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MAIN EQUATIONS & HISTORICAL Background

Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice , Nozzle , and Venturi


From Standards :

ISO 5167-1 :1991

ISO 5167-1 /A1 :1998

Orifice plate
Nozzle
Venturi

Corner,Flange,Radius taps - STOLZ equation


ISA1932 , Long radius with high and low beta ratio
Rough cast ,Machined , fabricated Convergent and
Venturi- Nozzle

Orifice plate

Corner,Flange,Radius taps -Reader-Harris

Orifice plate

Corner,Flange,Radius taps -STOLZ equation

Nozzle

(from ISO 5167 :1980)


ASME Long radius with high and low beta ratio,

/Gallagher equation

ASME MFC-3M-1989

Low beta with throat taps


Venturi

Rough cast , Machined , and Fabricated

Convergent, Venturi-Nozzle
BS 1042 - section 1.2 : 1989
Orifice plate

Corner taps for pipe 25 < =D <50 mm

Orifice plate

Eccentric , Quarter circle , Conical

Orifice plate

Flange and Pipe taps -Buckingham equation

BS 1042 - section 1.2 : 1989

API 2530-1985 (AGA3)

FLOW METER SHELL HANDBOOK


Restriction
Orifice Plate

1 rev3

Equation (extrapolation from curve)

02/12/2011

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

SUMMARY
1. SYMBOLS.............................................................................................................................................................................3
2. DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT :.........................................................................................................................................4
2.1 SQUARE EDGED ORIFICE PLATES :...............................................................................................................................4
2.1.1 Flange taps :...................................................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2 Corner taps :..................................................................................................................................................................5
2.1.3 Radius Taps....................................................................................................................................................................5
2.1.4 Pipe taps.........................................................................................................................................................................5
2.2 ORIFICE EXCEPT SQUARE-EDGED..........................................................................................................................................6
2.2.1 Conical with Corner taps...............................................................................................................................................6
2.2.2 Quarter with Corner taps..............................................................................................................................................6
2.2.3 Eccentric with Corner taps and Flange taps................................................................................................................6
2.3 NOZZLES.......................................................................................................................................................................6
2.3.1 ISA 1932.........................................................................................................................................................................6
2.3.2 Long radius with high beta ratio...................................................................................................................................6
2.3.3 Long radius with low beta ratio.....................................................................................................................................7
2.3.4 Low beta with throat taps.............................................................................................................................................7
2.4 CLASSICAL VENTURI..............................................................................................................................................7
2.4.1 Rough cast convergent :.................................................................................................................................................7
2.4.2 Machined convergent :...................................................................................................................................................7
2.4.3 Fabricated convergent :.................................................................................................................................................7
2.4.4 Venturi-Nozzle................................................................................................................................................................8
3. EXPANSION FACTOR FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS :........................................................................................8
3.1 SQUARE-EDGED ORIFICE : (FLANGE , CORNER ,RADIUS TAPS )...................................................................................................8
3.2 ORIFICE EXCEPT SQUARE-EDGED :ECCENTRIC ........................................................................................................................8
3.3 NOZZLES & VENTURI :...........................................................................................................................................8
4. PRESSURE LOSS :.............................................................................................................................................................9
4.1 ORIFICE PLATES ( FLANGE TAPS , CORNER TAPS , RADIUS TAPS )...................................................................................9
4.2 NOZZLES :................................................................................................................................................................9
4.3 VENTURI :.................................................................................................................................................................9
5. UNCERTAINTY :..............................................................................................................................................................10
5.1 ORIFICE PLATES (FLANGE TAPS, CORNER TAPS , RADIUS TAPS )..................................................................................10
5.2 NOZZLES :...............................................................................................................................................................11
5.3 VENTURI :...............................................................................................................................................................11
6. LIMITS................................................................................................................................................................................11
6.1 SQUARE EDGED ORIFICE PLATES...............................................................................................................................11
6.2 ORIFICE PLATES (EXCEPT SQUARE EDGED).......................................................................................................................13
6.3 NOZZLES :...............................................................................................................................................................13
6.4 VENTURI.................................................................................................................................................................13
7. MAIN EQUATION............................................................................................................................................................14
7.1 UNIVERSAL EQUATION..............................................................................................................................................14
7.2 REYNOLDS NUMBER........................................................................................................................................................14
7.3 THERMAL CORRECTION FACTOR.........................................................................................................................................14
8. PRACTICAL COMPUTATION OF THE UNCERTAINTY :.....................................................................................14
9. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (MILLER SOURCES)..............................................................................................15
10 EXEMPLES & COMPARISON FOR FLANGE TAPS ORIFICE............................................................................16
11 RESTRICTION ORIFICE :...........................................................................................................................................16
11.1 DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT :.............................................................................................................................................16
11.2 EXPANSION FACTOR -...................................................................................................................................................17

2 rev3

02/12/2011

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

1.

