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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Contents Page
Introduction 5

Update on the 2005 Survey Results 6


• The Jarash North-West Necropolis 6

Objectives of the Field Survey 10

Methods of Field Survey 11

Mapping 11

Topography and Geology 12


• Geological Notes by Don Boyer 13

The Database 17

The Survey Areas 18


• East of the City 18
• South Wadi Jarash 18
• Wadi Deir 19
• NW of the City 19

Overview of Site Types 20


• Quarries 20
• Rock Cut Tombs (Hypogea) 20
• Mausolea 24
• Sarcophagi 25
• Rock-cut graves 25
• Roman Milestones 26
• Inscriptions 27
• Architectural fragments 28
• Artefact scatters 29
• Water Channels, Cisterns, Basins, Springs, Mills &Water Management 31
• Monumental Structures 35
• Platforms 36
• Other types of sites 36

Discussion of Survey Results 39

Threats to the Archaeological Resource 39

Recommendations 40

Conclusions 42

Proposals for further work 42

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Acknowledgements 43

Bibliography 43

Contact Addresses 46

Comments & Initial Observations on the Surface Collections 47


by Margaret Struckmeier

Summary of Dr Ina Kehrberg’s Preliminary Observations on the JHS05 Surface


Collections 50

Summary Press Release for Munjazat 52

N.B. The following 3 sections are in the full report on the accompanying disk

Site List with GPS Points 54

Artefact and Crate Packing List and deposition details 68

List of Primary Records and Location 82

List of Figures
Figure 1: Map of 2005 and 2008 survey areas showing all sites end

Figure 2: Map of Wadi Deir (N Wadi Jarash) showing all sites end

Figure 3: Map of East of the City, northern area showing all sites end

Figure 4: Map of East of the City, southern area, and South Wadi Jarash,
showing all sites end

Figure 5: Map of North West of the City end

Figure 6: Table showing types and numbers of sites 38

List of Plates
Plate 1: Aerial View of NW Necropolis, 2008 6

Plate 2: Sarcophagus smashed in the last 3 years 7

Plate 3: Broken pottery in fresh robbers’ upcast outside Tomb 44 8

Plate 4: Damage to Site 43 from bulldozing 8

Plate 5: Detail of sarcophagus smashed by recent dumping 9

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Plate 6: Rendzina soils developed on natural terraces and wadi bottom 14

Plate 7: View (looking SW) of well exposed block quarry Site 034 15

Plate 8: Column Quarry – Suf area, 5km north of Jarash 15

Plate 9: Site 202 - niches cut into soft brecciated limestone immediately below
hard caprock horizon 16

Plate 10: View of Rendzina soil profile overlain by modern dumped material 17

Plate 11: Quarry site 326 20

Plate 12: Tomb site 326 with robbers’ spoil 21

Plate 13: Interior of Tomb site 486 22

Plate 14: Hypogaeum Site 299, with grave niche and relief panel 23

Plate 15: Mausoleum Site 469 24

Plate 16: Sarcophagus site 338 25

Plate 17: Rock-cut graves 286 and tomb entrance 287 26

Plate 18: Milestone Site 423 27

Plate 19: Inscription site 462 28

Plate 20: Inscriptions 245 and 271 28

Plate 21: Bulldozed architecture and column detail, site 389 29

Plate 22: Architectural fragment, Site 329 29

Plate 23: Elements of water channel blocks, Site 400 31

Plate 24: Cistern Site 274 32

Plate 25: Possible mill, site 393 33

Plate 26: Mill Site 505 34

Plate 27: Bulldozed monumental architecture, Site 462 35

Plate 28: Olive press at Site 486 37

Plate 29: Traditional house, Site 225 37

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Archive Material on attached 2 x DVD with this report


• GPS co-ordinates and levels for all sites
• QGIS (GIS information for all sites in QGIS format)
• Illustrations (all maps and Site 43)
• Lists (Finds, photographs, sites)
• Colour photographs (small images)
• Preliminary Report on the Pottery and Small Finds from JHS 2005 by Ina
Kehrberg.
• A full copy of this report, including Site List with GPS Points, Artefact and
Crate Packing List and deposition details, List of Primary Records and
Location
• Jarash Hinterland Survey Database
• Colour digital photographs
• 1926 and 1953 aerial photographs and 2003 satellite images
• 1979 1:2500 map of Jarash

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Jarash is an archaeological site and landscape of international importance. This


survey shows that rapid urban development is destroying 10% of the
archaeological sites around the city every year. Urgent action is required by the
Department of Antiquities, in accordance with their remit to protect and
preserve Jordan’s archaeological heritage.

INTRODUCTION

A three week season of field survey of the Jarash Hinterland was carried out between
6 September and 25 September 2008. The 2008 season is the second season of a
project covering an intended area of 10 sq km centred on the Roman City of Gerasa.

The project is directed by Prof. David Kennedy (University of Western Australia) and
Fiona Baker (Firat Archaeological Services Ltd, Scotland) assisted by Paul Sharman
(Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology); David Connolly and Margaret
Struckmeier (Connolly Heritage Consultancy, Scotland); Anne Poepjes (University of
Western Australia); Don Boyer and Ann Boyer (Roman Archaeology Group, UWA),
Andrew Card (University of Western Australia) and Naomi Poepjes. Ina Kehrberg
(University of Sydney) is the ceramicist and finds specialist.

The 2005 survey area covered an area of 0.6 sq km on the west side of the ancient city
between the city wall and the top of the hill along which the Zahr al Saraw road runs
N-S. The field results of this survey, which recorded 223 archaeological sites, are
reported in the Jarash Hinterland Survey 2005 Season Preliminary Report
accompanied by the project database and all digital photographs, which has been
archived to the Department of Antiquities (DoA), Amman in accordance with DoA
requirements.

The 2008 survey area consists of the largely developed hillside to the N and NW of
the Roman city in Zhara as Siraw, beside the Suf road; the northern Wadi Jarash or
Wadi Deir as far as Birketein; the developed hillsides to the E of the main N-S road
Route 15 (old Irbid Road) that divides the ancient city in two and N of the new Irbid
road that runs E-W along the S side of the city, focussed on the land outside the
Roman city wall; and the southern Wadi Jarash. The 2008 survey area covered a total
area of 1.9 sq km and recorded 402 sites. The survey area has now encircled the
ancient city and the total area surveyed in 2005 and 2008 covers 2.5 sq km and has
recorded 625 sites.

The general JHS area is covered with limestone outcrops and has the deep red
rendzina soil or terra rossa that is common on the limestone outcrops in the northwest
of Jordan. The fields in both the north and south Wadi Jarash have more mixed
topsoil indicative of centuries of cultivation. The survey area comprises developed
land for domestic housing, waste ground, olive groves, fields and grazing land. A
great deal of construction work for new houses and roads is in progress within the
survey area.

The area around Jarash is currently being developed as the city expands and well over
one hundred new houses are built each year. The new development and expansion of
the city has escalated since about 2000 and it is because of this that the Jarash

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Hinterland Survey (JHS) project was instigated. Very little survey or excavation
work has taken place outside the walls of the Roman city and the archaeological
resource outside the city walls is poorly recorded and little understood. In the face of
development, the JHS seeks to identify and record archaeological sites threatened
with destruction by the development work and to preserve the archaeological sites at
least by record.

UPDATE ON THE 2005 SURVEY

Of the 223 sites surveyed in 2005, 188 of these sites were visited again in 2008 to
check on their condition. The sites not visited were mostly quarried outcrops. Of the
sites visited the condition of 121 sites remained unchanged, 31 had been damaged and
35 had been destroyed by new development. In summary, 65% of the sites visited
were unchanged after three years. This means that at least 30% of the sites recorded
in 2005 had been damaged or completely destroyed and from these figures we could
extrapolate that 10% of the archaeological sites within the immediate environs of
Jarash are being destroyed every year.

Of the sites that had been damaged since 2005, the NW Necropolis site (Sites 43 – 63
inclusive) shows the most overall damage. A short section on these sites is included
here.

THE JARASH NORTH-WEST NECROPOLIS

Plate 1: Aerial view of the NW Necropolis, 2008

During the 2005 season of the Jarash Hinterland Survey, a concentration of high
status Roman tombs were located in an area of open ground located 600m to the NW
of the Roman city walls. These are on the line of the Roman road leading out of the

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NW gate. The surviving necropolis area measures approximately 200m N-S x 150m
E-W. The UTM co-ordinate for the site is E771636 / N3575954 (see Fig. 5).

This parcel of land belongs, at least in part, to the Department of Antiquities. It may
have been purchased as a result of the 1991 rescue excavations (Smadeh et al 1992).

The tombs and elements of tombs identified at this cemetery in 2005 were deemed to
be under threat from illegal excavation, quarrying and rubbish dumping. This site
was identified as one of the top three sites offering the greatest archaeological
potential and as most under threat out of the 217 sites identified by the 2005 survey.
This observation remains the same.

This site was first notified to the Department of Antiquities in 1982 and its
significance is further stated in an article in ADAJ (1992) by Smadeh et al. This
article primarily reports on salvage excavation of tombs immediately to the south,
which were destroyed by new housing development, but clearly illustrates the
necropolis and in particular 2005 Site 043, the Palmyrene tomb. Smadeh et al also
note that two sarcophagi pillaged from Site 043 in 1985 are actually at Jarash
Museum.

Plate 2: Sarcophagus smashed in the last 3 years

The necropolis comprises at least 10 tombs and many architectural fragments


including stone tomb doors, Syrian niches, Corinthian column capitals, pediment
fragments and numerous undecorated architectural fragments. Tombs 044 and 045
have now also been confirmed as high status hypogaea, but unfortunately by illicit
excavation and looting in the last three years, not by archaeological investigation.

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Plate 3: Broken pottery in fresh robbers’ upcast outside Tomb 44

The 2008 survey visited the necropolis site and was dismayed to find the tombs had
been further damaged by bulldozers, which have been levelling parts of the site, and
by increased dumping of rubble and boulders on the site, which has shattered a
sarcophagus.

Plate 4: Damage to Site 43 from bulldozing

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Plate 5: Detail of sarcophagus smashed by recent dumping

In order to protect the tombs from further damage and looting and to protect them in
the long term immediate and urgent action is required.

• Erection of a 2m high post and wire mesh fence around the site bedded into
concrete base pads. A breeze block wall is not recommended as it would
cause further ground disturbance and would also shield the site from view
allowing tomb robbers to operate unseen. The fence would prevent access to
the area by heavy machinery and stop dumping of rubble and rubbish.
• Clearance of dumped rubble and retrieval of Roman architectural and masonry
fragments under archaeological supervision. Architectural fragments to be
stored on the site and not removed form the site with a view to restoration in
the long term.
• Detailed photography of the site and all tombs once the modern disturbances
and dumps have been removed
• Scale drawings of the individual sites once the modern dumping has been
removed.
• Surface collection of pottery associated with the individual tombs

This preliminary work would allow the site to be protected form further damage and
for the modern disturbances and dumping to be removed so that the site could be
recorded in further detail before detailed archaeological excavation work may
commence.

• Small evaluation trenches or trial pits are not recommended at this site. It is
clear it is a high status necropolis and small trenches would only confuse the
picture further, as the site already has several robber trenches and the
architectural fragments and surface finds have been mixed from several tombs.

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• Open area stratigraphic excavation and attendant single context recording is


the recommended excavation strategy.
• Archaeological excavation and recording by a team of professional
archaeologists
• Following archaeological excavation the site could be restored and opened to
tourists as an example of high status Roman tombs.
• In order to manage the site in the long term a caretaker / guard could be
appointed to monitor the site for illicit excavation, to clear rubbish and
monitor the condition and safety of the tombs for public access.

The Department of Antiquities has known about this important necropolis since
1982 – over 25 years. It is being actively robbed and destroyed and requires
IMMEDIATE protection.

OBJECTIVES OF THE FIELD SURVEY

The objectives of the JHS are to identify and record archaeological sites outside the
Roman city walls. The hinterland of Jarash has been subjected to very little field
survey or archaeological investigation. No city operates in isolation and its hinterland
provided the resources to support the existence of the settlement. The area outside the
city walls was also the place where the cemeteries or ‘cities of the dead’ were located.
Due to the extensive development now taking place the main objective of the JHS is
to provide a baseline survey identifying and locating as many of the archaeological
sites as possible before they are destroyed by development.

As the focus of extensive development is to the west of the Roman city, the first 2005
season of the JHS focussed its efforts there. The 2005 season, which lasted for two
weeks, identified 217 archaeological sites within a 2km x 400m area. These sites
include 67 rock cut tombs and 17 rock cut graves, 5 mausolea, 26 sarcophagi, 8
inscriptions and at least 31 quarry sites. Several artefact scatters were also located
including an area of kiln wasters indicating Late Byzantine and Umayyad pottery
production.

The 2008 survey area concentrated its efforts on the east of the city on the few
surviving pockets of undeveloped land amongst the houses. Based on the 2005
survey results and rapid speed of development the project determined that this was the
most important area to concentrate on, before any remaining evidence disappeared.
Rapid walkover field assessment was also undertaken along the Wadi Deir (N Wadi
Jarash) between Jarash and Birketein to the north of the city, and the northern part of
the southern Wadi Jarash was also subjected to detailed survey. Development is
starting to encroach upon both of these areas and is likely to speed up in the next few
years.

A total of 402 sites were identified by the 2008 survey within the 1.9 sq km area
surveyed. These include the frequent rock cut tombs and quarries one would expect
in the immediate environs of the city and architectural and artefact scatters indicating
settlement or religious activity outside the city walls, as well as water management
and mills (see table and discussion below).

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The survey is principally a baseline survey designed to identify and locate


archaeological sites so that the hinterland of Jarash can be better understood and so
that sites can be protected from destruction by future development. The objective of
the 2008 season was to survey the last surviving pockets of undeveloped ground in the
immediate vicinity of the city walls before moving further out from the city into the
hinterland with the overall objective of covering a 10 sq km area centred on the city.
A second objective of the survey is to identify and make recommendations as to what
future work and management systems should be implemented to preserve the
archaeological sites.

