acts like a child sometimes. 'As' can also be followed by a preposition Eg. In 1998, as in 1997, inflation in Brazil fell steadily. '(not) as....as ' + ADJECTIVE or ADVERB shows EQUALITY or INEQUALITY. Eg. She isn't as tall as her father was. OR The traffic can be as bad in Rio as it is in So Paulo. 'As' can be used to state the ROLE, JOB or FUNCTION of a person or thing. Eg. We all worked together as a team. OR She worked as a manager in the Human Resources Department. OR He used his handkerchief as a flag to attract attention. 'As' can be used in the same way as 'because'; however, it gives less emphasis than 'because'. Eg. As the weather was so bad, we didn't go to the beach. OR I bought her some flowers as she had been so kind to me.

'As' tells us that actions occur at the same time. Eg. As the door opened, she saw him standing by the wall. 'As' is often used in these common expressions: As hard as, as soon as, as long as, as well as, as far as, as good as. Eg. He can stay here as far as I'm concerned. You can go as long as you come home early. 'As' is also the preposition used after these verbs: Regarded as see sth. as be thought of as Be looked on as. There are very good practice exercises for linking words in Raymond Murphy's excellent book 'English Grammar in Use'. So & Such = Unit 101, Enough & Too = Unit 102, Time = Units 110, 118 & 119, Contrast = Unit 112, As = Units 115-117.

Linking words worksheet - Exercises


Write the sentence again, using the word in brackets. The meaning must stay exactly the same. 1. She is a very good English speaker. You would think it was her native language. ___________________________________________________________________ (so) 2. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't move. ___________________________________________________________________ (such) 3. We missed the film because there was such a lot of traffic. ___________________________________________________________________ (so) 4. I can't wear this coat in winter, It's not warm enough. ___________________________________________________________________ (too) 5. When he speaks English, I can't understand what he says. ___________________________________________________________________ (enough) 6. We lost the match although we we the better team. ___________________________________________________________________ (despite) 7. In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours, I didn't feel hungry. ___________________________________________________________________ (even though) 8. Despite her injured foot, she managed to walk to the village. ___________________________________________________________________ (although) 9. The football match is still going on. ___________________________________________________________________ (yet) 10. Has Jane got divorced yet? ___________________________________________________________________ (still) 11. Jack used to have long hair and a beard. ___________________________________________________________________ (no longer) 12. I was feeling tired. ___________________________________________________________________ (any longer) 13. I wish I could speak English as well as you do. ___________________________________________________________________ (like) 14. Both in January and in February, the price of basic foods rose. ___________________________________________________________________ (as) 15. He had hoped to do better in the examination. ___________________________________________________________________ (as....as) 16. John is younger than he looks. ___________________________________________________________________ (as....as) 17. Tom is 16 years old, and so is Fred. ___________________________________________________________________ (as....as) 18. He used to be a doctor. ___________________________________________________________________ (as) 19. You're not reading that newspaper. Can I read it? ___________________________________________________________________ (as) 20. He was sitting on the beach when the sun rose. ___________________________________________________________________ (as) 21. You can go to the party if you don't come home very late. ___________________________________________________________________ (as....as) 22. When he arrives, we'll go. ___________________________________________________________________ (as....as) 23. They think that he is the best person for the job. ___________________________________________________________________ (as)

Modal verbs worksheet - Exercises


(www.vivquarry.com)
Put the correct modal verb in its correct form combined with the verb in brackets to make deductions. Situation : There are five milk bottles on their front door step. 1. They ____________________ (forget) to cancel their milk deliveries. 2. They ____________________ (wake up) yet. 3. There ____________________ (be) some guests staying with them. Situation : His coat is on the floor. 4. He ____________________ (drop) it. 5. It ____________________ (be) his coat. 6. There ____________________ (be) some logical reason for it! Put the correct modal verb in its correct form into the gaps. 7. He was very strong; he ____________________ ski all day and dance all night. 8. We ____________________ to borrow umbrellas; so we didn't get wet. 9. I was so far from the stage that I ____________________ see very well. 10. He sees very badly; he ____________________ wear glasses all the time. 11. NOTICE: All dogs ____________________ kept on leads! 12. Farmers ____________________ get up early. 13. You ____________________ drive fast; there is a speed limit here. 14. We ____________________ drive fast; we have plenty of time. 15. They ____________________ get up early; they were on holiday. Complete these sentences in an appropriate way. 16. I left my bicycle here and now it's gone. Someone ____________________ (steal) it. 17. I bought two bottles of milk. You ____________________ (buy) milk; we have loads in the fridge. 18. I have just watered the roses. You ____________________ (water) them. Look, it's raining now!

