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WARNING: OBSOLETE.

THIS TUTORIAL IS NOW

Please use http://orchardproject.net/docs/Creating-a-module-with-a-simple-texteditor.ashx and the documentation that can be found on http://orchardproject.net/docs/ instead.

Hands-on Walkthrough: Writing an Orchard Module


Orchard is designed with modular extensibility in mind. The current application contains a number of built-in modules by default, and our intent with writing these modules has been to validate the underlying CMS core as it is being developed exploring such concepts as routable content items, their associated parts (eventually to be bolted on using metadata), UI composability of views from separate modules, and so on. While there are many CMS core concepts that remain unimplemented for now, there are still many things you can do with the current system. The module concept is rooted in MVC 2 Areas [1,2], with the idea that module developers can opt-in to Orchard-specific functionality as needed. You can develop modules in-situ with the application as Areas, using Visual Studios MVC tools: Add Area, Add Controller, Add View, and so on (in either VS08 or VS2010). You can also develop modules as separate projects, to be packaged and shared with other users of Orchard CMS (the packaging story is still to be defined, along with marketplaces for sharing modules). This is how the Orchard source tree is currently organized. There is also a release build of Orchard that contains all the modules pre-built and ready to run (without source code), that you can extend using the VS tooling for MVC Areas this can be downloaded from http://orchard.codeplex.com/releases.

Lets take a walk through building an Orchard module as an MVC Area in VS. Well start simple (Hello World), and gradually build up some interesting functionality using Orchard.

Installing Software Prerequisites


First, install these MVC 2 and Orchard releases to your machine, along with Visual Studio or Visual Web Developer for code editing: 1. Install VS08 or VS2010 (Express or higher) 2. Download and Install MVC 2 RTM 3. Download and extract the latest release build from http://orchard.codeplex.com 4. Double-click the csproj file in the release package to open it in VS Note: If you are running Orchard under IIS, you will need to configure the startup URL in Visual Studio project properties to point to the correct URL under IIS: 1. In Visual Studio, right-click the Orchard.WebPI project node in Solution Explorer. 2. Select the Web tab 3. Select the Use Local IIS Web server radio button (instead of Use Visual Studio Development server). 4. Type the appropriate URL to your Orchard site under Project url

5. Type Ctrl-S to save and exit the Project Properties window.

1. Getting Started: A Simple Hello World Module (Area in VS)


Our objective in this section is to build a very simple module that displays Hello World on the front-end using the applied Orchard theme. Well also wire up the navigation menu to our modules routes. Objectives: 1. A simple custom area that renders Hello World on the apps front-end 2. Views in the custom area that take advantage of the currently applied Orchard theme 3. A menu item on the front-end for navigating to the custom areas view Follow These Steps: 1. Right-click the project node in VS Solution Explorer, and choose Add > Area 2. Type Commerce for the area name and click [OK]. 3. Right-click the newly created Commerce > Controllers folder, and choose Add > Controller 4. Name the Controller HomeController 5. Right-click on the Index() method name and choose Add View 6. Selected the Create a partial view option and click [Add] 7. Add the following HTML to the View page: <p>Hello World</p> 8. Add the following namespace imports to the HelloController.cs file:

using Orchard.Themes; using Orchard.UI.Navigation;

9. Add an [Themed] attribute to the HelloController class:

namespace Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Controllers {

[Themed] public class HomeController : Controller

10.Add another class to create a new Menu item:


public class MainMenu : INavigationProvider { public String MenuName { get { return "main"; } } public void GetNavigation(NavigationBuilder builder) { builder.Add(menu => menu.Add("Shop", "4", item => item .Action("Index", "Home", new { area = "Commerce" }))); } }

11.Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run in VS. 12.Navigate to this URL in the browser: http://localhost:<port>/Commerce

2. Hooking into the Admin Panel


The next thing we want to do is wire up our custom module to the admin panel, so we have a way to perform administration tasks on the back-end. Objectives: 1. Add an admin panel page for the custom area 2. Add a menu item to the admin panel for the custom area Follow These Steps: 1. Right-click the Commerce > Controllers folder and choose Add > Controller 2. Type AdminController for the controller name and click [OK].