METHODS OF FIELD SURVEY

The field survey was carried out by archaeologists walking intensively over the
landscape looking for archaeological sites of any period. When a site was located, its
position was marked by handheld GPS, colour digital photographs were taken and the
site was recorded by written description, measurements and sketches on a specifically
designed field recording form. If artefacts were present, these were collected to
provide dating evidence. The pottery will be examined by Dr Ina Kehrberg during
January 2009.

The field recording form is based on the JADIS record form and includes a section to
identify and assess the level of threat to the archaeological sites. Due to extensive
ongoing development almost every site has a high risk of being destroyed.

It was not possible to investigate the entire area as some parts have been entirely
developed and others are within enclosed gardens and private ground. The survey
concentrated on the open ground consisting of olive groves, fields, waste ground and
vacant plots as well as investigating all construction sites. Every opportunity to
investigate private gardens was taken where available and a number of sites were
recorded within gardens.

The Wadi Deir (N Wadi Jarash) was subjected a rapid walk-over assessment which
located a number of major sites. Further more detailed survey work is required here.

MAPPING

In 2005 the JHS team were kindly supplied with a copy of the Jarash Development
Plan by the Governor of Jarash. The plan of proposed development on the west side
of the city formed the base map for the survey area and has allowed the impact of
development on the archaeological resource to be identified and quantified.

In 2008 the survey team used enlarged Google Earth satellite aerial photographs as
field survey base maps. The Google images proved to be excellent base maps as they
showed all built up areas and land boundaries and allowed areas developed between
2003 and 2008 to be identified.

At the commencement of the project it was necessary to produce a suitable scale map
of the survey area. The team had intended to use the 1977 1:50,000 UTM Sector 36

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map as the primary map for the project coupled with rectified aerial photographs
(APs) to produce a base map for the survey area. However, when checking the co-
ordinates of fixed points on the ground with the GPS to assist with the rectification of
APs it became apparent that the GPS co-ordinates derived from satellites did not
agree with the UTM co-ordinates derived from the map. Further research determined
that the UTM map is inaccurate and that the co-ordinates taken from the map may be
up to 200m away from the co-ordinates obtained from the GPS. This is a known
problem encountered by other survey teams (for example, Mortensen 1993; Flanagan
& McCreery 1995). It should be noted that the error on the UTM map is variable,
both on this particular map sheet and across Jordan. Therefore, there is no formula
that can be applied to the GPS-derived co-ordinates to calculate the corresponding
UTM map co-ordinates.

The survey team used hand-held GPS (Garmin 60CSx, Garmin 60C and a Garmin
CS76) to locate the sites in the field. The GPS plots were cross checked by the field
surveyors against the annotated field maps to ensure that all sites are correctly located.

All co-ordinates given in this report are derived from GPS readings, using the WGS
84 co-ordinate system, and are the true UTM co-ordinates for the archaeological sites
identified. The accuracy of the GPS reading is usually within +/-5m, but occasionally
the accuracy was +/- 6m or 7m of the site. The level of accuracy is recorded in the
GPS field log.

It is important to note that the sites recorded by the survey should be located either
from the attached map only or by GPS. If one tries to locate the sites by co-ordinates
using the UTM Sector 36 S 1:50,000 map one will not find the sites as the UTM map
is inaccurate by up to 200m.

All levels are related to Aqaba sea level datum. However, because there are no
known spot height locations in the area of the Roman city or Jarash as a whole, it was
not possible to calibrate the GPS each day with atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the
elevation recorded for each site is not precisely accurate, but a rough guide only. The
field surveyors noted discrepancies in the elevation readings at a number of sites and
the elevations given should not be considered reliable.

The maps of the survey area that accompany this report has been produced from the
Jarash City Development Map combined with the 1978 1:2500 map sheet 2833A and
2834A, rectified APs and GPS satellite derived co-ordinates and imagery.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

The geology of the area is limestone bedrock with frequent outcrops, many of which
have been quarried to some degree. There is considerable variation with the bedrock
ranging from quite fine grained limestone of good building stone quality to softer
limestone with inclusions, which is more prone to solution holes, filled with rendzina
or terra rossa soil and small concreted stones. There are also areas of very soft and
crumbly yellowish white marl, particularly to the NE of the ancient city in Al Howaz.

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The soil is terra rossa or rendzina and is deep red brown in colour with high clay
content and good water retention properties. In some places a considerable depth of
soil, up to 2m, was exposed. It is clear that there has been considerable slope wash or
colluvial build up on the wadi and hill terraces, and alluvial deposition combined with
slope washed soils in the wadis, particularly the Wadi Deir to the north of the city.

The hillsides have been terraced for agriculture in several places but due to the urban
environment and ongoing development of the area for housing, the majority of the hill
terrace walls have been destroyed. The hill terrace walls are generally about 0.80m
wide and constructed of two facing courses of larger boulders filled with small stone
rubble, which probably represents field clearance. The cultivation terrace walls in the
southern Wadi Jarash are still largely intact and several of them were recorded by the
project. It is of note that white glazed earthenware of 19th – early 20th century date
was recovered from the soil profile underlying one of the terrace walls suggesting that
the walls we see today are relatively modern in date. However, it is likely that the hill
terrace cultivation walls have been rebuilt on numerous occasions and terrace walls
similar to those we see today existed in the Classical period.

It was noted that the wadi terraces in the south Wadi Jarash and the north Wadi Deir
were often more of a pale grey brown colour and tended to contain more pottery
sherds, suggesting a longer history of intensive cultivation including manuring and
ploughing in of stubble. While the grey brown soils contained more pottery sherds
indicative of settlement activity, the rendzina soils were not devoid of artefacts but it
was observed where deep profiles were exposed, pot sherds might only be present in
the uppermost metre of soil deposits. It was also noted that rendzina soil has been
imported into gardens and fields around the city, presumably because of its clay and
water retention properties, and a rendzina quarry was noted on the road from Jarash to
Mafraq.

JARASH 2008 - GEOLOGICAL NOTES

By Don Boyer BSc (Hons), CPGeo, Fellow Aus. Inst. Mining & Metallurgy

The Roman city of Jarash straddles the Wadi Jarash, a south draining Wadi that is
incised into a flat lying sequence of limestone and related rocks of Cretaceous age.
This sequence extends into the surrounding hinterland for some distance. The
sequence typically comprises alternating layers of harder limestone and softer units,
each less than 10 metres thick. The harder units are well exposed, locally exhibiting
the sculptured pavements and karst scenery so typical of Cretaceous limestone
terrains. Caves have created locally as a result of natural weathering processes in
areas where a soft, friable limestone layer exists beneath harder ‘cap’ horizons.

Distinctive Rendzina soils (of ? Holocene age) are developed on terraces and any flat
lying areas on the limestone pavements, with thicker development on flatter areas
adjacent to the Wadi. These soils comprise deep red brown clay soil and limestone
nodules and fragments. The nodules have been observed to have a largely
concretionary origin. Given the absence of iron in the local geological environment,
the source of the iron is enigmatic to the author.

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The local geological setting has clearly had an important impact on the development
of the Jarash area since pre-Roman times (and continues to do so today), in a number
of ways.

Topography

The flat lying limestone sequence, coupled with the variable hardness of the layers,
weathers into the distinctive hilly landscape dominated by many small terraces that
we see today in the undeveloped areas adjacent to the modern town. Over time these
natural terraces have been artificially expanded to create larger terraces better suited
to agriculture, especially the development of orchards.

Plate 6: View looking east from UTM 36 coordinates 771223E,


3574802N on west side of survey area showing olive groves on
Rendzina soils developed on natural terraces (enhanced by low
walling) and wadi bottom. Note caves on upper terraces.

Within the modern town additional terracing for housing development has been
created by reusing terraced orchard areas and by ‘benching’ into hillsides using heavy
earth moving equipment. This benching results in the creation of significant amounts
of spoil being deposited on terraced areas down slope, covering pre-existing terraces
(and any archaeology they may contain). The creation of terraces limits the effect of
down slope ‘soil creep’, potentially resulting in soils (and any contained archaeology)
remaining more or less in situ where not modified by human activity.

Resources

Limestone is a particularly useful resource, and the large number of quarries


identified in the Jarash hinterland is testament to the use of harder limestone units as a
source of building blocks and related material in historic times.

The extent of quarrying in a given location is impacted by the thickness of the


favoured unit (typically fine-grained and/or porcelanous), which may be only a few
metres in thickness, and ease of access. Much quarrying seems to have been

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opportunistic and small scale, with evidence of individual block removal in small,
easily accessible areas.

Plate 7: View (looking SW) of well exposed block quarry Site 034

Quarrying of very large blocks and columns would be limited to the availability of
unusually thick units, and a column quarry was visited in one such location in the hills
above the village of Suf, approximately 5km north of Jarash (UTM coordinates
35.8902099.275E / 32.3225191.453N).

Plate 8: Column Quarry – Suf area, 5km north of Jarash

There is abundant evidence of block quarrying well beyond the limits of the study
area, perhaps reflecting the high demand created by the establishment of Roman
Jarash.

The water resources generated by water flowing within Wadi Jarash and subordinate
wadi’s draining into it, together with springs developed in the adjacent wadi banks
and hillsides, would have been a significant resource in historical times. They remain
so today, although flow rates appear to have been drastically reduced by over usage,

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water diversion and possibly climate change over the past 2000 years. (Some
commentators such as Hirschfeld (2004) and others have determined that there was
higher rainfall in the 1st century BC and in the mid 4th century AD.)

Cultural

The presence of natural caves provides the opportunity for human adaptation and use.
The existence of alternating hard and soft limestone layers also provides the
opportunity for creating man-made tombs and other burial places, using the harder
limestone as a natural self-supporting cap or roof and the immediately softer unit
(often a breccia contain fragments of limestone and flint) amenable to excavation into
any desired shape. The harder limestone cap horizon is also amenable to the carving
of facades.

Plate 9: Site 202 - Underground view of rock cut tomb showing niches
cut into soft brecciated limestone immediately below hard caprock
horizon. Looking North

Agriculture

The combined existence of natural terracing and rich Rendzina soil presumably
focused farming activities in the immediate Jarash area and beyond in historic times
and continues to do so today. While areas of thicker soil profiles predictably support
more intensive agriculture, it has been observed that even a small patch of Rendzina
soil of a few square metres extent developed in a solution hollow within an exposed
limestone pavement can support a single olive tree.

Comments

• Care needs to be exercised in distinguishing natural solution features in


limestone from manmade features, particularly in quarried areas.
• The total dominance of limestone and to a lesser extent flint in the Jarash
hinterland and surrounding areas means that the occurrence of non-limestone
rocks such as basalt, ultramafic rocks and granite in the archaeological record
stand out as being sourced from outside the area (and in the case of ultramafic

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and granite types, from outside of Jordan). Occurrences of basalt querns have
been noted in the survey, presumably sourced from northern Jordan, and the
author has also noted occasional examples of distinct rounded (and possibly
used as small hand querns) stones of magnetic, medium to course grained
olivine-bearing ultramafic rock, the source of which is uncertain.
• Rendzina soils exist at surface and have also been observed to infill shallow
solution holes and caves up to several metres beneath the present natural
surface. They represent a potentially useful and visible time marker separating
?pre-human and post-human occupation, especially on sites where the soil
profile has been disturbed by modern earthmoving and dumping.

Plate 1: View of Rendzina soil profile overlain by modern dumped


material

• During the study it was noted at several locations that a number of tombs have
been excavated along a given horizon with particularly favourable rock
conditions. More detailed surveying and geological understanding could
potentially result in the capacity to predict the location of unexposed tomb
sites in spoil covered areas. Where appropriate, ground penetrating radar may
also assist in the location of shallow tombs with voids within c.3m of surface.

THE DATABASE

In 2005, the JHS had intended to use the JADIS database for recording the sites but
unfortunately, this was not possible. The JADIS database was created in the early
1990’s as an overall sites and monuments record for Jordan, with the intention that all
projects working in Jordan would supply their site data in a standard format for entry
into the database. However, due to technical difficulties and the ever-evolving nature
of computer databases, JADIS could not read or process data produced by more recent
software and versions of Access or other databases that have superseded that used for
JADIS.

It was therefore necessary for the JHS to create its own database and this work was
undertaken by David Connolly. The JHS database is an Access database and was

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designed using all the JADIS codes for type site, site location etc. However, since
2005, a new overall sites and monuments record for Jordan, MEGA, is currently
under development. After discussions with Catreena Hamarneh of the Department of
Antiquities and MEGA project, it was concluded that the JHS dataset is compatible
with data migration into the MEGA framework.

A GIS system compatible with QGIS was requested by the Dept of Antiquities. Five
layers were created: Layer 1 is a raster map of the Jarash area, extending to 4km
around the city; Layer 2 is a polygon extent of the 2005 JHS survey area; Layer 3 is a
polygon extent of the 2008 JHS survey area; Layer 4 is point data on all surveyed
sites from the 2005 and 2008 JHS survey areas; Layer 5 are polygons of surveyed
scatters. Metadata consists of site number, site type and UTM co-ordinates. All of this
is held in the QGIS folder on the disk accompanying this report.

The JHS Database accompanies this brief text report on disk. The disk contains all
site records; GPS readings (site co-ordinates); all colour digital photographs and
illustrations; the finds list; QGIS (GIS information for all sites in QGIS format) and
the Preliminary Report on the Pottery and Small Finds from JHS 2005 by Ina
Kehrberg.

THE SURVEY AREAS

EAST OF THE CITY


See Figures 3 and 4

The survey area to the east of the city was extensively built up and is best described as
urban. This made it difficult to identify the underlying landscape because it has been
much altered. The northern part of the area consisted of hill terraces running around
the Tell Mustashfa (or Tell Jarash or Al Howaz) plateau on its N, W and S slopes and
terraces rising up the slope of the higher hill to the E. The southern part of the area
consisted of terraces on the NW, W and S slopes of a separate plateau (with a valley
between it and Tell Mustashfa), which dropped steeply down to the S to the wadi
bottom used by the new Irbid road.