SYMBOLS
Symbols

Represented quantity

Dimensions
M
L

SI UNIT

: Mass
: Length
: temperature
: Time
dimensionless

Coefficient of discharge

Diameter of orifice or throat of primary device at flowing conditions

Upstream international pipe diameter ( or upstream diameter of a


classical Venturi ) at flowing conditions

Relative uncertainty

dimensionless

Uniform equivalent roughness

Pressure tap spacing from orifice plate at 20C

Ratio of pressure tap spacing to D , L = l / D at 20C

dimensionless

p1

Static pressure of the fluid

ML-1T-2

qm

Mass rate of flow

MT

Pa
kg/s

qv

Volume rate of flow

L3T-1

RD

Reynolds number referred to D

Thermal expansion factor

-1

Temperature of the flowing fluid

Mean axial velocity of the fluid in the pipe

LT-1

Diameter ratio

= d/D

dimensionless

Specific heat capacity ratio1)

dP

Differential pressure

ML-1T-2

Pressure loss

ML-1T-2

or

-1

dimensionless

dimensionless

Expansion factor

dimensionless

Isentropic exponent1)

dimensionless

Dynamic viscosity of the fluid or Absolute viscosity

Kinematic viscosity of the fluid

ML-1T-1

= /

L2T-1

Mass density of the fluid

ML-3

Pressure ratio = p2 / p1

dimensionless
dimensionless

Ke

Flow coefficient correponding to any specific set of values of D,, and


RD

K0

Particular value of K for any specific values of D and when


RD =106d / 15

The limiting value of K for any specific values of D and when RD


becomes infintely large

dimensionless

m3/s
C-1
C
m/s
Pa
Pa
Pa.s
m2/s
kg/m3
-

dimensionless

1 ) Ratio of heat capacity at constant pressure to the specific heat capacity at constant volume.For ideal gases,the ratio of the specific heat
capacities and the isentropic exponent have the same values.These values depend on the nature of the gas.
NOTE : Subscript 1 refers to the upstream conditions.
Subscript 2 refers to the downstream conditions.
Standard acceleration due to gravity , 9.806650 m/s2

3 rev3

02/12/2011

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

2.

DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT :

2.1

SQUARE EDGED ORIFICE PLATES :


2.1.1

Flange taps :

ISO5167-1
L1 = 0.433
50 < D 58.62

0.75
10 6
1

1 4

C = 0.5959 + 0.0312 2.1 0184


.
8 + 0.0029 2.5
+ 0.039 4
0.0337 L'2 3

RD

L2 = 25.4/D

0.75
10 6
1

C = 0.5959 + 0.0312 2.1 0184


.
8 + 0.0029 2.5
+ 0.09 L14 1 4
0.0337 L'2 3
RD

L1 = L2 = 25.4/D

D > 58.62

ASME
L1 = 0.433
50.8 D 58.62

0.75 +0.039 4
1 4

C =0.5959 +0.0312 2.1 0184


.
8 +91.71 2.5RD

0.8560 D 13

L2 = 25.4/D

0.75 +2.2860 D 14
1 4

C =0.5959 +0.0312 2.1 0184


.
8 +91.71 2.5RD

L1 = L2 = 25.4/D

D > 58.62

where

0.8560 D 13

91.706 = 0.0029 * (106)0.75


0.8560 = 0.0337 * 25.4
2.286 = 0.09 * 25.4

ISO-Ad1
C = 0.5961 + 0.0261 2 - 0.216 8+ 0.000521 ( 106 /RD ) 0.7
D < 71.12 mm

L1 = L2 = 25.4/D

0.031(M2 - 0.8 M21.1)1.3 + 0.011( 0.75- ) (2.8 - D/25.4)