3. Add the following namespaces and attributes on the controller class:


using Orchard.Themes; using Orchard.UI.Admin; namespace Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Controllers { [Admin] [Themed] public class AdminController : Controller

4. Right-click on the Index() method name and choose Add View 5. Selected the Create a partial view option and click [Add] 6. Add the following HTML to the View page: <p>Commerce Area Admin</p> 7. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run in VS. 8. Navigate to this URL in the browser: http://localhost:<port>/Admin/Commerce

Note that you will need to log in as admin before you can view this page. By convention, controllers named Admin* are protected from access by anonymous site visitors. Hooking into the admin menu 1. Add an AdminMenu.cs file to the root of the Commerce folder. For convenience, you may copy this from another module folder (and change the namespace and area name appropriately).
using Orchard.Pages.Services; using Orchard.UI.Navigation; namespace Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce { public class AdminMenu : INavigationProvider { private readonly IPageService _pageService;

public AdminMenu(IPageService pageService) { _pageService = pageService; } public string MenuName { get { return "admin"; } } public void GetNavigation(NavigationBuilder builder) { builder.Add("Commerce", "1.1", menu => menu .Add("Manage Products", "1.0", item => item .Action("Index", "Admin", new { area = "Commerce" }))); } } }

2. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run in VS. 3. Navigate to this URL in the browser: http://localhost:<port>/Admin

Orchard uses dependency injection to provide services to the application. In the example above, the INavigationProvider interface derives from IDependency. Simply by including a constructor that accepts INavigationProvider as a parameter, an implementation of this interface will be provided by the application framework to this class when it is constructed. We use this interface to define a main menu item for our Commerce > Manage Products screen. In the next section, we will see dependency injection again when we use the IRepository interface to access the database.

3. Working with Data


Lets now look at how to work with data. The objective for this section is to create a ProductRecord type that is persisted to the database. Well then update the Commerce area admin pages to be able to list and create new products. Objectives: 1. Create a ProductRecord type that is persisted to the database 2. Add admin pages for creating and listing products Follow These Steps: 1. Create ProductRecord.cs in Models folder
using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations; using System.Web.Mvc; namespace Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models { public class ProductRecord { public virtual int Id { get; set; } [Required] public virtual string Sku { get; set; } [Required] public virtual string Description { get; set; } [Required] public virtual decimal Price { get; set; } } }

Orchard generally favors convention over configuration, and in the example above, there are a few conventions at work. First, the *Record suffix on the class, coupled with the fact that the class lives under the *.Models namespace, tells Orchard this is a persistent class that should be backed by a database table. Second, the property named Id is conventionally used as the primary key for the record. 2. Add the IRepository<ProductRecord> to the AdminController. This is another example of using dependency injection to receive access to services (in this case, the database).
using Orchard.Data; using Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models; // public class AdminController : Controller { private readonly IRepository<ProductRecord> _repository; public AdminController(IRepository<ProductRecord> repository) { _repository = repository; }

3. Create the 2 Admin/Create actions (typical MVC pattern for entity creation)

using Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models; // public ActionResult Create() { return View(new ProductRecord()); } [HttpPost] public ActionResult Create(ProductRecord product) { if (!ModelState.IsValid) { return View(product); } _repository.Create(product); return RedirectToAction("Index"); }

Now, we are going to add the corresponding Create view 4. Build the project first, so the ProductRecord type is available in the Add View dialog. 5. Right-click the Create action and choose Add View 6. Select the Create a partial view (.ascx) option 7. Select the Create a strongly-typed view option and type Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.ProductRecord for the View data class. Select Create as the View content.