Stative verbs worksheet - Exercises 1


By Viv Quarry (www.vivquarry.com) Put the verb into the correct form. Use either the present simple or the present continuous. 1. Please don't make so much noise. I __________________ (study). 2. How many languages __________________ (Tom speak). 3. I __________________ (not/belong) to a political party. 4. Hurry! The bus __________________ (come). I __________________ (not/want) to miss it. 5. The River Nile __________________ (flow) into the Mediterranean. 6. The river __________________ (flow) very fast today much faster than usual. 7. __________________ (it/ever/snow) in India? 8. We usually __________________ (grow) vegetables in our garden, but this year we __________________ (not/grow) any. 9. A: Can you drive? B: No, but I __________________ (learn). My father __________________ (teach) me. 10. You can borrow my umbrella. I __________________ (not/need) it at the moment. 11. (at a party) I usually __________________ (enjoy) parties but I __________________ (not/enjoy) this one very much. 12. George says he's 80- years old but I __________________ (not/believe) him. 13. Ron is in London at the moment. He __________________ (stay) at the Hilton Hotel. He usually __________________ (stay) at the Hilton Hotel when he's in London. 14. My parents __________________ (live) in Bristol. They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. Where __________________ (your/parents/live)? 15. She __________________ (stay) with her sister at the moment, until she finds somewhere to live. 16. A: What __________________ (your father/do)? B: He's a teacher, but he __________________ (not/work) at the moment. 17. What time __________________ (the banks/close) in Britain? 18. I don't understand the word 'aint'. What __________________ (it/mean)? 19. He is still ill but he __________________ (get/better) slowly. 20. The economic situation is already bad and it __________________ (get/worse).

Stative verbs worksheet - Exercises


By Viv Quarry (www.vivquarry.com) Put the verb into the correct form. Use either the present simple or the present continuous. 1. Please don't make so much noise. I __________________ (study). 2. How many languages __________________ (Tom speak). 3. I __________________ (not/belong) to a political party. 4. Hurry! The bus __________________ (come). I __________________ (not/want) to miss it. 5. The River Nile __________________ (flow) into the Mediterranean. 6. The river __________________ (flow) very fast today much faster than usual. 7. __________________ (it/ever/snow) in India? 8. We usually __________________ (grow) vegetables in our garden, but this year we __________________ (not/grow) any. 9. A: Can you drive? B: No, but I __________________ (learn). My father __________________ (teach) me. 10. You can borrow my umbrella. I __________________ (not/need) it at the moment. 11. (at a party) I usually __________________ (enjoy) parties but I __________________ (not/enjoy) this one very much. 12. George says he's 80- years old but I __________________ (not/believe) him. 13. Ron is in London at the moment. He ________________ (stay) at the Hilton Hotel. He usually _______________ (stay) at the Hilton Hotel when he's in London. 14. My parents __________________ (live) in Bristol. They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. Where __________________ (your/parents/live)? 15. She __________________ (stay) with her sister at the moment, until she finds somewhere to live. 16. A: What __________________ (your father/do)? B: He's a teacher, but he __________________ (not/work) at the moment. 17. What time __________________ (the banks/close) in Britain? 18. I don't understand the word 'aint'. What __________________ (it/mean)? 19. He is still ill but he __________________ (get/better) slowly. 20. The economic situation is already bad and it __________________ (get/worse). Put the verb into the correct form. Use either the simple or the continuous forms. 21. I _____________ (just write) a cheque when I ____________ (remember) that I ______________ (have) nothing in the bank. 22. A: "I__________________ (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why __________________ (you use) a stick?" B: "I __________________ (use) a stick because I_________________ (hurt) my leg that morning falling off a horse." A: "Whose horse__________________ (you ride)? 23. The teacher__________________ (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys who__________________ (smoke) a cigarette, __________________ (have) time to put it out, so he_______________ (throw) it into the desk and __________________ (hope) for the best. A little later the teacher__________________ (notice) that smoke __________________ (rise) from the desk. "__________________ (you smoke) when I__________________ (come) in?" he__________________ (ask). 24. A: "Who__________________ (own) this umbrella?" B: "I_________________ (not know). Everybody_______________ (use) it, but nobody_______________ (know) who________________ (own) it. 25. A: "_________________ (you mind) if I__________________ (ask) you a question?" B: "That__________________ (depend) on the question." A: "It__________________ (concern) your brother." B: "I__________________ (refuse) to answer any questions about my brother." 26. Look at that crowd. I__________________ (wonder) what they__________________ (wait) for. 27. This story is about a boy who______________ (make) friends with a snake which he_______________ (find) in his garden. 28. That film_____________ (come) to the local cinema next week. I_____________ (expect) __________ (you want) to see it? 29. A: "How__________________ (Peter get) on at school?" B: "Very well. He__________________ (seem) to like the life. 30. A: "__________________ (you understand) what the lecturer__________________ (say)?" B: "No, I__________________ (not understand) him at all". 31. He__________________ (never listen) to what you say. He__________________ (always think) about something else.