Any areas of open ground that could be accessed by the surveyors were investigated,
including private gardens. The survey maps indicate land use and areas that could be
surveyed. In general, only rock cut tombs and quarries were located in this area but at
a much lower density than in the 2005 survey area on the west side of the city. This
difference in site frequency is a result of modern development and urban expansion.

SOUTH WADI JARASH


See Figure 4

Only the northernmost part of the southern Wadi Jarash was surveyed. Most of this
area is under cultivation, although modern buildings and the dumping of construction
waste are encroaching upon it. The wadi is a fairly narrow flat bed with terraces
rising steeply on the east and west sides. Only narrow fields were present at the

Jarash Hinterland Survey 18


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

bottom of the slope with larger fields further up slope, particularly on the west side.
A very slight flow of water enters the wadi at its north end under the modern road
bridge, falling over a ten metre high limestone edge to the wadi bottom. The W side
of the edge had clearly been scoured by the force of what must have been a stronger
flow of water in the past. A natural spring was also observed issuing from the base of
the limestone edge on the W side of the wadi near here.

WADI DEIR
See Figures 2 and 5

The survey area to the north of the city was the area known as Wadi Deir (Deir
meaning ‘monastery’ in Arabic). This runs from north to south and is divided along
the same axis by the Roman road (under the modern road), which ran from the Jarash
City Walls to Birketein (which translates as ‘two pools’). The general topography of
the Wadi Deir consists of a flat alluvial plain which is narrow at either end and
broadens out in the middle. The east and west sides consist of long rocky limestone
outcrops which rise fairly steeply in places, effectively enclosing the wadi valley. The
wadi river ran from north to south on the east side of the Wadi, named by the Greeks
as Chrysorhoas (golden river), which is still in evidence as a dried up river bed.

The alluvial plain is mostly under cultivation, with field and orchard plots running E-
W across it. There is evidence for controlled land division in the past as on both sides
of the road a number of the fields are very evenly spaced, being approximately fifteen
metres wide. It is felt that these land parcels may have been created during the late
Ottoman period, created by or for the Circassians when they moved to Jarash from
south-eastern Russia to escape persecution in the late 19th century (Shami 1992).

Because of the close proximity to modern Jerash and the need for more water for
domestic purposes due to the rising population, water has now been diverted away
from Wadi Deir and the springs at Birketein have apparently dried up. This has
affected the agricultural potential of the Wadi and the fields now have very little
irrigation. Add to this the demand for more housing when land closest to Jerash can
command high prices, and the result has been the gradual encroachment of
construction into the Wadi fields.

NW OF THE CITY
See Figure 5

The survey area NW of the city walls was a continuation of the N end of the 2005
survey W of the city walls, and used the Suf road as its N boundary. This area was a
limestone hill with terrace edges. Although quite developed, building in this area is a
recent phenomenon, so there were still many open areas and orchards that could be
surveyed. The kinds of sites that survived were typical of the W of the city, mostly
comprising tombs and quarries, with sarcophagi, architectural fragments, occasional
cisterns, traditional houses and some dense artefact scatters. However, development
in this area is increasing and many of these sites may soon be lost.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

OVERVIEW OF SITE TYPES

QUARRIES
A total number of 45 quarry sites were recorded in the 2008 survey season. Most of
these sites were simple cut edges, dispersed along the natural limestone terrace
outcrops, with very few (Sites 250, 301, 304, 305, 306 and 326) providing evidence of
step quarrying, block cutting or block sizes. Of these 2008 sites, quarry Site 326 was
the most extensive and best preserved, the 17m long, 9m wide 2m high area contained
all of the types of evidence mentioned above. Therefore it is recommended that Site
326 should be preserved as the best example of this industry east of the Roman city.

Plate 11: Quarry Site 326

It is clear that although quarries were noted throughout the survey area, they were less
frequent and less extensive than those noted on the west side of the ancient city in the
2005 survey season. This was partly because of the intensity of urban development
east of the city, but it was also noted that in general the limestone was of poorer
quality than in the west and therefore less amenable for use as building stone.
However, some of the softer limestone units were essentially marl, which would have
been extremely useful for making mortar and plaster. Indeed, at the N end of the
survey area to the east and south of the old Irbid road, the limestone was so soft that it
is still recognised as a place to quarry marl and this area is called ‘Al Howaz’, which
appears to translate as ‘lime marl’.

ROCK CUT TOMBS (INCLUDING HYPOGAEA)


64 rock cut tombs were located by the survey including two hypogaea and one
arcosolium, About 50% of these tombs require evaluation to confirm that they are
indeed tombs.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Rock-cut tombs

Many rock cut tombs were identified as such because they were inaccessible, and
therefore the interior design could not be identified. Many were also identified as
probable or possible rock cut tombs because the top of a wide right-angled recess was
visible in the bedrock, or because there was a wide and high vertical rock cut face,
sometimes with a lip at the base. Such features tended to be associated with
confirmed tombs, but of course the sites need evaluation to confirm that there is a
tomb present.

Plate 12: Tomb 236, with robbers’ spoil blocking intact door

Many of the 61 rock cut tombs identified by the 2008 survey were in poor condition,
especially those E of the city. This reflects the more intensive urban conditions E of
the city. Many were used as rubbish dumps, many had been truncated by road and
building construction and many had been robbed both in antiquity and recently.
Examples of recent tomb robbing are at the rock cut shaft tomb Sites 230 and 231,
which are situated in the W-facing limestone edge on the E side of the old Irbid road.
Here, tomb 230 had been entered first and a tunnel quarried had been quarried by the
robbers to break through into the adjacent tomb 231. We were told that in tomb 230
there had been a ledge for the body, a skull and other bones, pottery and glass, all of
which were broken and left there. In the robbers’ upcast outside the tombs, lots of
bone, some bronze fragments, a bronze bracelet in two pieces with a twisted design
and plain terminals, glass and pottery were observed and retrieved. It would be worth
completely excavating these sites and sieving the robbers spoil to retrieve any
remaining human bones and artefacts for analysis and the provision of dating
evidence.

The largest tomb encountered during the 2008 survey was Site 486, a multi-
chambered tomb cut into the N part of the limestone edge forming the W side of the
Wadi Deir. The rock cut entrance was rebated externally to receive masonry for a
built doorway. It was accessed by a rock-cut passage buried beneath a slope of soil
and trash. Indeed, the tomb is in active use as a rubbish dump, including soiled baby
nappies and all the internal surfaces are coated with black soot from fires for burning
rubbish or perhaps inhabitation. The entrance is towards the S end of the E side of the
2.60m high central chamber, which is sub-rectangular, measuring 12.1m N-S by

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

6.15m E-W, with approximately 11 chambers and recesses off it. Most of the side
chambers are roughly square, often with the remains of masonry doorways, rather
than elongated open niches for receiving sarcophagi and this is not typical of most
tombs recorded by the survey.

Plate 13: Interior of Site 486

It is clear that the tomb has been adapted for reuse, evidenced not only by the removal
of walls between chambers and masonry doorways to create larger spaces resulting in
the need to build a limestone column in the central chamber to support the ceiling,
although some of the ceiling has collapsed, but also by the presence of an olive mill
stone 1.50m in diameter and 0.55m thick in the main chamber, close to the supporting
column. It seems likely that the chambers were reused for storage associated with the
olive press and wine installation and there are external features that are likely to be
associated with this also. The clearest of these is a circular plaster-lined vat 0.80m in
diameter and at least 1.60m deep, cut into the bedrock at the side of the passage down
to the tomb. There is a channel leading to this and there are faint traces of an adjacent
rectangular stone (?treading) tank also, although these are mostly obscured by soil
cover and vegetation. The final use of the tomb appears to be that of habitation,
evidenced by the soot-covered interior from fire smoke. This site should be cleared
and fenced off for protection.

Hypogaea

Only two confirmed hypogaeae were identified - again the lack of survival is because
of urban nature of E side of the town and in Wadi Deir because it was essentially the
alluvial plan that was surveyed. Tombs had clearly been cut in the limestone scarps
that flank the plain, but most of these were outside the 2008 survey area.

During the 2008 survey, the NW Necropolis site was revisited, and Site 052, which
had been recorded as a probable tomb because of local information and a façade with
a lip at its base, had now been broken into and is a confirmed hypogaeum. See the
Necropolis section below.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Those that survived the best tended to be ones that had been reused for habitation or
storage. One (Site 202) in the NW survey area had a metal door put into the original
doorway and the original stone door frame and steps down to the entrance had been
repointed with concrete. Although nothing remained in the niches, a rubble wall had
been built at one side of the tomb and the opposite side had suffered from roof
collapse and some modern quarrying, a complete decorated sarcophagus and lid
remained in situ to the right of the doorway. The lid had been wedged open so that
the contents could be rifled through, but more may remain.

Plate 14: Hypogaeum Site 294, showing grave niche and relief panel

The most exciting hypogaeum (Site 299) had also survived not only because it had
been used for habitation and storage, but also because four modern reinforced
concrete pillars had been inserted to support the ceiling to take the weight of the
house built above. This site not only comprised a large hypogaeum – site 299.3 - with
(empty) sarcophagus niches, small niches cut into the sides for lamps and the remains
of the doorway reused in the masonry, but also had a rock cut grave in an arched
recess (Site 299.1) flanking the approach to the tomb and a carved relief panel (Site
299.2) above the entrance. Although the panel was very weathered, the outlines of
three, perhaps four human figures in stylised poses can still be made out. Presumably
these figures represent the family that were buried in the tomb. No other carved
panels were found during the survey and the owner should be approached to arrange
an agreement that the panel will not be damaged.

Arcosolium

One arcosolium tomb was recorded in the 2008 survey, to the E of the city, Site 293.
This was a rectangular rock cut chamber with a damaged rock cut grave in an arched
niche to the rear and the scant remains of another to one side. The tomb was partly
full of soil and building rubble and has managed to survive (so far) at the edge of a
modern scarp cut through the limestone, below a bulldozed area and above an olive
grove on the S side of Tell Mustashfa. The owner of the land asked us to leave the
site, but as the only one of its type, in should be fenced off and protected from further
development.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

MAUSOLEA
Only one mausoleum was located for certain, which was at the southwest end of the
Wadi Deir at the foot of the limestone outcrops on the hillslope. The mausoleum Site
469 was excavated by Aida Naghawy and Abd al Majeed Mujalli in c 1982 (pers
comm). The front (ENE face) of the mausoleum no longer exists, having been
truncated by house construction. What remains is three sides of a room or cella, with
the rear cut into the slope of the hillside behind. Within this are four square pillars,
which had voussoired arches based on springers spanning the gaps between them. The
rear one of these survives. There are the scant remains of a springer on the NNW face
of the NW pillar, indicating that there may have been a barrel vault between the
pillars and the wall of the cella. Much lime plaster survives on the pillars and some
on the internal wall faces, indicating that the whole interior was plastered and,
presumably, painted. In one corner of the cella wall, traces of a moulded plaster
column survived indicating plaster trompe d’oeils and decorative features. A large
undecorated sarcophagus has been placed on its end near the SSE wall and the horned
lid, which has been broken in two, lies below the surviving arch. The sarcophagus
has been rebated to take the lid and the lead plugs survive around the rim as do the
receiving holes around the edge of the lid.

Plate 15: Mausoleum site 469

This site should be cleared and restored and fenced off to protect it from encroaching
development.

Just to the N of Site 469, the remains of a rectilinear structure (Site 473), similar in
build to the cella wall of the mausoleum, was visible. This should be evaluated
because it is possible that this is the remnants of another mausoleum.

The Palmyrene type mausoleum (Site 43) in the NW Necropolis near the Suf road was
revisited and further damage was noted. See the Update on the 2005 Survey section
above.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

SARCOPHAGI
15 sarcophagi (including fragments and lids) were found during the survey. A few of
these were still inside the tombs (e.g. see Hypogaeum Site 202 above) or despite
having been moved were still in immediate association with the burial site (e.g. see
Mausoleum Site 469 above). Some had been kept as garden ornaments, for example a
plain, roughly chiselled child’s sarcophagus and plain lid, Site 209, on a garden
terrace. (Internally the sarcophagus was only 0.80m long, 0.25m wide and 0.19m
deep.) However, most had been cleared, often broken, and dumped elsewhere,
completely divorcing them from their context, clearly indicating the lack of
understanding and appreciation of Cultural Heritage in the local area.

Plate 16: Sarcophagus Site 338

The sarcophagi varied in size and all were made of limestone. As in 2005, in many
cases only two or three faces were finely dressed and the other face left rough,
indicating that these sarcophagi were not to be viewed on all sides and would have
been placed against a wall.

Some sarcophagi were plain, but others were carved. The quality of decoration
varied. A number of symbols were carved in relief on the sarcophagi sides. These
are:
• Wreath, various details, some with flowing ‘ribbons', while others were almost
just plain circles, some with leaf details and some plain
• A crescent with three knobs was the most common design, probably a stylised
axe (Fisher 1938, 562)
• Circular rosette with petals

The sarcophagi lids were either plain or had projecting horns at the corners. All had
straight edges and pointed tops.

ROCK-CUT GRAVES
Only four rock-cut graves were found for certain (Sites 286, 364.1 and 364.2), two
more possible such graves (Sites 356 and 364.3) and the rock-cut grave in a niche,
Site 299.1, flanking hypogaeum Site 299.3 (see Hypogaea section above), which was
more of an external arcosolium than a plain rock-cut grave. Site 286 was a flanking

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

pair of graves, and Sites 364.1, 364.2 and 364.3 also lay together. Grave Site 286 also
lies in close association with rock cut tombs (Sites 287, 288, 290 and 291). The
graves were rebated at the top in order to receive a lid. Presumably this type of burial
was of lower status than burials in tombs or sarcophagi.

Plate 17: Rock-cut graves Site 286 to left of tomb entrance Site 287

The small number of this type of grave found in 2008 probably reflects the urban
nature of the east side of the city, rather than a real distribution pattern. The rarity of
these sites means that Sites 364.1 and 364.2, and especially Site 286, because of the
graves’ association with tombs, should be preserved. The graves and the tombs here
should be preserved as a group and it should be noted that there is a high risk of
development here that could destroy them in the next year or so.

