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INDIAN GEOTECHNICAL SOCIETY CHENNAI CHAPTER

Pavement Maintenance Management System for Urban Roads Using HDM-4


R. Sudhakar
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ABSTRACT: Various maintenance treatments are being practiced in India for the urban roads. The type of treatment is at present selected arbitrarily by the field engineers without any scientific basis. In this study, optimum maintenance treatment is identified for the urban roads among the various alternatives recommended in Government of India specifications using a sophisticated and modern scientific tool namely HDM - 4 developed by the World bank. KEYWORDS: HDM-4, Urban roads, Pavement maintenance

Introduction
The current maintenance practice in India is to provide the maintenance and rehabilitation strategies based on subjective judgment and engineering experience. The principal causes for the deterioration of roads and ineffectiveness of different maintenance strategies often remain unevaluated due to nonavailability of objective data base required for the analysis of various activities, such as, design, construction, maintenance, etc. Consequently, the gap between the allocation and requirements has been accumulating over the years. Road engineers, planners and managers are forced to make a more careful examination of cost effectiveness of various investment options due to the lack of financial resources. The development of scientific maintenance system will enable the engineers to project the requirement of funds to maintain the road network at a desired level of serviceability. HDM - 4 software tool developed by World Bank for global applications can be effectively utilized for identifying optimum maintenance strategy for highway pavements. In this paper, optimum pavement maintenance strategy is arrived using HDM - 4 analysis after making due calibration for the local conditions for the urban roads in India.

expressed as a percentage of carriageway area.

Ravelling Area
Area of loss of material from wearing surface, expressed as a percentage of carriageway area.

Number of Potholes
Number of potholes per kilometer expressed in terms of the number of 'Standard' sized potholes of area 2 0.1m . A pothole is defined as an open cavity in road surface with at least 150mm diameter and at least 25mm depth.

Edge Break Area


Loss of Bituminous surface material (and possibly base materials) from the edge of the pavement, is expressed in m /Km.

Roughness
Deviations of surface from true planar surface with characteristic dimensions that affect vehicle dynamics, ride quality, dynamic of loads and drainage, expressed in the International Roughness Index, IRI (m/km)

Structural Number
The pavement strength is generally expressed in terms of Structural Number (SN). The structural number depends on subgrade strength and thickness and quality of various pavement layers. The sub grade strength is found by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test. This is a penetration test developed by the California Division of Highway, as a method for evaluating the stability of soil sub grade and other flexible pavement materials. The structural number is determined using the formula (Paterson, 1987), SN = a1 x t1 + a2 x t2 + a3 x t3+ where + anx t n

Definitions of terms used in Pavement Maintenance


The definitions for various terminologies used in pavement maintenance are given below (Haas, 1978);

Deterioration
Pavement deterioration is the process by which distress (defects) develop in the pavement under the combined effects of traffic loading and environmental conditions.

Cracking Area
Sum of rectangular areas circumscribing manifest distress (line cracks are assigned a width of 0.5m)
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a1, a2 ...a n are the strength coefficients of materials used indifferent pavement layers, t1, t2.. .t n are the corresponding thickness in inches.

P.G. Student, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University

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The strength of subgrade also affects the pavement strength. Hence, the Structural Number as determined above is modified to take in to account the subgrade effect, using the following formula (Paterson, 1987), MSN = SN + 3.57 (log CBR) - 0.85 (log CBR) -1.43
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where, MSN = Modified Structural Number SN = Structural Number CBR = Subgrade Strength at Field Conditions The strength co-efficient suggested for different pavement materials used in India are given in Table 1 (CRRI, 1994).

Table 1 Strength co-efficient

Layer / Specifications Bituminous Concrete (BC) 40 mm Bituminous Concrete (BC) 25 mm Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) 25 mm Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) Premix Carpet (PC) 20 mm (only in the case of overlaid pavements which have PMC as original surfacing) Bituminous Macadam (BM) Water Bound Macadam / (Lime Cement) stabilized Granular Sub - Base (GSB)

Strength Co-efficient 030 0.28 0.25 0.28 0.18

0.18 0.14 0.11 > The use as an appropriate design tool for pavements, if properly calibrated, especially for developing countries, while borrowing design standards directly from the design specifications of industrialised countries. The data required for the HDM - 4 analysis are listed in the Table 2. HDM-4 supports flexible options for data analysis and results. Users can make printed or electronic reports. They can also export data and results to standard database for other users. HDM-4 can produce the following three types of output, which can assist road managers to make informed decisions: > Strategic road maintenance and development plans, produced from long-term predictions of road network performance, > Economic efficiency indicators, produced from analysis of individual road projects, > Multi-year work programs, produced from prioritization of several road projects.

