You are on page 1of 262

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms

Foundation Engineering
by Prof. Bengt B. Broms
April, 2007

http://www.geoforum.com/knowledge/texts/broms/index.asp

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms

ii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms

Foundation Engineering
by Prof. Bengt B. Broms
April, 2007 The textbook can be read by chapers or searched by keywords.

Table of contents: 1. Aspects of foundation engineering 2. Soil mechanics 3. Geotechnical field investigations 4. Bearing capacity of foundations 5. Foundation settlements 6. Factors to consider in foundation design 7. Spread footing design 8. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations 9. Mat foundations 10. Lateral earth pressure 11. Soil retaining structures 12. Pile foundations - Single piles 13. Single piles - Dynamic analysis 14. Pile foundations - Pile Groups
http://www.geoforum.com/knowledge/texts/broms/index.asp

Pages 1 13 39 55 69 93 101 107 113 121 143 173 213 221

iii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms

Chapter 1. Aspects of foundation engineering


1. Foundations of buildings and structures
Keywords: pile, raft, footing

Page 2 2 3 3 4

2. Effects of underground installations on foundations


Keywords: tunnel, ground water, water main, sewer line

3. Soil deposit
Keywords: clay, sand, rock, ground water

4. Interactions between buildings


Keywords: settlement, clay, shale, tunnel, sewer line

5. Requirements of a foundation
Keywords: economy, safety, settlement, seasonal changes, construction problem, environment,

6. Development of geotechnical analysis


Keywords: empirical, theoretical, semi-empirical, computers

4 5

7. Soil investigation methods


Keywords: seismic, boring, penetration test, test pit, pressure meter test, plate load test, CPT, SPT, WST, geophone

8. Bearing capacity of footing


Keywords: heave, flow line, equipotential line, settlement, failure surface, flow net, heave

9. Pressure bulb below footing


Keywords: settlement, stress increase, compressibility

6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10

10. Settlements caused by lowering of ground water level


Keywords: sand, clay, leaking sewer line, piezometer, ground water

11. Differential settlement below structure


Keywords: differential settlement, cracks

12. Mat foundation


Keywords: elastic springs

13. Lateral earth pressure


Keywords: active earth pressure

14. Design of retaining walls


Keywords: retaining wall

15. Anchored sheet pile walls


Keywords: sheet pile, anchor, vertical component

16. Braced excavations


Keywords: strut, lateral earth pressure, sheet pile, bottom heave

17. Reinforced earth


Keywords: concrete element, steel strip, aluminium strip

18. Pile foundations


Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber pile

iv

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


19. Ultimate bearing capacity of piles
Keywords: point resistance, skin resistance, ultimate resistance

11 11

20. Pile groups


Keywords: bridge abutment, fill, soft clay, negative skin friction

Chapter 2. Soil mechanics


21. Concepts in foundation engineering
Keywords: soil mechanics, engineering geology, foundation engineering, theory, experience

Page
15

22. Description of soil properties


Keywords: index properties, soil classification, stress condition, permeability, deformation property, shear strength

15

23. Definition of geotechnical terms


Keywords: void ratio, porosity, water content, unit weight, dry unit weight, unit weight of solid, specific gravity, degree of saturation, gas, water, solid

16

24. Determination of grain size distribution


Keywords: grain size, percent finer, hydrometer analysis, sieve analysis, sand, effective grain size, coefficient of uniformity, well graded, uniformly graded, poorly sorted, poorly graded, clay, silt, sand, gravel

16

25. Plasticity of soils


Keywords: plasticity index, shrinkage limit, plastic limit, liquid limit, water content

17 17

26. Plasticity chart


Keywords: liquid limit, low plasticity, medium plasticity, high plasticity, A-line, clay, silt, plasticity index

27. Distinction between clay and silt


Keywords: plasticity, settlement rate, dilatancy, dry strength, settlements, suspension

18 18 19

28. Structure of clay


Keywords: dispersed, flocculated, positive charge, negative charge

29. Standard Proctor compaction test


Keywords: dry unit weight, dry density, maximum dry density, saturated, optimum water content, water content

30. Proctors compaction tests


Keywords: standard Proctor test, modified Proctor test, blows, layer

19 20 20

31. Compaction curves


Keywords: clay, silt, sand, till, standard, modified, water content, dry density

32. Unified soil classification system


Keywords: gravel, sand, silt, clay, organic, peat, well graded, poorly graded, silty, clayey, low plasticity, high plasticity, ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, OH, liquid limit

33. Tripartite soil classification chart


Keywords: percent, clay, sand, silt, particle size

21 21

34. British Standard Code of Practice for Soil Investigations (CP 2001)
Keywords: soil description, consistence, density, structure, colour, particle size, geological formation

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


35. Rock description (CP 2001)
Keywords: colour, grain size, texture, structure, state of weathering, rock name, strength,

22

36. Darcy's law


Keywords: coefficient of permeability, hydraulic gradient, flow,

22 23 23 24

37. Permeameter for determination of laboratory permeability


Keywords: standpipe, Darcys law

38. Pumping test for determination of field permeability


Keywords: permeability, piezometer, infiltration test

39. Permeability of soils


Keywords: gravel, sand, silt clay, pumping test, permeability test, constant head, falling head, consolidation test, d10

40. Flow net determination


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29

41. Effective stress concept


Keywords: effective stress, pore water pressure, total stress

42. Seepage pressure (negative pore water pressure)


Keywords: effective stress, seepage pressure, total stress

43. Seepage pressure (positive pore water pressure)


Keywords: effective stress, seepage pressure, total stress, quick condition

44. Stress-strain relationship of soil


Keywords: stress, strain, secant modulus, ultimate stress

45. Hyperbolic stress-strain relationship


Keywords: stress, strain, hyperbolic curve

46. Modulus of elasticity


Keywords: stress-strain relationship, Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity

47. Shear modulus


Keywords: shear stress, shear modulus, shear deformation

48. Compression modulus


Keywords: coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest

49. Stability of footing on soil


Keywords: shear strength, failure surface, heave

50. Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion


Keywords: Coulomb-Mohr,Terzaghi-Hvorslev, angle of internal friction, attraction, cohesion, shear strength, normal stress

51. Mohr's stress circle


Keywords: shear stress, normal stress, failure surface, friction angle, cohesion

30 30

52. Effective stress concept


Keywords: ambient stress, deviator stress, pore water pressure, pore pressure coefficient A, pore pressure coefficient B

53. Mohr's circle for clay soil


Keywords: shear stress, normal stress, compression stress

31 31

54. Stress path concept

vi

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


Keywords: p-q curve

55. Stress path concept, Kf failure line


Keywords: cohesion, friction angle, p, q, Kf

32 32 33 33 34 34 35

56. Typical values of angle of internal friction of soils


Keywords: gravel, sand, silt, clay, relative density, angularity, gradation, particle size

57. Undrained shear strength of cohesive soils


Keywords: c/p-ratio, effective stress, undrained shear strength, ground water level

58. c/p-ratio of clays


Keywords: normally consolidated clay, plasticity index

59. Correction factor for undrained shear strength


Keywords: plasticity index, stability, clay, c/p ratio

60. Effective friction angle as function of plasticity index


Keywords: friction angle, plasticity index

61. Short term stability of an excavation


Keywords: excavation, normally consolidated, overconsolidated, initial ground water level, shear strength

62. Long term stability of an excavation


Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, flow lines

35 36 36 37 37

63. Effective stress analysis


Keywords: sand, shear strength, drained test

64. Total stress analysis


Keywords: saturated soil, c-analysis,

65. Determination of shear strength


Keywords: sand, silt, short term, long term, saturated, non-saturated, c-analysis,

66. Laboratory tests for determination of shear strength of cohesive soils


Keywords: direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test, fall cone test, vane test

67. Laboratory tests for determination of undrained shear strength


Keywords: direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test, fall cone test, laboratory vane test

38

68. Field tests for determination of undrained shear strength


Keywords: field vane test, pressuremeter test, cone penetration test, standard penetration test, weight sounding test

38

Chapter 3. Geotechnical field investigations


69. Geotechnical soil exploration methods
Keywords: geophysical, sampling, penetrometer, plate load test, pressuremeter test, piezometer

Page
41

70. Objectives of soil investigation


Keywords: stability, settlements sand, silt, clay, rock, ground water, safety factor, structure, construction

41

vii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


71. Depth of investigation for structures
Keywords: footing, raft, pier

42 42

72. Site investigation


Keywords: map, site visit, authorities, contractor, topography, buried services, geological condition, previous use of site

73. Site investigation (cont.)


Keywords: climatic condition, material, hydrological condition

43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47

74. Planning of site investigation


Keywords: water main, pond, road, building

75. Seismic refraction method


Keywords: geophone, distance, travel time, time, detonation, chart

76. Surface investigation


Keywords: trial trench, trial pit, casing, ground water

77. Soil sampler


Keywords: slot sampler, rotation, sand, silt, peat

78. Soil sampler


Keywords: split spoon sampler, SPT, Shelby tube sampler

79. Swedish foil sampler


Keywords: steel foil, piston sampler, steel foil, casing, piston

80. Undisturbed samples


Keywords: piston, friction, gas, sample, friction, stress release, disturbance

81. Rock drilling


Keywords: double tube core barrel, diamonds, coring bit, outer tube, inner tube, ball bearing

82. Rock quality designation (RQD)


Keywords: description, RDQ, very poor, poor, fair, good excellent

47 48

83. Field vane test


Keywords: Sgi, undrained shear strength, casing, rod, sheath, vane, clay, measuring head, torque

84. Field vane test


Keywords: Geotech, slip coupling, undrained shear strength, friction, torque,

48 49

85. Pore pressure probe


Keywords: piezocone, jacking, cable, clay, pore pressure, excess pore pressure, layer, undrained shear strength

86. Pressuremeter
Keywords: guard cell, measuring cell, Menard, water, gas

87. Evaluation of Pressuremeter test


Keywords: cell pressure, volume, expansion of cell, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pressuremeter modulus, limit pressure, shear modulus

49

88. Plate load test


Keywords: beam, anchor, plate, jack, dial indicators load, displacement, load

50 50

89. Screw plate test


Keywords: displacement, pressure, strength, sand, jack, field compressometer

viii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


90. Evaluation of plate load test
Keywords: settlement, load, ultimate large plate, small plate, diameter

51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54

91. Plate load test, clay


Keywords: large plate, small plate, settlement

92. Total stress cell


Keywords: Gltzl cell, coefficient of lateral earth pressure, at rest, clay

93. Piezometer
Keywords: pore water pressure, crack, hydraulic fracturing, pressure, volume,

94. Triaxial test


Keywords: lateral earth pressure, water saturation

95. Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, sand, clay


Keywords: sand, clay, normally consolidated, plasticity index

96. Determination of ground water level


Keywords: pumping, well

Chapter 4. Bearing capacity of foundations


97. Bearing capacity of surface foundation
Keywords: load, settlement, ultimate load

Page
57 57

98. Failure mechanism of surface foundation


Keywords: general shear failure, local shear failure, punching, failure surface, compaction

99. Failure zones below surface foundation


Keywords: overburden pressure, active Rankine zone, Prandtle zone, Passive Rankine zone, cohesion, unit weight of soil

58

100. Determination of bearing capacity of surface foundation


Keywords: shape factor, bearing capacity factor, unit weight, inclination, base factor, ground factor, width, cohesion, friction angle

58

101. Bearing capacity factors


Keywords: angle of internal friction, N-factor, cohesion, weight, bearing capacity

59 59

102. Effective stress analysis of foundation on sand


Keywords: drained triaxial test, shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, friction angle, width

103. Plain strain friction angle


Keywords: plain strain, triaxial test

60 60 60 61 61

104. Punching failure


Keywords: loose sand, loose silt, friction angle, cohesion

105. Bearing capacity of footing in sand


Keywords: effective overburden pressure, ground water, N-factor

106. Bearing capacity of footing in sand (layered soil)


Keywords: footing, soil layer, density, depth, width

107. Footing in excavation

ix

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


Keywords: depth, boundary

108. Effect of hydraulic gradient on bearing capacity


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

62 62 63 63 64 64 65 65

109. Effect of adjacent footing in slope


Keywords: failure surface, log spiral failure surface, slope

110. Log spiral


Keywords: friction angle

111. Bearing capacity of footing (log spiral)


Keywords: log spiral, shear strength

112. Effect of horizontal load on bearing capacity


Keywords: vertical load, horizontal load, failure surface

113. Equivalent area of surface footing


Keywords: length, width, round, triangular, eccentricity

114. Total stress analysis of foundation in clay


Keywords: undrained shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, bearing capacity

115. Effect of soil layer on bearing capacity of footing in clay


Keywords: vertical plane, horizontal plane, isotropic, circular failure surface, depth, width

116. Effect of overburden pressure on bearing capacity in clay


Keywords: total overburden pressure, allowable load, ultimate load, depth

66 66 67 67 68

117. Pressure distribution below footing in clay and sand


Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, elastic theory, design load,

118. Pull out resistance of shallow footing


Keywords: depth, friction angle, shape factor, density, weight

119. Pull out resistance of footing at depth


Keywords: shape factor, friction angle, depth, weight

120. Bearing capacity on rock


Keywords: unconfined compressive strength, steel point, pile, allowable load, ultimate load

Chapter 5. Foundation settlements


121. Settlements of foundations
Keywords: cracks, tower of Pisa

Page
72 72 73 73

122. Stress distribution below point load


Keywords: stress increase, Boussinesq, pressure bulb, equal stress increase

123. Stress below strip load


Keywords: distance, depth, diameter, stress increase, load

124. Influence chart


Keywords: Influence value, squares, load

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


125. 2:1 - method
Keywords: surface load, stress distribution, width, depth

74 74 75

126. 2:1 - method at corner of footing


Keywords: depth, stress increase, loaded area, length, width

127. Settlement below footing


Keywords: clay, silt, sand, immediate settlement, primary settlement, secondary settlement, first loading, cyclic loading

128. Settlements in clay and silt


Keywords: normally consolidated, overconsolidated, primary settlement, secondary settlement, total settlement, modulus, pressuremeter, oedometer, elastic method, undrained shear strength

75

129. Settlements in sand


Keywords: first loading, cyclic loading, compression modulus, coefficient of subgrade reaction, SPT, CPT, WST, triaxial test, plate load test

76

130. Immediate settlements in clay


Keywords: theory of elasticity, correction factor for depth, Poisson's ratio, influence factor, modulus of elasticity

76

131. Correction factor for foundation depth


Keywords: Poisson's ratio, width, depth,

77 77 78

132. Determination of compression index


Keywords: void ratio, effective stress, compression index, liquid limit, stress increase

133. Determination of settlements from compression test


Keywords: preconsolidation pressure, effective stress, corrected curve, applied pressure, void ratio, settlement, load scale

134. Principle of settlement calculation


Keywords: primary settlement, void ratio, water content

78 79 79 80

135. Settlement below footing


Keywords: effective stress, applied stress, ground water, void ratio

136. Determination of precosolidation pressure


Keywords: preconsolidation stress, effective stress, void ratio

137. Determination of coefficient of consolidation (logarithmic)


Keywords: consolidation curve, time, logarithmic, primary consolidation, secondary consolidation, coefficient of consolidation, dial reading

