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BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA DARI HULU KE HILIR

DAFTAR ISI

BAB I

Asal-Usul Minyak dan Gas Bumi

 
  • 1 Pengenalan Geologi …………………………………………………………………… ..

 
  • a. Bumi di dalam Tata Surya ..

………………………………………………………

...

  • b. Formasi dan Struktur Bumi

……………………………………………………….

  • c. Lempeng Tektonik …………………………

...

…………………………………… ..

  • d. Gempa Bumi ……………………………………………………………………… ..

  • e. Pembentukan Oceanic Crust (Lempeng Dasar Laut) ……………………………….

  • f. Kegiatan Vulkanik Subduction – Induced ………………………………… …… ...

..

  • g. Kegiatan Vulkanik “Hot Spot” ……………………………………….…………….

  • h. Pembentukan Rangkaian Pegunungan ……………………………… …………….

..

  • i. Bagaimana elemen-elemen mempengaruhi kulit bumi …………………………… ..

  • j. Batuan Magma (Magmatic Rock) ……………………………………… …………

..

  • k. Batuan Metamorphic ……………………………………………………………… ..

  • 2 Teori Biogenic ..................................................................................................................

  • 3 Proses pembentukan minyak dan gas bumi secara organik …………………………… ..

  • a. Dekomposisi (Penguraian) .........................................................................................

  • b. Sedimentasi (Pengendapan) .......................................................................................

  • c. Pergerakan Stratigrafi / Kulit Bumi ...........................................................................

  • d. Maturasi (Pematangan) ..............................................................................................

  • e. Migrasi (Perpindahan) ...............................................................................................

  • f. Entrapment (Jebakan) ................................................................................................

  • 4 Teori Abiogenik

...

  • 5 Proses pembentukan minyak dan gas bumi secara abiogenik ..........................................

  • 6 Teori Peak Oil ...................................................................................................................

  • 7 Komponen pembentuk minyak dan gas bumi ..................................................................

BAB II

Reservoir

  • 1 Proses terjadinya reservoir ................................................................................................

  • 2 Batuan pembentuk reservoir .............................................................................................

  • 3 Jenis-jenis reservoir ..........................................................................................................

    • a. Sinklin ………………………………………………………………………………

    • b. Antiklin ………………………………………………………………………… ......

    • c. Dome ……………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • d. Fault ……………………………………………………………………………… ...

    • e. Unconformity …………………………………………………………………….…

    • f. Plug …………………………………………………………………………………

    • g. Reef …………………………………………………………………………………

    • h. Lensa ……………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • i. Kombinasi ………………………………………………………………………… ..

  • 4 Jenis-Jenis drive / tenaga pendorong reservoir ……………………………………

  • ...

    ..

    • a. Gas cap …………………………………………………………………………… ...

    • b. Dissolved gas drive …………………………………………………………………

    • c. Active aquifer reservoir drive / water drive ……………………………………… ...

    • d. Kombinasi ………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • 5 Manajemen Tekanan Reservoir ……………………………………………………… ...

    BAB III Explorasi
    BAB III
    Explorasi
    • 1 Survey / observasi geologi ................................................................................................

      • a. Aerial ..........................................................................................................................

      • b. Satelit .........................................................................................................................

  • 2 Studi awal ….… ...............................................................................................................

    • a. Gravimetry ………………………………………………………………………….

    • b. Magnetometry ………………………………………………………………………

    • a. Onshore (Darat) ..........................................................................................................

    • b. Offshore (Laut) ..........................................................................................................

    • c. Isochrons ....................................................................................................................

    • d. 3D Seismic .................................................................................................................

    • e. 4D Seismic .................................................................................................................

     

    4

    Studi Hasil Seismic ...........................................................................................................

     
    • a. Kelayakan ekonomis ..................................................................................................

    • b. Kalkulasi reservoir .....................................................................................................

    • c. Penentuan lokasi sumur .............................................................................................

     

    5

    Pengeboran / Drilling ........................................................................................................

     
    • a. Rig / anjungan pengeboran ........................................................................................

    a.1. Jenis-jenis Rig ....................................................................................................

    a.1.1.

    Rig Darat ................................................................................................

    a.1.2.

    Rig Laut ..................................................................................................