M2 = 2 L2 / 1-
A = (19000 / RD) 0.8
D 71.12 mm

+ (0.0188 + (0.0063 A)3.5 (106/ RD)0.3 + ( 0.043 + 0.080e--10L1 - 0.123 e -7 L1 ) (1-0.11A) 4/1-4

e = 2.718281828459

C = 0.5961 + 0.0261 2 - 0.216 8+ 0.000521 ( 106 /RD ) 0.7


+ (0.0188 + (0.0063 A)3.5 (106/ RD)0.3 + ( 0.043 + 0.080e--10L1 - 0.123 e -7 L1 ) (1-0.11A) 4/1-4
- 0.031(M2 - 0.8 M21.1)1.3

API 2530
D (inches) at 20C

C = K 1

K0 =

1+

Ke
15 E

d 10 6

E
K = K0 1 +

RD

Ke = 0.5993 +

3
2
0.007
0.076 4
1
0.5
0.034

+ 0.364 +
. 0.07 +
+ 0.4 16
0.009 +
( 0.5 ) 2

D
D
D
D

5
65

+ 2 + 3 ( 0.7) 2
D

530

E = d 830 5000 + 9000 2 4200 3 + 0.5

D
Note : Any negative factor , such as ( - 0.7 )5/2 when is less than 0.7 , should be taken as equal to zero so
that the whole term [(65/D2 ) + 3](-0.7)5/2 drops out of the equation.

4 rev3

02/12/2011

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

2.1.2

Corner taps :

ISO5167-1
L1 = L2 = 0

C =0.5959

+0.0312

2.1

0.184

+0.0029

10

0.75

2.5 Re

ASME
L1 = L2 = 0

C =
0.5
95
9

where :

+
0.0
312

2.1

0.18
4

+
91 .71

2 .5

0.7
5

RD

91.706 = 0.0029 * (106)0.75

ISO-Ad1
C = 0.5961 + 0.0261 2 - 0.216 8+ 0.000521 ( 106 /RD ) 0.7

L1 = L2 = 0

+ (0.0188 + (0.0063 A)3.5 (106/ RD)0.3 + ( 0.043 + 0.080e-10L1 - 0.123 e --10L1 ) (1-0.11A) 4/1-4

D < 71.12 mm

D 71.12 mm

M2 = 2 L2 / 1 -

0.031(M2 - 0.8 M21.1)1.3 + 0.011( 0.75- ) (2.8 - D/25.4)

A = (19000 / RD) 0.8

C = 0.5961 + 0.0261 2 - 0.216 8+ 0.000521 ( 106 /RD ) 0.7

e = 2.718281828459

+ (0.0188 + (0.0063 A)3.5 (106/ RD)0.3 + ( 0.043 + 0.080e-10L1 - 0.123 e -10L1) (1-0.11A) 4/1-4
- 0.031(M2 - 0.8 M21.1)1.3

BS1042
25 D <50

2.1.3

L1 = L2 = 0

C =0.5959

+0.0312

10 6

R D

2.1 0.184 8 +0.0029 2.5

0.75

Radius Taps

ISO5167-1
L1 = 1
L2 = 0.47

0.75
10 6
1

C = 0.5959 + 0.0312 2.1 0184


.
8 + 0.0029 2.5
+ 0.09 L14 1 4
0.0337 L'2 3
RD

L1 = 0.433
L2 = 0.47

1
0.75 + 0.039 4
1 4

C = 0.5959 + 0.0312 2.1 0184


.
8 + 91.71 2.5RD
0.01584 3

ASME

where :

91.706 = 0.0029 * (106)0.75


0.01584 = 0.0337 * 0.47
0.03897 = 0.09 * 0.433

ISO-Ad1

D < 71.12 mm

L1 = 1

C = 0.5961 + 0.0261 2 - 0.216 8+ 0.000521 ( 106 /RD ) 0.7

L2 = 0.47

+ (0.0188 + (0.0063 A)3.5 (106/ RD)0.3 + ( 0.043 + 0.080e-10L1 - 0.123 e -7 L1 ) (1-0.11A) 4/1-4

M2 = 2 L2 / 1 -

D 71.12 mm

0.031(M2 - 0.8 M21.1)1.3


+ 0.011( 0.75- ) (2.8 - D/25.4)

A = (19000 / RD) 0.8

C = 0.5961 + 0.0261 2 - 0.216 8+ 0.000521 ( 106 /RD ) 0.7

e = 2.718281828459

+ (0.0188 + (0.0063 A)3.5 (106/ RD)0.3 + ( 0.043 + 0.080e-10L1 - 0.123 e -7 L1 ) (1-0.11A) 4/1-4
- 0.031(M2 - 0.8 M21.1)1.3