ROMAN MILESTONES
Four milestones and two milestone bases were found in an orchard to the east of the
modern road to and some 50m S of Birketein (and, roughly, one Roman mile N of the
North Gate of Gerasa). Two lay on either side of a modern concrete water channel.
That of Septimius Severus (422) lay just east and was wedged against the channel
with most of the text visible. The second (424) was on the west side, was further
from the channel and under a tree. It was dirty and the text - though visible - was
difficult to decipher and the inscription was on both sides of the column. The third
milestone (423) was totally buried in the orchard c. 30m to the SW and close to the
fence by the road. Ploughing had damaged the upper surface of 423. Traces of
weathered inscription were visible as it was dug out. The fourth, 427, lay next to the
farm building, beside two milestone base blocks (426).

Apart from milestone Site 423, they have all been recorded, transliterated and
discussed by Sandrine Agusta-Boularot, Adnan Mujalli and Jacques Seigne in a
publication already (Agusta-Boularot et al, 1998). The third milestone, Site 423,
would not have been noted by the French team because it was completely buried. It
should be noted that all of the published pieces had been moved from where they

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

were located in the published photographs. Because of this, milestones 422, 423 and
424 were moved by Abd Al-Majeed Mujalli to his DoA offices within Roman Jarash
for safekeeping. He plans to retrieve the remaining milestone fragment, 427, and the
two bases soon. It is hoped that the inscription on milestone 423 will be recorded and
transliterated in the future.

Plate 18: Excavation of milestone 423

INSCRIPTIONS
Apart from those on the milestones (see Milestone section above), four inscriptions
were located by the survey. In Wadi Deir at Site 462 two Greek inscriptions and
architectural fragments were located just to the north of the new Medical Centre and it
was clear that they had been disturbed by the new development and dumped outside
its precinct. No archaeological work was undertaken during the construction of the
new Medical Centre despite its close proximity to the North Gate of the ancient
Jarash. These two inscriptions and the architectural fragments have been collected by
Abd al Majeed Mujalli and are now safely at the Department of Antiquities office
inside Jarash. Abd al Mujeed intends to search through the rubble and spoil heaps
from the construction of the medical centre to look for more inscriptions and
architectural fragments. It is of interest that Fisher noted that ‘a short distance north
of the North Gate is a temple sacred to Nemesis. Only foundations and eight
Corinthian columns of the portico, now fallen…’ (Fisher 1938, 25). There is no
mention of the evidence for the Nemesis dedication, so we cannot be certain that he
did not mistake the Octagonal Church for a temple, but there is the possibility that the
Medical Centre has been built on this temple site. If the DoA had undertaken
archaeological monitoring of the site when the centre was built, this information
would not have been lost.

A third Greek inscription was noted reused within the fabric of the City wall (Site
245) and an Abbasid inscription was located in a small orchard to the NW of the city
(Site 271). It is hoped that the latter will be retrieved.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Plate 19: Inscription from Site 462 (the other is on report cover)

Plate 20: Inscriptions 245 and 271

ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS
Architectural fragments were located throughout the survey area and squared Roman
masonry had been reused in many structures particularly in field terrace walls in both
Wadi Deir and in South Wadi Jarash, which probably date from when the Circassians
settled in Jarash in the late 19th-century, or later.

A total number of 98 architectural fragments were recorded. The most numerous


types of fragments were limestone pieces from door frames, usually jambs, lintels and

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

thresholds, but there were also a few pieces of a moulded architrave from around a
doorway (e.g. Sites 333.2 and 456b). The second most numerous type of fragments
were column drums, usually limestone, but occasionally red granite. In two areas in
particular there was a concentration of high quality column drums (along with other
architectural fragments), in Wadi Deir close to the Octagonal Church and in the wadi
channel below it, and Sites 341, 389 and 390, which all appear to derive from a
classical building that was used as a source of gravestones for use in the old
Circassian cemetery (Site 390) and was destroyed when the Jarash Ladies’ Institute
was constructed (see Monumental Structures section below). There were 16 columns
from around the cemetery area, including one limestone twisted flute column and one
red granite column. There were 5 red granite column drums and 5 limestone ones
(Sites 445, 448, 450a-d, 456a, 457, 459) that look as if they came from the Octagonal
Church, which should be retrieved and placed back within the confines of the
excavated area, along with the other associated pieces of monumental masonry (Sites
451, 454, 456a, 458, 460, .461a-b).

Plate 21: bulldozed architecture site 389, with detail of one of columns

Other fragments of interest included Site 329, which had a sculpted face with a raised
circular rosette with a 6-pointed sharp petal design, flanked by vertical stripes and the
remains of a flying bird with a pomegranate at its beak.

Plate 22: Architectural Fragment Site 329

ARTEFACT SCATTERS
A total of 79 artefact scatters were recorded. In the mainly built-up area east of the
City Wall ceramic, artefact and flint collections were carried out around associated

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

sites, particularly in the environs of tombs. Area collections were also carried out on
the few remaining areas of open ground, such as orchards and ploughed patches of
land. However, most of the scatters were very low density, essentially ‘background
noise’. In this area, the only scatter of note was within the old Circassian graveyard
(Site 390), close to the Roman city wall. Along with a dump of monumental
masonry, there was an unusually high concentration of tesserae including two made of
glass and a large pottery assemblage was collected, which, taken in conjunction with
the associated architectural fragments, strongly suggests a building of some
importance was located in the immediate vicinity (see Monumental Structure section
below).

In the southern Wadi Jarash, a higher concentration of ceramics was present in the
terraced fields due to the more open nature of the landscape. However, it should be
noted that this area would most probably be affected by slope wash and the
introduction of soil for terracing purposes.

Wadi Deir (Wadi Jarash north) revealed three interesting areas of pick up to the east
of the Jarash to Birketein road. The first of these areas (Site 449) represented a
collection in the orchard directly to the east of the remains of the Octagonal Church.
This assemblage contained an assortment of marble fragments, which have now been
assessed by geologist, Don Boyer. There is a strong possibility that these fragments
would have been used as flooring material (Opus Sectile) within the Octagonal
Church itself. The second notable area (Site 444) lies to the north of the Octagonal
Church. This artefact scatter had a remarkably rich ceramic assemblage considering
the small field that it was collected from. This field lay adjacent to a large platform
with a tomb underneath it (Site 447), which may represent the site of a farm, villa or
monumental structure. A third area of interest was represented by ceramic and
artefact collections potentially associated with the foundations of two structures (Sites
405 & 406), possibly Roman buildings, later re-built by the Circassians. Both
collections revealed similar ceramic and artefact assemblages, including tesserae and
Roman glass, although it should be noted that Site 406 has been used as a modern
dump.

To the west of the Jarash to Birketein road two sites were identified as especially
noteworthy. The first came from the west end of an orchard (sherd scatter Site 494)
which contained a high concentration of tesserae. This may be associated with Site
495 nearby, comprising two large piles of stones, some dressed, and an area of
smaller rubble in the surrounding area. Abd al-Majeed Mujalli also confirmed that
this was the site of an inscription, perhaps a temple, retrieved some time before by the
Department of Antiquities. The second and most intriguing site was sherd and
artefact scatter Site 523, lying mainly within the boundary of a small terraced orchard
with recently built terrace walls. This site contained a variety of ceramic sherds of
different types and periods, including many large Umayyad bowl sherds and one
fragment of a Jarash bowl. Three kiln wasters were identified also. Thirty-three
tesserae were also collected along with clay tiles, basalt rubbers, marble, glass and
one fragment of mother of pearl, possibly an inlay.

The area to the north-west of the City Wall represented a continuation of the 2005
survey. Having returned first of all to assess the condition of the Necropolis (Sites 43
– 63) it was decided after seeing evidence of further tomb robbing that Site 44 should

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

have a further pick up. The majority of the ceramics retrieved from the robbers’
upcast were of the same Late Roman/Early Byzantine storage jar type with a gypsum
coating that had been collected in 2005. Another site of interest in the northwest area
was a large orchard with a partially collapsed area of terrace wall (Site 204), which
had many pottery sherds within it and in its collapse onto the lower terrace. The
collection included one kiln tile with glaze on it. A further collection was undertaken
on the lower level (Site 263) where four kiln wasters were found and an adjacent
scatter (Site 254) also contained a substantial amount of pottery.

Few flints were found in the 2008 survey area as a whole and it was found that the
flint and chert (lower silica content) was predominately debitage with a few cores and
very few tools. This may indicate that much of the prehistoric landscape in the town
has been masked and / or removed by Roman and later occupation and modern
construction works.

WATER MANAGEMENT: CHANNELS, CISTERNS, BASINS, SPRINGS AND


MILLS
Channels

The remains of a stone water channel constructed of individual U shaped blocks was
located in the Wadi Deir to the north of the City. This site (Site 400), which
comprised 23 blocks, was scattered over a large area with many of the blocks built
into later agricultural terrace walls. It appears that some of them may have had a
terracotta water pipe laid into the channel. Traces of bitumen and lead were also
noted in some of the channel blocks, perhaps to hold the pipe in place. There are two
different sizes of blocks and it is thought that this difference may reflect the supply of
domestic water to the City and the supply of irrigation water for agricultural purposes
in the wadi. In the limestone edges flanking the Wadi Deir, Sites 485 and 487
comprised traces of water channels cut into the bedrock, catching and controlling
surface water shed from the slopes above.

Plate 23: elements of water channel blocks Site 400

Cisterns, basins and springs

Eighteen cisterns, three rock-cut basins and one spring were located by the survey.
Four of the cisterns were inaccessible, with a modern capping and need further
investigation to assess how old they are. A few cisterns were simply rock-cut and had
feeder channels leading into them (e.g. Sites 351 and 484). There was one bell-

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

shaped cistern, which was at least 3 metres deep (Site 352). Sites 204 and 274 were
large rectangular plaster-lined tanks. For example, Site 274 was 6.00m long, at least
3.20m wide and at least 2.20m deep. It had a rock-cut inlet in which the remains of a
lead pipe was visible.

Plate 24: Plastered cistern 274, with pipe inlet at rear

Two plaster-lined cisterns reused rock-cut tombs (Sites 212 and 251). Cistern Site
251, which reused a rock-cut tomb (Site 252), was located in the garden of a private
house, and was excavated by Abd Al-Majeed Mujalli’s workmen. It consisted of a
plaster lined subterranean chamber and had a superstructure constructed of dressed
limestone blocks into which channels to feed into the cistern had been cut. There was
also a plaster lined basin associated with it. An in situ ceramic water pipe, complete
with lead filter was found leading in to the top of the cistern. Two complete grey clay
square tiles and numerous ceramics were also found here, as was a Roman coin,
although all these finds are part of the later backfilling of the cistern.

It is difficult to interpret the 3 rock-cut basins. Site 339 was 0.5m in diameter and
only 0.2m deep, with a small channel leading into it, whereas Site 356 was 0.55m in
diameter, 0.45m deep and had a small channel leading out of it. Basin Site 253 was
larger, being 1.4m in diameter and 0.7m deep with a further shallow depression at its
base. Such features have many possible functions, such as receptacles for liquids, or
for grinding or processing foodstuffs and so on (cf Younker 1995, 685).

One spring (Site 349) was noted in the South Wadi Jarash, issuing from the base of
the limestone scarp at the W side of the wadi, not far south of the presumed site of the
Roman water gate. This has a derelict concrete channel leading from it into some
ruined concrete water tanks. It is still in use as a source of irrigation water for the
lower terraces and fields in the bottom of the wadi. The bluff from which this spring
issues is significantly scoured, showing how strong the water flow used to be,
presumably in rainy seasons (cf Fisher 1938, 14). The force of the water would have
been massively increased by falling over the 10m high cliff to the N, which is
mentioned by several writers as where the Roman water gate was located, now below
the road across the wadi (Fisher 1938, 12-13; Browning 1982, 207-8; Khouri 1986,
53)

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Mills

Surface water that would naturally have run off into the wadi appears to have been
controlled and collected, not only as a supply of drinking and irrigation water, but also
to power water mills.

Two definite mills have been located in the south Wadi Jarash (Site 001 from 2005
and Site 505 from 2008). We were told of another between the two, but the survey
did not reach this to confirm it. There was another probable mill / water management
system (Site 393) near the foot of the waterfall close to the presumed location of the
Roman water gate in the south Wadi Jarash and some masonry that may be the
remains of two mills were located in the Wadi Deir (Sites 465 and 467).

Site 393 consists of two massive walls some 3m thick, 6m high and up to 6m long,
built against the limestone edge on the E side of the wadi. The walls are battered back
and terminate at their W (wadi) ends in a tower-like fashion. These walls (or piers)
are set at an oblique angle to each other and are built of large, squared limestone
blocks, well-set in a Roman-looking fashion, and include some reused Roman
masonry. The massive N wall or pier has two vertical slots on each side of it, which
may have held a wooden installation. It is clear that considerable volumes of water
have poured over both structures, evidenced by thick limestone concretions. The S
wall had been rebuilt on at least two occasions as well as buttressed, perhaps
necessitated by the force of water flowing over it.

Plate 25: Possible mill site 393

There were two smaller walls, parallel to each other, of similarly built of squared
Roman-looking blocks that appeared to be of the same primary phase as the massive
wall piers. These were set at right angles to the N pier, running between and beyond
the W end of pier. They are likely to be the two long sides of the same building.
These walls have been rebuilt and adapted with Ottoman style coursed rubble walls,
in order to create another building. A photograph from the late 1970s shows that one
of these later walls had a large arch in it, which has now collapsed, as well as traces of
other walls (Browning 1982, fig 136, 209). It also shows that the N wall pier stood

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higher than it does today and that it may have been stepped on the surface – possibly a
water channel. The site is now truncated and covered with dumped rubble from the
construction of the new bridge, which hampers interpretation, but we think that it is a
mill, perhaps Roman, that has been rebuilt in the Ottoman period. We also observed a
rock-cut water channel running along the E side of the wadi just to the north of the
bridge, which appears to be at the right level for diverting water to power a mill at the
location of Site 393.