     

    a.1.2.1. Swamp-barge rig………………………………………………… ...

    a.1.2.2. Jack-up rig ………………………………… …………………… ..

    ..

    a.1.2.3. Semi-Submersible ……….……………………………………… ...

     

    a.2. Bagian-bagian rig ...............................................................................................

    a.2.1.

    Hoisting system ......................................................................................

    a.2.2.

    Rotary system ………………………………………………………….

    a.2.3.

    Circulation system …………………………………………………… ..

    a.2.4.

    Blowout prevention system ....................................................................

    a.2.5.

    Power system ………………………………………………………… ..

    • b. Mud / Lumpur Pengeboran ........................................................................................

    • c. Cementing ..................................................................................................................

    c.1. Primary Cementing ............................................................................................

    c.2. Remedial Cementing ..........................................................................................

    • d. Directional Drilling ....................................................................................................

    • e. Proses pengeboran ......................................................................................................

     

    6

    Data Aquisition / Pengambilan Data ................................................................................

     
    • a. Logging ......................................................................................................................

    a.1. Metode Logging .................................................................................................

    a.2. Jenis-Jenis Logging ............................................................................................

    a.2.1.

    Logging Standar .....................................................................................

    a.2.2.

    Mud Logging ..........................................................................................

    a.2.3.

    LWD – Logging While Drilling .............................................................

    a.3. Interpretasi Log ..................................................................................................

    • b. Core Sampling ............................................................................................................

     

    7

    BAB IV

    Well / Sumur

     

    1

    Jenis sumur .......................................................................................................................

     
    • a. Explorasi ....................................................................................................................

    • b. Produksi .....................................................................................................................

    • c. Injeksi .........................................................................................................................

    • d. Disposal …………………………………………………………………………… ..

     

    2

    Wellhead / X-mastree / Kepala Sumur ………………………………………………….

     
    • a. Lower Master Valve ...................................................................................................

    • b. Upper Master Valve ...................................................................................................

    • c. Swab Valve ................................................................................................................

    • d. Choke Valve ...............................................................................................................

    • e. Wing Valve ................................................................................................................

     

    3

    Well Equipment ................................................................................................................

    • a. Pump Joint .................................................................................................................

    • b. R Nipple .....................................................................................................................

    • c. Perforated Pump Joint ...............................................................................................

    • d. Non Locating Seal Assembly ....................................................................................

    • e. Tubing Blast Joint ......................................................................................................

    • f. Sliding Sleeve Door ...................................................................................................

    • g. DHSV ........................................................................................................................

    • h. Wellhead Body Assembly .........................................................................................

    • i. Hanger .......................................................................................................................

    • j. Casing ........................................................................................................................

    • k. Tubing ........................................................................................................................

    • 4 Metode Completion Sumur ..............................................................................................

      • a. Berdasarkan jumlah tubing ........................................................................................ a.1. Single ................................................................................................................... a.2. Dual ..................................................................................................................... a.3. Multi ....................................................................................................................

      • b. Berdasarkan Formasi ................................................................................................. b.1. Open Hole ............................................................................................................ b.2. Perforated casing ………………………………………………………………. b.3. Slotted Screen & Gravel Pack ………………………………………………….

  • 5 Metode perawatan sumur ……………………………………………………………… ..

    • a. Fracturing ………………………………………………………………………… ...

    • b. Acidizing ……………………………………………………………………………

    • c. Bahan kimia ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    • d. Mengontrol pasir ……………………………………………………………………

    • e. Frac packing ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    • f. Well Offloading …………………………………………………………………….

  • BAB V

    Well Testing

     
    • 1 Drill stem test ……………………………………………………………………………

    • 2 Potential test …………………………………………………………………………….

    • 3 Bottom-hole pressure test ……………………………………………………………….

    • 4 Transient pressure test ………………………………………………………………… ..

    • 5 Productivity test …………………………………………………………………………

    • 6 Routine production test ………………………………………………………………….

    • 7 Bottom-hole temperature determination ……………………………………………….

    • 8 Sonic fluid level determination ………………………………………………………….

    • 9 Water analysis ………………………………………………………………………… ...

    BAB VI

    Separation – Pemisahan

    • 1 Separator ……………………………………………………………………………… ...