8. In the view markup/code, change the ID field to be hidden:


<div class="editor-label"> <%= Html.HiddenFor(model => model.Id) %> </div> <div class="editor-field"> <%= Html.HiddenFor(model => model.Id) %> <%= Html.ValidationMessageFor(model => model.Id) %> </div>

9. In AdminController.cs, update the Index() method to pass the list of Products from the repository:
public ActionResult Index() { return View(_repository.Table); }

10.Delete Views\Admin\index.ascx file (we are going to re-create it as a List view). 11.In AdminController.cs, right-click the Index() action and chose Add View to recreate the Index view. a. Choose the partial view option

b. Select the strongly-typed view option, typing Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.ProductRecord for the View data class. c. Select List as the View content. 12.Open Index.ascx d. Update the table class: <table class="items"> (so it looks nice) 13.Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run the site in Visual Studio. 14.Go to the Manage Products admin page 15.You can create a product (with validation) 16.The Index view shows the list of product from the db:

17.Enter a few products to use as sample data

4. Creating a Content Type


Rather than work with database records directly, lets start using some of the higher-level abstractions that Orchard CMS offers. Fundamental to the Orchard CMS is the idea of multiple content types the built-in pages and posts types are examples. Our sample Commerce module/area can also introduce one or more content types into the system. The objective of this section is to convert our use of ProductRecord to a Product content type instead. This wont buy us much at first (although we do get some things, such as versioning of our persisted objects). However, we will take advantage of it in the next section, when we explore composition of additional parts on the content types (the way that comments and tags are parts applied to pages and posts). Assembling the data and UI of the application from multiple types and parts allows the system to remain loosely coupled and allows installed modules to extend each others types in interesting ways.

Objectives: 1. Create a Product content type 2. Add a ProductHandler for Product type a. Associate repository and ProductRecord type b. Associate Product type to content type name Follow These Steps: 1. Go to the ProductRecord.cs file and update it like this:
using using using using using using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations; System.Web.Mvc; Orchard.Data; Orchard.ContentManagement; Orchard.ContentManagement.Records; Orchard.ContentManagement.Handlers;

namespace Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models { public class ProductRecord : ContentPartRecord

2. Add a Product and ProductHandler class as follows:


public class Product : ContentPart<ProductRecord> { public int Id { get { return Record.Id; } set { Record.Id = value; } }

[Required] public string Sku { get { return Record.Sku; } set { Record.Sku = value; } } [Required] public string Description { get { return Record.Description; } set { Record.Description = value; } } [Required] public decimal Price { get { return Record.Price; } set { Record.Price = value; } } } public class ProductHandler : ContentHandler { public readonly static ContentType ContentType = new ContentType { Name = "product", DisplayName = "Product" }; public ProductHandler(IRepository<ProductRecord> repository) { Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<Product>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(StorageFilter.For(repository)); } }

The Product type is an Orchard content type, using ProductRecord for storage. For convenience, weve wrapped the properties of the record on the Product type, but this is optional, as the Product type also exposes these properties directly from its Record property, for example Product.Record.SKU. The ProductHandler is responsible for registering the content type with the system, ensuring the the Product type is activated whenever a new Product content item is created, and associating the IRepository<ProductRecord> for storage. We also need to update our Commerce admin pages to use the new content type instead of the record. To do this, we will go through the IContentManager interface to query for products instead of talking to the repository directly. The ContentManager is responsible for resolving the requested content type to a handler (in this case, ProductHandler) and instantiating the type for us. 1. In AdminController.cs a. Change all references from ProductRecord to Product b. Change all references to IRepository<ProductRecord> to IContentManager

[OrchardTheme(Admin = true)] public class AdminController : Controller { private readonly IContentManager _contentManager; public AdminController(IContentManager contentManager) { _contentManager = contentManager; } public ActionResult Index() { return View(_contentManager.Query<Product>().List()); } public ActionResult Create() { return View(_contentManager.New<Product>("product")); } [HttpPost] public ActionResult Create(FormCollection input) { var product = _contentManager.New<Product>("product"); if (!TryUpdateModel(product)) { return View(product); } _contentManager.Create(product); } } return RedirectToAction("Index");

2. Change the Create.ascx view to use Product instead of ProductRecord in the first line (the view model):
<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="System.Web.Mvc.ViewUserControl<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Product>" %>

3. Change the Index.ascx view to use Product instead of ProductRecord in the first line (the view model):
<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="System.Web.Mvc.ViewUserControl<IEnumerable<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Pr oduct>>" %>

4. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run in Visual Studio.