Narrative tenses worksheet - Exercises 2


(www.vivquarry.com) Put the verb in brackets into the correct form in the gap AFTER the verb. Where no verb is given, put one of the following linking words into the gaps. While finally and although however as soon as but then before when The Unlucky Burglar One evening Paul (watch) ____________ the television ____________ (eat)____________ his supper ____________ the door suddenly (open) ____________ and a burglar (come) ____________ in. He (wear) ____________ a mask and (carry) ____________ a sack. ____________ doing anything else he (tie) ____________ Paul to the chair. ____________ he went upstairs to look for money. ____________ he (not find) ____________ any money he (find) ____________ a lot of jewelry, which he (put) ____________ into his sack. In his rush to get downstairs he (not see) ____________ the dog (lie) ____________ at the bottom of the stairs, and he (fall) ____________ over it, losing his glasses. ____________ the burglar (look for) ____________ them, Paul (try) ____________ to free himself. ____________ Paul (manage) ____________ to escape and he (phone) ____________ the police. ____________ the burglar (find) ____________ his glasses he (run) ____________ out of the house. ____________ unfortunately for him, the police (wait) ____________ for him at the end of the garden. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. Where possible, use 'used to' and 'would'. Charles Dickens Charles Dickens ____________ (born) in 1812 in Portsmouth. The family ____________ (move) to London n 1823. When he was twelve he ____________ (work) in a blacking factory. He worked by a window facing the street and passersby ____________ (pause) and watch him at work. Everyday he ____________ (trudge) through the London streets from Camden Town to Southwark. His family ____________ (be) very poor. His mother ____________ (hope) to open a small school. While she ____________ (try) to do this, her husband ____________ (send) to prison for being 40 in debt. When Charles ____________ (be) twenty-four, his first work, sketches by Boz, ____________ (publish). This ____________ (follow) by Pickwick Papers with which he ____________ (achieve) financial security and popularity. For the rest of his life, work simply ____________ (pour) from his pen. He ____________ (die) of a stroke in 1870. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. Where both the past simple and past perfect simple are possible, write 'BOTH'. 1. Until I ____________ (explain) the situation to her I felt guilty. 2. After I ____________ (finish) my lunch I went back to work. 3. When the police ____________ (interview) me they let me go home. 4. As soon as I got home my brother ____________ (go out). 5. The children had to stay in until the rain ____________ (stop) 6. When I ____________ (see) John coming towards me I walked in the other direction. 7. I phoned my mother to find out why she ____________ (not write) for so long. 8. We stayed in our seats until the film ____________ (finish). Continue the following sentences using the words in bracket in either the past perfect simple or continuous. 1. My landlord threw me out of my flat because (not pay the rent for six months / and break all the windows) ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. When I eventually got to the meeting I was bad tempered and exhausted! I (sit in traffic jam 45 minutes / motorist bump into me / and get completely lost) ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. By the time 5 o'clock arrived Brenda was furious. She (wait for an hour / drink six cups of tea / and they still not arrive) ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I was so depressed that I couldn't do the exam. I (study every day for two months / and give up see my friends) ________________________________________________________________________________ Put the verb in brackets in an appropriate form of the future in the past. 1. "Henry! Good Lord! I forgot that you ____________ (come) to dinner. I'm sorry, come in." 2. The police ____________ (charge) me with speeding, but I told them that I'd never driven a car. 3. The beginning of the film was terrible. I hoped it ____________ (get better). 4. I went to bed early as I was ____________ (leave) for Rio the next day. 5. Tom was sensible and his mother knew he ____________ (take) care of himself. 6. "You ____________ (show) me your holiday photos but we were interrupted." 7. "Our last holiday was a disaster. We ____________ (travel) to Austria, but I broke my leg." 8. I ____________ (just/ring) the receptionist about the tv when an engineer arrived to fix it. 9. I had invited them to come to the party at 9 o'clock, but I knew they ____________ (be late). 10. "Last time I saw you, you ____________ (emigrate) to Canada! Did you?"

Word order worksheet - Exercises


by Viv Quarry (www.vivquarry.com) PUT THE WORDS IN BRACKETS IN THE CORRECT ORDER. 1. I _____________________________ sugar in my tea. (take/not/usually) 2. 'Where's Jim?' 'He _____________________________ home early.' (gone/has/probably) 3. Ann _____________________________ very generous. (is/always) 4. Tim is a good pianist. He _____________________________ . (very/sing/also/well/can) 5. Our tv _____________________________ down. (breaking/always/is) 6. We _____________________________ a long time for the bus. (to/have/always/wait) 7. My sight isn't very good. I _____________________________ with glasses. (read/can/only) 8. I _____________________________ tomorrow. (probably/early/leaving/will/be)