Use of HDM - 4 in Pavement Maintenance


The Highway design model was developed by the World Bank in 1979. It has been updated to Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4) in 1998, under the sponsorship of Permanent International Association of Road Congress (PIARC). It is ideally suited for making the total assessment of deterioration and economic returns so that optimum utilization of funds may also be achieved for roads. Also, it is recognized as a state-of-the-art system for the analysis of road maintenance and investment alternatives because of the following advantages (HDM - 4, 2001): > The incorporation of both agency costs and road user costs in a life-cycle cost analysis, > The use of calibration parameters for broad-based applicability in diverse climates and conditions, and

Table 2 HDM -4 Input data

Input Road network data Vehicle fleet data Work standards

Description Basic road details, geometries, pavement history, pavement condition etc. Basic characteristics of vehicle fleet, economical and financial costs, etc. Specifications for maintenance and improvement works

Source: HDM - 4 manual - Vol. I (2001)

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Methodology adopted in this Study


The methodology in this study involves five stages. In the first stage, the experimental stretches were identified and the preliminary data were collected. In the second stage, classified traffic surveys were conducted. The traffic data were converted in to Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) for the analysis. In the third stage, pavement evaluation was carried out by measuring the surface distresses like roughness, pothole and patching, ravelling, edge breaking and surface cracking. In the fourth stage, the secondary data like history of road maintenance, the maintenance strategies existing in the study area, the cost data for maintenance of study stretches and periodicity interval of maintenance were collected from the Highways Department, Tamilnadu. The climatic details were collected from the Meteorological Department of India and utilised in the current study. In the last stage, the analysis was carried out using HDM - 4 and optimum maintenance strategy was evolved.

Evaluation of Test pits


Test pits of size 0.9m x 0.9m were dug, diagonally opposite on both ends of the identified stretches. The pits were under the wheel path at a distance of 0.5m to 1m depending upon the carriage way width, from the edge of the pavement. The pits were dug up to sub-grade level. The pavement was dug layer by layer. Thickness of each layer and the total crust were measured accurately. Stretches having substantially different composition and thickness were rejected. The following values of sub grade soil were collected from the Department records. > Field dry density > Field moisture content > Soaked CBR

Pavement Evaluation
In the selected study stretches, the following primary surveys were conducted for the requirement of HDM - 4 inputs. > Road Inventory Survey > Road Condition Survey > Traffic Survey

Study Area Description


Chennai- the capital city of Tamil Nadu being the largest city in south India and one of the four metropolitan cities in the country is chosen as the study area. Chennai has been chosen as the study area as this study is proposed exclusively for urban roads and due to ease of availability of stretches in the nearby area.

Preliminary Identification of Sites for Study Stretches


> Stretches on flexible pavements with Bituminous concrete (BC) and Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) surfacing. > Stretches on straight reaches and plain terrains with same rainfall conditions > Stretches without cross roads, cross drainage works and habitations. > Availability of data such as year of construction, crust details, traffic particulars, strengthening details, year of last renewal and specifications. > Stretches with uniformity in longitudinal and transverse directions with regard to crust composition, sub-grade, drainage and surface conditions to the extent possible.

Traffic Volume Survey


The classified traffic volume surveys were conducted in all the 36 stretches in both directions during Feb'2009 and the details are given in Table 3.

Road Condition Survey


The following performance indicators physically measured on the study stretches: > Cracking > Patches and Potholes > Ravelling > Roughness > Rutting > Edge breaking The results of distress survey are given in Table 4. were

Finalisation of Study Stretches


Having completed the preliminary identification of 36 stretches, the following data were collected on these stretches through field surveys and testing with a view to ensure uniformity in various characteristics of the stretches for the database development.

Cost Data
The cost data for maintenance of study stretches were collected from Highways Department, Tamilnadu and are shown in Table 5.