138. Coefficient of consolidation (square root)


Keywords: time, settlement, coefficient of consolidation

80 81 81

139. Secondary consolidation


Keywords: time, void ratio,

140. Effect of surface fill on stress distribution


Keywords: compression modulus, pore water pressure, total stress, effective stress, stress increase, time, ground water, fill, compression modulus, sand, clay, settlement

141. Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay


Keywords: clay, undrained shear strength, normally consolidated, overconsolidated

82 82

142. Soil modulus from cone penetration test (CPT)


Keywords: sand, clay, Bowles

xi

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


143. Determination of modulus from plate load test
Keywords: settlement, elastic range, coefficient of subgrade reaction, load

82 83 83 84 84 85 85

144. Estimate of settlements below footing on sand


Keywords: pressure bulb, modulus of elasticity, sand, clay, load

145. Settlements of footing on clay


Keywords: width, settlement

146. Effect of plate diameter on bearing capacity of plate on sand


Keywords: width, settlements, sand

147. Estimate of modulus of elasticity from Standard penetration test (SPT)


Keywords: sand, clay, SPT, N-value

148. Estimate of modulus of elasticity from cone penetration test (CPT


Keywords: sand,

149. Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay from Standard penetration test (SPT) and undrained shear strength
Keywords: clay, modulus of elasticity, N-value

150. Allowable footing pressure based on SPT N-values


Keywords: bearing capacity, settlements, blow count, N-value

86 86 877 87

151. Settlements of footing on sand from cone penetration test, CPT


Keywords: footing, raft, allowable pressure, cone resistance

152. Allowable settlement below building


Keywords: crack, differential settlement, sewer line

153. Damage due to foundation settlements


Keywords: clay, sand, ground water, flexural cracks, shear cracks, total settlements, differential settlements

154. Floating foundation


Keywords: compensated foundation, building weight, fill, settlement

88 88 89 89 90 90

155. Effect of ground water lowering from tunnel on building settlements


Keywords: ground water level, clay, sand, tunnel

156. Effect of trees on ground water near building


Keywords: settlements, distance to building, tree height

157. Differential settlements between adjacent buildings


Keywords: settlement, soft clay, crack

158. Negative skin friction due to ground water lowering


Keywords: pile, cracks, settlements, ground water level

159. Swelling potential of soil below building


Keywords: heave, swelling potential, seasonal variation, ground water, sewer line, leaks, watering, plasticity index, liquid limit, shrinkage limit

160. Effect of pile installation on adjacent building


Keywords: clay, sand, pile, area of influence, heave, settlement

91 91

161. Allowable differential settlements below structure


Keywords: rotation, differential settlements, USSR code, structure type, distance between footings

xii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms Chapter 6. Factors to consider in foundation design


162. Examples of foundation design
Keywords: footings, raft, piles

Page
94 94

163. Design considerations


Keywords: seasonal change, frost heave, change of ground water level, internal erosion, piping, adjacent excavation, soil creep, sink holes, vibrations, deterioration of concrete

164. Factor of safety of foundation


Keywords: increase of safety factor, time, ultimate pressure, minimum

95 95

165. Determination of factor of safety for different structures


Keywords: forces preventing failure, forces initiating failure, moment, dams, fill, retaining wall, sheet pile, braced excavation, footing, mat, raft, uplift, heave, piping

166. Factor of safety of slope


Keywords: centre of rotation, length of failure surface, resisting moment, initiating moment, resisting force

96

167. Stability of slope in clay


Keywords: weight of soil, sliding, slip circle, undrained shear strength

96 97 97 98 98 99

168. Factor of safety of slope in clay


Keywords: weight of soil, slip circle,

169. Probability of failure


Keywords: coefficient of variation, mean value, standard deviation, load, strength

170. Load combinations


Keywords: dead loads, live load, wind load, earthquake load, load factor

171. Characteristic load


Keywords: load factor, partial factor of safety, shear strength, friction angle, cohesion,

172. Coefficient of variability


Keywords: loads, soil properties, analysis, construction, safety factor, reliability, low, very low, medium, high, very high

173. Factor of safety


Keywords: coefficient of variability, stability, settlement, stability safety, settlement factor, low, medium, high, very high

99

174. Minimum load factors and partial safety factors


Keywords: loads, soil strength, dead load, live load, static water pressure, environmental load, cohesion, friction,

100

175. Effect of adjacent structures


Keywords: stress increase, settlement, new, old, lateral earth pressure

100 100

176. Effect of excavation


Keywords: stability, excavation

xiii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms

Chapter 7. Spread footing design


177. Spread footing
Keywords: reinforcement, floor slab, soil reaction

Page
102 102 103

178. Footing types


Keywords: trapezoidal, column, strap, wall, combined, footing with moment

179. Design considerations


Keywords: compression in concrete, pedestal, punching, cover, tension reinforcement, reinforcement

180. Critical section


Keywords: reinforcement, masonry, steel, base plate,

103 104 104 105 105 106 106

181. Critical section of footing


Keywords: shear force, shear stress,

182. Bond stress in footing


Keywords: bond stress, reinforcement

183. Eccentric force on footings


Keywords: eccentricity, footing, moment

184. Design of eccentrically loaded footing


Keywords: allowable pressure, eccentricity, width,, moment

185. Eccentrically loaded footing


Keywords: stress, allowable pressure

186. Drainage of footings


Keywords: drain

Chapter 8. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations


187. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations
Keywords: beam, strap, moment, eccentricity

Page 108 108 109 109

188. Combined footing


Keywords: elevation, plan

189. Load distribution on footing


Keywords: concentrated load, moment distribution, shear stress distribution, pressure

190. Winkler foundation


Keywords: spring, elastic, soil reaction, coefficient of subgrade reaction, actual, load, deflection, settlement

191. Coefficient of subgrade reaction


Keywords: elastic spring, elastic range, settlement, unloading, load

110 110 111

192. Classical design solution


Keywords: deflection, moment, shear force

193. Elastic deflection of beam


Keywords: solutions, shear force, moment, slope, deflection

xiv

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


194. Effect of foundation width on footing settlement
Keywords: solutions, clay, sand, deformation,

111

Chapter 9. Mat foundations


195. Mat foundations
Keywords: examples, loads

Page
114 114 115

196. Waffle structure


Keywords: ribs

197. Finite difference method


Keywords: computer programme, uncertainties, coefficient of subgrade reaction, modulus of elasticity,

198. Design of building foundation


Keywords: span, wall, strip, span length, exterior spans, interior spans

115 116 116 117 117 118 118 119 119

199. Grain elevator foundation


Keywords: clay, allowable pressure, factor of safety, total overburden pressure

200. Floating foundation


Keywords: building weight, soil weight, depth of excavation, story,

201. Floating building foundation


Keywords: excavation, net pressure

202. Differential settlements due to ground water lowering


Keywords: clay, ground water lowering

203. Stability of deep excavations


Keywords: heave, anchor, sheet pile

204. Effect of pile installation adjacent to excavation


Keywords: excavation, embankment piles

205. Support of excavation against heave


Keywords: fill

206. Anchor pile in excavation


Keywords: water-filled excavation

Chapter 10. Lateral earth pressure


207. Lateral earth pressure
Keywords: retaining wall, sheet pile wall

Page
123 123

208. Influence of displacement on lateral earth pressure


Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, lateral earth pressure at rest, away from fill, against fill

xv

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


209. Active earth pressure (Rankine)
Keywords: coefficient of active earth pressure, shear stress, normal pressure, depth of excavation, Mohr circle

124

210. Distribution of active earth pressure


Keywords: Rankine, Mohr circle, cohesion, depth

124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128

211. Active earth pressure (Coulomb)


Keywords: wedge

212. Influence of two point loads on soil pressure


Keywords: displacement, Boussinesq, rigid smooth wall

213. Stress distribution below surface load


Keywords: Influence value, 0.005, number of squares, Poisson's ratio

214. Effect of compaction on earth pressure


Keywords: bridge abutment, deep basement, lateral earth pressure

215. Effect of vibratory roller


Keywords: passive pressure, at rest pressure, active pressure, dynamic soil pressure

216. Distribution of soil pressure after compaction


Keywords: initial, compaction, stress increase, active at rest, passive at rest

217. Compaction of soil layers


Keywords: compactor, first layer, second layer, depth, passive at rest

218. Earth pressure distribution at rigid wall due to compaction


Keywords: depth, lateral earth pressure, increase, compaction, without compaction, rigid wall

219. Examples of retaining structures


Keywords: gravity wall, cantilever wall, counterfort wall

129 129 130 130

220. Crib wall


Keywords: stretcher, header, cells, soil

221. Gravity wall and Cantilever wall


Keywords: height

222. Failure modes


Keywords: mechanisms, bearing capacity, overturning, sliding, general failure, centre of rotation

223. Design of retaining structure for bearing capacity


Keywords: eccentric load, inclined load, design

131 131 132 132 133 133

224. Bearing capacity of retaining wall


Keywords: wall, inclined

225. Design of retaining wall for inclined load


Keywords: eccentricity

226. Inclined wall


Keywords: force

227. Overturning of retaining wall


Keywords: point of overturning, resisting moment, driving moment

228. Design of wall against sliding


Keywords: resisting force, driving force, sand, clay

xvi

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


229. Shear keys in sliding wall
Keywords: shear key, alternative location

134 134 135 135 136 136 137 137 137 138 138

230. General stability of retaining wall


Keywords: driving moment, resisting moment, failure surface

231. Reinforcement in retaining wall


Keywords: moment, reinforcement

232. Location of reinforcement


Keywords: moment distribution

233. Tilting of retaining structure


Keywords: bridge abutment, design, actual pressure, yielding

234. Counterfort walls


Keywords: elevation

235. Drainage of wall


Keywords: drain, pore water pressure, slip surface

236. Drainage of retaining structure


Keywords: drain, slip surface, pore pressure distribution

237. Drainage of retaining structure


Keywords: failure surface, drainage layer, pore water pressure

238. Reinforced earth, type Vidal


Keywords: metal strip

239. Reinforce earth wall


Keywords: metal strip, spacing, star-shaped element, stress distribution, actual failure surface

240. Required length of earth reinforcement


Keywords: earth pressure, length, failure surface

139 139 140 140 141 141

241. Bearing capacity failure of retaining structure


Keywords: base failure

242. Fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: precast concrete element, fabric, soil

243. Fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: reinforcement

244. Examples of fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: failure surface, fabric

245. Design of fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: failure surface, length

Chapter 11. Soil retaining structures


246. Support systems
Keywords: anchored wall, strutted wall, cantilever wall, sheet pile, strut, wale beam, ground anchor

Page
146

xvii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


247. Wood elements
Keywords: groove, spline, tongue, driving sequence

146 147 147 148 148

248. Concrete elements


Keywords: heavy, difficult, grouted, driving

249. Steel sheet piles


Keywords: light, difficult to drive

250. Sheet piles details


Keywords: anchor rod, lagging, wedge, wale beam, soldier beam

251. Details of wall construction


Keywords: poling boards, soldier beams (King post), strap, clip, welded studs, washers, soldier beam placed in predrilled borehole

252. Bored pile wall


Keywords: wale beam, ground anchor

149 149 150

253. Berliner wall


Keywords: soldier pile, precast element, ground anchor, shotcrete, rail, wire mesh

254. Factor of safety of retaining wall


Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, factor of safety, water pressure, friction angle,

255. Cantilever sheet pile wall


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line, water pressure, net water pressure

150 151 151

256. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, friction soil


Keywords: uplift, dragdown, gradient, water pressure, Rankine

257. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, cohesive soil


Keywords: undrained shear strength, cohesion, net pressure, active earth pressure, Rankine, actual, assumed, water pressure

258. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, factor of safety


Keywords: clay, depth, factor of safety, cohesion, depth

152 152 153 153

259. Design of sheet pile walls


Keywords: wale beam, anchor rod, sheet pile

260. Failure mechanisms


Keywords: plastic hinge, rotation

261. Anchored sheet pile wall (Free earth support)


Keywords: center of rotation, surface load, resisting moment, driving moment, depth, earth pressure, net pressure, overburden pressure

262. Earth pressure distribution in cohesive soil with wall friction


Keywords: adhesion, wall friction, depth, cohesion, vertical pressure, surface load

154 154

263. Critical height of sheet pile wall in clay


Keywords: no wall friction, with wall friction, stability factor, unstable, stable, undrained shear strength,

264. Earth pressure distribution along sheet pile wall


Keywords: passive earth pressure, active earth pressure, sand, clay, surface pressure

155 155

265. Moment distribution in sheet pile wall


Keywords: distributed load, moment, distributed load, shear distribution, surface load

xviii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


266. Anchored or braced sheet pile wall
Keywords: flexible, stiff, assumed, deflection, earth pressure distribution, moment distribution, anchor

156

267. Moment reduction in sheet pile wall


Keywords: anchor, moment, reduced load

156 157 157 158 158 159

268. Deflection of sheet pile wall


Keywords: stiffness, height

269. Moment as function of sheet pile height


Keywords: dense sand, loose sand, moment

270. Anchor systems


Keywords: soil anchor, rock anchor, concrete slab, piles, short sheet pile, inclination

271. Anchor piles


Keywords: piles, pull out resistance

272. Design aspects of anchor plate


Keywords: anchor plate, passive earth pressure, anchor force, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, critical failure surface, anchor depth

273. Critical depth of anchor plate in sand


Keywords: friction angle, depth, passive earth pressure

159 160 160 160 161 161 161

274. Critical depth of anchor plate in clay


Keywords: undrained shear strength, critical depth

275. Pull out resistance of anchor plate in clay


Keywords: depth,

276. Settlement behind sheet pile wall


Keywords: anchor force, settlement, inclination

277. Strutted wall


Keywords: soil anchor, passive resistance, wedge, horizontal anchor

278. Anchored wall


Keywords: soil anchor, inclined anchor, failure wedge,

279. General stability of anchored wall


Keywords: failure surface, failure surface, factor of safety, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure

280. Load distribution between soil anchors


Keywords: Manfred Panel C1, Bergshamra Panel A, load, arching

162 162 163 163

281. Force redistribution in soil wedge


Keywords: failure surface

282. Braced excavations


Keywords: settlement, strut, wale beam

283. Earth pressure distributions (design)


Keywords: earth pressure distribution, sand, soft clay, stiff fissured clay, depth, undrained shear strength, struts

284. Strut forces


Keywords: hinge

164

xix

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


285. Strut forces in adjacent excavations
Keywords: tensile crack, first strut, second strut, undrained shear strength, failure surface

164

286. Water flow into excavation in sand


Keywords: flow line, ground water, quick condition, critical gradient, depth of excavation

164

287. Bottom heave in excavation


Keywords: sand, clay, adhesion, ground water, struts critical depth

165 165 166 166

288. Bottom heave in excavation in clay


Keywords: stability factor, struts, depth, width

289. Bottom heave in excavation in clay, effect of wall adhesion


Keywords: stability factor, adhesion

290. Settlement adjacent to strutted excavation


Keywords: struts, settlements, ground water level, base heave, stability, lateral displacement, workmanship

291. Estimate of settlement adjacent to excavation


Keywords: ground loss, distance, maximum depth of excavation, sand, clay, settlement, very soft clay, stability factor, A, B, C

167

292. Bored pile wall with soil anchors


Keywords: shotcrete, soil anchor, soft clay, undrained shear strength, bored pile, ground anchor

167

293. Slurry walls or diaphragm walls


Keywords: wall panel, ground anchor

168 168

294. Slurry wall construction


Keywords: grab, bentonite slurry, reinforcement cage, steel tube, excavation, placement of steel tube, placement of reinforcement, concreting