5.

Attaching Parts to a Content Type

Although weve made Product a content type, the application has pretty much the same behavior as it used to. We are now going to do something useful with the content type, adding parts that extend our type. By adding parts to a content type, other modules in the system may impact and impart both UI and behavior on that type. The objective of this section is to attach a single Common part to the Product content type. The Common part attaches things like owner, versioning and create/publish dates for a content item. We will hard-code the UI layer in this section, and then remove that hard-coding in favor of UI composition in the next section. Objectives:

1. Attach the Common aspect to the Product type 2. Expose the Common aspects Owner property on the list of Products UI Follow These Steps: 1. Go to the ProductRecord.cs file and update it to include these namespaces:
using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations; using Orchard.Core.Common.Models;

Now, lets illustrate the power of the data composition story We are going to add a Common part to the Product content type. The Common part is an Orchard extension which automatically keeps track of Owner, Container, CreationDate, etc. for content items. Here is the definition of the ICommonAspect interface (no need to type this its already defined by Orchard in the Orchard.Core.Common.Models namespace). Once we add this part to our Product type, the CommonAspect data will be saved (as a Content Part) with each instance of Product.
public interface ICommonAspect : IContent { IUser Owner { get; set; } IContent Container { get; set; } DateTime? CreatedUtc { get; set; } DateTime? PublishedUtc { get; set; } DateTime? ModifiedUtc { get; set; } DateTime? VersionCreatedUtc { get; set; } DateTime? VersionPublishedUtc { get; set; } DateTime? VersionModifiedUtc { get; set; } }

2. Change the ProductHandler class to add a CommonAspect part to the Product content type:
public ProductHandler(IRepository<ProductRecord> repository) { Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<Product>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<CommonAspect>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(StorageFilter.For(repository)); }

Thats it! Now, whenever a Product is going to be manipulated by the application, a CommonAspect will go with it. Under the hood, the content manager will activate the CommonAspect part when Products are

activated. The CommonAspect implementation will keep track of creation date, modification date and publication dates automatically for us. 3. Lets illustrate that by displaying the Created, Published date for each product in the Index.ascx view. Add these 2 lines at the beginning of the file:
<%@ Import Namespace="Orchard.Core.Common.Models"%> <%@ Import Namespace="Orchard.ContentManagement"%>

a. Add Created and Published columns:


<th> Price </th> <th> Created </th> <th> Published </th>

b. Access to the Created and Published dates as follows:


<td> <%= Html.Encode(String.Format("{0}", item.As<CommonAspect>().CreatedUtc))%> </td> <td> <%= Html.Encode(String.Format("{0}", item.As<CommonAspect>().PublishedUtc)) %> </td>

4. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run in Visual Studio.

Note: If you dont empty the database at this point, the product created until now will have no Common data value. Orchard doesnt have a story for database upgrade for now. To reset the database (destroy all data for the site), delete the App_Data/Sites folder in your project. You may need to Show All Files in Visual Studios Solution Explorer before you can see this folder. After deleting the database, youll need to walk through the Orchard setup screen again. Notice how the table now shows created and published dates (they have been setup automatically by the content manager, stored in a Common aspect table).