9. I'm afraid I _____________________________ come to the party. (to/won't/probably/able/be) 10. If we hadn't done it, we _____________________________ each other. (never/met/might/have) 11. we/interesting/found/the/some/library/books/in _______________________________________________________________________________ 12. football/Ken/play/does/weekend/every _______________________________________________________________________________? 13. park/building/opposite/new/they/a/are/hotel/the _______________________________________________________________________________ 14. his/minutes/a/I/few/name/remembered/after _______________________________________________________________________________ 15. write/page/please/top/name/of/the/at/your/the _______________________________________________________________________________ 16. Friday/go/bank/I/every/the/to _______________________________________________________________________________ 17. late/did/come/why/so/you/home _______________________________________________________________________________? 18. London/going/few/to/I'm/week/a/for/days/next _______________________________________________________________________________ 19. the/on/see/night/at/Saturday/you/didn't/I/party _______________________________________________________________________________ 20. morning/town/I've/around/all/the/walking/been _______________________________________________________________________________ (Additional ex's p. 40 hwy. Adv. wb)

Viv Quarry's upper-intermediate/advanced grammar practice (www.vivquarry.com) Gerunds and infinitives Student's name _________________________ Date ___________________
The gerund (verb in the present form + 'ing') is used: 1. After prepositions and adverbs. I'm good at running. He apologised for waking me up early. After having lunch, we tidied up. 2. After certain verbs. She denied stealing the money. I enjoy visiting my relatives. 3. As subject or object of a sentence. Living in a big city is exciting. I find working in the city centre a pain in the neck. 4. After some expressions and verbs which are followed by the preposition 'to'. I'm looking forward to meeting you. We can't get used to driving on the left. The infinitive ('to' + the present form of the verb) is used: 1. After certain verbs. I didn't mean to do that. 2. After some verbs followed by an object (sb/sth). I can't afford to go abroad this year. I want (you) to go home. 3. After certain adjectives. It's difficult to explain. 4. After certain nouns. There's no need to ask for permission. It's time to go. 5. To express purpose. I came here to learn English. 6. After question words (how, where etc.) and compounds of 'some' and 'any' (somebody etc.) I don't know what to do. I'd like something to read. 7. With 'too' and 'enough' @ I was too tired to eat. It's cold enough to snow. 8. Stative verbs are more common in the infinitive. I began to like Susan. (not 'I began liking.') Forms of the infinitive

Present simple: I want to have an ice-cream. Present continuous: It's nice to be lying next to a swimming pool. Perfect: I'd like to have seen his face when you told him. Passive: I'd like to be promoted. Modal verbs: You should be working. She must have gone home early. This exercise must be done by tomorrow. Infinitive without 'to' (present form of the verb) is used: 1. After modal and auxiliary verbs. You mustn't do that again! It should be done immediately. 2. After 'make' and 'let' in the active voice (in the passive, the full infinitive is used) She made me do it again. / I was made to do it again. He let me go home early (this is not possible in the passive) Gerunds and infinitives - Special Cases * Like, love, hate, prefer (+) Sometimes both gerund and infinitive can be used: I like to get up early / getting up early. When these verbs refer to something in general, the gerund must be used. I like going to the beach. If they refer to one specific situation, the infinitive is more common: I like to cook a roast on Sunday afternoons. When 'like' means 'it's a good idea', use the infinitive: I like to go to the dentist regularly. After 'would' only the infinitive is possible: I'd love to see that film again. ** Begin, continue and start These verbs can be followed by both gerund and infinitive except in the present continuous form, where the infinitive must be used It started raining. / It started to rain. Look! It's starting to rain!

*** Stop Stop + Gerund = Finish one action She's angry with me and has stopped talking to me. Stop + Infinitive = Stop one action and start another I saw Jane and she stopped to talk to me. (she stopped walking and we started chatting) **** Try Try + Gerund = What you do to get what you want. I wanted to improve my English so I tried having private classes. Try + Infinitive = Your objective, what you want to do. I tried to learn English but I didn't have enough time to study properly. In the continuous tenses, the infinitive is used He's been trying to learn the piano. *5 Help (sb) and ask (sb) Help + sb. can be followed by infinitive or infinitive without 'to' He helped me tidy up the room. / He helped me to tidy up the room. If there is no direct object (sb) then infinitive without 'to' is more natural. He helped tidy up the room. 'Can't/couldn't help' means 'can't stop oneself' and is followed by the gerund. I can't help buying chocolate when I'm at the supermarket. *6 Remember & forget Remember / forget + Gerund = Sth which happened before or in the past. I remember having to wake up very early when I was at school I'll never forget arriving at work for the first time. Remember / forget + Infinitive = Sth which happened after or will happen in the future. Please remember to buy some more sugar when you go to the supermarket Don't forget to pay the electricity bill tomorrow. *7 Need If a person is the subject of the sentence, the infinitive is used:

John needs to take his cat to the vet's. If a thing is the subject of the sentence, the gerund is more common. The grass needs cutting. A final note on gerunds and infinitives Verbs of perception (see, hear, observe, notice, spot) can be used with both gerund and infinitive without 'to'. I could hear her crying all night long. I didn't hear you come in last night. However, using the gerund suggests that the activity has duration and was in progress when it was perceived. We heard him playing the piano. I can smell something burning. Infinitive without 'to' suggests that the whole, completed action is perceived. I saw the girl fall off her horse. I saw her walk across the room and take a gun out of the desk drawer.