Pavement Surface Condition


The extent and type of distress developed in pavements were observed visually. The information on drainage, width of pavement, etc. were recorded

Analysis
Project analysis was carried out using HDM - 4 software with various maintenance options. The following maintenance options were considered in the analysis and the optimum maintenance option was identified by

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Table 3 List of Study Stretches & Traffic Details

S.No Name of the Road 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Besant Nagar, 6th Avenue Vandikaran street Besant Nagar, 6th Avenue 5 furlong road Besant Avenue Indira Nagar, 2nd Avenue Musirisubramaniam salai Musirisubramaniam salai Dr.Ranga Road

Section ID SI S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 Sll S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25 S26 S27 S28 S29 S30 S31 S32 S33 S34 S35 S36

Chainage 0/50-0/250 0/200 - 0/400 0/570-0/770 0/600 - 0/800 0/200-0/400 0/200-0/400 0/350-0/550 0/50-0/250 0/50-0/250 0/50 - 0/250 0/350 - 0/550 0/50 - 0/250 0/200-0/400 0/250 - 0/450 0/50-0/250 0/350 - 0/550 0/50-0/250 0/700 - 0/900 0/50 - 0/250 0/0-0/200 0/400 - 0/600 0/50-0/250 0/50-0/250 I 0/50-0/250 0/100-0/300 0/750-0/950 0/100-0/300 0/50-0/250 0/350 - 0/550 0/50-0/250 0/100-0/300 0/50-0/250 0/50-0/250 0/100 - 0/300 0/500-0/700 0/200-0/400

Age

Length 850 600 850 870 1300 600 800 800

Traffic low med low Hev med med Hev Hev med low med med med med Hev Hev Hev Hev low Hev Hev Hev low low med med Hev Hev low low med med med Hev Hev Med |

CBR 8 6 8 4 8 6 4 4 3 3 12 18 9 8 2 2 5 7 8 11 11 4 9 8 6 8 12 5 16 16 2 10 4 6 4 5

AADT 5541 9087 5541 14405 11940 4899 21945 21945 12667 14812 18462 20796 14905 17162 26822 26822 25263 25263 6844 25625 25625 14405 2771 10967 8552 11940 14758 19074 8105 8105 17558 12398 19962 45859 45859 11331

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

825 300 1350 770 800 600 700 700 1075 1075 350 3100 3100 870 350 550 380 1300 360 305 960 960 750 300 570 800 800 970

10 Venkateswara Agraharam Street 11 Greenways Road 12 Gandhi salai 13 Besant Nagar, 3rd Avenue 14 Sringeri Mutt Road 15 R.A puram main road 16 R.A puram main road 17 South Canal Bank Road 18 South Canal Bank Road 19 Notron road 20 velachery main road 21 velachery main road 22 5 furlong road 23 Besant Nagar 3rd Main Road 24 C.v.Raman Road 25 R.R. Colony 1st Street 26 Besant Avenue 27 70'Feet Road 28 Devanathan Street 29 West canal bank road 30 West canal bank road 31 Indira Nagar, 3 rd Avenue 32 Besant Nagar, 7th Avenue 33 Mandhaveli Street 34 Kasturibai Nagar 3rd street 35 Kasturibai Nagar 3rd street 36 Indira Nagar, 1 st Avenue

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Table 4 Results of Distress Survey

Section Drainage ID S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25 S26 S27 S28 S29 S30 S31 S32 S33 S34 S35 S36 Good Poor Avg Good Avg Good Avg Good Good Avg Good Good Avg Good Good Avg Avg Poor Good Poor Avg Poor Good Avg Poor Poor Avg Avg Avg Good Avg Poor Poor Avg Good good

Carriage way(m) 7 4 10.5 11.5 11 11 13 13 8.5 10.8 11.5 8 17 8.5 14 14 15 8.5 7.8 8.1 8.5 8.5 9.2 8.8 7.5 11 14 7 7 7 8.6 7.5 7 7.5 7 7.5

Roughness (m/km) 0.863 1.84 3.415 2.148 1.392 0.34 3.878 5.847 2.55 4.45 3.422 4.735 3.715 4.853 2.365 3.165 3.992 1.015 2.34 5.018 3.637 3.66 3.173 6.04 2.01 3.185 4.165 7.275 3.935 3.7 3.1 4.927 3.202 4.108 5.505 3.713