2.1.4

Pipe taps

API 2530
5 rev3

02/12/2011

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

K0 =

D (inches) at
Tf

C = K 1

2.2

1+

Ke
15 E

d 10 6

0.0182
0.06 2
0.225 5
1.43

+ 0.935 +
+1.35 14 +
K e = 0.5925 +
+ 0.440
0.25

D
D
D
D

875

E = d 905 5000 +9000 2 4200 3 +

E
K = K0 1 +

RD

where 905 = 830 + 75

ORIFICE EXCEPT SQUARE-EDGED


2.2.1

Conical with Corner taps

BS1042
conical
conical

2.2.2

R 5000 *
R 5000 *

C = 0.734
C = 0.730

rev2
rev2

Quarter with Corner taps

BS1042
C =
0.7
3
8
2
3

quarter

2.2.3

11
.6
1
5

+
0.3
3
0
9

+
15
.0
8
4

Eccentric with Corner taps and Flange taps

BS1042
C =
0.9355

eccentric

2.3

2
+3.0248

1.6889

1.7989

NOZZLES
2.3.1

ISA 1932

ISO-5167-1
C =0.990 0.2262

ISA 1932

2.3.2

2
4.15
4.1
0.00175 0.0033

6
10

RD

1.15

Long radius with high beta ratio

ISO5167-1

05
6

05
6

0.25 0.8

C =0.9965

0.00653

10
0.5

0.5 0.8

C =0.9975

0.00653

10
0.5

RD

ASME
Long Radius
with high beta
ratio

6 rev3

02/12/2011

RD

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

) 2 E =d

2.3.3

Long radius with low beta ratio

ISO5167-1
0.2 0.5

C =
0.9
9
6
5

0.0
0
6
5
3

0.5

1
0 6

R
D

0.5

ASME
Long radius
with low beta
ratio

0.2 0.5

2.3.4

C =
0.9975

0.00653

0.5

0.5

10 6

R D

Low beta with throat taps

ASME
low beta with
throat taps

2.4

0.2 5 0.5

C =
0.9
97
5

0.0
06
53

0.5

0.5

1
0 6

CLASSICAL VENTURI
2.4.1

Rough cast convergent :

ISO5167-1
-

RD 2 * 105

C = 0.984

RD 2 * 105

C = 0.984

ASME
-

2.4.2

Machined convergent :

ISO5167-1
-

RD 2 * 105

C = 0.995

RD 2 * 105

C = 0.995

ASME
-

2.4.3

Fabricated convergent :

ISO5167-1
-

RD 2 * 105

C = 0.985

RD 2 * 105

C = 0.984

ASME
-

7 rev3

02/12/2011

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

2.4.4

Venturi-Nozzle

ISO5167-1
-

3.

C = 0.9858 - 0.196 4.5

EXPANSION FACTOR FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS :

3.1

SQUARE-EDGED ORIFICE : (FLANGE , CORNER ,RADIUS TAPS )

ISO5167-1

) kpp1

) kpp1

) kpp1

) kpp1

) kpp1

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

Flange taps

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

Pipe taps

if
p2 / p1 075

2 +0.7 5 +12 13

Y1 =1 0.333 +1145
.
kp

all taps

ISO-Ad1
all taps

ASME
all taps

BS1042
25 D < 50

API2530

3.2

ORIFICE EXCEPT SQUARE-EDGED :ECCENTRIC

BS1042
Corner taps

3.3

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

) kpp1

NOZZLES & VENTURI :

ISO5167-1

if
p2 / p1 075

8 rev3

1 4

=
2
1

02/12/2011

1 2

.
1

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

ASME
if
p2 / p1 075

4.

1 4

=
2
1

1 2

.
1

PRESSURE LOSS :

4.1

ORIFICE PLATES ( FLANGE TAPS, CORNER TAPS , RADIUS TAPS )

ISO5167-1
-

1 4 C 2
1 4 + C 2

p
or approximately

= 1 1.9
p

ISO-Ad1
-

1 4 C 2
1 4 + C 2

ASME
-

1 4 C 2
1 4 + C 2

BS1042
-

for 25 D < 50

1 4 C 2
1 4 + C 2

API2530
Pipe and
Flange taps

4.2

= (1 + 0.24 0.52 2 016 3 ) p Miller source

NOZZLES :

ISO5167-1
-

1 4 C 2
1 4 + C 2

ASME
-

4.3

= (1 + 0.014 2.06 2 +118


. 3 ) p

VENTURI :

ISO5167-1
Generally within 5% to 20%
ASME
Generally within 5% to 20%

= 0.436 0.86 + 0.59 2 for 15 divergent


= 0.218 0.42 + 0.38 2

9 rev3

02/12/2011

for 7 divergent

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

5.