Viv Quarry's intermediate grammar practice Gerunds and infinitives


Here is a list of the verbs and expressions and the form which any verb which follows them should take: Gerund = doing Infinitive = to do Infinitive without 'to' = do GERUND INFINITIVE INFINITIVE WITHOUT 'TO'

Preps. and adverbs.


after before Verbs admit avoid begin* consider continue* deny hate* enjoy finish like* love* mean prefer* remember *6 suggest start** stop*** try**** Expressions can't help *5 can't stand don't/doesn't mind feel like would sb mind Verb + 'to' be/get used to look forward to Subject or object Swimming is healthy I like swimming

Verbs
agree afford arrange attempt choose dare decide forget*6 hope learn long manage offer promise refuse remember *5 seem stop*** try**** Verb (+ object) ask (sb.)*5 beg (sb.) expect (sb.) help sb.*5 need (sb) *7 want (sb) would like/love (sb) would hate/prefer(sb) Verb + object advise sb. allow sb. encourage sb. invite sb. order sb. persuade sb. remind sb. teach sb. tell sb. force sb. warn sb

Adjectives
be delighted be difficult (for sb.) be easy be good be hard be kind of sb. be important be impossible be interesting be lovely be lucky be mean of sb. be nice (of sb.) be pleased be safe be sorry be surprised be unusual be too+adj.+inf.@ be+adj+enough+inf.@ Nouns (the) decision (a good) idea (no) need (the) opportunity (it's) time Question words how what when where who Compounds anybody everywhere nothing something

Auxiliary verbs
sth./sb. doesn't Does sth./sb? Doesn't sth./sb.? sth./sb. didn't Did sth./sb.? Didn't sth./sb.? will sth./sb. won't sth./sb. would sth./sb. wouldn't sth./sb. Modal verbs can can't could couldn't may may not might might not must mustn't should shouldn't Verbs help sb.*5 let sb. would rather

Viv Quarry's upper-intermediate/advanced grammar practice Gerunds and infinitives exercises Student's name _________________________ Date ___________________

Exercises taken from old Headway upper-intermediate workbook. Viv Quarry's intermediate grammar practice (www.vivquarry.com) Gerunds and infinitives Student's name _________________________ Date ___________________

The gerund (verb in the present form + 'ing') is used: 1. After prepositions and adverbs. 2. After certain verbs. 3. As subject or object of a sentence. 4. After some expressions and verbs which are followed by the preposition 'to'. The infinitive ('to' + the present form of the verb) is used: 1. After certain verbs. 2. After some verbs followed by an object (sb/sth). 3. After some certain adjectives. 4. To express purpose. 5. After questions words (how, where etc.) and compounds of 'some' and 'any' (somebody, nothing etc.) Infinitive without 'to' (present form of the verb) is used: 1. After modal and auxiliary verbs. 2. After 'make' and 'let' Gerunds and infinitives - Special Cases * Begin, continue and start These verbs can be followed by both gerund and infinitive except in the present continuous form, where the infinitive must be used It started raining. or It started to rain. Look! It's starting to rain! ** Stop Stop + Gerund = Finish one action She's angry with me and has stopped talking to me. Stop + Infinitive = Stop one action and start another I saw Jane and she stopped to talk to me. (she stopped walking and we started chatting) Try Try + Gerund = What you do to get what you want. I wanted to improve my English so I tried having private classes. Try + Infinitive = Your objective, what you want to do. I tried to learn English but I didn't have enough time to study properly.

***

In the continuous tenses, the infinitive is used He's been trying to learn the piano. **** Help (sb) and ask (sb) Help + sb. can be followed by infinitive or infinitive without 'to' He helped me tidy up the room. or

He helped me to tidy up the room. If there is no direct object (sb) then infinitive without 'to' is more natural. He helped tidy up the room. *5 Remember & forget Remember / forget + Gerund = Sth which happened before or in the past. I remember having to wake up very early when I was at school I'll never forget arriving at work for the first time. Remember / forget + Infinitive = Sth which happened after or will happen in the future. Please remember to buy some more sugar when you go to the supermarket Don't forget to pay the electricity bill tomorrow. *6 Need If a person is the subject of the sentence, the infinitive is used: John needs to take his cat to the vet's. If a thing is the subject of the sentence, the gerund is more common. The grass needs cutting.