Mill Site 393 is downstream from Site 403, located in a 15m wide part of the wadi,
confined by steep banks and limestone outcrops on either side. The constituent parts
of the site are 505.1 - the mill aqueduct with penstock tower and internal chute (see
McQuitty 1995), 505.2 - probable remains of mill housing, 1.8m to the S of the end of
the aqueduct, and 505.3 - a well-built wall some 5m to the E of the end of the
aqueduct, which may form one side of the mill lade, or perhaps housing. Much of the
wadi side of the mill is obscured by trees and thick scrub, obscuring the possible
housing, lade and the water outlet at the base of the tower. We were told that there
used to be a water channel leading along the W side of the wadi to the aqueduct, but
that this has since been taken away. Certainly, there has been recent cutting and re-
terracing along the line of the suitable contour for this. The differing styles of
construction of the constituent parts, from squared Roman-style blocks to coursed
Ottoman style rubble, indicate a multi-phase use of the mill site.

Plate 26: Mill site 505

Mill sites are very difficult to date, and ones that have a Roman appearance have been
shown to be 19th-century (McQuitty 1995, 746). There is evidence for such mills to
have been built and used anywhere between the Classical Ottoman periods (McQuitty
1995, 746-749; Greene 1995, 760-761), and for the restoration of derelict mills in the
Late Ottoman period (Rogan 1995). All of these scholars emphasise the need to
excavate mill sites in order to understand their development and date. The sites
recorded by the 2008 survey are prime candidates for excavation, especially with the
rapid pace of development and extensive dumping at Jarash, which could cause them
to be destroyed in the near future.

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Water Management

Although the evidence for water collection, supply and management at Jarash has
been much truncated by modern development, enough has been discovered so far to
indicate that it is typical of what one could expect from studies of other areas in
Jordan (e.g Abujaber 1995; Abudanh 2007). There appears to be three levels to the
system at Jarash. The first is at a municipal level, where the water from perennial
springs and rivers is collected and large rectangular reservoirs are built, such as the
one located some 1.17m NW of the city walls at the head of the wadi on the W side of
Zhara al Siraw (observed by David Kennedy, Don Boyer and David Connolly while
flying over it) and the even larger one at Birketein. From these, at the second level,
water was led through channels to the centres of population. Smaller channels appear
to capture surface water, or divert water from the perennial supplies to be used for
irrigation purposes or powering mills. At the third level, water is used at a domestic
scale, with supplies being diverted or collected in cisterns. These different levels of
water management are well-suited to the climate and still used today (Abujaher 1995,
741-744).

MONUMENTAL STRUCTURES
At least two monumental structures can be inferred, at Site 462 and Site 389. At Site
462 two high quality Greek inscriptions and several architectural fragments including
an arch were located in spoil from the construction of the new Medical Centre. The
inscriptions and arch stone have been removed to the DoA office inside Jarash (see
Inscriptions section above). The inscriptions were obviously set into a larger
structure, evidenced by recessed sockets and lead sealing at fixing points suggesting a
structure of some significance. It is of interest that Fisher noted that ‘a short distance
north of the North Gate is a temple sacred to Nemesis. Only foundations and eight
Corinthian columns of the portico, now fallen…’ (Fisher 1938, 25). There is no
mention of the evidence for the Nemesis dedication, so we cannot be certain that he
did not mistake the Octagonal Church for a temple, but there is the possibility that the
Medical Centre has been built on this temple site. If the DoA had undertaken
archaeological monitoring of the site when the centre was built, this information
would not have been lost.

Plate 27: Monumental architecture at Site 462

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The second monumental structure is represented by Site 389 (see plate 21) which is a
pile of classical masonry including several plain column drum fragments of different
diameters, a twisted column fragment, column base and various other limestone
architectural fragments. A large number of tesserae including glass tesserae were also
recovered from this dump. It appears that this dump of masonry and rubble, which
looks quite fresh, originated from the construction of the Jerash Ladies Society
immediately to the east which was built in 2001. There are also many architectural
fragments including column fragments used as gravemarkers in the Circassian
cemetery, into which this dump of masonry fragments has been deposited. At the NE
corner of the cemetery the ground is quite a lot higher suggesting there may be a
platform in this area, some of which may survive. It is also of note that there are two
columns, one limestone and one red granite, outside the entrance to the Jerash Ladies
Society complex and these are believed to have been found during the excavations for
the new building. It seems likely that there was a monumental structure located here,
just outside the City Wall, perhaps a church.

PLATFORMS
Four distinct platforms were located in the rapid walk-over survey of the Wadi Deir at
Sites 405, 406, 408 and 447. These sites have been recorded in the database as
farmstead / hamlet as there is no appropriate MEGA / JADIS box for platforms. The
platforms range in size from 15m x 15m to 47m x 29m and stand up to 1.5m high.
Sites 447 and 406 show good stretches of well built monumental sized limestone
block walls but generally the purpose and function of the platforms and the extent of
masonry is unclear. Sherd and artefact scatters were present on all of the platforms.
It is of note that Site 447 has a large rock cut tomb (Site 446) underneath it on the east
side. The tomb was inaccessible. While the preliminary interpretation is that the
platforms may represent occupation sites it is equally possible, indeed perhaps more
likely, that they may represent platforms for monumental structures, such as mausolea
or temples.

McCown noted that the road from Gerasa to Birketein, to which these platforms are
adjacent, was a Via Sacra and was marked by the remains of hypogaea, mausolea and
funerary temples of which standing columns, fragments of stone blocks and
inscriptions remained in the late 1920s and 1930s. (McCown 1938, 159).

All of the platforms should be assessed by trial excavation as a matter if urgency


before development encroaches any further into the Wadi Deir.

OTHER TYPES OF SITES

Olive Presses and Wine Installations

Only two definite olive oil presses and / or wine installations were identified by the
survey, both in the Wadi Deir. The clear olive press installations are at Site 486 and
Site 430 (see the reuse of site 486 in rock-cut tomb section). Sites 471 and 522 are
also possible olive or wine presses but the sites require clearance and excavation so
that they can be properly assessed. A further possible wine installation was noted at
Site 204 in the NW where the edge of a plastered rectangular cut was just visible

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above soil level. The project anticipates that olive and wine press installations will be
more frequent further out from the ancient urban centre.

Plate 28: Olive press at site 486

Traditional Houses

Seven traditional houses, including Sites 219, 225, 249 and 362, were noted during
the survey although more are located inside the walled city. The surveyors were
surprised to be told by local informants that several of these buildings, characterised
by mud and straw mortar and plaster and traditional mud roofs, were often only c.60
years old. The building techniques exhibited in these buildings were in use for
several centuries throughout the later Medieval and Ottoman period and seem only to
have disappeared in the mid 20th century. The majority of the traditional houses date
to the Circassian settlement of Jarash in the late 19th century.

Due to the time involved in recording the traditional houses the project made a
conscious decision to only note their presence with the one exception of Site 225,
which was recorded in detail. These buildings are in general falling into advanced
decay or partially demolished. It is important that the surviving traditional buildings
of Jarash are recorded, protected and retained. They are an essential element of the
history of Jarash and add much to the urban landscape.

Plate 29: Traditional House site 225

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Agricultural Terraces

Agricultural field terrace walls were noted in both the north Wadi Deir and the south
Wadi Jarash and also in the occasional patches of open ground in the NW and E
survey areas. Indeed, agricultural field terrace walls are a ubiquitous feature of the
landscape around Jarash. Examples of the terrace walls in the south Wadi Jarash were
recorded in detail at Sites 397 and 501 so that general observations could be made on
reuse of Classical masonry, construction details etc. The terrace walls have been
rebuilt on numerous occasions and a white earthenware pottery sherd of 19th century
date was recovered from the soil profile under one of the terrace walls, Site 501,
providing a terminus post quem for the construction of the wall. However, it is likely
that the agricultural terrace walls have been rebuilt on many occasions over the last
two millennia.

Caves and Rock Shelters

11 cave or possible rock shelter sites were noted during the survey of the East side of
the city. Several of these shad been revealed by new road cuttings. None of the sites
located during the 2008 season were particularly convincing and indeed several of
them may be natural solution holes within the limestone bedrock (see Geological
Notes by Don Boyer).

Type of Site 2005 2008 Total

Quarries 31+ 45 76
Rock Cut Tombs 67 64 131
Rock Cut Graves 17 7 24
Mausolea 5 2 7
Sarcophagi 26 15 41
Inscriptions 8 3 11
Artefact Scatters 10 79 89
Caves / Rock Shelters 2 11 13
Traditional Houses 2 7 9
Mills and Water management 9 29 38
Architectural Fragments 34 98 132
Milestones 0 4 4
Olive / Wine Presses 0 5 5
Platforms 0 4 4
Monumental Structures 0 2 2
Other 16 20 36

Total Number Sites 227+ 395+ 622+

Figure 6. Table showing types and numbers of sites

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DISCUSSION OF SURVEY RESULTS


The survey has shown that intensive urban development on the east and southeast
sides has destroyed many of the sites that could have been expected to be here,
especially quarries, tombs and artefact scatters. This is in comparison to the kinds and
numbers of sites noted to the W of the city in 2005 and the adjacent NW area
surveyed in 2008. To the far east of the survey area E of the city, there was a fall in
the number of sites, even artefact scatters, despite the fact that this was a more open
area, indicating that we were reaching the outer limits of the activities of the
inhabitants of Gerasa (such as burials, rubbish dumping and industries such as tile-
making).

The South Wadi Jarash with its mills and the Wadi Deir (North Wadi Jarash) were the
areas with the greatest survival of least damaged sites, although it should be noted that
development is already encroaching along the Wadi Deir from Jarash and will only
increase. Wadi Deir contains evidence of one of the major water supplies to the
Roman city and of monumental structures, both upstanding and represented by
scatters of architectural fragments and inscriptions (some of which are the product of
unmonitored construction in the last few years). The presence of such significant
buildings is not surprising, given the importance of the road from Gerasa to Birketein
and more were in evidence only 70 years ago (McCown 1938, 159).

Rock-cut tombs of various kinds were present throughout the survey area (except on
the alluvial plain of Wadi Deir), cut into the limestone scarps and terraces of the
landscape. These tombs often overlooked roads out of Gerasa and, as has already
been noted, the major tombs and mausolea are very close to these thoroughfares
(Smadeh et al, 1992).

The most distressing result of the 2008 survey was the observation that approximately
30% of the sites recorded in 2005 have since been destroyed or damaged with no
intervention at any of them from the Department of Antiquities despite the
recommendations of the 2005 report.

THREATS TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCE

• Development – house building, road building


• Bulldozer work – indiscriminate use of bulldozers throughout the survey area
• Tomb robbing
• Afforestation – tree roots, including olive trees, will have caused damage to
underlying archaeological deposits
• Deep ploughing
• Erosion – disturbance of soil balance by new development may cause
increased soil erosion
• Collapse of tombs due to inadequate consolidation of excavated / partially
excavated examples
• Apathy

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RECOMMENDATIONS

The survey has revealed that ongoing development around the ancient city is causing
archaeological sites to be destroyed with no archaeological record. Assessment of the
sites recorded in the 2005 survey indicate that approximately 10% of the
archaeological sites around Jarash are being destroyed every year. This is a shocking
statistic. In order to preserve Jordan’s archaeological heritage the following
recommendations should be implemented:

• It is strongly recommended that a Department of Antiquities representative is


tasked with maintaining an ongoing watching brief of all development sites in
Jarash. This would involve not only monitoring planning applications
identifying new developments, but also making a tour of the area at least once
a week to monitor areas of ground clearance and bulldozing so that
archaeological sites may be excavated and recorded as they are uncovered and
before they are destroyed.
• Excavation of sites identified as most under threat e.g. Site 449 to the east of
the Octagonal Church; Sites 447, 405, 406 and 408 possible mausolea or
temple platforms, all in the Wadi Deir. (All sites in the survey area are under
threat).
• Development of an archaeological mitigation strategy based on the proposed
Development Plan and JHS results to be implemented by the Governor and
DoA.
• Clearance, restoration and fencing around mausoleum Site 469
• Clearance, restoration and fencing of the Octagonal Church in Wadi Deir (no
JHS site number)
• Clearance, excavation and fencing of the subterranean tomb / house and olive
press Site 486.
• Clearance, evaluation and restoration of Site 393, possible Roman mill.
• Retrieval of milestone bases from Site 426, and collect the highly damaged
milestone from next to them, recorded as Site 427.
• Surface collection required at Site 344.
• Development excluded from areas of highest tomb density
• Archaeological intervention – excavation – before any construction works
takes place or an archaeological watching brief of sites during development.
• Collection of architectural fragments i.e. red granite columns (Sites 450) from
the field to the east of the Octagonal Church in the Wadi Deir
• Preservation of archaeological and historical sites. Ottoman / Circassian
houses Sites 022, 122, 219, 225, 249 and 362 should be preserved. House Site
122 is already falling down and is partially demolished although there had
been no further deterioration between 2005 and 2008. Site 225 is in decay,
which will advance rapidly. Only nine traditional Ottoman / Circassian houses
were located in the entire survey area and these should be preserved. These
traditional houses are testament to the Ottoman and later 19th century
Circassian settlement of Jarash and very few remain intact. The JHS survey
did not work inside the City Walls where most of the traditional houses
survive although it is apparent that many are in danger of collapse and
demolition. A separate programme of work focussed on recording and

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preserving the traditional houses of Jarash should be implemented as a matter


of urgency.
• Excavation of intact or partially robbed tombs – Sites 230, 231, 436
• The water channel in the Wadi Deir (Site 400) is evidence of how water was
brought to the City from Birketein. We suggest that a short stretch (c. 10m –
15m) of this water channel, represented by scattered channel blocks Site
400.1-23, is reconstructed and preserved. The harvesting and management of
water is a matter of vital importance to the existence and survival of the City
and the evidence of how water was maintained should be preserved.
• Education. The majority of Jarash residents spoken to by the surveyors
during the course of the field work believed that the visible remains within the
Roman city walls was the extent of official archaeological interest. The
majority of people would then acknowledge that yes there were tombs but the
tombs were considered of little or no value, especially as they didn’t have gold
in them. Very little value is apparently placed on the archaeological heritage
unless it is a large, obvious and impressive monument. The number of
bulldozered sarcophagi and Roman masonry and architectural fragments,
particularly Site 462 and Site 389 indicates that archaeological remains such
as these are considered an impediment during new developments and it is
obviously quite acceptable to most people for them to be destroyed by
bulldozers. Only a programme of education as to the value and importance of
the archaeological heritage can address this problem. The past belongs to
everyone and is everyone’s heritage but the destruction of the physical
remains of the past suggests that the residents of Jarash do not consider they
have any ownership of their past despite the favourable impact of tourism on
the local economy.
• Money. The majority of Jarash residents were concerned that if we did find
archaeological remains on their land the land may be confiscated from them
by the Department of Antiquities / The Government without sufficient
recompense. There does not appear to be a suitable financial compensation
system in place. Rather than confiscation of land, perhaps a system could be
implemented whereby a fee is paid to the land-owner who wishes to develop
his land, if an archaeological investigation or excavation needs to be carried
out in advance of development. Under the threat of losing their land it is not
surprising that the majority of people will not report any archaeological
discoveries but seek to conceal them instead. The lack of adequate
compensation for land which the Department of Antiquities may wish to
acquire is perhaps the main contributing factor to the destruction of the
archaeological heritage at Jarash and elsewhere in Jordan.
• Planning control. While there is a Development Plan for Jarash that is
apparently being adhered to in how and where the development along the west
side of the city is progressing there is apparently no effective mechanism of
planning control. It appears that if a person owns the land they can build on it
when they wish without seeking any further permission despite the formal
procedures that are supposed to be in place. Until planning legislation and
control is introduced it will be almost impossible to monitor development and
its impact on archaeological sites.