UNCERTAINTY :

5.1

ORIFICE PLATES (FLANGE TAPS, CORNER TAPS , RADIUS TAPS )


Stan
dard

1 (Expansibility factor)

C (Discharge coefficient)

ISO5167-1
Flange taps
Corner taps
Radius taps

0.6% for 0.6

p
%
p1

% for 0.6 < 0.75

p
%
p1

0.5% for 0.6

p
%
p1

(1.667 - 0.5 )% for 0.6 < 0.75

p
%
p1

0.6% for 0.6

p
%
p1

% for 0.6 < 0.75

p
%
p1

Conical

% for 0.6 < 0.75

p
%
p1

Quarter

2 % for > 0.316 and 2.5% when 0.316

33 (1 - 1) %

Eccentric

1 % for 0.75 and 2.5% when > 0.75

33 (1 - 1) %

ISO-Ad1
Flange taps
Corner taps
Radius taps

ASME
Flange taps
Corner taps
Radius taps

BS1042

BS1042
for 25 D < 50

0.6% for 0.6

p
%
p1

API2530
Flange taps

Pipe taps

0.5% for 0.15 0.7

if p/p1 < 55 then 0.5% else 0.7%

1 % for 0.7 or 0.15

if p/p1 < 55 then 0.5% else 0.7%

0.75 % for 0.2 0.67

if p/p1 < 55 then 0.5% else 0.7%

1.5 % for 0.67 or 0.2

10 rev3

02/12/2011

if p/p1 < 55 then 0.5% else 0.7%

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

5.2

NOZZLES :

Standard

1 (Expansibility factor)

C (Discharge coefficient)

ISO5167-1
0.8%. .. for ... 0.6

p
%
p1

%......for .....0.6 < 0.75

p
%
p1

0.8%. .. for ... 0.6

p
%
p1

Throat taps

0.5%

p
%
p1

High ratio

2%

p
%
p1

Low ratio

2%

p
%
p1

ISA-1932

Long radius
nozzle

ASME

5.3

VENTURI :

ISO5167-1

4 +100 8
p %

p
1

4 +100 8
p%

p
1

(1.2+1.54)

Venturi-nozzle
Rough cast
convergent

0.7 %

Machined
convergent

1%

Fabricated
convergent

1.5 %

4 +100 8

p %
1
p
8
4 +100

p %
1

ASME
Rough cast
convergent

1%

Machined
convergent

1%

Fabricated
convergent

1%

4 +100 8
p %

p
1
p

4 +100 8

p %
1
p
8

4 +100

p %
1

6.

LIMITS

6.1

SQUARE EDGED ORIFICE PLATES

Standard
11 rev3

02/12/2011

ReD mini

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

ISO5167
Flange taps

12.5 d

50 D 1000

0.2 0.75

1260 *2 * D RD

Corner taps

12.5 d

50 D 1000

0.2 0.75

RD 5000 ....for .45


RD 10000 ....for > 0.45

12.5 d

50 D 1000

0.2 0.75

1260 *2 * D ReD

Flange taps

12.5 d

50 D 1000

0.1 0.75

RD 4000 and
RD 1702D

Corner taps

12.5 d

50 D 1000

0.1 0.75

RD 4000 for 0.1 0.5

Radius taps

ISO-Ad1

RD 160002 .for > 0.5


RD 4000 for 0.1 0.5

12.5 d

50 D 1000

0.1 0.75

Flange taps

12.5 d

50 D 900

0.2 0.75

1260 2 D RD

Corner taps

12.5 d

50 D 900

0.2 0.75

RD 5000 ....for 0.45

Radius taps

ASME

RD 160002 .for > 0.5

RD 10000 ....for > 0.45


12.5 d

50 D 900

0.2 0.75

1260 2 D RD

Flange taps

12.5 d

50 D 750

0.1 0.75

RD 4000

Pipe taps

12.5 d

50 D 750

0.1 0.75

RD 4000

Radius taps

API2530

Standard

C 2 (1- 4)-0.5

RD

d>6

25 D 50

0.23 < 0.7

0.032 C 2 (1-4)-0.5 0.35

RD 40000 2 for 0.23 0.5

BS 1042
for 25 D < 50

RD 10000

12 rev3

02/12/2011

for 0.5 0.7

Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

6.2

ORIFICE PLATES (EXCEPT SQUARE EDGED)