Viv Quarry's intermediate grammar practice Gerunds and infinitives Student's name _________________________ Date ___________________

Verb patterns
Here is a list of the verbs and expressions and the form which any verb which follows them should take: Here are examples of the three forms using the verb 'to do'. Gerund = doing Infinitive = to do Infinitive without 'to' = do GERUND Prepositions and adverbs.
after before Verbs begin* continue* hate enjoy finish like love prefer remember *5 start* stop** try*** Expressions and Verb + 'to' can't stand don't/doesn't mind look forward to would sb mind Verb as subject or object of a sentence Swimming is healthy I like swimming

INFINITIVE Verbs
agree decide forget*5 hope learn manage promise refuse remember *4 stop** try*** ask (sb.)**** need (sb) *6 want (sb) would like (sb) would love (sb) Verb + object allow sb expect sb. help sb.**** invite sb. tell sb.

Adjectives
be easy be hard be important be impossible be lovely be pleased be surprised be unusual Question words how what when where who

INFINITIVE WITHOUT 'TO' Modal and auxiliary verbs


sth./sb. doesn't Does sth./sb? Doesn't sth./sb.? sth./sb. didn't Did sth./sb.? Didn't sth./sb.? can / can't could / couldn't will /won't would / wouldn't should / shouldn't must / mustn't may / may not might / might not

Compounds of some and any anybody everywhere nothing something

Verbs help sb.**** let sb. make sb.

Viv Quarry's intermediate grammar practice Gerunds and infinitives exercises Answer these questions using the verbs given: Example: Why does Tom go to the cinema so often? He likes watching films on a big screen. Why does Ann watch tv so often? (enjoy) She ___________________________________________ Why does Jack take so many photos? (like) _____________________________________________ Why don't you work in the evenings? (hate) _____________________________________________ Put the verb into the correct form using a gerund or infinitive Example: I enjoy being (be) alone. Would you like to come (come) to a party? It shouldn't be difficult to talk to John. Have you tried __________________ (phone) him at home? I wouldn't like __________________ (live) here. There's nothing __________________ (do) at night! My boss always expects me __________________ (arrive) at work early. Would you mind __________________ (open) the window? It's very hot in here. Ann began __________________ (wash) up after she'd finished __________________ (cook) I can't stand people __________________ (tell) me what to do when I'm driving. Did you forget __________________ (post) my letter? I'm looking forward to __________________ (go) to Bahia. When __________________ (work) at home, I need __________________ (have) complete silence. We tried __________________ (put) the fire out but we weren't successful. That's strange! I don't remember __________________ (lend) you my notebook. Make your own sentences using one of the verbs below in each sentence.
be surprised can't stand let sb (don't) like I ______________________________________________________________________________ I ______________________________________________________________________________ I ______________________________________________________________________________ My mother ______________________________________________________________________ My teacher ______________________________________________________________________ make sb

The Present Perfect worksheet - Exercises


By Viv Quarry (www.vivquarry.com)
Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense.
1. He_______________ (live) in London for two years and then _______________ (go) to Edinburgh. 2. When I left school I_______________ (cut) my hair and_______________ (wear) it short ever since. 3. My brother_______________ (write) several plays. He_______________ (just/finish) his second tragedy. 4. I_______________ (not see) him for three years, I wonder where he is. 5. He_______________ (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give up. 6. I_______________ (do) this sort of work when I_______________ (be) an apprentice. 7. I_______________ (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp. 8. You_______________ (see) the moon last night? 9. The clock isn't slow, it_______________ (stop). 10. A: Who_______________ (you/vote) for in the last election? B: I_______________ (vote) for Mr. Pitt. A: He_______________ (not/be) elected, _______________ (be) he? B: No, he_______________ (lose) his deposit. 11. A: _______________ (you/like) your last job? B: I__________ (like) it at first but then I___________ (quarrel) with my employer and he_______________ (dismiss) me. A: How long_______________ you there? B: I_______________ there for two weeks. 12. A: _______________ (Mary/feed) the cat? B: Yes, she_______________ (feed) him before lunch. A: What_______________ (she/give) him? B: She_______________ (give) him some fish. 13. A: I_______________ (not see) your aunt recently. B: No, she_______________ (not be) out of the house since she_______________ (buy) her colour TV. 14. A: How_______________ (you/get) that scar? B: I_______________ (got) it in a car accident a year ago. 15. She_______________ (say) she'd ring me this morning, but it's now 12.30 and she_______________ (not/ring) yet. 16. It_______________ (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match _______________ (be) postponed.

17. A: Why_______________ (you/make) such a horrible noise? B: I_______________ (lose) my key and I_______________ (try) to wake up my wife by throwing stones at her window. A: You_______________ (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door. 18. He_______________ (not/stop) since he arrived. 19. He_______________ (ride), that's why he's wearing a riding hat. 20. A: How long_______________ (you/drive)? B: I_______________ (drive) for ten years. 21. _______________ (you/lock) the house before you left? 22. I can't go out because I_______________ (not/finish) my homework yet. 23. A: Where_______________ (you/be or go) B: I_______________ (be or go) to the dentist. A: _______________ (he/take) out your bad tooth? B: Yes, he_______________ . A: _______________ (it/hurt)? 24. I_______________ (ride) all the horses in this stable. 25. A: What_______________ (you/do)? B: We_______________ (pick) apples. A: How many_______________ (you/pick)? B: We_______________ (pick) ten basketfuls. 26. The car_______________ (make) a very funny noise ever since it _______________ (run out) of petrol. 27. Originally, horses used in bull fights_______________ (not/wear) any protection, but for some time now they_______________ (wear) special padding. 28. That pipe_______________ (leak) for ages. We must get it fixed. 29. A: _______________ (you/ever/try) to give up smoking? B: Yes, I_______________ (try) last year, but then I___________ (find) that I was getting fat so I____________ (start) again. 30. A: _______________ (be) the plumber here yet? B: Yes, but he_______________ (only/stay) for an hour. A: What_______________ (he/do) in that time. B: He_______________ (turn off) the water and_______________ (empty) the tank.