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CONCLUSIONS

• Prehistoric archaeological sites are not visible – perhaps compromised by


Roman quarrying and later activity
• Probably only about 50% of the archaeological sites are visible due to
slopewash and soil dumps from bulldozers, field terraces and natural soil
accumulation processes
• Site density suggests that between 300 and 1000 archaeological sites have
probably been destroyed by construction work. All sites on the hill top plateau
on the west of the city have been destroyed or severely compromised by
modern development. Sites on the east side of the city have also been severely
compromised by development but it is difficult to estimate how many sites
may have been destroyed due to the already developed urban nature of this
area.
• Extensive quarrying and reuse or adaptation of quarries for tombs is common
through out the surveyed area
• Farms and agricultural production – olive oil and wine presses, farms etc are
largely absent from the survey results except in the Wadi Deir but we believe
this is due to the proximity of the survey area to the City walls and agricultural
features will be located further out from the city.
• An extensive Roman cemetery and probably also Byzantine cemeteries are
present west and east of the city and probably also along the limestone
outcrops along the edge of Wadi Deir.
• Industrial activities located outside the city wall are suggested by Sites 094
and 523.

PROPOSALS FOR FURTHER WORK

• Continuation of field survey to identify sites in the Jarash City area (10 square
km area). It would probably take a further four survey seasons of three weeks
duration to complete this.
• Excavation of identified sites that are directly under threat or of high
significance
• Use of ground scanning radar / geophysical prospecting to try and locate
tombs not visible on the surface. An initial season of assessment of the
hillslope to the S and W of tomb Site 100 is recommended, where Sites 095
and 098 suggest other mausolea may be present.
• Identification of research topics – e.g. Tomb typology; geophysical
applications; kiln site – pottery typology, etc.
• Obtain a colour copy of The Jordan Urban Regeneration and Tourism
Development Plans for the City of Jarash March 2004 Scott Wilson for
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities.
• Obtain a map showing land owned by Department of Antiquities.
• Ina Kehrberg is expected to study the 2008 season ceramics in the next few
months, probably 2009. Therefore, they have been left in the Department of
Antiquities store at Jarash

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The JHS Team are grateful to Dr Fawwaz al Khraysheh, Director of the Department
of Antiquities of the HK of Jordan for his approval and support. The Team wish to
offer their most sincere thanks to Mr Abd al-Majeed Mujalli, Head of Restoration at
Jarash who acted as the Department of Antiquities representative to the project for all
of his invaluable practical assistance, expertise and kind hospitality. Thanks are also
due to His Excellency the Governor of Jarash; and to Abu Abila, Jarash Inspector of
Antiquities. The Team would also like to thank the people of Jarash for their
hospitality and assistance during fieldwork.

The JHS project is directed by Prof David Kennedy, Professor of Classics and
Ancient History at the University of Western Australia and Fiona Baker, Director of
Firat Archaeological Services Ltd, Scotland. The team members are Paul Sharman
(Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology) surveyor; David ‘Rat’ Connolly
(Connolly Heritage Consultancy) who dealt with mapping and created the database;
Andrew Card, Anne Poepjes, Don Boyer and Ann Boyer (University of Western
Australia) field surveyors and Margaret Struckmeier (Connolly Heritage Consultancy)
surveyor and finds processing and cataloguing and Naomi Poepjes (data entry). Ina
Kehrberg is the finds and pottery specialist.

The Project is funded by private donation from Mr Don Boyer for which the team is
very grateful and also in part by the University of Western Australia.

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The 1993 Survey' pp.462-3 in Ricerca Storico-Archeologica In Giordania
XIII, 1993.
Parapetti, R 1985 ‘Jerash-Gerasa: Urban Environment of Two Antagonistic Towns’,
SHAJ II (1985), 243-247. DoA, Amman.
Rogan, E L 1995 ‘Reconstructing Water Mills in Late Ottoman Transjordan’, SHAJ
V (1995), 685-691. DoA, Amman.

Jarash Hinterland Survey 44


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Shami, S 1992 ‘19th Century Circassian Settlements in Jordan’, SHAJ IV (1992),


417-421. DoA, Amman.
Smadeh, M, Rasson, A-M & Seigne, J 1992 ‘Fouille de Sauvetage dans La
Necropole Nord-Ouest de Jerash’, ADAJ 36 (1992), 261-279.
Smadi, M & Melhem, I 1997 ‘An Olive Press at Khirbat Zuqrit / Jarash’, ADAJ 41
(1997), 5-12 Arabic section.
Watson, P 2004 ‘Cultural Identity and Wine Production in Northern Jordan’, SHAJ
VIII (2004), 485-502. DoA, Amman.
Younker, R W 1995 ‘Balanophagy and the Bedrock Industries of Ancient Jordan’,
SHAJ V (1995), 685-691. DoA, Amman.

Jarash Hinterland Survey 45


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

CONTACT ADDRESSES

Director
Professor David Kennedy, BA (Manchester), D. Phil (Oxford), FSA, FAHA
M205, Classics and Ancient History
School of Humanities
University of Western Australia
WA Australia
E: dkennedy@cyllene.uwa.edu.au
Tel: + 61- 8-6488-2150
Fax: + 61 -8-6488-1182

Co-Director
Fiona Baker
Firat Archaeological Services Ltd
Hillcroft
Station Road
Rhu, by Helensburgh G84 8LW
Scotland
E: Fiona@scottish-archaeology.com
Tel: 00 44 436 820 334

David Connolly, Paul Sharman, Margaret Struckmeier all c/o Fiona Baker

Anne Poepjes, Naomi Poepjes, Don Boyer, Andrew Card and Ann Boyer
all c/o David Kennedy

Dr Ina Kehrberg
Department of Archaeology
University of Sydney
NSW 2006 Australia
E: ina.kehrberg-ostrasz@usyd.edu.au
Tel: +61 2 90365 5022

HK of Jordan Department of Antiquities representative


Abd al-Majeed Mujalli
PO Box 88,
Amman 11181
Jordan
E: aydanaghawy@hotmail.com
Tel: 00 962 795 610 852

Jarash Hinterland Survey 46


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

COMMENTS & INITIAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE JHS08


SURFACE COLLECTIONS
by Margaret Struckmeier

The Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 (JHS08) was a continuation of the assessment and
characterisation project started in 2005. Due to the different types of landscape
encountered in this survey varying approaches were taken to ceramic and artefact
collection.

In the mainly built-up area east of the City Wall ceramic, artefact and flint collections
were carried out around associated sites, particularly in the environs of tombs. Area
collections were also carried out on the few remaining orchard fields that are to be
found in this now mostly developed part of Jarash.

Most of the other open areas in this sector were waste ground or had been used for
dumping, therefore it was decided that these were too contaminated for collection to
take place.

A potential site for further investigation lies within the old Circassian graveyard (Site
390). A dump of monumental masonry, earth and artefacts (Site 389) is located
almost adjacent to the east City Wall. The assemblage retrieved from here may
represent a significant structure, now destroyed, and it contains an unusually high
concentration of tesserae (Bags 470 & 588, Crate 13) as well as two glass tesserae
(Bag 589, Crate 20). A large pottery assemblage was collected (Crate 15) which,
taken in conjunction with the associated architectural fragments, strongly suggests a
building of some importance.

In the southern Wadi Jarash a higher concentration of ceramics was present in the
terraced fields due to the more open nature of the landscape. However, it should be
noted that this area would most probably be affected by slope wash and the
introduction of soil for terracing purposes.

Wadi Deir (Wadi Jarash north) revealed three interesting areas of pick up to the east
of the Jarash to Birketein road. The first of these areas represented a collection in the
orchard (Site 449) directly to the east of the remains of the Octagonal Church. This
orchard revealed an assortment of marble fragments (Bags 530 – 534, Crate 13) which
have now been assessed by geologist, Don Boyer. There is a strong possibility that
these fragments would have been used as flooring material (Opus Sectile) within the
Octagonal Church itself.

The second notable area (Site 444) lies to the north of the Octagonal Church. This
artefact scatter revealed a remarkably rich ceramic assemblage considering the small
field that it was collected from. This field lay adjacent to a large platform with a tomb
underneath it (Site 447), which may represent a farm or villa site. Apart from the
large amount of pottery from this site (Bags 400 – 406, Crate 13), no other artefacts
apart from three tesserae were found.

A third area of interest was represented by ceramic and artefact collections potentially
associated with the foundations of two structures (Sites 405 & 406), possibly Roman

Jarash Hinterland Survey 47


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

agricultural buildings, and later re-built by the Circassians. Both collections revealed
similar ceramic and artefact assemblages, including tesserae and Roman glass (Site
405, Bags 329 – 333 & 381 – 382; Site 406, Bags 340 – 342, 379, 380 & 389 – 393),
although it should be noted that Site 406 has been used as a modern dump.

To the west of the Jerash to Birketein road it was decided, where possible, to collect
from every field. There were some exceptions to this as there were intensive
vegetable allotments and a few locked orchards with no access. Over this whole
stretch, two sites were identified as especially noteworthy. The first came from the
west end of an orchard (sherd scatter Site 494) which contained a high concentration
of tesserae (Bag 695, Crate 13). This may be associated with Site 495 nearby,
comprising two large piles of stones, some dressed, and an area of smaller rubble
throughout the soil in the surrounding area. Abd al-Majeed Mujalli also confirmed
that this was the site of an inscription, retrieved some time before by the Department
of Antiquities (DOA). Site 495 may be the site f a temple.

The second and most intriguing site was sherd and artefact scatter Site 523, lying
mainly within the boundary of a small terraced orchard with recently built terrace
walls. This site contained a variety of ceramic sherds (Bags 576 - 582, 684 - 687,
Crate 19) of different types and periods, including many large Ummayad bowl sherds
and one fragment of a Jarash bowl (Bag 581). Three kiln wasters were identified also
(Bags 582 & 691, Crate 19). Thirty-three tesserae were also collected along with clay
tiles, basalt rubbers, marble, glass and one fragment of mother of pearl, which may be
an inlay. (Bags 573 – 575, 688 in Crate 19; Bags 583-585, 689 and 690 in Crate 13
and Bags 586 and 587 in Crate 20). At the time it was decided not to do a gridded
pick-up from this area until the assemblage had been looked at more closely by Ina
Kehrberg.

The area to the north-west of the City Wall represented a continuation of the 2005
survey. Having returned first of all to assess the condition of the Necropolis (Sites 43
– 63) it was decided after seeing evidence of further tomb robbing that Site 44 should
have a further pick up. The majority of the ceramics retrieved from the robber’s
upcast were of the same Late Roman/Early Byzantine storage jar type with a gypsum
coating that had been collected in 2005.

A cistern in the northwest area located in the garden of a private house and now used
as a family rubbish dump (Site 251) could potentially reveal some interesting dating
information. Excavated by DoA workmen, it was found to contain an in situ ceramic
water pipe, complete with lead filter (Bag 837, Crate 11) and two complete grey clay
square tiles (Bag 838, Crate 11). Numerous ceramics were also excavated from the
cistern as was a Roman coin (Bag 843, Crate 20) but all these finds are part of the
later backfilling of the cistern, which shows two phases of use.

The final site of interest in the northwest area was a large orchard with a partially
collapsed area of terrace wall (Site 204). This wall had many pottery sherds within it
and also in its collapse on to the lower terrace, where more large sherds were
collected (Bag 243 – 246 & 248, Crate 14), including one kiln tile with glaze on it
(Bag 247, Crate 14). A further collection was undertaken on the lower level (Site
263) where four kiln wasters were found (Bag 284, Crate 15) and an adjacent Site

Jarash Hinterland Survey 48


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

254, also an artefact scatter also contained a substantial amount of pottery (Bags 269-
273, Crate 14).

Flint also formed part of the collection policy over the whole survey area. It was
found that the flint and chert (lower silica content) was predominately debitage with a
few cores and very few tools.

Given the large amount of construction work that has taken place around Jarash it is
becoming more difficult to find sites that have very little contamination. A number of
fields in Wadi Deir seem to have had new soil spread on them and as a result of
terracing around newly built houses, soil has been moved around, making it difficult
to ascertain whether the ceramics and artefacts are still in situ. Many open areas have
already been scarped out in advance of road building and construction work, leaving
little or no artefacts to collect.

Ceramics were extracted from a soil profile (Site 475) at a development site on the
west side of the Jarash to Birketein road. The uppermost metre of deposit was
recently redeposited soil from the building
site immediately to the east, which overlay c.
1m depth of in situ rendzina soil. A local
man showed the survey team a complete
flask of late Roman/early Byzantine date that
had been recovered from this construction
site. The flask was photographed (opposite)
but not retained.