Lets look at what happens when a product instance is created. Set a debug breakpoint in AdminController.Create action, on the line of code that invokes _contentManager.Create(product). Type F5 in Visual Studio to begin debugging, and then create a new product using the admin panel in order to hit the breakpoint:

The Product content item has 2 parts: the Product part and the CommonAspect part. If we look at the data maintained by the CommonAspect, we see that everything is taken care of internally. Here is the Product instance after the call to Create of content manager:

6.

Composing Views from Parts

In the previous section, we hard-coded the UI that displays the properties of the attached Common part/aspect. While this works, Orchard also provides a method for composing user interface elements, aggregating the various partial views of content items and their attached parts, and ensuring the correct Model (data) is passed to the composite view. In this section, we will explore this UI composition. The objective of the section is to add two additional content parts, Comments and Tags, to our Product type. Then we will take advantage of Orchard UI composition to assemble the editor view of a product, including the editors for the attached parts. First, lets discuss some background information that will help explain how UI composition works:

The idea behind UI composition is that the view of a product (in our example, the editor view in the admin panel) should be assembled from the constituent views from all the attached parts. Each part defines its own view templates that expect a specific view model type to be passed to it. The obtain these view models, the Controller action calls the BuildXxxModel methods on ContentManager. The ContentManager delegates to ContentDriver types (one for each part) to retrieve the appropriate view models for each part. The ContentManager then aggregates those into a single view model that is handed back to the Controller. What is actually passed back from the ContentDriver is a ContentPartTemplate object the view, the model for that view, and the zone and location/position within the zone to render the part (note that the zone/position information will eventually be driven from metadata/templates instead of code). Objectives: 1. Add the Comments and Tags parts to the Product type 2. Update the Create view for a Product to use Orchard HTML helpers to create the form 3. Write a ProductDriver type and associated template for rendering the Product form fields 4. Update the AdminController to use the ContentManager.BuildEditorModel to obtain the view model for a Product editor view. Follow These Steps: 1. First of all, lets enable the Comments and Tags part for our product content type:

using Orchard.Tags.Models; using Orchard.Comments.Models; public ProductHandler(IRepository<ProductRecord> repository) { Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<Product>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<CommonAspect>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<HasComments>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(new ActivatingFilter<HasTags>(ProductHandler.ContentType.Name)); Filters.Add(StorageFilter.For(repository)); }

For now, the association of content parts is done in code. However, eventually this will move to a metadata system that enables association of parts to items on-the-fly, using the Orchard admin panel instead of writing code to do this. This would enable our Product type to be completely independent, with no compile-time dependency on specific parts. 2. Now lets update the Create method of our AdminController to create the ContentItemViewModel for the product:
public ActionResult Create() { var product = _contentManager.New<Product>("product"); var model = _contentManager.BuildEditorModel(product); return View(model); }

3. We also need to update the Create.ascx view to use the ContentItemViewModel and dispatch the form composition to the Orchard HtmlHelper.
<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="Orchard.Mvc.ViewUserControl<Orchard.Mvc.ViewModels.ContentItemViewMod el<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Product>>" %> <h1><%=Html.TitleForPage(T("Create Product").ToString()) %></h1> <% using (Html.BeginForm()) { %> <%=Html.ValidationSummary() %> <%=Html.EditorForItem(Model) %> <fieldset><input type="submit" value="Create"/></fieldset> <% } %> <div> <p><%=Html.ActionLink("Back to List", "Index") %></p> </div>

4. Next, we will define a driver and template for the Product type that participates in this UI composition process. Define a new ProductDriver class (that derives from ContentItemDriver). This class is responsible for returning the appropriate view model, template, and location for the various views of a Product (in our example, the editor view):
using Orchard.ContentManagement.Drivers;

public class ProductDriver : ContentItemDriver<Product> { protected override bool UseDefaultTemplate { get { return true; } } protected override DriverResult Display(Product product, string displayType) { return ContentPartTemplate(product, "Product.Fields").Location("primary", "1"); } //GET protected override DriverResult Editor(Product product) { return ContentPartTemplate(product, "Product.Fields").Location("primary", "3"); } //POST protected override DriverResult Editor(Product part, IUpdateModel updater) { updater.TryUpdateModel(part, Prefix, null, null); return Editor(part); } }

This code says that the template to use for displaying the product is Product.Fields. Notice how we pass the products instance as the view model for that template. We also mention its going to be displayed in the primary zone, at the top of the zone (position=1). 5. Lets now create Product.Fields.ascx under the Commerce > Views > EditorTemplates folder. This is essentially the same as our former Create view, which displayed the editors for properties for the Product type.