      • a. Bagian-bagian internal separator ………………………………………………… ... a.1. Deflector plate …………………………………………………………………. a.2. Baffles / Weir ………………………………………………………………… .. a.3. Straightening vanes ……………………………………………………………. a.4. Wave Breaker ………………………………………………………………… .. a.5. Demister pad …………………………………………………………………… a.6. Slotted tube / Vortex breaker ……………………………………………… ....... a.7. Manhole ……………………………………………………………………… ... a.8. Sand-jetting …………………………………………………………………… ..

      • b. Perlengkapan Separator …………………………………………………………… .. b.1. Control Valve ………………………………………………………………… ..

    b.1.1.

    Pressure Control Valve (PCV) ……………………………………… ...

    b.1.2.

    Level Control Valve (LCV) ………………………………………… ...

    b.1.3.

    Flow Control Valve (FCV) …………………………………………….

    b.2. Transmitter …………………………………………………………………… ..

    b.2.1.

    Level Transmitter …………………… ……………………………….

    ..

    b.2.2.

    Pressure Transmitter …………………………… ……………………

    ..

    b.2.3.

    Temperature Ttransmitter… …………….…………………………… ..

    b.2.4.

    Flow Transmitter ………………………………………………………

    b.3. Safety Device (Alat Pengaman) ………………………………

    ...

    ……………

    ...

    b.3.1.

    PSV …………………………………………………………………….

    b.3.1.1. Spring Loaded Type ………………………….………………… ...

    b.3.1.2. Balance Lift ……………………………………………………… ..

    b.3.1.3. Fire / Temperature Type (TSV) ………………………………… ...

    b.3.1.4. Pilot Assisted …………………………………………………… ...

     

    b.3.2.

    Pilot Sensor …………………………………………………………….

     

    b.3.2.1. PSH(H) …………………………………………………………….

    b.3.2.2. PSL(L) …………………………………………………………….

     

    b.3.3.

    Rupture Disk ………………………………………………………… ...

    2

    Metode / proses pemisahan pemisahan …………………………………………………

    • a. Minyak ……

    ...

    ………………………………………………………………………

    a.1. Gravitasi ……………………………………………………………………… ..

    a.2. Dengan bantuan bahan kimia ………………………………………………… ..

    a.3. Centrifugal force ……………………………………………………………… ..

    • b. Gas ………………………………………………………………………………….

    b.1. Dehidrasi ……………………………………………………………………… ..

    b.2. Extraksi …………………………………………………………………………

    BAB VII

    Treatment

    1

    Gas Treatment ………………...…………………………………………………………

    • a. Liquid Extraction Plant (Gas Plant) ……………………………………………… ...

    • b. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) ……………………………………………………….

    2

    Oil Treatment ……………………………………………………………………………

    • a. Heater-Treaters …………………… ………………………………………………

    ..

    • b. Free-Water Knock Out (FWKO) ………………………………………………… ...

    • c. Desalter …………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • d. Gun Barrel ………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • e. Storage Tanks ……………………………………………………………………….

    • f. Vapor Recovery System …………………………………………………………….

    3

    Water Treatment ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    • a. Skimmer …………………………………………………………………………….

    • b. API (Atmospheric Pressure Interceptor) Separator ……………………………… ...

    • c. Chemical additive ………………………………………………………………… ..

    c.1. Demulsifier …………………………………………………………………… ..

    c.2. Reverse demulsifier …………………………………………………………….

    • d. Hydrocyclon …………………… ………………………………………………….

    BAB VIII

    Gauging dan metering

     

    1

    Lease tank battery ……………………………………………………………………….

    2

    Tank Battery Operation …………………………………………………………………

    3

    Tank Strapping ………………………………………………………………………….

    4

    Tank oil gauging ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    5

    Oil measurement and testing ……………………………………………………………

    6

    Measurement and testing procedure …………………………………………………….

    7

    Standardized and semi-automatic tank Batteries ……………………………………… ..

    8

    Automatic Custody Transfer ……………………………………………………………

    9

    Gas Measurement ……………………………………………………………………….

    10

    Computers in producing Operations …………………………………………………….

    11

    Programmable logic controller and distributed control system …………………………

    12

    SCADA (Supervisory Control Data Acquisition) System …………………………… ...