Crack(%) 0.015 0 0.0171 0 0 0.909 0.1256 0.00346 0 0 0.008 0 0.0735 1.58 0 0.204 0 0.0433 0 1.296 0.0882 0.0529 0.052 0.0511 0.266 0.45 0.171 0.0714 1.56 0 0.843 0.0667 0 0.04 0 0.35

Ravelling(%) 0 1.875 0.417 0 0 3.36 5.69 0 0 0 3.517 0.0056 8.823 10.84 0.326 2.692 0 13.75 0.011 14.69 3.432 0.4 7.719 15.34 7 6.81 11.42 13.92 20.36 13.47 3.633 18.25 22.85 1.333 0.7142 1.667

No of Potholes 4 10 4 0 1 8 3 1 1 8 3 1 2 5 1 4 2 12 2 5 2 4 3 2 1 2 5 2 5 4 0 2 7 0 0 0

No of Egdge Breaks 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Rut Depth (mm) 5 0 7 0 2 0 5 5 0 0 3 0 8 0 0 6 5 5 0 6 0 5 0 0 0 5 3 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0

Texture Depth (mm) 0.453 0.6579 0.471 0.4711 0.36 0.55 0.375 0.283 0.283 0.3313 0.509 0.53 0.365 0.602 0.4711 0.3424 0.3314 0.3787 0.353 0.6579 0.5095 0.657 0.559 0.453 0.406 0.36 0.47 0.32 0.556 0.406 0.3209 0.3659 0.275 0.552 0.406 0.239

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Table 5 Cost of Maintenance Works

SI. No.

Type of Maintenance works

Cost of works (Rs /sq.m) Economic cost Financial Cost

1 20 mm Premix carpet (PC) 2 25 mm Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) 3 40 mm Bituminous Concrete (BC) 5 75 mm Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) 6 Pothole patching 7 Crack sealing 8 Edge repair Source: Highways Dept, Tamilnadu (2008) considering the criteria of economic indicator, called NPV/CAP ratio. Option 1 - Do Nothing Option 2 - Routine Maintenance Option 3 - Overlay 25 mm SDBC Option 4 - Overlay 40 mm BC The NPV/CAP ratios for various options arrived are given in Table 6 and it can be seen that option 3 is yielding maximum NPV/CAP ratio for the stretches. Hence option 3 (i.e.,) overlay with 25mm thick SDBC is found to be optimum maintenance strategy. The average roughness of roads in the study stretches is shown in Figure 1. The roughness value exceeds the permissible IRI value of 4 in two years. Hence it may be concluded that the optimum periodicity interval for the maintenance strategy is 2 years.

105 140 155 428 135 110 127

107 156 172 476 150 122 141

Table 6 NPV/CAP ratio for various alternatives Section Option Option Option Option ID 1 2 3 4 SI 0 0 1.646 1.383 S2 0 0 1.813 1.54 S3 0 0 0.326 0.195 S4 0 0 1.954 1.674 S5 0 0 1.646 1.383 S6 0 0 0.246 0.123 S7 0 0 7.92 7.058 S8 0 0 5.18 4.59 S9 0 0 1.325 1.112 S10 0 0 1.533 1.29 S11 0 0 2.716 2.348 S12 0 0 3.673 3.211 S13 0 0 1.189 0.972 S14 0 0 3.903 3.417 S15 0 0 3.412 3.01 S16 0 0 3.797 3.363 S17 0 0 3.095 2.704 S18 0 0 7.706 6.85 S19 0 0 0.196 0.077 S20 0 0 9.863 8.788 S21 0 0 7.776 6.91 S22 0 0 1.189 0.972 S23 0 0 0.326 0.195 S24 0 0 1.524 1.278 S25 0 0 1.456 1.213 S26 0 0 1.83 1.55 S27 0 0 2.405 2.067 S28 0 0 7.172 6.383 S29 0 0 1.185 0.968 S30 0 0 1.147 0.934 S31 0 0 9.916 7.873 S32 0 o 2.405 2.067 S33 0 0 5.136 4.548 S34 0 0 9.244 8.24 S35 0 0 7.436 6.612 S36 0 0 2.045 1.753

Fig 1 Average Roughness of study stretches predicted by HDM-4

Conclusions
The following conclusions are drawn, from the field study and HDM - 4 analysis. > Maintenance treatment with 25mm SDBC is found to be optimum for the urban roads. > Average periodicity interval required for renewing the road surface is 2 years. However it varies for 2 - 10 years for the individual roads.

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