295. Stability of slots


Keywords: soil wedge

169 169

296. Bentonite slurry


Keywords: oil well drilling, soil borings, bentonite clay, montmorillonite, barite, barium sulphate, slurry density

297. Stability of slurry excavation


Keywords: ground beams, bentonite slurry, filter skin, density of slurry, failure wedge

170 170

298. Maximum depth of slurry excavation


Keywords: layer of stones or gravel, viscosity, tixotrophy, filter skin, undrained shear strength, active earth pressure, ground water level

299. Concreting of slurry excavation


Keywords: soft clay, critical depth, undrained shear strength, density, tremmie pipe

171 171

300. Deformation of concrete wall


Keywords: active earth pressure, at rest pressure, Winkler foundation, load redistribution, deformation, soil anchor

xx

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms Chapter 12. Pile foundations - Single piles
301. Piles
Keywords: pile cap, piles, soft clay, sand, raker pile, batter pile

Page
177 177 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181

302. Vibrations
Keywords: tanks, silos, chimneys, machine foundations, sand, ground water

303. Examples of pile foundations


Keywords: compaction piles, raked piles, damping of piles, small damping, vibrations

304. Stability of bridge abutment


Keywords: soft clay, fill, bridge abutment

305. Embankment piles


Keywords: soft clay, raked piles, bridge abutment, fill

306. Anchor piles for dry docks, subway stations


Keywords: ground water, up-lift force, anchor piles

307. Offshore structures on piles


Keywords: cyclic loading, scour, compression, steel pipe piles, tension force

308. Stabilisation of slope by piles


Keywords: slope stability, large diameter pile, steel pipe pile, failure surface

309. Design of embankment piles


Keywords: failure surface, clay, precast piles,

310. Anchor piles in swelling soil


Keywords: seasonal changes, swelling clay, montmorillonite, high liquid limit, high plasticity index, building

311. Examples of pile types


Keywords: driven piles, bored piles, jacked-down piles, screw piles, hydraulic jack

182 182 183

312. Piles foundations


Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber, H pile

313. Pile types


Keywords: large displacement piles, small displacement piles, non-displacement piles, bored piles, precast piles, pipe piles, cased, uncased

314. Loading conditions of piles


Keywords: compression, lateral load, tension

183 184 184

315. Load transfer to piles


Keywords: friction or floating piles, end bearing piles, clay, sand, rock

316. Timber piles


Keywords: advantages, difficulties, limit bearing capacity, soft clay, tip, shaft, ground water, butt

317. Pile splices


Keywords: steel sleeve, steel strap

185 185 186

318. Splices and rock points


Keywords: rock point,

319. Precast concrete piles


Keywords: point, concrete, reinforcement. pile diameter

xxi

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


320. Lifting of piles
Keywords: pile length, lifting hooks, moment

186 187 187

321. Prestressed concrete piles


Keywords: height strength concrete, brittle, reduced cracking, reduced ductility

322. Concrete strength (CP 2004)


Keywords: cube strength, hard driving, normal to easy driving, high capacity, reduced weight, easy driving

323. Installation of jacked-down piles


Keywords: pump, manometer, steel insert, hydraulic jack, pile segment

188 188 189 189 190

324. Bored piles


Keywords: auger, reinforcement, tremmie pipe, concreting

325. Examples of bored piles


Keywords: bored piles, drilling of shaft, drilling of bell, concrete, stiff clay, reinforcement

326. Bored piles with bell


Keywords: bells

327. Cast-in-place piles


Keywords: casing, driving, casing filled with water, casing filled with concrete, reinforcement

328. Necking during casting of pile shaft in soft clay


Keywords: casing, soft clay, sand or silt, ground water

190 191

329. Slurry trench wall construction


Keywords: ground water, surface casing, bentonite slurry, chisel, pouring of concrete, lowering of reinforcement element

330. Shapes of slurry trench pile elements


Keywords: size

191 192 192 193

331. Raymond step tapered pile


Keywords: steel shell, steel cone, light bulb, reinforcement cage, casting of concrete

332. Franki pile


Keywords: concrete plug, bulb, internal hammer, prefabricated shaft, light casing

333. Steel H-pile


Keywords: easy to drive, easy to cut, corrosion, expensive, splicing, soil plug, driving shoe, steel plate

334. Steel pipe piles


Keywords: diameter, closed or open ended, soil plug, diameter

193 194

335. Corrosion
Keywords: steel piles, concrete piles, National Bureau of Standards, splices, reinforcement, salt water

336. Settlement around during driving in sand


Keywords: settlement, diameter, compaction within this zone

194 195

337. Effect of pile driving in clay


Keywords: soft clay, heave, volume, soft clay, remoulded zone, pore water pressure, undrained shear strength

338. Redriving of piles in clay


Keywords: risen piles, redriving, heave, soft clay, separation of splice

195

xxii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


339. Load distribution along pile
Keywords: sand, clay, point resistance, shaft resistance

196 197

340. Pile load as function of pile displacement


Keywords: load, displacement, soft clay, stiff clay, sand, cast in place pile, driven pile, with bell

341. Load deformation relationship of piles


Keywords: pile load, displacement, point resistance, skin resistance

197 198

342. Direction of pile loading


Keywords: compression, tension, weight of pile, factor of safety, allowable load, point resistance, shaft resistance

343. Determination of bearing capacity at pile point


Keywords: end bearing, undrained shear strength, bearing capacity factor

198 199 199

344. Pile bearing capacity according to Meyerhof


Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity factor

345. Bearing capacity factor of piles


Keywords: Terzaghi, Berezantsev, Meyerhof, Vesic, Brinch Hansen, de Beer, friction angle

346. Failure mechanism at pile point


Keywords: point resistance, rigidity index, failure surface, compressibility, rigidity index

200 200 201 202

347. Comparison of cone resistance and pile point resistance


Keywords: area of pile, sand

348. Comparison of SPTN-value and pile point resistance


Keywords: SPT, sand, pile diameter

349. Lateral pressure against pile shaft


Keywords: bored pile, small displacement pile, large displacement pile, straight shaft, tapered shaft, lateral earth pressure

350. Determination of pile capacity in sand


Keywords: loose, dense, coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, small, Vesic, displacement pile, non-displacement pile, tapered pile

202

351. Pile shaft capacity in sand


Keywords: pile type, sand, critical depth,

203 203 204 204 205 205

352. Lateral pressure against pile shaft


Keywords: Mansur & Hunter, Tavenas, Ireland, lateral earth pressure

353. Critical depth of pile shaft resistance


Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity value, diameter, length

354. Estimate of pile capacity based on Weight sounding test (WST)


Keywords: half-turns, timber piles, concrete piles, Norwegian Pile Commission, skin area

355. Failure surface at pile point in clay


Keywords: failure surface, diameter, area of pile

356. Skin friction resistance along pile shaft


Keywords: cone penetration test, friction sleeve small displacement pile, large displacement pile

xxiii

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


357. Bearing capacity of piles in clay
Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, undrained shear strength, reduction , ground surface

206

358. Lambda-method
Keywords: offshore structures, depth, mean value, skin resistance

207 208 209 209 210 210 211

359. Estimate of pile skin resistance in clay


Keywords: effective overburden pressure, Flaate, Selnes, undrained shear strength

360. Load transfer from pile to soil as function of pile displacement


Keywords: t-z curves, q-y curve, driven pile, bored pile

361. Negative skin friction along piles


Keywords: lowering of ground water level, driven pile, bored pile

362. Failure modes of horizontally loaded piles


Keywords: soil failure, pile failure, failure mechanism

363. Lateral pile resistance in sand


Keywords: sand, horizontal load, force

364. Lateral pile resistance in clay (rotational mode)


Keywords: undrained shear strength, heave, passive earth pressure, lateral force, diameter, depth

365. Lateral pile resistance in clay (pile failure mode)


Keywords: undrained shear strength, diameter, yield, moment, lateral force

211

Chapter 13. Single piles - Dynamic analysis


366. Pile driving equipment
Keywords: drop hammer, diesel hammer, vibratory hammer, steam hammer, single acting, double acting

Page
214

367. Dynamic pile test


Keywords: hammer, helmet, cap block, cushion, pile, stress wave, depth, steel, concrete, wood

214

368. Stress wave analysis, rigid base


Keywords: particle velocity, wave velocity, impedance, rebound of hammer

215 215 216

369. Stress wave analysis, soft base


Keywords: particle velocity, length, impedance

370. Detection of pile defect by dynamic test


Keywords: hammer velocity, particle velocity, wave velocity, force, accelerometer, impedance, warning, strain gauge, time, wave length, fracture

371. Determination of dynamic pile bearing capacity


Keywords: hammer, force, displacement, elastic compression, drop height,

216 217

372. Pile driving formulae (definition)


Keywords: mass of hammer, penetration resistance, effective height of fall, mass of pile, coefficient of restitution elastic compression, soil, cushion, dynamic pile capacity

xxiv

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


373. Pile driving formulae
Keywords: Hiley, Kreuger, Janbu, elastic compression, cushion, pile, soil, load distribution factor, dynamic pile capacity

217

374. Elastic compression of pile


Keywords: cushion, pen, set, pile, hammer

218 218

375. Static pile load test


Keywords: applied load, displacement, point bearing pile, elastic compression, pile shaft, friction pile, sand, clay

376. Definition of pile failure load


Keywords: settlement, applied load, range, pile diameter

219 219

377. Types of pile loading tests


Keywords: maintained load, constant rate of penetration (CRP)

Chapter 14. Pile foundations - Pile Groups


378. Pile group in clay
Keywords: elevation, plan, perimeter, plan, undrained shear strength

Page
223 224 224

379. Examples of pile groups


Keywords: single footings, foundation walls, friction pile, end-bearing pile, footing

380. Efficiency of pile group in clay


Keywords: pile spacing, efficiency, optimum spacing, Sowers, length, model test, clay, Bentonite, calculated, measured

381. Settlement of pile group in clay


Keywords: pile group, clay, 2:1 distribution, pile length

225 225

382. Efficiency of pile group (model tests)


Keywords: pile load , applied load, Whitaker, ultimate load of pile group, center pile, corner pile, model test

383. Efficiency of pile group in sand (model test)


Keywords: efficiency, width, length, model test, fine sand, row, group, pile spacing

226 226 227 228 228 229 229

384. Pile groups in sand (model tests)


Keywords: load, displacement, pile group, Kezdi, diameter, spacing, fine sand

385. Load distribution in pile group


Keywords: pile group, ultimate strength, compression, tension, center or rotation

386. Eccentric loading in pile group (example)


Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

387. Eccentric loading in pile group (example cont.)


Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

388. Load distribution below piled foundation


Keywords: pressure bulb, raft, piled raft, width, san

389. Stress increase below pile group


Keywords: single pile, pile group, stress distribution

xxv

Foundation Engineering Bengt Broms


390. Settlements below pile group in sand
Keywords: applied load, single pile, loaded pile, sand

230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 234 234 235 235

391. Settlement of pile group


Keywords: side of pile group, Skempton, single pile, pile group, width

392. Load distribution below pile group in sand


Keywords: single pile, pile group, settlement, width, Berezantsev, friction angle

393. Negative skin friction along pile shaft in clay


Keywords: fill, clay, neutral point, ground water level, lowering

394. Effect of negative skin friction on piles in clay


Keywords: point bearing piles, floating piles, crushing, settlements

395. Protection piles for reduction of negative skin friction


Keywords: protection piles

396. Heave caused by pile driving


Keywords: clay, surface heave

397. Settlements caused by pile driving in sand


Keywords: settlements, cone

398. Settlements caused by pile driving in excavation


Keywords: clay, sand, sheet pile wall, vibrations, soil anchor

399. Effect on point resistance by pile driving


Keywords: sand, pile length, vibrations, adjacent pile

400. Order of pile driving


Keywords: settlements, damage to building, vibrations

401. Differential settlements below building due to pile driving in sand


Keywords: sand, traffic, cracking, piles, driving

xxvi

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering

Chapter 1. Aspects of foundation engineering


1. Foundations of buildings and structures 2. Effects of underground installations on foundations 3. Soil deposit 4. Interactions between buildings 5. Requirements of a foundation 6. Development of geotechnical analysis 7. Soil investigation methods 8. Bearing capacity of footing 9. Pressure bulb below footing 10. Settlements caused by lowering of ground water level 11. Differential settlement below structure 12. Mat foundation 13. Lateral earth pressure 14. Design of retaining walls 15. Anchored sheet pile walls 16. Braced excavations 17. Reinforced earth 18. Pile foundations 19. Ultimate bearing capacity of piles 20. Pile groups

Page 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering

Chapter 1. Aspects of foundation engineering


1. Foundations of buildings and structures
Keywords: pile, raft, footing

Foundations of buildings and structures

2. Effects of underground installations on foundations


Keywords: tunnel, ground water, water main, sewer line

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


3. Soil deposit
Keywords: clay, sand, rock, ground water

4. Interactions between buildings


Keywords: settlement, clay, shale, tunnel, sewer line

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering

5. Requirements of a foundation
Keywords: economy, safety, settlement, seasonal changes, construction problem, environment,

6. Development of geotechnical analysis


Keywords: empirical, theoretical, semi-empirical, computers

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


7. Soil investigation methods
Keywords: seismic, boring, penetration test, test pit, pressure meter test, plate load test, CPT, SPT, WST, geophone

8. Bearing capacity of footing


Keywords: heave, flow line, equipotential line, settlement, failure surface, flow net, heave

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


9. Pressure bulb below footing
Keywords: settlement, stress increase, compressibility

10. Settlements caused by lowering of ground water level


Keywords: sand, clay, leaking sewer line, piezometer, ground water

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


11. Differential settlement below structure
Keywords: differential settlement, cracks

12. Mat foundation


Keywords: elastic springs

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


13. Lateral earth pressure
Keywords: active earth pressure

14. Design of retaining walls


Keywords: retaining wall

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


15. Anchored sheet pile walls
Keywords: sheet pile, anchor, vertical component

16. Braced excavations


Keywords: strut, lateral earth pressure, sheet pile, bottom heave

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


17. Reinforced earth
Keywords: concrete element, steel strip, aluminium strip

18. Pile foundations


Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber pile

10

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering


19. Ultimate bearing capacity of piles
Keywords: point resistance, skin resistance, ultimate resistance

20. Pile groups


Keywords: bridge abutment, fill, soft clay, negative skin friction

11

Bengt Broms Foundations Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering

12

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics

Chapter 2. Soil mechanics


21. Concepts in foundation engineering 22. Description of soil properties 23. Definition of geotechnical terms 24. Determination of grain size distribution 25. Plasticity of soils 26. Plasticity chart 27. Distinction between clay and silt 28. Structure of clay 29. Standard Proctor compaction test 30. Proctors compaction tests 31. Compaction curves 32. Unified soil classification system 33. Tripartite soil classification chart 34. British Standard Code of Practice for Soil Investigations (CP 2001) 35. Rock description (CP 2001) 36. Darcy's law 37. Permeameter for determination of laboratory permeability 38. Pumping test for determination of field permeability 39. Permeability of soils 40. Flow net determination 41. Effective stress concept 42. Seepage pressure (negative pore water pressure) 43. Seepage pressure (positive pore water pressure) 44. Stress-strain relationship of soil 45. Hyperbolic stress-strain relationship 46. Modulus of elasticity 47. Shear modulus 48. Compression modulus 49. Stability of footing on soil 50. Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion

Page
15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29

13

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


51. Mohr's stress circle 52. Effective stress concept 53. Mohr's circle for clay soil 54. Stress path concept 55. Stress path concept, Kf failure line 56. Typical values of angle of internal friction of soils 57. Undrained shear strength of cohesive soils 58. c/p-ratio of clays 59. Correction factor for undrained shear strength 60. Effective friction angle as function of plasticity index 61. Short term stability of an excavation 62. Long term stability of an excavation 63. Effective stress analysis 64. Total stress analysis 65. Determination of shear strength 66. Laboratory tests for determination of shear strength of cohesive soils 67. Laboratory tests for determination of undrained shear strength 68. Field tests for determination of undrained shear strength 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38

14

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics

Chapter 2. Soil mechanics


21. Concepts in foundation engineering
Keywords: soil mechanics, engineering geology, foundation engineering, theory, experience

22. Description of soil properties


Keywords: index properties, soil classification, stress condition, permeability, deformation property, shear strength

15

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics

23. Definition of geotechnical terms


Keywords: void ratio, porosity, water content, unit weight, dry unit weight, unit weight of solid, specific gravity, degree of saturation, gas, water, solid

24. Determination of grain size distribution Keywords: grain size, percent finer, hydrometer
analysis, sieve analysis, sand, effective, grain size, coefficient of uniformity, well graded, uniformly graded, poorly sorted, poorly graded, clay, silt, sand, gravel

16

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics

25. Plasticity of soils


Keywords: plasticity index, shrinkage limit, plastic limit, liquid limit, water content

26. Plasticity chart


Keywords: liquid limit, low plasticity, medium plasticity, high plasticity, A-line, clay, silt, plasticity index

17

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


27. Distinction between clay and silt
Keywords: plasticity, settlement rate, dilatancy, dry strength, settlements, suspension

28. Structure of clay


Keywords: dispersed, flocculated, positive charge, negative charge

18

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics

29. Standard Proctor compaction test


Keywords: dry unit weight, dry density, maximum dry density, saturated, optimum water content, water content

30. Proctors compaction tests


Keywords: standard Proctor test, modified Proctor test, blows, layer

19

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


31. Compaction curves
Keywords: clay, silt, sand, till, standard, modified, water content, dry density

32. Unified soil classification system


Keywords: gravel, sand, silt, clay, organic, peat, well graded, poorly graded, silty, clayey, low plasticity, high plasticity, ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, OH, liquid limit

20

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


33. Tripartite soil classification chart
Keywords: percent, clay, sand, silt, particle size

34. British Standard Code of Practice for Soil Investigations (CP 2001)
Keywords: soil description, consistence, density, structure, colour, particle size, geological formation

21

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


35. Rock description (CP 2001)
Keywords: colour, grain size, texture, structure, state of weathering, rock name, strength,

36. Darcy's law


Keywords: coefficient of permeability, hydraulic gradient, flow,

22

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


37. Permeameter for determination of laboratory permeability
Keywords: standpipe, Darcys law

38. Pumping test for determination of field permeability


Keywords: permeability, piezometer, infiltration test

23

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


39. Permeability of soils
Keywords: gravel, sand, silt clay, pumping test, permeability test, constant head, falling head, consolidation test, d10

40. Flow net determination


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

24

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


41. Effective stress concept
Keywords: effective stress, pore water pressure, total stress

42. Seepage pressure (negative pore water pressure)


Keywords: effective stress, seepage pressure, total stress

25

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


43. Seepage pressure (positive pore water pressure)
Keywords: effective stress, seepage pressure, total stress, quick condition

44. Stress-strain relationship of soil


Keywords: stress, strain, secant modulus, ultimate stress

26

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


45. Hyperbolic stress-strain relationship
Keywords: stress, strain, hyperbolic curve

46. Modulus of elasticity


Keywords: stress-strain relationship, Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity

27

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


47. Shear modulus
Keywords: shear stress, shear modulus, shear deformation

48. Compression modulus


Keywords: coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest

28

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


49. Stability of footing on soil
Keywords: shear strength, failure surface, heave

50. Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion


Keywords: Coulomb-Mohr, Terzaghi-Hvorslev, angle of internal friction, attraction, cohesion, shear strength, normal stress

29

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


51. Mohr's stress circle
Keywords: shear stress, normal stress, failure surface, friction angle, cohesion

52. Effective stress concept


Keywords: ambient stress, deviator stress, pore water pressure, pore pressure coefficient A, pore pressure coefficient B

30

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


53. Mohr's circle for clay soil
Keywords: shear stress, normal stress, compression stress

54. Stress path concept


Keywords: p-q curve

31

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


55. Stress path concept, Kf failure line
Keywords: cohesion, friction angle, p, q, Kf

56. Typical values of angle of internal friction of soils


Keywords: gravel, sand, silt, clay, relative density, angularity, gradation, particle size

32

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


57. Undrained shear strength of cohesive soils
Keywords: c/p-ratio, effective stress, undrained shear strength, ground water level

58. c/p-ratio of clays


Keywords: normally consolidated clay, plasticity index

33

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


59. Correction factor for undrained shear strength
Keywords: plasticity index, stability, clay, c/p ratio

60. Effective friction angle as function of plasticity index


Keywords: friction angle, plasticity index

34

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


61. Short term stability of an excavation
Keywords: excavation, normally consolidated, overconsolidated, initial ground water level, shear strength

62. Long term stability of an excavation


Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, flow lines

35

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


63. Effective stress analysis
Keywords: sand, shear strength, drained test

64. Total stress analysis


Keywords: saturated soil, c-analysis,

36

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


65. Determination of shear strength
Keywords: sand, silt, short term, long term, saturated, non-saturated, c-analysis,

66. Laboratory tests for determination of shear strength of cohesive soils


Keywords: direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test, fall cone test, vane test

37

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 2 Soil Mechanics


67. Laboratory tests for determination of undrained shear strength
Keywords: direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test, fall cone test, laboratory vane test

68. Field tests for determination of undrained shear strength


Keywords: field vane test, pressuremeter test, cone penetration test, standard penetration test, weight sounding test

38

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations

Chapter 3. Geotechnical field investigations


69. Geotechnical soil exploration methods
Keywords: geophysical, sampling, penetrometer, plate load test, pressuremeter test, piezometer

Page
41

70. Objectives of soil investigation


Keywords: stability, settlements sand, silt, clay, rock, ground water, safety factor, structure, construction

41

71. Depth of investigation for structures


Keywords: footing, raft, pier

42 42

72. Site investigation


Keywords: map, site visit, authorities, contractor, topography, buried services, geological condition, previous use of site

73. Site investigation (cont.)


Keywords: climatic condition, material, hydrological condition

43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47

74. Planning of site investigation


Keywords: water main, pond, road, building

75. Seismic refraction method


Keywords: geophone, distance, travel time, time, detonation, chart

76. Surface investigation


Keywords: trial trench, trial pit, casing, ground water

77. Soil sampler


Keywords: slot sampler, rotation, sand, silt, peat

78. Soil sampler


Keywords: split spoon sampler, SPT, Shelby tube sampler

79. Swedish foil sampler


Keywords: steel foil, piston sampler, steel foil, casing, piston

80. Undisturbed samples


Keywords: piston, friction, gas, sample, friction, stress release, disturbance

81. Rock drilling


Keywords: double tube core barrel, diamonds, coring bit, outer tube, inner tube, ball bearing

82. Rock quality designation (RQD)


Keywords: description, RDQ, very poor, poor, fair, good excellent

47 48

83. Field vane test


Keywords: Sgi, undrained shear strength, casing, rod, sheath, vane, clay, measuring head, torque

84. Field vane test


Keywords: Geotech, slip coupling, undrained shear strength, friction, torque,

48 49

85. Pore pressure probe


Keywords: piezocone, jacking, cable, clay, pore pressure, excess pore pressure, layer, undrained shear strength

39

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


86. Pressuremeter
Keywords: guard cell, measuring cell, Menard, water, gas51

49 50

87. Evaluation of Pressuremeter test


Keywords: cell pressure, volume, expansion of cell, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pressuremeter modulus, limit pressure, shear modulus

88. Plate load test


Keywords: beam, anchor, plate, jack, dial indicators load, displacement, load

50 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54

89. Screw plate test


Keywords: displacement, pressure, strength, sand, jack, field compressometer

90. Evaluation of plate load test


Keywords: settlement, load, ultimate large plate, small plate, diameter

91. Plate load test, clay


Keywords: large plate, small plate, settlement

92. Total stress cell


Keywords: Gltzl cell, coefficient of lateral earth pressure, at rest, clay

93. Piezometer
Keywords: pore water pressure, crack, hydraulic fracturing, pressure, volume,

94. Triaxial test


Keywords: lateral earth pressure, water saturation

95. Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, sand, clay


Keywords: sand, clay, normally consolidated, plasticity index

96. Determination of ground water level


Keywords: pumping, well

40

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations

Chapter 3. Geotechnical field investigations


69. Geotechnical soil exploration methods
Keywords: geophysical, sampling, penetrometer, plate load test, pressuremeter test, piezometer

70. Objectives of soil investigation


Keywords: stability, settlements sand, silt, clay, rock, ground water, safety factor, structure, construction

41

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


71. Depth of investigation for structures
Keywords: footing, raft, per

72. Site investigation


Keywords: map, site visit, authorities, contractor, topography, buried services, geological condition, previous use of site

42

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


73. Site investigation (cont.)
Keywords: climatic condition, material, hydrological condition

74. Planning of site investigation


Keywords: water main, pond, road, building

43

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


75. Seismic refraction method
Keywords: geophone, distance, travel time, time, detonation, chart

76. Surface investigation


Keywords: trial trench, trial pit, casing, ground water

44

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


77. Soil sampler
Keywords: slot sampler, rotation, sand, silt, peat

78. Soil sampler


Keywords: split spoon sampler, SPT, Shelby tube sampler

45

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


79. Swedish foil sampler
Keywords: steel foil, piston sampler, steel foil, casing, piston

80. Undisturbed samples


Keywords: piston, friction, gas, sample, friction, stress release, disturbance

46

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


81. Rock drilling
Keywords: double tube core barrel, diamonds, coring bit, outer tube, inner tube, ball bearing

82. Rock quality designation (RQD)


Keywords: description, RDQ, very poor, poor, fair, good excellent

47

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


83. Field vane test
Keywords: Sgi, undrained shear strength, casing, rod, sheath, vane, clay, measuring head, torque

84. Field vane test


Keywords: Geotech, slip coupling, undrained shear strength, friction, torque,

48

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


85. Pore pressure probe
Keywords: piezocone, jacking, cable, clay, pore pressure, excess pore pressure, layer, undrained shear strength

86. Pressuremeter
Keywords: guard cell, measuring cell, Menard, water, gs

49

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


87. Evaluation of Pressuremeter test
Keywords: cell pressure, volume, expansion of cell, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pressuremeter modulus, limit pressure, shear modulus

88. Plate load test


Keywords: beam, anchor, plate, jack, dial indicators load, displacement, load

50

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


89. Screw plate test
Keywords: displacement, pressure, strength, sand, jack, field compressometer

90. Evaluation of plate load test


Keywords: settlement, load, ultimate large plate, small plate, diameter

51

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


91. Plate load test, clay
Keywords: large plate, small plate, settlement

92. Total stress cell


Keywords: Gltzl cell, coefficient of lateral earth pressure, at rest, clay

52

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


93. Piezometer
Keywords: pore water pressure, crack, hydraulic fracturing, pressure, volume,

94. Triaxial test


Keywords: lateral earth pressure, water saturation

53

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 3 Geotechnical Field Investigations


95. Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, sand, clay
Keywords: sand, clay, normally consolidated, plasticity index

96. Determination of ground water level


Keywords: pumping, well

54

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations

Chapter 4. Bearing capacity of foundations


97. Bearing capacity of surface foundation
Keywords: load, settlement, ultimate load

Pages
57 57

98. Failure mechanism of surface foundation


Keywords: general shear failure, local shear failure, punching, failure surface, compaction

99. Failure zones below surface foundation


Keywords: overburden pressure, active Rankine zone, Prandtl zone, Passive Rankine zone, cohesion, unit weight of soil

58

100. Determination of bearing capacity of surface foundation


Keywords: shape factor, bearing capacity factor, unit weight, inclination, base factor, ground factor, width, cohesion, friction angle

58

101. Bearing capacity factors


Keywords: angle of internal friction, N-factor, cohesion, weight, bearing capacity

59 59

102. Effective stress analysis of foundation on sand


Keywords: drained triaxial test, shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, friction angle, width

103. Plain strain friction angle


Keywords: plain strain, triaxial test

60 60 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 64 65

104. Punching failure


Keywords: loose sand, loose silt, friction angle, cohesion

105. Bearing capacity of footing in sand


Keywords: effective overburden pressure, ground water, N-factor

106. Bearing capacity of footing in sand (layered soil)


Keywords: footing, soil layer, density, depth, width

107. Footing in excavation


Keywords: depth, boundary

108. Effect of hydraulic gradient on bearing capacity


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

109. Effect of adjacent footing in slope


Keywords: failure surface, log spiral failure surface, slope

110. Log spiral


Keywords: friction angle

111. Bearing capacity of footing (log spiral)


Keywords: log spiral, shear strength

112. Effect of horizontal load on bearing capacity


Keywords: vertical load, horizontal load, failure surface

113. Equivalent area of surface footing


Keywords: length, width, round, triangular, eccentricity

114. Total stress analysis of foundation in clay


Keywords: undrained shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, bearing capacity

55

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


115. Effect of soil layer on bearing capacity of footing in clay
Keywords: vertical plane, horizontal plane, isotropic, circular failure surface, depth, width

65

116. Effect of overburden pressure on bearing capacity in clay


Keywords: total overburden pressure, allowable load, ultimate load, depth

66 66 67 67 68

117. Pressure distribution below footing in clay and sand


Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, elastic theory, design load,

118. Pull out resistance of shallow footing


Keywords: depth, friction angle, shape factor, density, weight

119. Pull out resistance of footing at depth


Keywords: shape factor, friction angle, depth, weight

120. Bearing capacity on rock


Keywords: unconfined compressive strength, steel point, pile, allowable load, ultimate load

56

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations

Chapter 4. Bearing capacity of foundations


97. Bearing capacity of surface foundation
Keywords: load, settlement, ultimate load

98. Failure mechanism of surface foundation


Keywords: general shear failure, local shear failure, punching, failure surface, compaction

57

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


99. Failure zones below surface foundation
Keywords: overburden pressure, active Rankine zone, Prandtl zone, Passive Rankine zone, cohesion, unit weight of soil

100. Determination of bearing capacity of surface foundation


Keywords: shape factor, bearing capacity factor, unit weight, inclination, base factor, ground factor, width, cohesion, friction angle

58

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


101. Bearing capacity factors
Keywords: angle of internal friction, N-factor, cohesion, weight, bearing capacity

102. Effective stress analysis of foundation on sand


Keywords: drained triaxial test, shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, friction angle, width