    BAB IX

    Offshore Production and Structure

     
    • 1 Offshore production structure ………………………………………………………… ...

      • a. GTS (Gathering and testing satellite) ……………………………………………….

      • b. SWP / MWP (Single / multi well platform) ……………………………………… ...

  • 2 FPSO (Floating Production and Storage Facilities) …………………………………….

  • 3 MOPUs (Mobile Offshore Production Units) ………………………………………… ..

    • 4 Subsea Pipelines ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    BAB X

    Refinery

    • 1 Oil refinery …………………………………………………………………………… ...

     
    • a. Jenis minyak mentah berdasarkan komponennya ………………………………… ..

    a.1. Heavy ………………………………………………………………………….

    a.2. Intermediate ……………………………………………………………………

    a.3. Light …………

    ...

    ………………………………………………………………

    • b. proses pemisahan produk ………………………………………………………… ...

    b.1. Separation …………………………………………………………………… ...

    b.1.1.

    Heavy ………………………………………………………………… ..

    b.1.2.

    Intermediate ……………………………………………………………

    b.1.3.

    Light ………… ……………………………………………………….

    ..

    b.2. Conversion …………………………………………………………………….

    b.2.1.

    Heavy residues ……………………………………………………… ...

    b.2.2.

    White products ……………………………………………………… ...

    b.2.3.

    Heavy fuel oil ………………………………………………………….

    b.3. Enhancement ………………………………………………………………… ..

    b.3.1.

    Sulfur removal …………………………………………………………

    b.3.2.

    Catalyse ……………………………………………………………… ..

    b.4. Blending ……………………………………………………………………….

    • 2 Gas refinery …………………………………………………………………………… ..

     
    • a. Dehydrogenation ……………………………………………………………………

    • b. Drying ………………………………………………………………………………

    • c. Effluent cleanup …………………………………………………………………….

    • d. Fuel gas treatment ………………………………………………………………… ..

    • e. Hydrogen ……………………………………………………………………………

    • f. Liquid Treating …………………………………………………………………… ..

    • g. NGL and LNG …………………………………………………………………… ...

    • h. Pre-reforming ……………………………………………………………………….

    • i. Sulfur ……………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • j. Sulfur recovery …………………………………………………………………… ...

    • k. Synthesis gas ……………………………………………………………………… ..

    • l. Treating …………………………………………………………………………… ..

    BAB XI

    Secondary recovery dan enhance recovery

     
    • 1 Secondary recovery …………………………………………………………………… ..

      • a. Immiscible displacement by water (water flooding) ……………………………… ..

      • b. Displacement by gas (immiscible gas drive) ……………………………………….

      • c. Artificial Lift ……………………………………………………………………… .. a.1. Sucker Rod ……………………………………………………………………. a.2. Pump-off Controllers …………………………………………………………. a.3. Gas Lifting ……………………………………………………………………. a.4. Subsurface electrical pumping ……………………………………………… ... a.5. Subsurface hydraulic pumping ……………………………………………… ... a.6. Jet pump ……………………………………………………………………….

  • 2 Enhance recovery ……………………………………………………………………….

    • a. In situ thermal drive ……………………………………………………………… ...

    • b. Chemical drive …………………………………………………………………… ...

    • c. Miscible displacement by gas (miscible drive) …………………………………… ..

    • d. Nitrogen service …………………………………………………………………….

  • BAB XII

    Teknologi informasi dan telekomunikasi

    • 1 Telekomunikasi ................................................................................................................

      • a. Wire ...........................................................................................................................

      • b. Gelombang Radio ...................................................................................................... b.1. Radio Trunking .................................................................................................... b.2. GSM ....................................................................................................................

    b.3. CDMA .................................................................................................................

    b.4. TDMA .................................................................................................................

    • c. Fiber-optic ..................................................................................................................

    • d. CCTV ……………………………………………………………………………….

    • e. PA/GA ………………………………………………………………………………

    2

    Informasi ...........................................................................................................................

    • a. Database .....................................................................................................................

    • b. Storage …………………………………………………………………………… ...

    BAB XIV

    Special Problems

    1

    Corrosion ……………………………………………………………………………… ..