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... but ... ..., although ... ... on the other hand , ...

..., for example, ... ...; that is, ... To illustrate, or to give an example ..., namely, ... ..., clearly ... To move on to the next point

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A list of linking words In the middle of a sentence


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At the beginning a new sentence


Subsequently, ... So, ... Therefore, ... As a result, ... Consequently, ... Despite ... Finally, ... In conclusion, ... To conclude, ... To summarise, ... In sum, ... Firstly, ... Secondly, ... Finally, ... The first point to note is ...; The second point to note is ...; The next point to note is ...;

To note consequences

To summarise or conclude

At the start of the first sentence in the paragraph

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Modals & conditionals


'can' and 'could'

Afreen in India asks, 'what is the difference between 'can' and 'could'? 'hope' or 'wish'? Why do we' wish you a merry Christmas', but 'hope you get well soon'? 'if' and 'whether' Catherine Walter explains that you can't always use these two words in the same way 'if I was' and 'if I were' Find out which form is more colloquial: 'if I was' or 'if I were' Inversion in conditional sentences Is it correct to say 'Hadn't it been for...'? Mixed conditionals Why don't all 'if' sentences follow the normal conditional sentence patterns? 'must' for deduction and obligation You must read Roger Woodham's explanation of these two uses of 'must' 'must', 'have to' and 'have got to' Do you know the difference between 'must' and 'have to'? 'mustn't' and 'don't have to' Susan Fearn explains the difference between these easily confused forms 'needn't have' and 'didn't need to' Elodie Carpentier from France wonders when to use 'needn't have' and didn't need to' 'perhaps', 'maybe', 'may' and 'might' Katinka Raupenstein from Germany thinks there might be slight differences between these words Polite requests Roger explains how to make polite requests using 'would you ...' and 'could you ...' 'should' or 'if' Can you sometimes use 'should' instead of 'if'? 'should have' and 'must have' George Pickering explains how to refer to the past with these modal verbs 'should', 'would' and 'could' You really should learn about the differences between 'should', 'would' and 'could' 'should have' and 'if only' Hani Al-Shoulah from Saudi Arabia wants to talk about regrets and mistakes in the past Talking about general truths Roger Woodham explains why some conditional sentences don't use 'will' or 'would' Third conditional Elena from Russia is puzzled by the third conditional 'unless' and other alternatives to 'if' Roger Woodham presents some alternatives to 'if' 'used to' or 'would' Julie from Belgium asks if this is correct: 'Did you used to play tennis?' Using 'if' with 'will' Is it ever possible to say 'If you will do something'? 'what if', 'suppose' and 'supposing' Supposing you're not sure about 'what if', what should you do? Read this! 'when', 'if' and 'in case' If you're not sure about when to use 'in case', read Roger Woodham's explanation 'when', 'if' and 'whether' Harry from Germany wonders whether it makes a difference when we use these words 'will' or 'shall', 'would' or 'should' Roger Woodham covers some of the major aspects of usage of will and shall, would and should 'would' Discover five different uses of 'would' 'would' and 'will' for refusals and insistence Roger Woodham discusses these slightly unusual uses of 'will' and 'would'

Conjunctions & clauses


'as', 'while', 'when' and 'as long as' These all refer to time, but in similar or different ways? 'as' and 'like' 'I've worked as a dog' or 'I've worked like a dog': what's the difference? 'as...as' Mohammad Tariq from Afghanistan asks about the grammar of 'as...as' 'as well as' Van Anh from Vietnam wants to know what follows 'as well as' 'being' Roger Woodham explains four different uses of 'being'