Standard

C 2 (1- 4)-0.5

RD

Conical

d>6

25 D 500

0.1 < 0.316

0.007 C 2 (1-4)-0.5 0.074

80 RD 2 * 105

Quarter

d 15

25 D 500

0.245 0.6

0.046 C 2 (1-4)-0.5 0.326

BS 1042

RD(mini)= 1000 +9.4*10 6(-0.24)8


RD 105

Eccentric

6.3

d 50

100 D 1000

0.46 0.84

0.136 C 2 (1-4)-0.5 0.423

2*105 RD 106

NOZZLES :

ISO5167
-

ISA 1932

50 D 500

0.3 0.8

RD 7* 104 ....for < 0.44


RD 20000 ....for 0.44

High beta ratio

50 D 630

0.2 0.8

104 RD 107

Low beta ratio

50 D 630

0.2 0.5

104 RD 107

ASME
High beta ratio

100 D 750

0.5 0.8

104 RD 6 * 106

Low beta ratio

100 D 750

0.2 < 0.5

104 RD 6 * 106

100 D 750

0.25 < 0.5

104 RD 6 * 106

0.3 0.75

2 * 105 RD 2 * 106

50 D 250

0.4 0.75

2 * 105 RD 1 * 106

200 D 1200

0.4 0.75

2 * 105 RD 2 * 106

0.316 0.775

1 * 105 RD 2 * 106

Low beta ratio


with Throat
taps

6.4

VENTURI

ISO5167
100 D 800

Rough cast
convergent
Machined
convergent
Fabricated
convergent
Venturi-nozzle

50 d

65 D 500

ASME
Rough cast
convergent

100 D 1200

0.3 0.75

2 * 105 RD 6 * 106

Machined
convergent

50 D 250

0.3 0.75

2 * 105 RD 6 * 106

Fabricated
convergent

100 D 1200

0.3 0.75

2 * 105 RD 6 * 106

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7.

MAIN EQUATION

7.1

UNIVERSAL EQUATION
Qm =C1

d 2 1 4

0.5

p*
(2
1)

and
C1 2

1 4

7.2

4 Qm

D 2

2 p1

REYNOLDS NUMBER
RD =

7.3

4 Qm

Rd =

and

RD

THERMAL CORRECTION FACTOR

d = coefficient of thermal expansion for orifice


d ( 20 ) =

D = coefficient of thermal expansion for pipe


D( 20 ) =

8.

d ( T1 )
1 + d (T1 20 )

D( T1 )
1 + D (T1 20 )

PRACTICAL COMPUTATION OF THE UNCERTAINTY :


(from ISO 5167)

qm

e =

14 rev3

qm

0 .5

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
C 2

24 D
2
d

1
p
1
1
=
+ 1 +
+
+

+
4
4

C
4
p
4 1

1 d
1 D
1

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9.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (MILLER SOURCES)

The differential -producing flowmeters are the most widely used in industrial process-measurement and control
applications.
The square-edged concentric orifice is selected for 80% of all liquid , gas , and vapour (steam) applications.

The Ohio State University (1935) test report and the Buckinghan fitting equations for the various
tapping arrangements have been used by ASME and AGA since 1935.The ability to predict coefficients
from measured dimensions led to the full commercialization of the orifice flowmeter.

In the late 1950s , work in USA was combined with European practice and ISO Standards R541
(1967) for orifices and nozzles and R781 (1968) for venturis were issued.
In 1960 ,ASME initiated a study to derive by regression analysis , a simpler and more accurate
coefficient prediction equation for flange-tapped orifice. The results was not encouraging.

In 1975 , J .Stolz proposed a universal orifice equation to the ISO orifice flowmeter subcommittee. He
proposed , based on logical rules to combine the Ohio State data into a single dimensionless equation
suitable for flange , corner , and D-and D/2 taps.

The orifice prediction equation appears in ISO Standard 5167 (1980) , which combines
Standards R541 and R781 into a single differential-produced standard.
Based on the Dowdell and Chen (1970) investigation and subsequent papers by Miller , the ASME Fluid
Meters Research Committee (1981) adopted the ISO5167 (1980) equation.