59

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


103. Plain strain friction angle
Keywords: plain strain, triaxial test

104. Punching failure


Keywords: loose sand, loose silt, friction angle, cohesion

105. Bearing capacity of footing in sand


Keywords: effective overburden pressure, ground water, N-factor

60

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


106. Bearing capacity of footing in sand (layered soil)
Keywords: footing, soil layer, density, depth, width

107. Footing in excavation


Keywords: depth, boundary

61

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


108. Effect of hydraulic gradient on bearing capacity
Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

109. Effect of adjacent footing in slope


Keywords: failure surface, log spiral failure surface, slope

62

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


110. Log spiral
Keywords: friction angle

111. Bearing capacity of footing (log spiral)


Keywords: log spiral, shear strength

63

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


112. Effect of horizontal load on bearing capacity
Keywords: vertical load, horizontal load, failure surface

113. Equivalent area of surface footing


Keywords: length, width, round, triangular, eccentricity

64

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


114. Total stress analysis of foundation in clay
Keywords: undrained shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, bearing capacity

115. Effect of soil layer on bearing capacity of footing in clay


Keywords: vertical plane, horizontal plane, isotropic, circular failure surface, depth, width

65

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


116. Effect of overburden pressure on bearing capacity in clay
Keywords: total overburden pressure, allowable load, ultimate load, depth

117. Pressure distribution below footing in clay and sand


Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, elastic theory, design load,

66

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations

118. Pull out resistance of shallow footing


Keywords: depth, friction angle, shape factor, density, weight

119. Pull out resistance of footing at depth


Keywords: shape factor, friction angle, depth, weight

67

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Foundations


120. Bearing capacity on rock
Keywords: unconfined compressive strength, steel point, pile, allowable load, ultimate load

68

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements

Chapter 5. Foundation settlements


121. Settlements of foundations
Keywords: cracks, tower of Pisa

Page
72 72 73 73 74 74 75

122. Stress distribution below point load


Keywords: stress increase, Boussinesq, pressure bulb, equal stress increase

123. Stress below strip load


Keywords: distance, depth, diameter, stress increase, load

124. Influence chart


Keywords: Influence value, squares, load

125. 2:1 - method


Keywords: surface load, stress distribution, width, depth

126. 2:1 - method at corner of footing


Keywords: depth, stress increase, loaded area, length, width

127. Settlement below footing


Keywords: clay, silt, sand, immediate settlement, primary settlement, secondary settlement, first loading, cyclic loading

128. Settlements in clay and silt


Keywords: normally consolidated, overconsolidated, primary settlement, secondary settlement, total settlement, modulus, pressuremeter, oedometer, elastic method, undrained shear strength

75

129. Settlements in sand


Keywords: first loading, cyclic loading, compression modulus, coefficient of subgrade reaction, SPT, CPT, WST, triaxial test, plate load test

76

130. Immediate settlements in clay


Keywords: theory of elasticity, correction factor for depth, Poisson's ratio, influence factor, modulus of elasticity

76

131. Correction factor for foundation depth


Keywords: Poisson's ratio, width, depth,

77 77 78

132. Determination of compression index


Keywords: void ratio, effective stress, compression index, liquid limit, stress increase

133. Determination of settlements from compression test


Keywords: preconsolidation pressure, effective stress, corrected curve, applied pressure, void ratio, settlement, load scale

134. Principle of settlement calculation


Keywords: primary settlement, void ratio, water content

78 79 79 80

135. Settlement below footing


Keywords: effective stress, applied stress, ground water, void ratio

136. Determination of precosolidation pressure


Keywords: preconsolidation stress, effective stress, void ratio

137. Determination of coefficient of consolidation (logarithmic)


Keywords: consolidation curve, time, logarithmic, primary consolidation, secondary consolidation, coefficient of consolidation, dial reading

69

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


138. Coefficient of consolidation (square root)
Keywords: time, settlement, coefficient of consolidation

80 81 81

139. Secondary consolidation


Keywords: time, void ratio,

140. Effect of surface fill on stress distribution


Keywords: compression modulus, pore water pressure, total stress, effective stress, stress increase, time, ground water, fill, compression modulus, sand, clay, settlement

141. Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay


Keywords: clay, undrained shear strength, normally consolidated, overconsolidated

82 82 82 83 83 84 84 85 85

142. Soil modulus from cone penetration test (CPT)


Keywords: sand, clay, Bowles

143. Determination of modulus from plate load test


Keywords: settlement, elastic range, coefficient of subgrade reaction, load

144. Estimate of settlements below footing on sand


Keywords: pressure bulb, modulus of elasticity, sand, clay, load

145. Settlements of footing on clay


Keywords: width, settlement

146. Effect of plate diameter on bearing capacity of plate on sand


Keywords: width, settlements, sand

147. Estimate of modulus of elasticity from Standard penetration test (SPT)


Keywords: sand, clay, SPT, N-value

148. Estimate of modulus of elasticity from cone penetration test (CPT


Keywords: sand,

149. Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay from Standard penetration test (SPT) and undrained shear strength
Keywords: clay, modulus of elasticity, N-value

150. Allowable footing pressure based on SPT N-values


Keywords: bearing capacity, settlements, blow count, N-value

86 86 877 87

151. Settlements of footing on sand from cone penetration test, CPT


Keywords: footing, raft, allowable pressure, cone resistance

152. Allowable settlement below building


Keywords: crack, differential settlement, sewer line

153. Damage due to foundation settlements


Keywords: clay, sand, ground water, flexural cracks, shear cracks, total settlements, differential settlements

154. Floating foundation


Keywords: compensated foundation, building weight, fill, settlement

88 88 89 89

155. Effect of ground water lowering from tunnel on building settlements


Keywords: ground water level, clay, sand, tunnel

156. Effect of trees on ground water near building


Keywords: settlements, distance to building, tree height

157. Differential settlements between adjacent buildings


Keywords: settlement, soft clay, crack

70

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


158. Negative skin friction due to ground water lowering
Keywords: pile, cracks, settlements, ground water level

90 90

159. Swelling potential of soil below building


Keywords: heave, swelling potential, seasonal variation, ground water, sewer line, leaks, watering, plasticity index, liquid limit, shrinkage limit

160. Effect of pile installation on adjacent building


Keywords: clay, sand, pile, area of influence, heave, settlement

91 91

161. Allowable differential settlements below structure


Keywords: rotation, differential settlements, USSR code, structure type, distance between footings

71

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements

Chapter 5. Foundation settlements


121. Settlements of foundations
Keywords: cracks, tower of Pisa

122. Stress distribution below point load


Keywords: stress increase, Boussinesq, pressure bulb, equal stress increase

72

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


123. Stress below strip load
Keywords: distance, depth, diameter, stress increase, load

124. Influence chart


Keywords: Influence value, squares, load

73

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


125. 2:1 - method
Keywords: surface load, stress distribution, width, depth

126. 2:1 - method at corner of footing


Keywords: depth, stress increase, loaded area, length, width

74

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


127. Settlement below footing
Keywords: clay, silt, sand, immediate settlement, primary settlement, secondary settlement, first loading, cyclic loading

128. Settlements in clay and silt


Keywords: normally consolidated, overconsolidated, primary settlement, secondary settlement, total settlement, modulus, pressuremeter, oedometer, elastic method, undrained shear strength

75

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


129. Settlements in sand
Keywords: first loading, cyclic loading, compression modulus, coefficient of subgrade reaction, SPT, CPT, WST, triaxial test, plate load test

130. Immediate settlements in clay


Keywords: theory of elasticity, correction factor for depth, Poisson's ratio, influence factor, modulus of elasticity

76

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


131. Correction factor for foundation depth
Keywords: Poisson's ratio, width, depth,

132. Determination of compression index


Keywords: void ratio, effective stress, compression index, liquid limit, stress increase

77

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


133. Determination of settlements from compression test
Keywords: preconsolidation pressure, effective stress, corrected curve, applied pressure, void ratio, settlement, load scale

134. Principle of settlement calculation


Keywords: primary settlement, void ratio, water content

78

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


135. Settlement below footing
Keywords: effective stress, applied stress, ground water, void ratio

136. Determination of precosolidation pressure


Keywords: preconsolidation stress, effective stress, void ratio

79

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


137. Determination of coefficient of consolidation (logarithmic)
Keywords: consolidation curve, time, logarithmic, primary consolidation, secondary consolidation, coefficient of consolidation, dial reading

138. Coefficient of consolidation (square root)


Keywords: time, settlement, coefficient of consolidation

80

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


139. Secondary consolidation
Keywords: time, void ratio,

140. Effect of surface fill on stress distribution


Keywords: compression modulus, pore water pressure, total stress, effective stress, stress increase, time, ground water, fill, compression modulus, sand, clay, settlement

81

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


141. Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay
Keywords: clay, undrained shear strength, normally consolidated, overconsolidated

142. Soil modulus from cone penetration test (CPT)


Keywords: sand, clay, Bowles

143. Determination of modulus from plate load test


Keywords: settlement, elastic range, coefficient of subgrade reaction, load

82

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


144. Estimate of settlements below footing on sand
Keywords: pressure bulb, modulus of elasticity, sand, clay, load

145. Settlements of footing on clay


Keywords: width, settlement

83

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


146. Effect of plate diameter on bearing capacity of plate on sand
Keywords: width, settlements, sand

147. Estimate of modulus of elasticity from Standard penetration test (SPT)


Keywords: sand, clay, SPT, N-value

84

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


148. Estimate of modulus of elasticity from cone penetration test (CPT
Keywords: sand,

149. Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay from Standard penetration test (SPT) and undrained shear strength
Keywords: clay, modulus of elasticity, N-value

85

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


150. Allowable footing pressure based on SPT N-values
Keywords: bearing capacity, settlements, blow count, N-value

151. Settlements of footing on sand from cone penetration test, CPT


Keywords: footing, raft, allowable pressure, cone resistance

86

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


152. Allowable settlement below building
Keywords: crack, differential settlement, sewer line

153. Damage due to foundation settlements


Keywords: clay, sand, ground water, flexural cracks, shear cracks, total settlements, differential settlements

87

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


154. Floating foundation
Keywords: compensated foundation, building weight, fill, settlement

155. Effect of ground water lowering from tunnel on building settlements


Keywords: ground water level, clay, sand, tunnel

88

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


156. Effect of trees on ground water near building
Keywords: settlements, distance to building, tree height

157. Differential settlements between adjacent buildings


Keywords: settlement, soft clay, crack

89

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


158. Negative skin friction due to ground water lowering
Keywords: pile, cracks, settlements, ground water level

159. Swelling potential of soil below building


Keywords: heave, swelling potential, seasonal variation, ground water, sewer line, leaks, watering, plasticity index, liquid limit, shrinkage limit

90

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements


160. Effect of pile installation on adjacent building
Keywords: clay, sand, pile, area of influence, heave, settlement

161. Allowable differential settlements below structure


Keywords: rotation, differential settlements, USSR code, structure type, distance between footings

91

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 5 Foundation Settlements

92

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design

Chapter 6. Factors to consider in foundation design


162. Examples of foundation design
Keywords: footings, raft, piles

Page

94 94

163. Design considerations


Keywords: seasonal change, frost heave, change of ground water level, internal erosion, piping, adjacent excavation, soil creep, sink holes, vibrations, deterioration of concrete

164. Factor of safety of foundation


Keywords: increase of safety factor, time, ultimate pressure, minimum

95 95

165. Determination of factor of safety for different structures


Keywords: forces preventing failure, forces initiating failure, moment, dams, fill, retaining wall, sheet pile, braced excavation, footing, mat, raft, uplift, heave, piping

166. Factor of safety of slope


Keywords: centre of rotation, length of failure surface, resisting moment, initiating moment, resisting force

96

167. Stability of slope in clay


Keywords: weight of soil, sliding, slip circle, undrained shear strength

96 97 97 98 98 99

168. Factor of safety of slope in clay


Keywords: weight of soil, slip circle,

169. Probability of failure


Keywords: coefficient of variation, mean value, standard deviation, load, strength

170. Load combinations


Keywords: dead loads, live load, wind load, earthquake load, load factor

171. Characteristic load


Keywords: load factor, partial factor of safety, shear strength, friction angle, cohesion,

172. Coefficient of variability


Keywords: loads, soil properties, analysis, construction, safety factor, reliability, low, very low, medium, high, very high

173. Factor of safety


Keywords: coefficient of variability, stability, settlement, stability safety, settlement factor, low, medium, high, very high

99

174. Minimum load factors and partial safety factors


Keywords: loads, soil strength, dead load, live load, static water pressure, environmental load, cohesion, friction,

100

175. Effect of adjacent structures


Keywords: stress increase, settlement, new, old, lateral earth pressure

100 100

176. Effect of excavation


Keywords: stability, excavation

93

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design

Chapter 6. Factors to consider in foundation design


162. Examples of foundation design
Keywords: footings, raft, piles

163. Design considerations


Keywords: seasonal change, frost heave, change of ground water level, internal erosion, piping, adjacent excavation, soil creep, sink holes, vibrations, deterioration of concrete

94

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design


164. Factor of safety of foundation
Keywords: increase of safety factor, time, ultimate pressure, minimum

165. Determination of factor of safety for different structures


Keywords: forces preventing failure, forces initiating failure, moment, dams, fill, retaining wall, sheet pile, braced excavation, footing, mat, raft, uplift, heave, piping

95

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design


166. Factor of safety of slope
Keywords: centre of rotation, length of failure surface, resisting moment, initiating moment, resisting force

167. Stability of slope in clay


Keywords: weight of soil, sliding, slip circle, undrained shear strength

96

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design

168. Factor of safety of slope in clay


Keywords: weight of soil, slip circle,

169. Probability of failure


Keywords: coefficient of variation, mean value, standard deviation, load, strength

97

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design


170. Load combinations
Keywords: dead loads, live load, wind load, earthquake load, load factor

171. Characteristic load


Keywords: load factor, partial factor of safety, shear strength, friction angle, cohesion,

98

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design


172. Coefficient of variability
Keywords: loads, soil properties, analysis, construction, safety factor, reliability, low, very low, medium, high, very high

173. Factor of safety


Keywords: coefficient of variability, stability, settlement, stability safety, settlement factor, low, medium, high, very high

99

Bengt Broms Foundations Chap. 6 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design


174. Minimum load factors and partial safety factors
Keywords: loads, soil strength, dead load, live load, static water pressure, environmental load, cohesion, friction,

175. Effect of adjacent structures


Keywords: stress increase, settlement, new, old, lateral earth pressure

176. Effect of excavation


Keywords: stability, excavation

100

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 7 Spread Footing Design

Chapter 7. Spread footing design


177. Spread footing
Keywords: reinforcement, floor slab, soil reaction

Page
102 102 103

178. Footing types


Keywords: trapezoidal, column, strap, wall, combined, footing with moment

179. Design considerations


Keywords: compression in concrete, pedestal, punching, cover, tension reinforcement, reinforcement

180. Critical section


Keywords: reinforcement, masonry, steel, base plate,

103 104 104 105 105 106 106

181. Critical section of footing


Keywords: shear force, shear stress,

182. Bond stress in footing


Keywords: bond stress, reinforcement

183. Eccentric force on footings


Keywords: eccentricity, footing, moment

184. Design of eccentrically loaded footing


Keywords: allowable pressure, eccentricity, width,, moment

185. Eccentrically loaded footing


Keywords: stress, allowable pressure

186. Drainage of footings


Keywords: drain

101

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 7 Spread Footing Design

Chapter 7. Spread footing design


177. Spread footing
Keywords: reinforcement, floor slab, soil reaction

178. Footing types


Keywords: trapezoidal, column, strap, wall, combined, footing with moment

102

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 7 Spread Footing Design


179. Design considerations
Keywords: compression in concrete, pedestal, punching, cover, tension reinforcement, reinforcement