<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="System.Web.Mvc.ViewUserControl<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Prod uct>" %> <fieldset> <legend>Fields</legend> <%=Html.HiddenFor(model=>model.Id) %> <div class="editor-label"> <%= Html.LabelFor(model => model.Sku) %> </div> <div class="editor-field">

<%= Html.TextBoxFor(model => model.Sku)%> <%= Html.ValidationMessageFor(model => model.Sku)%> </div> <div class="editor-label"> <%= Html.LabelFor(model => model.Description)%> </div> <div class="editor-field"> <%= Html.TextBoxFor(model => model.Description)%> <%= Html.ValidationMessageFor(model => model.Description)%> </div> <div class="editor-label"> <%= Html.LabelFor(model => model.Price) %> </div> <div class="editor-field"> <%= Html.TextBoxFor(model => model.Price) %> <%= Html.ValidationMessageFor(model => model.Price) %> </div> </fieldset>

6. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run the site. Now when we click on Create new Product link, we see a form which contains the fields of the products, but also tags, comments and owner fields.

7. The last thing we need to do is re-implement the Create Post action in AdminController.cs:
[HttpPost] public ActionResult Create(FormCollection input) { var product = _contentManager.New<Product>("product"); var model = _contentManager.UpdateEditorModel(product, this); if (!ModelState.IsValid) { return View(model); } _contentManager.Create(product); return RedirectToAction("Index"); }

Note the this parameter, passed to UpdateEditorModel. To enable validation of the model, we need an interface between the MVC controller and the content drivers. We are going to implement this interface in the AdminController itself, by simply delegating the default MVC base class.
using Orchard.Localization; public class AdminController : Controller, IUpdateModel { bool IUpdateModel.TryUpdateModel<TModel>(TModel model, string prefix, string[] includeProperties, string[] excludeProperties) { return TryUpdateModel(model, prefix, includeProperties, excludeProperties); } void IUpdateModel.AddModelError(string key, LocalizedString errorMessage) { ModelState.AddModelError(key, errorMessage.ToString()); }

The update/validation of the model is going through the ContentManager, to all the content drivers, and then back to our AdminController. The last thing we need to do is implement the model update/validation for the Product part. We do that in the ProductDriver:
public class ProductDriver : ContentItemDriver<Product> { protected override DriverResult Editor(Product part, IUpdateModel updater) { updater.TryUpdateModel(part, Prefix, null, null); return Editor(part); }

8. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run the site. We can now create a new product, including model validation!

7. Tying It All Together: Building the Front-End


Aside from our Hello World example in the beginning of this tutorial, weve been primarily focused on developing the admin panel functionality for our Commerce module, illustrating the data and UI composition concepts in Orchard along the way. Well complete this tutorial by tying together the same concepts to build out the front-end behavior of the module. Now that we have the Product content type in place, building a simple front-end will be easy. We are going to first create a page which shows the list of products, and then well add the ability to add a product to a simple shopping cart. Objectives: 1. Display a list of products on the front-end Shop page 2. Implement an Add to Cart action on a product, to add the item to a shopping cart 3. Implement the display of the Shopping Cart in the applications sidebar zone Follow These Steps:

1. Lets first update our HomeController query the ContentManager for the list of products, passing the model to the View:
using Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models; using Orchard.ContentManagement; [Themed] public class HomeController : Controller { private readonly IContentManager _contentManager; public HomeController(IContentManager contentManager) { _contentManager = contentManager; } public ActionResult Index() { return View(_contentManager.Query<Product>().List()); } }

2. Now lets update the Home/Index.ascx view page to render the list of products. To make this easier, delete the existing Index.ascx page and rightclick the Index() action to Add > View in Visual Studio. This time, well add a strongly-typed view that takes the Product type, and choose List for the View content type:

3. In Index.ascx, add this at the top of the file:


<div class="page-title"><%=Html.TitleForPage("Product list")%></div>

4. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run the site. Click the Shop menu item on the front-end to reveal your list of products.

