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99% of the mass of the human body is made up of only six elements: oxygen, carbo n, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium,

and phosphorus. Every organic molecule contains carbon. Since 65-90% of each body cell consists of water (by weight), it isn't s urprising that oxygen and hydrogen are major components of the body. Here's is a look at the major elements in the body and what these elements do. Carbohydrates Chemistry of Carbohydrates By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D., About.com Guide "This is the chemical structure of lactose, a disaccharide found in milk." Carbohydrates or saccharides are the most abundant class of biomolecules. This i s the chemical structure of lactose, a disaccharide found in milk. Calvero, Creative Commons License Ads STM for Nano EducationOpen up the world of atoms to your students. Contact us fo r support.www.nanosurf.com Protein PurificationGet quality service at low cost Small & large scale producti onswww.mclab.com Biology Research Tools2000+ Proteins,Antibody, Kits, cDNA Bulks & Vials, Quality Guaranteedwww.SinoBiological.com Chemistry Ads Chemistry Organic Chemistry 1 Chemistry Exam Help Chemistry Lab Class Carbohydrates Carbohydrates or saccharides are the most abundant class of biomolecules. Carboh ydrates are used to store energy, though they serve other important functions as well. This is an overview of carbohydrate chemistry, including a look at the ty pes of carbohydrates, their functions, and carbohydrate classification. What Is a Carbohydrate? Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is a n aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohy drates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (CH2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide. Functions of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates serve several biochemical functions: Monosaccharides are a fuel for celular metabolism. Monosaccharides are used in several biosynthesis reactions. Monosaccharides may be converted into space-saving polysaccharides, such as glyocogen and starch. These molecules provide stored energy for plant and animal cells. Carbohydrates are used to form structural elements, such as chitin in animal s and cellulose in plants. Carbohydrates and modified carbohydrates are important for an organism's fer

tilization, development, blood clotting and immune system function. Examples of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose Polysaccharides: chitin, cellulose Carbohydrate Classification Three characteristics are used to classify monosaccharides: number of carbon atoms in the molecule location of the carbonyl group the chirality of the carbohydrate aldose - monosaccharide in which the carbonyl group is an aldehyde ketone - monosaccharide in which the carbonyl group is a ketone triose - monosaccharide with 3 carbon atoms tetrose - monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms pentose - monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms hexose - monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms aldohexose - 6-carbon aldehyde (e.g., glucose) aldopentose - 5-carbon aldehyde (e.g., ribose) ketohexose - 6-carbon hexose (e.g., fructose) A monosaccharide is D or L depending on the orientation of the asymmetric carbon located furthest from the carbonyl group. In a D sugar, the hydroxyl group is o n the right the molecule when written as a Fischer projection. If the hydroxyl g roup is on the left of the molecule, then it is an L sugar.