180. Critical section


Keywords: reinforcement, masonry, steel, base plate,

103

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 7 Spread Footing Design


181. Critical section of footing
Keywords: shear force, shear stress,

182. Bond stress in footing


Keywords: bond stress, reinforcement

104

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 7 Spread Footing Design


183. Eccentric force on footings
Keywords: eccentricity, footing, moment

184. Design of eccentrically loaded footing


Keywords: allowable pressure, eccentricity, width,, moment

105

Bengt Broms Foundations Chapter 7 Spread Footing Design


185. Eccentrically loaded footing
Keywords: stress, allowable pressure

186. Drainage of footings


Keywords: drain

106

B. Broms Foundations Chap. 8 Special Footings & Beams Elastic Foundations

Chapter 8. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations


187. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations
Keywords: beam, strap, moment, eccentricity

Page

108 108 109 109

188. Combined footing


Keywords: elevation, plan

189. Load distribution on footing


Keywords: concentrated load, moment distribution, shear stress distribution, pressure

190. Winkler foundation


Keywords: spring, elastic, soil reaction, coefficient of subgrade reaction, actual, load, deflection, settlement

191. Coefficient of subgrade reaction


Keywords: elastic spring, elastic range, settlement, unloading, load

110 110 111 111

192. Classical design solution


Keywords: deflection, moment, shear force

193. Elastic deflection of beam


Keywords: solutions, shear force, moment, slope, deflection

194. Effect of foundation width on footing settlement


Keywords: solutions, clay, sand, deformation,

107

B. Broms Foundations Chap. 8 Special Footings & Beams Elastic Foundations

Chapter 8. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations


187. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations
Keywords: beam, strap, moment, eccentricity

188. Combined footing


Keywords: elevation, plan

108

B. Broms Foundations Chap. 8 Special Footings & Beams Elastic Foundations


189. Load distribution on footing
Keywords: concentrated load, moment distribution, shear stress distribution, pressure

190. Winkler foundation


Keywords: spring, elastic, soil reaction, coefficient of subgrade reaction, actual, load, deflection, settlement

109

B. Broms Foundations Chap. 8 Special Footings & Beams Elastic Foundations


191. Coefficient of subgrade reaction
Keywords: elastic spring, elastic range, settlement, unloading, load

192. Classical design solution


Keywords: deflection, moment, shear force

110

B. Broms Foundations Chap. 8 Special Footings & Beams Elastic Foundations


193. Elastic deflection of beam
Keywords: solutions, shear force, moment, slope, deflection

194. Effect of foundation width on footing settlement


Keywords: solutions, clay, sand, deformation,

111

B. Broms Foundations Chap. 8 Special Footings & Beams Elastic Foundations

112

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations

Chapter 9. Mat foundations


195. Mat foundations
Keywords: examples, loads

Page
114 114 115

196. Waffle structure


Keywords: ribs

197. Finite difference method


Keywords: computer programme, uncertainties, coefficient of subgrade reaction, modulus of elasticity,

198. Design of building foundation


Keywords: span, wall, strip, span length, exterior spans, interior spans

115 116 116 117 117 118 118 119 119

199. Grain elevator foundation


Keywords: clay, allowable pressure, factor of safety, total overburden pressure

200. Floating foundation


Keywords: building weight, soil weight, depth of excavation, story,

201. Floating building foundation


Keywords: excavation, net pressure

202. Differential settlements due to ground water lowering


Keywords: clay, ground water lowering

203. Stability of deep excavations


Keywords: heave, anchor, sheet pile

204. Effect of pile installation adjacent to excavation


Keywords: excavation, embankment piles

205. Support of excavation against heave


Keywords: fill

206. Anchor pile in excavation


Keywords: water-filled excavation

113

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations

Chapter 9. Mat foundations


195. Mat foundations
Keywords: examples, loads

196. Waffle structure


Keywords: ribs

114

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations


197. Finite difference method
Keywords: computer programme, uncertainties, coefficient of subgrade reaction, modulus of elasticity,

198. Design of building foundation


Keywords: span, wall, strip, span length, exterior spans, interior spans

115

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations


199. Grain elevator foundation
Keywords: clay, allowable pressure, factor of safety, total overburden pressure

200. Floating foundation


Keywords: building weight, soil weight, depth of excavation, story,

116

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations


201. Floating building foundation
Keywords: excavation, net pressure

202. Differential settlements due to ground water lowering


Keywords: clay, ground water lowering

117

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations


203. Stability of deep excavations
Keywords: heave, anchor, sheet pile

204. Effect of pile installation adjacent to excavation


Keywords: excavation, embankment piles

118

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations


5. Support of excavation against heave
Keywords: fill

206. Anchor pile in excavation


Keywords: water-filled excavation

119

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 9 Mat Foundations

120

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure

Chapter 10. Lateral earth pressure


207. Lateral earth pressure
Keywords: retaining wall, sheet pile wall

Page
123 123

208. Influence of displacement on lateral earth pressure


Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, lateral earth pressure at rest, away from fill, against fill

209. Active earth pressure (Rankine)


Keywords: coefficient of active earth pressure, shear stress, normal pressure, depth of excavation, Mohr circle

124

210. Distribution of active earth pressure


Keywords: Rankine, Mohr circle, cohesion, depth

124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128

211. Active earth pressure (Coulomb)


Keywords: wedge

212. Influence of two point loads on soil pressure


Keywords: displacement, Boussinesq, rigid smooth wall

213. Stress distribution below surface load


Keywords: Influence value, 0.005, number of squares, Poisson's ratio

214. Effect of compaction on earth pressure


Keywords: bridge abutment, deep basement, lateral earth pressure

215. Effect of vibratory roller


Keywords: passive pressure, at rest pressure, active pressure, dynamic soil pressure

216. Distribution of soil pressure after compaction


Keywords: initial, compaction, stress increase, active at rest, passive at rest

217. Compaction of soil layers


Keywords: compactor, first layer, second layer, depth, passive at rest

218. Earth pressure distribution at rigid wall due to compaction


Keywords: depth, lateral earth pressure, increase, compaction, without compaction, rigid wall

219. Examples of retaining structures


Keywords: gravity wall, cantilever wall, counterfort wall

129 129 130 130

220. Crib wall


Keywords: stretcher, header, cells, soil

221. Gravity wall and Cantilever wall


Keywords: height

222. Failure modes


Keywords: mechanisms, bearing capacity, overturning, sliding, general failure, centre of rotation

223. Design of retaining structure for bearing capacity


Keywords: eccentric load, inclined load, design

131 131

224. Bearing capacity of retaining wall


Keywords: wall, inclined

225. Design of retaining wall for inclined load

Keywords: eccentricity

132

121

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


226. Inclined wall
Keywords: force

132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 137 137 137 138 138

227. Overturning of retaining wall


Keywords: point of overturning, resisting moment, driving moment

228. Design of wall against sliding


Keywords: resisting force, driving force, sand, clay

229. Shear keys in sliding wall


Keywords: shear key, alternative location

230. General stability of retaining wall


Keywords: driving moment, resisting moment, failure surface

231. Reinforcement in retaining wall


Keywords: moment, reinforcement

232. Location of reinforcement


Keywords: moment distribution

233. Tilting of retaining structure


Keywords: bridge abutment, design, actual pressure, yielding

234. Counterfort walls


Keywords: elevation

235. Drainage of wall


Keywords: drain, pore water pressure, slip surface

236. Drainage of retaining structure


Keywords: drain, slip surface, pore pressure distribution

237. Drainage of retaining structure


Keywords: failure surface, drainage layer, pore water pressure

238. Reinforced earth, type Vidal


Keywords: metal strip

239. Reinforce earth wall


Keywords: metal strip, spacing, star-shaped element, stress distribution, actual failure surface

240. Required length of earth reinforcement


Keywords: earth pressure, length, failure surface

139 139 140 140 141 141

241. Bearing capacity failure of retaining structure


Keywords: base failure

242. Fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: precast concrete element, fabric, soil

243. Fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: reinforcement

244. Examples of fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: failure surface, fabric

245. Design of fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: failure surface, length

122

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure

Chapter 10. Lateral earth pressure


207. Lateral earth pressure
Keywords: retaining wall, sheet pile wall

208. Influence of displacement on lateral earth pressure


Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, lateral earth pressure at rest, away from fill, against fill

123

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


209. Active earth pressure (Rankine)
Keywords: coefficient of active earth pressure, shear stress, normal pressure, depth of excavation, Mohr circle

210. Distribution of active earth pressure


Keywords: Rankine, Mohr circle, cohesion, depth

124

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


211. Active earth pressure (Coulomb)
Keywords: wedge

212. Influence of two point loads on soil pressure


Keywords: displacement, Boussinesq, rigid smooth wall

125

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


213. Stress distribution below surface load
Keywords: Influence value, 0.005, number of squares, Poisson's ratio

214. Effect of compaction on earth pressure


Keywords: bridge abutment, deep basement, lateral earth pressure

126

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


215. Effect of vibratory roller
Keywords: passive pressure, at rest pressure, active pressure, dynamic soil pressure

216. Distribution of soil pressure after compaction


Keywords: initial, compaction, stress increase, active at rest, passive at rest

127

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


217. Compaction of soil layers
Keywords: compactor, first layer, second layer, depth, passive at rest

218. Earth pressure distribution at rigid wall due to compaction


Keywords: depth, lateral earth pressure, increase, compaction, without compaction, rigid wall

128

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


219. Examples of retaining structures
Keywords: gravity wall, cantilever wall, counterfort wall

220. Crib wall


Keywords: stretcher, header, cells, soil

129

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


221. Gravity wall and Cantilever wall
Keywords: height

222. Failure modes


Keywords: mechanisms, bearing capacity, overturning, sliding, general failure, centre of rotation

130

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


223. Design of retaining structure for bearing capacity
Keywords: eccentric load, inclined load, design

224. Bearing capacity of retaining wall


Keywords: wall, inclined

131

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


225. Design of retaining wall for inclined load
Keywords: eccentricity

226. Inclined wall


Keywords: force

132

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


227. Overturning of retaining wall
Keywords: point of overturning, resisting moment, driving moment

228. Design of wall against sliding


Keywords: resisting force, driving force, sand, clay

133

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


229. Shear keys in sliding wall
Keywords: shear key, alternative location

230. General stability of retaining wall


Keywords: driving moment, resisting moment, failure surface

134

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


231. Reinforcement in retaining wall
Keywords: moment, reinforcement

232. Location of reinforcement


Keywords: moment distribution

135

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


233. Tilting of retaining structure
Keywords: bridge abutment, design, actual pressure, yielding

234. Counterfort walls


Keywords: elevation

136

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


235. Drainage of wall
Keywords: drain, pore water pressure, slip surface

236. Drainage of retaining structure


Keywords: drain, slip surface, pore pressure distribution

237. Drainage of retaining structure


Keywords: failure surface, drainage layer, pore water pressure

137

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


238. Reinforced earth, type Vidal
Keywords: metal strip

239. Reinforce earth wall


Keywords: metal strip, spacing, star-shaped element, stress distribution, actual failure surface

138

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


240. Required length of earth reinforcement
Keywords: earth pressure, length, failure surface

241. Bearing capacity failure of retaining structure


Keywords: base failure

139

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


242. Fabric reinforced wall
Keywords: precast concrete element, fabric, soil

243. Fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: reinforcement

140

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure


244. Examples of fabric reinforced wall
Keywords: failure surface, fabric

245. Design of fabric reinforced wall


Keywords: failure surface, length

141

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 10 Lateral Earth Pressure

142

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures

Chapter 11. Soil retaining structures


246. Support systems
Keywords: anchored wall, strutted wall, cantilever wall, sheet pile, strut, wale beam, ground anchor

Page
146

247. Wood elements


Keywords: groove, spline, tongue, driving sequence

146 147 147 148 148

248. Concrete elements


Keywords: heavy, difficult, grouted, driving

249. Steel sheet piles


Keywords: light, difficult to drive

250. Sheet piles details


Keywords: anchor rod, lagging, wedge, wale beam, soldier beam

251. Details of wall construction


Keywords: poling boards, soldier beams (King post), strap, clip, welded studs, washers, soldier beam placed in predrilled borehole

252. Bored pile wall


Keywords: wale beam, ground anchor

149 149 150

253. Berliner wall


Keywords: soldier pile, precast element, ground anchor, shotcrete, rail, wire mesh

254. Factor of safety of retaining wall


Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, factor of safety, water pressure, friction angle,

255. Cantilever sheet pile wall


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line, water pressure, net water pressure

150 151 151

256. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, friction soil


Keywords: uplift, dragdown, gradient, water pressure, Rankine

257. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, cohesive soil


Keywords: undrained shear strength, cohesion, net pressure, active earth pressure, Rankine, actual, assumed, water pressure

258. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, factor of safety


Keywords: clay, depth, factor of safety, cohesion, depth

152 152 153 153

259. Design of sheet pile walls


Keywords: wale beam, anchor rod, sheet pile

260. Failure mechanisms


Keywords: plastic hinge, rotation

261. Anchored sheet pile wall (Free earth support)


Keywords: center of rotation, surface load, resisting moment, driving moment, depth, earth pressure, net pressure, overburden pressure

262. Earth pressure distribution in cohesive soil with wall friction


Keywords: adhesion, wall friction, depth, cohesion, vertical pressure, surface load

154 154

263. Critical height of sheet pile wall in clay


Keywords: no wall friction, with wall friction, stability factor, unstable, stable, undrained

143

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


undrained shear strength,

264. Earth pressure distribution along sheet pile wall


Keywords: passive earth pressure, active earth pressure, sand, clay, surface pressure

155 155 156

265. Moment distribution in sheet pile wall


Keywords: distributed load, moment, distributed load, shear distribution, surface load

266. Anchored or braced sheet pile wall


Keywords: flexible, stiff, assumed, deflection, earth pressure distribution, moment distribution, anchor

267. Moment reduction in sheet pile wall


Keywords: anchor, moment, reduced load

156 157 157 158 158 159

268. Deflection of sheet pile wall


Keywords: stiffness, height

269. Moment as function of sheet pile height


Keywords: dense sand, loose sand, moment

270. Anchor systems


Keywords: soil anchor, rock anchor, concrete slab, piles, short sheet pile, inclination

271. Anchor piles


Keywords: piles, pull out resistance

272. Design aspects of anchor plate


Keywords: anchor plate, passive earth pressure, anchor force, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, critical failure surface, anchor depth

273. Critical depth of anchor plate in sand


Keywords: friction angle, depth, passive earth pressure

159 160 160 160 161 161 161

274. Critical depth of anchor plate in clay


Keywords: undrained shear strength, critical depth

275. Pull out resistance of anchor plate in clay


Keywords: depth,

276. Settlement behind sheet pile wall


Keywords: anchor force, settlement, inclination

277. Strutted wall


Keywords: soil anchor, passive resistance, wedge, horizontal anchor

278. Anchored wall


Keywords: soil anchor, inclined anchor, failure wedge,

279. General stability of anchored wall


Keywords: failure surface, failure surface, factor of safety, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure

280. Load distribution between soil anchors


Keywords: Manfred Panel C1, Bergshamra Panel A, load, arching

162 162 163

281. Force redistribution in soil wedge


Keywords: failure surface

282. Braced excavations


Keywords: settlement, strut, wale beam

144

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


283. Earth pressure distributions (design)
Keywords: earth pressure distribution, sand, soft clay, stiff fissured clay, depth, undrained shear strength, struts

163

284. Strut forces


Keywords: hinge

164 164 164 165 165 166 166

285. Strut forces in adjacent excavations


Keywords: tensile crack, first strut, second strut, undrained shear strength, failure surface

286. Water flow into excavation in sand


Keywords: flow line, ground water, quick condition, critical gradient, depth of excavation

287. Bottom heave in excavation


Keywords: sand, clay, adhesion, ground water, struts critical depth

288. Bottom heave in excavation in clay


Keywords: stability factor, struts, depth, width

289. Bottom heave in excavation in clay, effect of wall adhesion


Keywords: stability factor, adhesion

290. Settlement adjacent to strutted excavation


Keywords: struts, settlements, ground water level, base heave, stability, lateral displacement, workmanship

291. Estimate of settlement adjacent to excavation


Keywords: ground loss, distance, maximum depth of excavation, sand, clay, settlement, very soft clay, stability factor, A, B, C

167

292. Bored pile wall with soil anchors


Keywords: shotcrete, soil anchor, soft clay, undrained shear strength, bored pile, ground anchor

167

293. Slurry walls or diaphragm walls


Keywords: wall panel, ground anchor

168 168

294. Slurry wall construction


Keywords: grab, bentonite slurry, reinforcement cage, steel tube, excavation, placement of steel tube, placement of reinforcement, concreting

295. Stability of slots


Keywords: soil wedge

169 169

296. Bentonite slurry


Keywords: oil well drilling, soil borings, bentonite clay, montmorillonite, barite, barium sulphate, slurry density

297. Stability of slurry excavation


Keywords: ground beams, bentonite slurry, filter skin, density of slurry, failure wedge

170 170

298. Maximum depth of slurry excavation


Keywords: layer of stones or gravel, viscosity, tixotrophy, filter skin, undrained shear strength, active earth pressure, ground water level

299. Concreting of slurry excavation


Keywords: soft clay, critical depth, undrained shear strength, density, tremmie pipe

171 171

300. Deformation of concrete wall


Keywords: active earth pressure, at rest pressure, Winkler foundation, load redistribution, deformation, soil anchor

145

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures

Chapter 11. Soil retaining structures


246. Support systems
Keywords: anchored wall, strutted wall, cantilever wall, sheet pile, strut, wale beam, ground anchor

247. Wood elements


Keywords: groove, spline, tongue, driving sequence

146

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


248. Concrete elements
Keywords: heavy, difficult, grouted, driving

249. Steel sheet piles


Keywords: light, difficult to drive

147

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


250. Sheet piles details
Keywords: anchor rod, lagging, wedge, wale beam, soldier beam

251. Details of wall construction


Keywords: poling boards, soldier beams (King post), strap, clip, welded studs, washers, soldier beam placed in predrilled borehole

148

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


252. Bored pile wall
Keywords: wale beam, ground anchor

253. Berliner wall


Keywords: soldier pile, precast element, ground anchor, shotcrete, rail, wire mesh

149

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


254. Factor of safety of retaining wall
Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, factor of safety, water pressure, friction angle,

255. Cantilever sheet pile wall


Keywords: flow line, equipotential line, water pressure, net water pressure

150

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


256. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, friction soil
Keywords: uplift, dragdown, gradient, water pressure, Rankine

257. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, cohesive soil


Keywords: undrained shear strength, cohesion, net pressure, active earth pressure, Rankine, actual, assumed, water pressure

151

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


258. Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, factor of safety
Keywords: clay, depth, factor of safety, cohesion, depth

259. Design of sheet pile walls


Keywords: wale beam, anchor rod, sheet pile

152

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


260. Failure mechanisms
Keywords: plastic hinge, rotation

261. Anchored sheet pile wall (Free earth support)


Keywords: center of rotation, surface load, resisting moment, driving moment, depth, earth pressure, net pressure, overburden pressure

153

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


262. Earth pressure distribution in cohesive soil with wall friction
Keywords: adhesion, wall friction, depth, cohesion, vertical pressure, surface load

263. Critical height of sheet pile wall in clay


Keywords: no wall friction, with wall friction, stability factor, unstable, stable, undrained shear strength,

154

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


264. Earth pressure distribution along sheet pile wall
Keywords: passive earth pressure, active earth pressure, sand, clay, surface pressure

265. Moment distribution in sheet pile wall


Keywords: distributed load, moment, distributed load, shear distribution, surface load

155

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


266. Anchored or braced sheet pile wall
Keywords: flexible, stiff, assumed, deflection, earth pressure distribution, moment distribution, anchor

267. Moment reduction in sheet pile wall


Keywords: anchor, moment, reduced load

156

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


268. Deflection of sheet pile wall
Keywords: stiffness, height

269. Moment as function of sheet pile height


Keywords: dense sand, loose sand, moment

157

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


270. Anchor systems
Keywords: soil anchor, rock anchor, concrete slab, piles, short sheet pile, inclination

271. Anchor piles


Keywords: piles, pull out resistance

158

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


272. Design aspects of anchor plate
Keywords: anchor plate, passive earth pressure, anchor force, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, critical failure surface, anchor depth

273. Critical depth of anchor plate in sand


Keywords: friction angle, depth, passive earth pressure

159

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


274. Critical depth of anchor plate in clay
Keywords: undrained shear strength, critical depth

275. Pull out resistance of anchor plate in clay


Keywords: depth,

276. Settlement behind sheet pile wall


Keywords: anchor force, settlement, inclination

160

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


277. Strutted wall
Keywords: soil anchor, passive resistance, wedge, horizontal anchor

278. Anchored wall


Keywords: soil anchor, inclined anchor, failure wedge,

279. General stability of anchored wall


Keywords: failure surface, failure surface, factor of safety, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure

161

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


280. Load distribution between soil anchors
Keywords: Manfred Panel C1, Bergshamra Panel A, load, arching

281. Force redistribution in soil wedge


Keywords: failure surface

162

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


282. Braced excavations
Keywords: settlement, strut, wale beam

283. Earth pressure distributions (design)


Keywords: earth pressure distribution, sand, soft clay, stiff fissured clay, depth, undrained shear strength, struts

163

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


284. Strut forces
Keywords: hinge

285. Strut forces in adjacent excavations


Keywords: tensile crack, first strut, second strut, undrained shear strength, failure surface

286. Water flow into excavation in sand


Keywords: flow line, ground water, quick condition, critical gradient, depth of excavation

164

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


287. Bottom heave in excavation
Keywords: sand, clay, adhesion, ground water, struts critical depth

288. Bottom heave in excavation in clay


Keywords: stability factor, struts, depth, width

165

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


289. Bottom heave in excavation in clay, effect of wall adhesion
Keywords: stability factor, adhesion

290. Settlement adjacent to strutted excavation


Keywords: struts, settlements, ground water level, base heave, stability, lateral displacement, workmanship

166

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


291. Estimate of settlement adjacent to excavation
Keywords: ground loss, distance, maximum depth of excavation, sand, clay, settlement, very soft clay, stability factor, A, B, C

292. Bored pile wall with soil anchors


Keywords: shotcrete, soil anchor, soft clay, undrained shear strength, bored pile, ground anchor

167

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


293. Slurry walls or diaphragm walls
Keywords: wall panel, ground anchor

294. Slurry wall construction


Keywords: grab, bentonite slurry, reinforcement cage, steel tube, excavation, placement of steel tube, placement of reinforcement, concreting

168

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


295. Stability of slots
Keywords: soil wedge

296. Bentonite slurry


Keywords: oil well drilling, soil borings, bentonite clay, montmorillonite, barite, barium sulphate, slurry density

169

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


297. Stability of slurry excavation
Keywords: ground beams, bentonite slurry, filter skin, density of slurry, failure wedge

298. Maximum depth of slurry excavation


Keywords: layer of stones or gravel, viscosity, tixotrophy, filter skin, undrained shear strength, active earth pressure, ground water level

170

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures


299. Concreting of slurry excavation
Keywords: soft clay, critical depth, undrained shear strength, density, tremmie pipe

300. Deformation of concrete wall


Keywords: active earth pressure, at rest pressure, Winkler foundation, load redistribution, deformation, soil anchor

171

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chapter 11 Soil Retaining Structures

172

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles

Chapter 12. Pile foundations - Single piles


301. Piles
Keywords: pile cap, piles, soft clay, sand, raker pile, batter pile

Page
177 177 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181

302. Vibrations
Keywords: tanks, silos, chimneys, machine foundations, sand, ground water

303. Examples of pile foundations


Keywords: compaction piles, raked piles, damping of piles, small damping, vibrations

304. Stability of bridge abutment


Keywords: soft clay, fill, bridge abutment

305. Embankment piles


Keywords: soft clay, raked piles, bridge abutment, fill

306. Anchor piles for dry docks, subway stations


Keywords: ground water, up-lift force, anchor piles

307. Offshore structures on piles


Keywords: cyclic loading, scour, compression, steel pipe piles, tension force

308. Stabilisation of slope by piles


Keywords: slope stability, large diameter pile, steel pipe pile, failure surface

309. Design of embankment piles


Keywords: failure surface, clay, precast piles,

310. Anchor piles in swelling soil


Keywords: seasonal changes, swelling clay, montmorillonite, high liquid limit, high plasticity index, building

311. Examples of pile types


Keywords: driven piles, bored piles, jacked-down piles, screw piles, hydraulic jack

182 182 183

312. Piles foundations


Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber, H pile

313. Pile types


Keywords: large displacement piles, small displacement piles, non-displacement piles, bored piles, precast piles, pipe piles, cased, uncased

314. Loading conditions of piles


Keywords: compression, lateral load, tension

183 184 184

315. Load transfer to piles


Keywords: friction or floating piles, end bearing piles, clay, sand, rock

316. Timber piles


Keywords: advantages, difficulties, limit bearing capacity, soft clay, tip, shaft, ground water, butt

317. Pile splices


Keywords: steel sleeve, steel strap

185 185

318. Splices and rock points


Keywords: rock point,

173

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
319. Precast concrete piles
Keywords: point, concrete, reinforcement. pile diameter

186 186 187 187

320. Lifting of piles


Keywords: pile length, lifting hooks, moment

321. Prestressed concrete piles


Keywords: height strength concrete, brittle, reduced cracking, reduced ductility

322. Concrete strength (CP 2004)


Keywords: cube strength, hard driving, normal to easy driving, high capacity, reduced weight, easy driving

323. Installation of jacked-down piles


Keywords: pump, manometer, steel insert, hydraulic jack, pile segment

188 188 189 189 190

324. Bored piles


Keywords: auger, reinforcement, tremmie pipe, concreting

325. Examples of bored piles


Keywords: bored piles, drilling of shaft, drilling of bell, concrete, stiff clay, reinforcement

326. Bored piles with bell


Keywords: bells

327. Cast-in-place piles


Keywords: casing, driving, casing filled with water, casing filled with concrete, reinforcement

328. Necking during casting of pile shaft in soft clay


Keywords: casing, soft clay, sand or silt, ground water

190 191

329. Slurry trench wall construction


Keywords: ground water, surface casing, bentonite slurry, chisel, pouring of concrete, lowering of reinforcement element

330. Shapes of slurry trench pile elements


Keywords: size

191 192 192 193

331. Raymond step tapered pile


Keywords: steel shell, steel cone, light bulb, reinforcement cage, casting of concrete

332. Franki pile


Keywords: concrete plug, bulb, internal hammer, prefabricated shaft, light casing

333. Steel H-pile


Keywords: easy to drive, easy to cut, corrosion, expensive, splicing, soil plug, driving shoe, steel plate

334. Steel pipe piles


Keywords: diameter, closed or open ended, soil plug, diameter

193 194

335. Corrosion
Keywords: steel piles, concrete piles, National Bureau of Standards, splices, reinforcement, salt water

336. Settlement around during driving in sand


Keywords: settlement, diameter, compaction within this zone

194 195

337. Effect of pile driving in clay


Keywords: soft clay, heave, volume, soft clay, remoulded zone, pore water pressure, undrained shear strength

174

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
338. Redriving of piles in clay
Keywords: risen piles, redriving, heave, soft clay, separation of splice

195 196 197

339. Load distribution along pile


Keywords: sand, clay, point resistance, shaft resistance

340. Pile load as function of pile displacement


Keywords: load, displacement, soft clay, stiff clay, sand, cast in place pile, driven pile, with bell

341. Load deformation relationship of piles


Keywords: pile load, displacement, point resistance, skin resistance

197 198

342. Direction of pile loading


Keywords: compression, tension, weight of pile, factor of safety, allowable load, point resistance, shaft resistance

343. Determination of bearing capacity at pile point


Keywords: end bearing, undrained shear strength, bearing capacity factor

198 199 199

344. Pile bearing capacity according to Meyerhof


Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity factor

345. Bearing capacity factor of piles


Keywords: Terzaghi, Berezantsev, Meyerhof, Vesic, Brinch Hansen, de Beer, friction angle

346. Failure mechanism at pile point


Keywords: point resistance, rigidity index, failure surface, compressibility, rigidity index

200 200 201 202

347. Comparison of cone resistance and pile point resistance


Keywords: area of pile, sand

348. Comparison of SPTN-value and pile point resistance


Keywords: SPT, sand, pile diameter

349. Lateral pressure against pile shaft


Keywords: bored pile, small displacement pile, large displacement pile, straight shaft, tapered shaft, lateral earth pressure

350. Determination of pile capacity in sand


Keywords: loose, dense, coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, small, Vesic, displacement pile, non-displacement pile, tapered pile

202

351. Pile shaft capacity in sand


Keywords: pile type, sand, critical depth,

203 203 204 204 205 205

352. Lateral pressure against pile shaft


Keywords: Mansur & Hunter, Tavenas, Ireland, lateral earth pressure

353. Critical depth of pile shaft resistance


Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity value, diameter, length

354. Estimate of pile capacity based on Weight sounding test (WST)


Keywords: half-turns, timber piles, concrete piles, Norwegian Pile Commission, skin area

355. Failure surface at pile point in clay


Keywords: failure surface, diameter, area of pile

356. Skin friction resistance along pile shaft


Keywords: cone penetration test, friction sleeve small displacement pile, large displacement pile

175

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
357. Bearing capacity of piles in clay
Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, undrained shear strength, reduction , ground surface

206

358. Lambda-method
Keywords: offshore structures, depth, mean value, skin resistance

207 208 209 209 210 210 211

359. Estimate of pile skin resistance in clay


Keywords: effective overburden pressure, Flaate, Selnes, undrained shear strength

360. Load transfer from pile to soil as function of pile displacement


Keywords: t-z curves, q-y curve, driven pile, bored pile

361. Negative skin friction along piles


Keywords: lowering of ground water level, driven pile, bored pile

362. Failure modes of horizontally loaded piles


Keywords: soil failure, pile failure, failure mechanism

363. Lateral pile resistance in sand


Keywords: sand, horizontal load, force

364. Lateral pile resistance in clay (rotational mode)


Keywords: undrained shear strength, heave, passive earth pressure, lateral force, diameter, depth