    2

    Emulsion Treating ………………………………………………………………………

    3

    Scale Formation …………………………………………………………………………

    4

    Naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM) ………………………………………

    5

    Water Disposal ………………………………………………………………………….

    6

    Parafin Problems ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    7

    Asphaltenes …………………………………………………………………………… ...

    8

    Hydrogen Sulfide ……………………………………………………………………… ..

    BAB XV

    Sejarah Perminyakan di Indonesia

    1

    Sebelum kemerdekaan ………………………………………………………………… ..

    2

    Sesudah kemerdekaan ………………………………………………………………… ...

    BAB XVI

    Instrumentasi

    1

    PCS ………………….………………………………………………………………… ..

    2

    SIS ………………….………………………………………………………………… ...

    3

    FGS …………………………………………………………………………………… ..

    BAB XVII

    Elektrikal

    1

    Motor Control Center / Switchgear…………………………………………………… ...

    2

    Pembangkit Daya Listrik ……………………………………………………………… ..

    BAB XVIII

    Shipping / Pengapalan Minyak dan gas

    1

    Tanker ………………………………………………………………………………… ...

    • a. Jenis-Jenis tanker ………………………………………………………………… ... a.1. Coastal tanker …………………...…………………………………………….. a.2. Aframax ………………… …………………………………………………

    ..

    ...

    a.3. Suez-max ………………………………………………………………………

    a.4. VLCC ………………………………………………………………………….

    a.5. ULCC ………………………………………………………………………….

    • b. Bagian-bagian tanker ………………………………………………………………. b.1. Bridge castle ………………………………………………………………… ... b.2. Tanki-tanki…………………………………………………………………… .. b.3. Engine room - kamar mesin ………………………………………………… ... b.4. Derricks ……………………………………………………………………… .. b.5. Helipad ………………… …………………………………………………… ..

    • c. Anatomi tanker …………………………………………………………………… ... c.1. Tanki ………………………………………………………………………… ..

    c.1.1.

    tanki minyak ………………………………………………………… ...

    c.1.2.

    slop tanks ………………………………………………………………

    c.1.3.

    water ballast ……………………………………………………………

    c.1.4.

    freshwater …………………………………………………………… ...

    c.1.5.

    fuel …………………………………………………………………… ..

    c.1.6.

    bulkheads ………………………………………………………………

    c.2. Engine room / Kamar mesin ………………………………………………… ..

    c.2.1.

    main engine ……………………………………………………………

    c.2.2.

    electricity generator and heating plant ……………………………… ...

    c.2.3.

    steering gear ………………………………………………………… ...

    c.2.4.

    pump room …………………………………………………………….

    c.2.5.

    rudder blade ……………………………………………………………

    c.2.6.

    Propeller ……………………………………………………………….

    c.2.7.

    chain locker ……………………………………………………………

    c.3. Bridge castle ………………………………………………………………… ...

    c.3.1.

    radar ……………………………………………………………………

    c.3.2.

    bridge (anjungan) …………………………………………………… ...

    c.3.3.

    office quarters ………………………………………………………….

    c.3.4.

    crew cabin …………………………………………………………… ...

    c.3.5.

    galley ………………………………………………………………… ..

    c.3.6.

    lounge ………………………………………………………………….

    c.3.7.

    sport facilities ………………………………………………………….

    • 2 Rute utama pengapalan ………………………………………………………………….

    • 3 Bagaimana pengapalan mempengaruhi harga minyak .....................................................

    • 4 Tanker safety ....................................................................................................................

    BAB XIX

    Regulasi Minyak dan Gas

     
    • 1 International …………………………………………………………………………… ..

    • 2 Indonesia ……………………………………………………………………………… ...

    BAB XX

    (HSE) Health Safety Environment

     
    • 1 Health ……………………………………………………………………………………

    • 2 Safety ……………………………………………………………………………………

    • 3 Environment …………………………………………………………………………….

    BAB XII

    Future Trends

    • 1 Multiphase Pumps ………………………………………………………………………

    • 2 Horizontal Trees ……………………………………………………………………… ...

    • 3 Horizontal Drilling …………………………………………………………………… ...

    • 4 Downhole Well Splitters ……………………………………………………………… ..

    • 5 Multiphase Metering …………………………………………………………………….