For the measurement of natural gas , AGA 3 (ANSI/API 2530,1985)is usually required for
contractual purposes ; in it , the Buckinghan equations for flange and pipe taps are presented.

The first investigation of a flow nozzle dates back to the nineteen century. In 1930 Germany
standardized on an ISA(1932) nozzle geometry.
The ISA was replaced by the the present International Organisation for Standardization(ISO).
In the USA the long-radius flow nozzle was developed at Ohio state university primarily for the
measurement of the steam flows. The need for improved accuracy when testing steam turbines led to the
development of the ASME throat-tap nozzle.

The commercial success of the orifice , venturi , and nozzle led to the development of continually
improved secondary measuring elements. This , coupled with test work and user familiary , led to the
further development of primary element such as the segmental , eccentric , conical orifice.

In 1997 the Committee ISO/TC30 adopted equation of Reader-Harris/Gallagher for orifices. It


replaced J.Stolz equation and becomes Amendment 1 to ISO5167-1 :1991/A1:1998.

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10 EXEMPLES & COMPARISON FOR FLANGE TAPS ORIFICE


COMPARISON for orifice flange tapped
ISO 5167-1 :1991

ISO 5167-1 Ad1: 1995

ASME

AGA 3

J.Stolz equation

Reader-Harris/Gallagher

J.Stolz equation

Buckingham equation

DATA :

DATA :

DATA :

DATA :

fluid : gas

fluid : gas

fluid : gas

fluid : gas

flow = 51720 kg/h

flow = 51720 kg/h

flow = 51720 kg/h

flow = 51720 kg/h

Rho(b) = 1.293 kg/m3

Rho(b) = 1.293 kg/m3

Rho(b) = 1.293 kg/m3

Rho(b) = 1.293 kg/m3

P(b) = 1.013 mbar

P(b) = 1.013 mbar

P(b) = 1.013 mbar

P(b) = 1.013 mbar

T(b)= 0

T(b)= 0

T(b)= 0

T(b)= 0

Rho(f)= 6.671 kg :m3

Rho(f)= 6.671 kg :m3

Rho(f)= 6.671 kg :m3

Rho(f)= 6.671 kg :m3

P(f) = 6 bar

P(f) = 6 bar

P(f) = 6 bar

P(f) = 6 bar

T(f)=40

T(f)=40

T(f)=40

T(f)=40

viscosity = 0.017 cpo

viscosity = 0.017 cpo

viscosity = 0.017 cpo

viscosity = 0.017 cpo

cp/cv =1.4

cp/cv =1.4

cp/cv =1.4

cp/cv =1.4

deltap = 500 mbar

deltap = 500 mbar

deltap = 500 mbar

deltap = 500 mbar

Pipe diameter = 300 mm

Pipe diameter = 300 mm

Pipe diameter = 300 mm Pipe diameter = 300 mm

Results for d (20)

Results for d (20)

Results for d (20)

Results for d (20)

187.2825035 mm

187.37130403 mm

187.28235 mm

187.3735 mm

Deviations :%

Deviations :%

Deviations :%

Deviations :%

column 2 :0.047

column 1 :0.047

column 1 :0

column 1 :0.048

column 3 :0

column 3 :0.047

column 2 :0.047

column 2 :0.0011

column 4 :0.048

column 4 :0.0011

column 4 :0.048

column 3 :0.048

Conclusion : Choice of Standards is contractual but to limit contests the choice should be for the latest edition
of ISO.

11 RESTRICTION ORIFICE :

11.1 DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT :

15 > D > 50 mm
and
16 rev3

C = 0.6097 for liquids


C = 0.519 for gas and steam
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Compilation 77543047.doc BY JC THODART

0.1 0.2
D 50 mm
and

C = 0.5894 +0.0178 +0.4582 2 0.3199 3 +0.5509 4

0.2

11.2 EXPANSION FACTOR Same as square edge flange taps (ISO - 5167 )
all taps

if
p2 / p1 075

1 =1 0.41 +0.35 4

) kpp1

11.3 LIMITATIONS

all taps

Not limited

15 D not limited

0.1 not critical

11.4 PRESSURE TAPPINGS


Pressure tappings are not essential , altough a line pressure indication upstream and downstream of the restriction orifice
is recommended for checking of the behaviour of the device
END

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