365. Lateral pile resistance in clay (pile failure mode)


Keywords: undrained shear strength, diameter, yield, moment, lateral force

211

176

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles

Chapter 12. Pile foundations - Single piles


301. Piles
Keywords: pile cap, piles, soft clay, sand, raker pile, batter pile

302. Vibrations
Keywords: tanks, silos, chimneys, machine foundations, sand, ground water

177

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
303. Examples of pile foundations
Keywords: compaction piles, raked piles, damping of piles, small damping, vibrations

304. Stability of bridge abutment


Keywords: soft clay, fill, bridge abutment

178

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
305. Embankment piles
Keywords: soft clay, raked piles, bridge abutment, fill

306. Anchor piles for dry docks, subway stations


Keywords: ground water, up-lift force, anchor piles

179

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
307. Offshore structures on piles
Keywords: cyclic loading, scour, compression, steel pipe piles, tension force

308. Stabilisation of slope by piles


Keywords: slope stability, large diameter pile, steel pipe pile, failure surface

180

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
309. Design of embankment piles
Keywords: failure surface, clay, precast piles,

310. Anchor piles in swelling soil


Keywords: seasonal changes, swelling clay, montmorillonite, high liquid limit, high plasticity index, building

181

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
311. Examples of pile types
Keywords: driven piles, bored piles, jacked-down piles, screw piles, hydraulic Jack

312. Piles foundations


Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber, H pile

182

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
313. Pile types
Keywords: large displacement piles, small displacement piles, non-displacement piles, bored piles, precast piles, pipe piles, cased, uncased

314. Loading conditions of piles


Keywords: compression, lateral load, tension

183

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
315. Load transfer to piles
Keywords: friction or floating piles, end bearing piles, clay, sand, rock

316. Timber piles


Keywords: advantages, difficulties, limit bearing capacity, soft clay, tip, shaft, ground water, butt

184

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
317. Pile splices
Keywords: steel sleeve, steel strap

318. Splices and rock points


Keywords: rock point,

185

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
319. Precast concrete piles
Keywords: point, concrete, reinforcement. pile diameter

320. Lifting of piles


Keywords: pile length, lifting hooks, moment

186

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
321. Prestressed concrete piles
Keywords: height strength concrete, brittle, reduced cracking, reduced ductility

322. Concrete strength (CP 2004)


Keywords: cube strength, hard driving, normal to easy driving, high capacity, reduced weight, easy driving

187

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
323. Installation of jacked-down piles
Keywords: pump, manometer, steel insert, hydraulic jack, pile segment

324. Bored piles


Keywords: auger, reinforcement, tremmie pipe, concreting

188

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
325. Examples of bored piles
Keywords: bored piles, drilling of shaft, drilling of bell, concrete, stiff clay, reinforcement

326. Bored piles with bell


Keywords: bells

189

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
327. Cast-in-place piles
Keywords: casing, driving, casing filled with water, casing filled with concrete, reinforcement

328. Necking during casting of pile shaft in soft clay


Keywords: casing, soft clay, sand or silt, ground water

190

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
329. Slurry trench wall construction
Keywords: ground water, surface casing, bentonite slurry, chisel, pouring of concrete, lowering of reinforcement element

330. Shapes of slurry trench pile elements


Keywords: size

191

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
331. Raymond step tapered pile
Keywords: steel shell, steel cone, light bulb, reinforcement cage, casting of concrete

332. Franki pile


Keywords: concrete plug, bulb, internal hammer, prefabricated shaft, light casing

192

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
333. Steel H-pile
Keywords: easy to drive, easy to cut, corrosion, expensive, splicing, soil plug, driving shoe, steel plate

334. Steel pipe piles


Keywords: diameter, closed or open ended, soil plug, diameter

193

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
335. Corrosion
Keywords: steel piles, concrete piles, National Bureau of Standards, splices, reinforcement, salt water

336. Settlement around during driving in sand


Keywords: settlement, diameter, compaction within this zone

194

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
337. Effect of pile driving in clay
Keywords: soft clay, heave, volume, soft clay, remoulded zone, pore water pressure, undrained shear strength

338. Redriving of piles in clay


Keywords: risen piles, redriving, heave, soft clay, separation of splice

195

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
339. Load distribution along pile
Keywords: sand, clay, point resistance, shaft resistance

196

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
340. Pile load as function of pile displacement
Keywords: load, displacement, soft clay, stiff clay, sand, cast in place pile, driven pile, with Bell

341. Load deformation relationship of piles


Keywords: pile load, displacement, point resistance, skin resistance

197

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
342. Direction of pile loading
Keywords: compression, tension, weight of pile, factor of safety, allowable load, point resistance, shaft resistance

343. Determination of bearing capacity at pile point


Keywords: end bearing, undrained shear strength, bearing capacity factor

198

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
344. Pile bearing capacity according to Meyerhof
Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity factor

345. Bearing capacity factor of piles


Keywords: Terzaghi, Berezantsev, Meyerhof, Vesic, Brinch Hansen, de Beer, friction angle

199

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
346. Failure mechanism at pile point
Keywords: point resistance, rigidity index, failure surface, compressibility, rigidity index

347. Comparison of cone resistance and pile point resistance


Keywords: area of pile, sand

200

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
348. Comparison of SPTN-value and pile point resistance
Keywords: SPT, sand, pile diameter

201

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
349. Lateral pressure against pile shaft
Keywords: bored pile, small displacement pile, large displacement pile, straight shaft, tapered shaft, lateral earth pressure

350. Determination of pile capacity in sand


Keywords: loose, dense, coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, small, Vesic, displacement pile, non-displacement pile, tapered pile

202

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
351. Pile shaft capacity in sand
Keywords: pile type, sand, critical depth,

352. Lateral pressure against pile shaft


Keywords: Mansur & Hunter, Tavenas, Ireland, lateral earth pressure

203

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
353. Critical depth of pile shaft resistance
Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity value, diameter, length

354. Estimate of pile capacity based on Weight sounding test (WST)


Keywords: half-turns, timber piles, concrete piles, Norwegian Pile Commission, skin rea

204

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
355. Failure surface at pile point in clay
Keywords: failure surface, diameter, area of pile

356. Skin friction resistance along pile shaft


Keywords: cone penetration test, friction sleeve small displacement pile, large displacement pile

205

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
357. Bearing capacity of piles in clay
Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, undrained shear strength, reduction , ground surface

206

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
358. Lambda-method
Keywords: offshore structures, depth, mean value, skin resistance

207

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
359. Estimate of pile skin resistance in clay
Keywords: effective overburden pressure, Flaate, Selnes, undrained shear strength

208

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
360. Load transfer from pile to soil as function of pile displacement
Keywords: t-z curves, q-y curve, driven pile, bored pile

361. Negative skin friction along piles


Keywords: lowering of ground water level, driven pile, bored pile

209

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile
362. Failure modes of horizontally loaded piles
Keywords: soil failure, pile failure, failure mechanism

363. Lateral pile resistance in sand


Keywords: sand, horizontal load, force

210

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Piles
364. Lateral pile resistance in clay (rotational mode)
Keywords: undrained shear strength, heave, passive earth pressure, lateral force, diameter, depth

365. Lateral pile resistance in clay (pile failure mode)


Keywords: undrained shear strength, diameter, yield, moment, lateral force

211

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap. 12. Pile Foundations - Single Pile

212

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis

Chapter 13. Single piles - Dynamic analysis


366. Pile driving equipment
Keywords: drop hammer, diesel hammer, vibratory hammer, steam hammer, single acting, double acting

Page
214

367. Dynamic pile test


Keywords: hammer, helmet, cap block, cushion, pile, stress wave, depth, steel, concrete, wood

214

368. Stress wave analysis, rigid base


Keywords: particle velocity, wave velocity, impedance, rebound of hammer

215 215 216

369. Stress wave analysis, soft base


Keywords: particle velocity, length, impedance

370. Detection of pile defect by dynamic test


Keywords: hammer velocity, particle velocity, wave velocity, force, accelerometer, impedance, warning, strain gauge, time, wave length, fracture

371. Determination of dynamic pile bearing capacity


Keywords: hammer, force, displacement, elastic compression, drop height,

216 217

372. Pile driving formulae (definition)


Keywords: mass of hammer, penetration resistance, effective height of fall, mass of pile, coefficient of restitution elastic compression, soil, cushion, dynamic pile capacity

373. Pile driving formulae


Keywords: Hiley, Kreuger, Janbu, elastic compression, cushion, pile, soil, load distribution factor, dynamic pile capacity

217

374. Elastic compression of pile


Keywords: cushion, pen, set, pile, hammer

218 218

375. Static pile load test


Keywords: applied load, displacement, point bearing pile, elastic compression, pile shaft, friction pile, sand, clay

376. Definition of pile failure load


Keywords: settlement, applied load, range, pile diameter

219 219

377. Types of pile loading tests


Keywords: maintained load, constant rate of penetration (CRP)

213

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis

Chapter 13. Single piles - Dynamic analysis


366. Pile driving equipment
Keywords: drop hammer, diesel hammer, vibratory hammer, steam hammer, single acting, double acting

367. Dynamic pile test


Keywords: hammer, helmet, cap block, cushion, pile, stress wave, depth, steel, concrete, wood

214

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis


368. Stress wave analysis, rigid base
Keywords: particle velocity, wave velocity, impedance, rebound of hammer

369. Stress wave analysis, soft base


Keywords: particle velocity, length, impedance

215

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis


370. Detection of pile defect by dynamic test
Keywords: hammer velocity, particle velocity, wave velocity, force, accelerometer, impedance, warning, strain gauge, time, wave length, fracture

371. Determination of dynamic pile bearing capacity


Keywords: hammer, force, displacement, elastic compression, drop height,

216

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis


372. Pile driving formulae (definition)
Keywords: mass of hammer, penetration resistance, effective height of fall, mass of pile, coefficient of restitution elastic compression, soil, cushion, dynamic pile capacity

373. Pile driving formulae


Keywords: Hiley, Kreuger, Janbu, elastic compression, cushion, pile, soil, load distribution factor, dynamic pile capacity

217

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis


374. Elastic compression of pile
Keywords: cushion, pen, set, pile, hammer

375. Static pile load test


Keywords: applied load, displacement, point bearing pile, elastic compression, pile shaft, friction pile, sand, clay

218

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis


376. Definition of pile failure load
Keywords: settlement, applied load, range, pile diameter

377. Types of pile loading tests


Keywords: maintained load, constant rate of penetration (CRP)

219

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.13. Single Piles-Dynamic Analysis

220

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups

Chapter 14. Pile foundations - Pile Groups


378. Pile group in clay
Keywords: elevation, plan, perimeter, plan, undrained shear strength

Page
223 224 224

379. Examples of pile groups


Keywords: single footings, foundation walls, friction pile, end-bearing pile, footing

380. Efficiency of pile group in clay


Keywords: pile spacing, efficiency, optimum spacing, Sowers, length, model test, clay, Bentonite, calculated, measured

381. Settlement of pile group in clay


Keywords: pile group, clay, 2:1 distribution, pile length

225 225

382. Efficiency of pile group (model tests)


Keywords: pile load , applied load, Whitaker, ultimate load of pile group, center pile, corner pile, model test

383. Efficiency of pile group in sand (model test)


Keywords: efficiency, width, length, model test, fine sand, row, group, pile spacing

226 226 227 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232

384. Pile groups in sand (model tests)


Keywords: load, displacement, pile group, Kezdi, diameter, spacing, fine sand

385. Load distribution in pile group


Keywords: pile group, ultimate strength, compression, tension, center or rotation

386. Eccentric loading in pile group (example)


Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

387. Eccentric loading in pile group (example cont.)


Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

388. Load distribution below piled foundation


Keywords: pressure bulb, raft, piled raft, width, san

389. Stress increase below pile group


Keywords: single pile, pile group, stress distribution

390. Settlements below pile group in sand


Keywords: applied load, single pile, loaded pile, sand

391. Settlement of pile group


Keywords: side of pile group, Skempton, single pile, pile group, width

392. Load distribution below pile group in sand


Keywords: single pile, pile group, settlement, width, Berezantsev, friction angle

393. Negative skin friction along pile shaft in clay


Keywords: fill, clay, neutral point, ground water level, lowering

394. Effect of negative skin friction on piles in clay


Keywords: point bearing piles, floating piles, crushing, settlements

395. Protection piles for reduction of negative skin friction


Keywords: protection piles

221

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


396. Heave caused by pile driving
Keywords: clay, surface heave

233 233 234 234 235 235

397. Settlements caused by pile driving in sand


Keywords: settlements, cone

398. Settlements caused by pile driving in excavation


Keywords: clay, sand, sheet pile wall, vibrations, soil anchor

399. Effect on point resistance by pile driving


Keywords: sand, pile length, vibrations, adjacent pile

400. Order of pile driving


Keywords: settlements, damage to building, vibrations

401. Differential settlements below building due to pile driving in sand


Keywords: sand, traffic, cracking, piles, driving

222

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups

Chapter 14. Pile foundations - Pile Groups


378. Pile group in clay
Keywords: elevation, plan, perimeter, plan, undrained shear strength

223

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


379. Examples of pile groups
Keywords: single footings, foundation walls, friction pile, end-bearing pile, footing

380. Efficiency of pile group in clay


Keywords: pile spacing, efficiency, optimum spacing, Sowers, length, model test, clay, Bentonite, calculated, measured

224

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


381. Settlement of pile group in clay
Keywords: pile group, clay, 2:1 distribution, pile length

382. Efficiency of pile group (model tests)


Keywords: pile load , applied load, Whitaker, ultimate load of pile group, center pile, corner pile, model test

225

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


383. Efficiency of pile group in sand (model test)
Keywords: efficiency, width, length, model test, fine sand, row, group, pile spacing

384. Pile groups in sand (model tests)


Keywords: load, displacement, pile group, Kezdi, diameter, spacing, fine sand

226

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


385. Load distribution in pile group
Keywords: pile group, ultimate strength, compression, tension, center or rotation

227

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


386. Eccentric loading in pile group (example)
Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

387. Eccentric loading in pile group (example cont.)


Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

228

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


388. Load distribution below piled foundation
Keywords: pressure bulb, raft, piled raft, width, sand

389. Stress increase below pile group


Keywords: single pile, pile group, stress distribution

229

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


390. Settlements below pile group in sand
Keywords: applied load, single pile, loaded pile, sand

391. Settlement of pile group


Keywords: side of pile group, Skempton, single pile, pile group, width

230

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


392. Load distribution below pile group in sand
Keywords: single pile, pile group, settlement, width, Berezantsev, friction angle

393. Negative skin friction along pile shaft in clay


Keywords: fill, clay, neutral point, ground water level, lowering

231

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


394. Effect of negative skin friction on piles in clay
Keywords: point bearing piles, floating piles, crushing, settlements

395. Protection piles for reduction of negative skin friction


Keywords: protection piles

232

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


396. Heave caused by pile driving
Keywords: clay, surface heave

397. Settlements caused by pile driving in sand


Keywords: settlements, cone

233

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


398. Settlements caused by pile driving in excavation
Keywords: clay, sand, sheet pile wall, vibrations, soil anchor

399. Effect on point resistance by pile driving


Keywords: sand, pile length, vibrations, adjacent pile

234

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups


400. Order of pile driving
Keywords: settlements, damage to building, vibrations

401. Differential settlements below building due to pile driving in sand


Keywords: sand, traffic, cracking, piles, driving

235

Bengt Broms Foundation Engineering Chap.14. Pile Foundations - Pile Groups

236