'because', 'as', 'since' and 'for' Find out about some different ways to give reasons for something 'but': conjunction or preposition? 'But' doesn't always show contrast: sometimes it means 'except for' Cleft sentences Sentences with two parts, which give emphasis, are useful in writing Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions Conjunctions link parts of a sentence together, and there are two main types 'due to', 'owing to', 'on account of' and 'because of' On account of Sathya Narayanan's question, Roger Woodham discusses how to express reasons for actions 'even if' or 'even though'? Roger Woodham explains the difference in the meanings of these similar phrases 'ever' and 'whenever' Whoever you are, wherever you are, you can find the explanation here 'for + verb-ing' and 'in order to' Roger Woodham looks at some ways to express purpose, in order to help Gloria Fulvia from Italy 'however', 'nevertheless' and 'moreover' What are the differences in the formality of these words? 'in order to', 'to' and 'so that' Learn about different ways to talk about purpose and reason 'in which', 'on which' and 'of which' David Cho from South Korea has problems using prepositions with relative pronouns Linking adverbs These are similar to conjunctions; they connect ideas and clauses in a text 'nor I you' Paul Zaffaroni from Mexico heard this phrase in a movie and wants an explanation of its grammar Omitting 'that' Sometimes you can include 'that' in a sentence, sometimes you can leave it out Participle or relative clause Both are correct, both sound natural; however, there are some small differences Participle clauses Roger Woodham talks about '-ed' and '-ing' clauses 'since' Do you know the three different uses of 'since'? 'so' Find out about the different uses of 'so' 'so' and 'so on' Roger Woodham discusses 'so': its meaning, uses, grammar and so on 'though' Raphael Gorgy wonders when and why you can put 'though' in different places in a sentence 'though' and 'even though' Roger Woodham explains the two different grammatical uses of 'though' 'unless' and 'otherwise' Haja Najubudeen from Dubai asks for help with 'unless' and 'otherwise' 'what' or 'that' and noun-verb collocations Maria Grazia Rinieri from Italy asks if the phrase 'all what I've done' is incorrect? 'which' or 'that'? Vaibhv in India asks: when do we use 'which' and when do we use 'that'? 'which' or 'that' 2 Isabelle from France wants to know how to choose between 'which' and 'that' 'which' with prepositions Karen Adams discusses phrases like 'at which' and 'in which', about which she knows plenty! 'when', 'while' and 'meanwhile' Discover the similarities and the differences between these words 'while' and 'whereas' They can both express contrast, but which one also refers to time? 'yet': adverb or conjunction How can 'yet' be similar to both 'but' and 'up to now'? 'yet' and 'but', 'so' and 'hence' Nick Leung asks about the differences between these words

A question tag is a short question at the end of a sentence, which we use to find out information or check information that we already have. This is how you form question tags:
Positive sentence - negative tag You will do it quickly, won't you? Negative sentence - positive tag She isn't happy, is she? Main verb - use 'do' We went to the party, didn't we? Yuki and Tomo are Japanese, aren't they?

Pronouns

To express regrets about past events, we use the subject, followed by wish/wishes, followed by the past perfect (subject + had/hadn't + past participle).

Positive
subject wish(es) past perfect I wish I had bought a new coat

Negative
subject wish(es) past perfect she wishes she hadn't bought a new coat Question Do/does subject wish past perfect Does she wish she hadn't bought a new coat?

FOR
We use for when we mention the length of time:

for
24 hours. two days. three hundred years. a few years.

Some extra information about for


It is possible to leave out the word for in positive sentences. For example: "I've lived here for seven years." / "I've lived here seven years." Both are perfectly correct. But in negative sentences we almost always use for. "She hasn't seen him six months" is wrong. "She hasn't seen him for six months" is correct. With expressions like all morning, all my life or all day, we never use for: "He's lived there all his life," not "He's lived there for all his life."

SINCE
We use 'since' when we mention a point in time in the past when something started:

since
yesterday morning . 1707. I was at university. they moved to London. he left home.

SECOND CONDITIONAL
To talk about an impossible or improbable situation, we can use if and the past simple together with would and the infinitive: Positive and Negative:

If
If If

Past simple
you lost your passport it cost me a fortune

Would / wouldn't
it would I wouldn't

Infinitive (without to)


take ages to get another one. be able to take you on holiday again.

Question:

If

Past simple

Would /

Infinitive (without to)

wouldn't
If If it cost me a fortune I couldn't take you on holiday would I wouldn't we be able to take you on holiday again? save a lot of money?

if
if Definition
if (if) on condition that; in case; supposing if I come, I'll see him; if I were you, I wouldn't do that allowing that; granting that if she was there, I didn't see her whether: used to introduce an indirect question ask him if he knows her Etymology: ME < OE gif, akin to Ger ob (OHG oba, ibu, Goth ibai): ult. source uncert. noun a supposition or speculation a condition or qualification a clause filled with ifs

if Idioms
as if as the situation would be if; as though

if Definition
if 1. BASEBALL infield
2. intermediate frequency

if Synonyms
if
conj. provided that, with the condition that, supposing that, conceding that, on the assumption that, granted that, assuming that, on the occasion that, whenever, wherever.

as if
as though, as the situation would be, in a way like; see apparently, as if 1.

supposing Definition
supposing (s pzi) assuming that; on the assumption that

supposing Synonyms
supposing conj. & modif. if, in case that, in these circumstances, under these conditions, let us suppose, allowing that, granting that, presuming, assuming, presupposing, with the supposition that, taking for granted that.