5. Lets now create a Details view so we can verify we can see tags and add comments (recall the UI composition section above). In the HomeController, add this:
using Orchard.Mvc.Results; public ActionResult Details(int id) { var product = _contentManager.Get<Product>(id); if (product == null) return new NotFoundResult(); var viewModel = _contentManager.BuildDisplayModel<Product>(product, "Details"); return View(viewModel); }

6. Lets then create the Details.ascx view under Views > Home:
<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="System.Web.Mvc.ViewUserControl<Orchard.Mvc.ViewModels.ContentIt emViewModel<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Product>>" %> <div class="page-title"><%=Html.TitleForPage("Product details")%></div> <%= Html.DisplayForItem(Model) %> <div> <%=Html.ActionLink("Back to List", "Index") %> </div>

Note the Details string. It a convention for the type of display (other include summary, list, etc.). Lets update the ProductDriver to handle the composition:
protected override DriverResult Display(Product product, string displayType) { return ContentPartTemplate(product, "Product.Fields").Location("primary", "1"); }

This is very similar to the Editor method. Product.Fields is the template used to render the fields. Lets create Product.Fields.ascx in the DisplayTemplates folder. 7. Add Product.Fields.ascx under the Views > DisplayTemplates folder:
<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="System.Web.Mvc.ViewUserControl<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Prod uct>" %> <fieldset> <legend><%= Html.Encode(Model.Sku)%></legend> <p></p> <h3><%= Html.Encode(Model.Description)%></h3> <p>Price: <%= Html.Encode(String.Format("{0:F}", Model.Price))%></p> </fieldset>

8. And finally update the Index view to link the sku field to the product details page: Replace this:
<%= Html.Encode(item.Sku) %>

With this:
<%= Html.ActionLink(item.Sku ?? "sku", "Details", new { id = item.Id })%>

9. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run the site. Now, when clicking on a sku in the index view, we get to the product details page (with comments and tags).

Implementing a basic shopping cart


To give another take on UI composition, we are going to implement a simple shopping cart, and we will display it in the sidebar zone using the MVC 2 RenderAction method. 1. Lets first define the data model we are going to use to store the shopping cart data (we are using simple records, not content items for this simple example). Place this class in the Models folder:
using Orchard.Data.Conventions; using System.Collections.Generic; namespace Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models { public class ShoppingCartRecord { public ShoppingCartRecord() { Entries = new List<ShoppingCartEntryRecord>(); } public virtual int Id { get; set; } public virtual int UserId { get; set; } [CascadeAllDeleteOrphan] public virtual IList<ShoppingCartEntryRecord> Entries { get; set; } } public class ShoppingCartEntryRecord { public virtual int Id { get; set; } public virtual ProductRecord Product { get; set; } public virtual int Quantity { get; set; }

} }

2. Next, lets update the HomeController class to use more services we are going to need:
using Orchard.Data; using Orchard.UI.Notify; using Orchard.Security; using Orchard.Localization; public class HomeController : Controller { private readonly IContentManager _contentManager; private readonly IRepository<ShoppingCartRecord> _repository; private readonly INotifier _notifier; public virtual IUser CurrentUser { get; set; } public Localizer T { get; set; } public HomeController(IContentManager contentManager, IRepository<ShoppingCartRecord> repository, INotifier notifier) { _contentManager = contentManager; _repository = repository; _notifier = notifier; }

Some things to note about this code: IRespository<ShoppingCartRecord> gives access to the database CurrentUser gives access to the logged-in user T gives access to the localization service INotifier gives access to the notification area of the application

Now, lets implement the AddToCart action Well create the cart for the user if needed, add 1 product to the list, and display a Product added message to the notification area of the site. Note that in this simple example, we dont handle anonymous users very well there is a single shopping cart for the whole site. We also dont support merging the shopping cart content when an anonymous user decides to log in after creating his shopping cart. These are more advanced applications of a shopping cart implementation that we will skip for now. 3. In HomeController, add the AddToCart action method:
public ActionResult AddToCart(int id) { // Retrieve shopping cart for current user ShoppingCartRecord cart;

if (CurrentUser == null) { cart = _repository.Fetch(c => c.UserId == 0).SingleOrDefault(); } else { cart = _repository.Fetch(c => c.UserId == CurrentUser.Id).SingleOrDefault(); } // Create cart if none found if (cart == null) { cart = new ShoppingCartRecord(); _repository.Create(cart); cart.UserId = (CurrentUser == null ? 0 : CurrentUser.Id); } // Add product to cart entry var product = _contentManager.Get<Product>(id).Record; var entry = cart.Entries.Where(e => e.Product == product) .SingleOrDefault(); if (entry == null) { entry = new ShoppingCartEntryRecord { Product = product, Quantity = 0}; cart.Entries.Add(entry); } entry.Quantity++; _notifier.Add(NotifyType.Information, T("Added {1} to shopping cart", entry.Quantity, product.Sku)); // Back to product list return RedirectToAction("Index"); }

4. Finally, update the Index.ascx view (under Views > Home) to include a Add to cart column:

a. Add a Buy column


<th>Buy</th>

b. And add an Add To Cart link


<td><%= Html.ActionLink("Add to cart", "AddToCart", new { id= item.Id })%></td>

5. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run the site.

We now have a working Add to cart link next to each product in the list We also get notification that a product has been added to the cart

6. Now lets create a ShoppingCart Action and corresponding view. a. In HomeController.cs, add a new action:
public ActionResult ShoppingCart() { // Retrieve shopping cart for current user ShoppingCartRecord cart; if (CurrentUser == null) { cart = _repository.Fetch(c => c.UserId == 0).SingleOrDefault(); } else { cart = _repository.Fetch(c => c.UserId == CurrentUser.Id).SingleOrDefault(); } return PartialView(cart); }

Note that this action returns PartialView instead of View. This prevents the view from being rendered as part of the 3-pass Theme rendering (Document > Layout > View). We dont want the site header, footer, etc to be rendered for this partial view. 7. Add a ShoppingCart.ascx file (under Views > Home) for the View:
<%@ Control Language="C#" Inherits="System.Web.Mvc.ViewUserControl<Orchard.Web.Areas.Commerce.Models.Shop pingCartRecord>" %> <% if (Model == null) {%> <p>Shopping card is empty</p> <%}else{%> <table class="items"> <tr> <th>Sku</th> <th>Product</th> <th>Quantity</th> <th>Price</th> </tr> <%foreach (var entry in Model.Entries) {%> <tr> <td><%=Html.Encode(entry.Product.Sku) %></td> <td><%=Html.Encode(entry.Product.Description) %></td> <td><%=Html.Encode(entry.Quantity) %></td> <td><%=Html.Encode(entry.Quantity * entry.Product.Price) %></td> </tr> <%}%>

</table> <%}%>

8. Finally, open Areas\Commerce\Views\Home\Index.ascx (the Product list front-end page) and add the following line anywhere in the page:
<%Html.AddRenderAction("sidebar", "ShoppingCart");%>

We basically tell the rendering engine that the ShoppingCart action should be rendered in the sidebar zone.

9. Type Ctrl-F5 to build and run in Visual Studio.

In the list of product page, we can now see the shopping cart partial view:

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