The 2008 collection has been archived and is


stored in the DoA finds store room at Jarash,
while the 2005 collection is in the French
Store at the Archaeological Camp. Ina
Kehrberg will study the collection on her
return to Jordan in January 2009.

Jarash Hinterland Survey 49


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

SUMMARY OF DR INA KEHRBERG’S PRELIMINARY


ARTEFACT REPORT ON JHS05 SEASON SURFACE
COLLECTION
Dr Ina Kehrberg has undertaken a preliminary assessment of the JHS05 surface
collections. The basic typological and chronological database has been completed for
each site but more detailed analyses will be undertaken on completion of all survey
seasons when the project is brought to publication. However, some initial comments
and observations on the 2005 season finds can be made and the following is a
summary of Dr Kehrberg’s preliminary assessment.

2354 diagnostic sherds and 68 small finds (glass, marble and 2 coins) were collected
in the JHS05 season as well as 3 large crates of pottery slag and wasters from Site 94.
Overall c.3000 artefacts form a reasonable basis for quantitative analyses. The
majority of the sherds and small finds fit typologically into pre-Islamic periods but
three distinctly defined chronological clusters of assemblages have been identified.

• Site 094 (a dense sherd scatter including many wasters) belongs to the Late
Byzantine - Umayyad period, possibly focussed in the late 6th and early 7th
century although further analyses is required to refine the initial assessment.
• Site 42.2 contains an even scatter of Late Hellenistic to Late Byzantine sherds
in keeping with the other earlier sites but also has a reasonable number of
Mamluke and other Late Islamic plain pottery, including a large number of
pottery sherd tools, that could equally be dated to the Ottoman period.
• The third defined chronological cluster is the largest, fitting within the Late
Roman to Late Byzantine periods of the city, roughly dating from the earlier
3rd to the earlier 7th century AD. Sites from this category include Sites 16, 21,
44 and 220, as well as Sites 74, 75 and 133 – 138 (which are all hypogaea),
which represent Late Roman and Late Byzantine dates indicating two separate
periods of deposition.

The broadest spectrum of equally represented generic pottery types range from the
Late Hellenistic, Early Roman, Roman, Late Roman and Early Byzantine period and
include the imports Late Hellenistic Grey Ware, Rhodian amphorae fragments,
Eastern Terra Sigillata and African Red Slip wares. These are not evenly spread
throughout the survey area and dominate in clusters at separate sites such as Sites 107,
132, 139-144, 93, 115, 5, 57, 84, 25 and 100. Pre-dating these sites are Site 93 with
predominantly Late Hellenistic and early Roman sherds of the end 2nd century to 1st
century BC – 1st century AD and Site 107, which is predominantly Early Roman and
Roman or 1st – 2nd century AD.

In summary, the surface collection reflects that the Jarash hinterland has been
occupied at various locations and at varying degrees from the Late Hellenistic to the
Islamic period. A few Iron Age sherds were also collected but the earliest periods
seem to focus on the Late Hellenistic – Roman necropolis phase and early urban
spread, followed by a geographical and chronological shifting into Late Antiquity
concentrating on three major cultural groups, those of the Late Roman and Early
Byzantine; the end of the Byzantine and Early Islamic / Umayyad period and a final

Jarash Hinterland Survey 50


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

small concentration of the Late Islamic period. This pattern reflects the pattern within
the walled city of Gerasa and later Jarash.

INA KEHRBERG CHRONOLOGICAL NOTE

Standard Jordanian Chronology of the Classical Periods relevant to the history of the site
Early Roman (including Nabataean 63 BC – AD 135)
EROM I 63-37 BC (also referred to as Late Hellenistic, depending on
the nature of the context and deposit)

ER II 37-4 BC (ditto)
ER III 4 BC-AD 73
ER IV AD 73-135

Late Roman (AD135-324)


LROM I ca 135-193 (My definition ‘Roman’ is used throughout for post-AD
135 second century contexts and deposits in order to stress their essential
Roman cultural nature, the first and second being the main centuries for
urban planning and construction of Classical Roman Gerasa)

LR II 193-235
LR III 235-284
LR IV 284-324
Early Byzantine (AD 324 – 491)
EBYZ I 324-363
EB II 363-392
EB III 392-450
EB IV 450-491
Late Byzantine (AD 491 – 640)
LBYZ I ca 491- 527
LB II 527-565
LB III 565-614
LB IV 614-ca 640

BYZ given to artefacts where tighter definition is not possible

L/BYZ-UM ditto: mainly for glass (standard reference for 6-8th c. plain glass)
and pottery body sherds of coarse ware [storage jars, basins, etc]
and some common ware jars

Jarash Hinterland Survey 51


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

SUMMARY PRESS RELEASE FOR MUNJAZAT


Site Name: Jarash
Project name: Jarash Hinterland Survey
Duration: 6 – 25 September 2008
Number of Workmen: 0 Cost of Project: 2700JD
Sponsors: Mr Don Boyer and University of Western Australia, affiliated to CBRL
Directors: Dr David Kennedy and Fiona Baker
DoA Representative: Mr Abd al Mujeed Mujalli

The Jarash Hinterland Survey completed the second season of a multi-season project
with the objective of surveying a 10 km sq area centred on the ancient city of Gerasa
during September 2008. The area surveyed included the urbanised east side of the
ancient city, outside the city walls, part of the south Wadi Jarash and the north Wadi
Deir as far as Birketein and an urbanised area to the NW of the ancient city. The total
area now covered by the survey amounts to 2.5sq km and now encircles the ancient
city. A total of 625 sites have been recorded.

Urban development and expansion is happening at a rapid pace at Jarash and the
objectives of the survey, in response to this rapid development, are to record the
archaeological sites of the Gerasa hinterland before they are destroyed by
development and to contribute this information to our understanding of Gerasa . Sites
that were recorded in 2005 were revisited to determine survival rates and over 30% of
site recorded just three years ago have been destroyed. This indicates that the
archaeological sites outside the ancient city wall are being destroyed at a rate of 10%
per year.

The survey identified several significant sites including a bulldozered monumental


structure on the site of the new Medical Centre outside the North Gate of Gerasa.
Two Greek inscriptions were recovered from the bulldozer spoil as well as several
fine architectural fragments and Mr Mujalli is continuing salvage works at this site,
which may be the site of the Temple of Nemesis. No archaeological monitoring or
intervention was carried out before or during the construction of the Medical Centre.

A further monumental structure also now represented as a bulldozer heap of


architectural fragments including red granite column and a total of 16 columns,
tesserae and pottery was located at the Circassian cemetery immediately adjacent to
the Jarash Ladies Society from where it probably originated.

Over 100 fine quality architectural and sarcophagus fragments were located in all
survey areas around the city on bulldozer dumps and on waste ground or re-used in
later walls. A weathered and defaced bas relief of three figures was located above
the entrance to a hypogeaum tomb.

In the Wadi Deir the scattered remains of the water channels that brought water to
Gerasa were recorded along with four olive / wine press installations and two possible
mills. Two mills were recorded in the south Wadi Jarash, one of them possibly
Roman in origin.

Jarash Hinterland Survey 52


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Over 75 rock cut tombs were located, some of them robbed only recently and a few
that may still be intact. Four distinctive artificial platforms located in the Wadi Deir
may be platforms for mausolea or funerary temples or perhaps even farmsteads.
Some 45 quarry sites and around 20 cisterns were also located throughout the survey
area.

Seven traditional houses of late 19th – early 20th century date were recorded by the
project and a separate project to record these fast disappearing structures should be
undertaken and indeed the traditional houses should be restored and preserved.

A new Roman Milestone was located and recovered near to the three previously
reported in 1998 one Roman mile N of Gerasa and all four milestones have been
recovered for safe keeping by the Department of Antiquities.

The NW necropolis of Gerasa where a highly elaborate Palmyrene style tomb and
other high status tombs were first recorded in 1992 has suffered further bulldozer
damage, levelling and robbing despite the 2005 recommendations that this site be
given immediate protection.

While the survey has been successful in identifying many new sites we think only c.
50% are visible due to soil build up. It is also very depressing work to find significant
archaeological sites destroyed by development with no archaeological intervention in
advance or during new construction works. We urge the Department of Antiquities to
introduce a system where all new excavation and development works are evaluated by
archaeologists in advance of and monitored during development.

Jarash Hinterland Survey 53


310

293

Key to Symbols 307

££

N <>
Burial Site
Sarcophagus
249
294
247
357
362

359
££ 308

Architectural Element 248

Q Q
358

354 356
Structure 355

££ Artefact Scatter
Q 350

351
353
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352
Q Quarry 311

Inscription
316.1
Cistern 317
Q
Water Channel
316.2
+
-- Terrace Wall 319
318
314

+
322

+ Other
Areas subjected to 315 +
323

Walkover survey
361
+
Area of 2005 survey ££
££ 313

366 320
365
0 500m
360
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££
Q 312

Q
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QQ 364

363
Q+
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372
373
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Q 368 Q 369 ££ 330


££
374 328
370 376
££
££ 327
371
Q 375
Q
379
Q 326
333 329
393 ££
Q 348
332
387 378
Q
380
££
381
386

349
396 Q 382
341
397 391 Q 377
026 500 334 389
502 ££
Q 025
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398
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384

519££ ££ 396
££ 501 399
385
507 ££
518
££ 512
511
££ ££
390
506 ££ ££ 504
££ 335
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££ 506 ££
££503 510
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508.1
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508.3
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££ 516
505 ££ 343
508.4
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££ 514
££ ££ 347
££ 346
££
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345
££
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££ 344
££

Figure 4: Location plan of survey, East City (South)


Q 005
437 440
441 400.223
438
££
££ 480 ££
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276 479 ££439 465
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Q
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214
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Octagonal ££ 449 457
474
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Church ££ 458
££ 459

476 477 <> 463


460 225

££££ ££
££££ ££ 478 461
246

211
273
273 471
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££
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475
462

235
236
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Q
Q
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271 226
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Q 469
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Q 268 ££
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233 240
Q 279

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231
234 Q 277

230

Q 264
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228 Q 281
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QQ
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284 ££
££ Q
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££ 285 Q 297
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243
291
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Q
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Q
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242 286

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Key to Symbols 245


300

N <>
Burial Site
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Architectural Element 293


307
Structure 301

££
££ Artefact Scatter 302 Q ££
££ 308
357
Q Quarry 249
294
362

359
247
Inscription 248

Q Q
358

354 356
Cistern
355

Water Channel Q 350

351
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311

+ Other
Areas subjected to
Walkover survey 316.1
317
Area of 2005 survey 316.2 Q
318 322
0 500m 319
314
323 +
315 +
361
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££
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366 320
365
££ Q 312 321
+
Q 3: Location plan of survey, East City (North)
360 ££ Figure
QQ 364

363
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Figure 2: Location plan of survey, Wadi Deir (North Wadi Jerash)
Key to Symbols

N <>
Burial Site
Sarcophagus
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428
400.20

Architectural Element
Q 529

Structure ££
££ 528
££ Artefact Scatter
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Q Quarry
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524
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Cistern
526 ££ <> 525 422

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Water Channel ££
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424

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Areas subjected to
423

Walkover survey
Area of 2005 survey ££ 520 421
420
££

££
££ 497
££
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418 417
££ 496 ££
££ ££ 499
400.19
495 419
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££ 494 493 492 ££ 400.18
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400.16
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££ 400.15
491 ££ 415
400.17
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400.13
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N Burial Site 481


££
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Architectural Element 438
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Structure 276 ££ 479 ££4
062
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216
Q
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057
059 Q 045
221 Q ££ 220
££
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£
047 Q 052
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+ 444 ££
060 044 215
Inscription ££
050 051 214
058
051 056
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Cistern 061
054
Q 055 212
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Water Channel 201
££
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Areas subjected to
Q <><><>
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202 253
203
266
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141
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205 257
206
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079 Q 095 098 99.1

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114.1
082
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075 084 ££ 093
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117
<>
074 Q 092

090 091
Q Q
070
072
071 073 Figure 5: Location plan of survey, West City (NorthWest)
113 Q
Q 069
Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

SITE LIST
JHS 05 and JHS 08 Site List and Coordinates
UTM Zone 36S

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type

772638.1316 3573779.878 001 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel


772059.1057 3574162.271 002.1 99) Sarcophagus
772068.7238 3574190.277 003 71) Quarry
772053.1096 3574209.834 004.1 71) Quarry
772050.0736 3574217.522 004.2 99) Sarcophagus
772088.3484 3574231.871 005.1 D5) Wall
772088.3484 3574231.871 005.1 D5) Wall
771965.1793 3574218.565 006.1 88) Grave
771959.7433 3574420.418 007.1 88) Grave
771934.4218 3574415.296 008 87) Hypogaeum
771940.6130 3574395.485 009.1 grave
771888.1484 3574452.896 010 87) Hypogaeum
771892.0369 3574448.561 011 88) Grave
771892.7204 3574353.130 012.1 87) Hypogaeum
771857.7741 3574495.364 013.1 87) Hypogaeum
771940.7218 3574496.488 014 52) Cistern
771925.7384 3574562.677 015 65) Cairn
771898.8314 3574546.414 016.1 87) Hypogaeum
771882.8730 3574543.765 017.1 52) Cistern
771906.7741 3574566.606 018 71) Quarry
771827.0119 3574552.250 019 71) Quarry
771432.3268 3574817.993 021 87) Hypogaeum
771785.5142 3574657.682 022 24) Isolated Structure/House
771857.2466 3574725.096 023 71) Quarry
771867.2064 3574705.386 024 87) Hypogaeum
772098.3498 3574630.591 025 88) Grave
772056.3236 3574650.546 026 71) Quarry
772131.3879 3574629.261 027.1 88) Grave
771427.1803 3574798.987 028.1 87) Hypogaeum
771433.0721 3574790.266 029.1 87) Hypogaeum
771424.7711 3574783.384 030.1 52) Cistern
771433.7938 3574833.571 032 99) Sarcophagus
771460.2591 3574936.392 033 71) Quarry
771214.2989 3574791.047 034 71) Quarry
771473.2057 3574875.696 035 22) Cave/Shelter
771944.0510 3574722.994 036.1 87) Hypogaeum
771945.9952 3574720.827 036.2 99) Sarcophagus
771815.0457 3574821.630 037 87) Hypogaeum
771790.0871 3574873.123 038.1 87) Hypogaeum
771760.3113 3574893.409 039 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771732.0956 3574995.869 040 97) Tombstone
771755.8130 3574955.441 041 C1) Other or Unspecified Inscription
771782.0454 3574961.697 042.1 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771782.0454 3574961.697 042.1 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence

Jarash Hinterland Survey 54


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


771899.0878 3574957.079 042.2 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771899.0878 3574957.079 042.2 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771598.8718 3575952.334 043 94) Mausoleum
771636.5264 3575954.458 044 94) Mausoleum
771616.6227 3575958.361 046 71) Quarry
771589.9451 3575968.742 047.1 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771573.9890 3575966.093 048 87) Hypogaeum
771615.1264 3575943.893 050.1 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771622.7230 3575941.877 052 87) Hypogaeum
771623.1409 3575926.350 053.1 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771651.3278 3575894.922 054.1 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771662.9915 3575881.917 055 71) Quarry
771666.8662 3575913.098 056 87) Hypogaeum
771550.4064 3575966.569 057 87) Hypogaeum
771571.1158 3575932.719 058 87) Hypogaeum
771548.6714 3575960.973 059 87) Hypogaeum
771543.3470 3575948.621 060 87) Hypogaeum
771629.1518 3575913.193 061 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771552.4270 3575996.590 062 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771560.9358 3575995.709 063 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771858.1549 3574971.515 064 71) Quarry
771834.6894 3574967.554 065 65) Cairn
771863.7320 3574939.479 066.1 71) Quarry
771863.7320 3574939.479 066.1 71) Quarry
771784.7825 3574965.100 066.1 71) Quarry
771845.6210 3574946.760 066.2 87) Hypogaeum
771806.3470 3574934.604 067.1 D5) Wall
771806.3470 3574934.604 067.1 D5) Wall
771807.6475 3574921.320 067.2 D5) Wall
771807.6475 3574921.320 067.2 D5) Wall
771790.6481 3575027.412 068 88) Grave
771777.8323 3575048.155 069 71) Quarry
771811.9471 3575076.820 071 88) Grave
771806.9674 3575086.675 072.1 71) Quarry
771816.3893 3575086.929 072.2 87) Hypogaeum
771943.6153 3575089.245 073 87) Hypogaeum
771811.7546 3575118.991 074.1 87) Hypogaeum
771821.9395 3575125.924 074.2 87) Hypogaeum
771817.1987 3575126.906 074.3 87) Hypogaeum
771826.5310 3575130.487 075 87) Hypogaeum
771805.8327 3575128.820 076 99) Sarcophagus
771804.9370 3575162.093 077 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771810.5602 3575163.354 078.1 87) Hypogaeum
771810.5602 3575163.354 078.2 87) Hypogaeum
771792.3468 3575209.479 079 71) Quarry
771783.6283 3575218.123 080 99) Sarcophagus
771769.1075 3575232.161 081 87) Hypogaeum
771852.5540 3575144.507 082 87) Hypogaeum
771863.0673 3575139.240 083 87) Hypogaeum

Jarash Hinterland Survey 55


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


771863.7706 3575148.138 084 87) Hypogaeum
771839.5888 3575170.795 085 87) Hypogaeum
771855.6358 3575170.117 086 87) Hypogaeum
771816.9630 3575205.702 087 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771883.9312 3575169.769 088 71) Quarry
771883.9312 3575169.769 089 87) Hypogaeum
771877.2898 3575136.294 090.1 87) Hypogaeum
771879.3832 3575128.581 090.2 71) Quarry
771876.7956 3575119.632 091.1 87) Hypogaeum
771884.8273 3575136.497 092 97) Tombstone
771909.0852 3575146.029 093 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771934.3955 3575326.513 094 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771934.3955 3575326.513 094.1 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771950.1475 3575476.772 094.2 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771844.1779 3575490.566 094.3 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771889.3554 3575458.486 094.4 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771891.2161 3575214.361 095 94) Mausoleum
771893.7738 3575224.419 096 99) Sarcophagus
771904.2872 3575219.152 097 99) Sarcophagus
771903.0463 3575230.218 098 94) Mausoleum
771931.0267 3575206.554 099.1 97) Tombstone
771911.3006 3575203.803 099.2 099
771912.3486 3575234.908 100 94) Mausoleum
771914.8465 3575247.184 101 99) Sarcophagus
771931.1623 3575236.525 102 99) Sarcophagus
771904.3033 3575253.559 103 99) Sarcophagus
771874.2262 3574829.883 104 87) Hypogaeum
771935.6342 3575245.524 105 D5) Wall
771902.1800 3575262.381 106 59) Milestone ?
771914.7432 3575286.027 107 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
771810.3739 3575345.370 109 87) Hypogaeum
771722.4333 3575249.773 110 87) Hypogaeum
771701.5860 3575253.651 111 99) Sarcophagus
771719.0060 3575201.955 112 99) Sarcophagus
771636.4433 3575046.569 113 87) Hypogaeum
771620.9721 3575166.021 114.1 87) Hypogaeum
771621.7054 3575173.810 114.2 88) Grave
771639.3085 3575185.382 115.1 87) Hypogaeum
771617.0243 3575172.574 116 87) Hypogaeum
771735.6462 3575109.173 117 87) Hypogaeum
771657.9304 3575229.169 118 99) Sarcophagus
771652.3370 3575226.798 119.1 88) Grave
771658.7831 3575232.521 119.2 71) Quarry
771654.9675 3575199.122 120 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
771608.8476 3575231.178 122 24) Isolated Structure/House
771751.6442 3575320.482 123 87) Hypogaeum
771531.2006 3575664.163 124.1 87) Hypogaeum
771523.3055 3575677.270 125 87) Hypogaeum
771676.8662 3575541.556 126 D5) Wall

Jarash Hinterland Survey 56


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


771684.6254 3575498.479 127 D5) Wall
771771.5558 3575456.424 128 B3) Greek Inscription
771903.0900 3575648.647 129 71) Quarry
771798.6537 3575815.647 130.1 99) Sarcophagus
771734.1781 3575654.087 131 71) Quarry
772066.2742 3575610.868 132 87) Hypogaeum
771993 3575707 133 87) Hypogaeum
771993 3575707 134 87) Hypogaeum
771993 3575707 135 87) Hypogaeum
771993 3575707 136 87) Hypogaeum
771993 3575707 137 87) Hypogaeum
771993 3575707 138 87) Hypogaeum
771955 3575704 139 87) Hypogaeum
771955 3575704 140 87) Hypogaeum
771955 3575704 141 87) Hypogaeum
771955 3575704 142 87) Hypogaeum
771955 3575704 143 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
771955 3575704 144 77) Other Industrial Installations
771832.2366 3575688.914 145.1 22) Cave/Shelter
771967.6669 3575771.364 200 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772106.9385 3575886.107 201 71) Quarry
772129.6383 3575743.543 202 99) Sarcophagus
772129.6383 3575743.543 202 87) Hypogaeum
772129.7280 3575740.216 203 44) Agricultural Terrace
772129.7280 3575740.216 203 03) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Main Presence
772112.8294 3575737.540 204 52) Cistern
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772105.3222 3575736.228 205 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772105.3222 3575736.228 205 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772164.9309 3575763.363 206 Dr
772150.0154 3575785.047 207 Tunnel
772150.3504 3575779.618 208 71) Quarry
772157.6781 3575787.585 209 99) Sarcophagus
772167.0695 3575788.948 210 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772201.6920 3575819.627 211 71) Quarry
772292.2217 3575937.719 212 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772292.2217 3575937.719 212 52) Cistern
772298.5472 3575947.879 213 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772282.1123 3575962.974 214 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772286.5237 3575974.192 215 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772286.0749 3575990.828 216 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772296.7672 3575978.908 217 Architectural Fragment
772333.9884 3575962.154 218 D5) Wall
772306.8911 3575988.060 219 24) Isolated Structure/House
772283.7119 3576008.523 220 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772239.8369 3575957.394 221 71) Quarry
772333.8089 3575968.808 222 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb

Jarash Hinterland Survey 57


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


772300.8195 3576003.435 223 71) Quarry
773149.5023 3575823.256 224 71) Quarry
772908.9838 3575896.663 225 24) Isolated Structure/House
772805.0718 3575799.512 226 22) Cave/Shelter
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772822.2143 3575723.392 227 Dr
772831.0234 3575711.422 228 71) Quarry
772801.9198 3575741.712 229 71) Quarry
772804.6264 3575746.225 230 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772804.3266 3575757.316 231 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772800.4082 3575762.759 232 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772798.5239 3575762.709 233 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772808.9773 3575759.661 234 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
772806 3575803 235 82) Rock Cut Shaft Tomb
772806 3575810 236 82) Rock Cut Shaft Tomb
772806 357595 237 82) Rock Cut Shaft Tomb
772806 3575803 238 83) Rock Cut Tomb
772806 3575810 239 82) Rock Cut Shaft Tomb
772806 3575803 240 88) Grave
772801.8340 3575675.116 241 22) Cave/Shelter
772731.7929 3575545.585 242 17) Tower
772750.8589 3575572.738 243 D5) Wall
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772784.1210 3575528.131 244 Dr
772787.0374 3575524.880 245 B3) Greek Inscription
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773208.1362 3575851.480 246 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773208.1362 3575851.480 246 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773119.6256 3575289.695 247 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773088.4736 3575291.072 248 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773088.4736 3575291.072 248 Dr
772955.6986 3575319.668 249 24) Isolated Structure/House
772064.2497 3575738.451 250 71) Quarry
772046.7232 3575752.074 251 52) Cistern
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772046.7232 3575752.074 251 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772096.8284 3575771.516 252 Dr
772148.7054 3575770.694 253 52) Cistern
772143.3365 3575725.044 254 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772135.5901 3575732.605 255 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772135.5901 3575732.605 255 Dr
D5) Wall
772133.5264 3575739.208 256

Jarash Hinterland Survey 58


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772133.5264 3575739.208 256 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772127.8736 3575739.056 257 Dr
772109.1804 3575733.002 258 52) Cistern
772113.0087 3575730.886 259 Architectural Fragment
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772120.1120 3575712.209 260 Dr
772126.6471 3575714.605 261 99) Sarcophagus
772121.9066 3575715.587 262 Architectural Fragment
772139.8669 3575713.852 263 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772228.8315 3575736.229 264 71) Quarry
772223.9114 3575743.865 265 62) Animal Pen
772278.5699 3575779.746 266 71) Quarry
772312.8756 3575766.243 267 71) Quarry
772329.9537 3575762.264 268 Architectural Fragment
772323.1048 3575736.552 269 24) Isolated Structure/House
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772365.7092 3575799.856 270 Dr
772364.8569 3575796.503 271 B1) Arabic Inscription
772363.5556 3575809.786 272 82) Rock-Cut Shaft Tomb
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772364.3781 3575814.248 273 Dr
772330.6718 3575735.646 274 52) Cistern
771922.5959 3575834.524 275 99) Sarcophagus
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772206.3242 3576046.391 276 Dr
772985.2168 3575762.206 277 71) Quarry
772985.2168 3575762.206 277 83) Rock Cut Tomb
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772926.1446 3575785.027 278 Dr
772926.1446 3575785.027 278 71) Quarry

772954.4862 3575748.057 279 71) Quarry


83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772954.4862 3575748.057 279 Dr

772963.6853 3575721.668 280 71) Quarry


83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772963.6853 3575721.668 280 Dr
772963.7453 3575719.450 281 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772963.7453 3575719.450 281 Dr
773055 3575662 282 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773066.4746 3575651.195 283 Dr
773066.4746 3575651.195 283 71) Quarry
773043.1664 3575665.881 284 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
773064.4162 3575587.875 285 02) Sherd / Flint Scatter (Uncertain Pre

Jarash Hinterland Survey 59


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


773071.1313 3575583.617 286 88) Grave
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773081.4950 3575583.897 287 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773080.4328 3575588.308 288 Dr
773084.0814 3575592.846 289 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773078.2484 3575599.348 290 Dr
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773078.2184 3575600.457 291 Dr
773072.7924 3575692.987 292 Architectural Fragment
85) Burial Cave (Loculus / Arcosolium
773004.0567 3575414.208 293 Ty
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773038.6702 3575319.692 294 Dr
773149.8756 3575670.100 295 71) Quarry
773168.4067 3575647.293 296 71) Quarry
773169.7090 3575634.010 297 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773142.4585 3575665.459 298 Dr
773210.8334 3575647.332 299.1 88) Grave
773210.8334 3575647.332 299.2 A4) Statue / Sculpture / Bas-Relief
773210.8334 3575647.332 299.3 87) Hypogaeum
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773230.1222 3575526.874 300 Dr
773316.2041 3575377.148 301 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773305.9602 3575372.431 302 Dr
773430.1632 3575625.523 303.1 71) Quarry
773441.0076 3575608.058 303.2 71) Quarry
773357.6096 3575693.482 304 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773353.0190 3575688.918 305 Dr
773353.0190 3575688.918 305 71) Quarry
773367.1812 3575688.191 306 71) Quarry
773651.6487 3575385.126 307 D5) Wall
773640.6733 3575372.619 308 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
773316.0085 3575596.792 309 Architectural Fragment
773430.2482 3575413.533 310 Architectural Fragment
773292.8628 3575194.492 311 52) Cistern
773444.1973 3574933.323 312 71) Quarry
773415.2512 3574992.474 313 D5) Wall
773397.5517 3575054.149 314 52) Cistern
773428.8136 3575013.930 315 75) Kiln
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773182.4225 3575129.349 316.1 Dr

773183.5448 3575122.720 316.2 22) Cave / Shelter


773191.2024 3575118.487 317 71) Quarry

Jarash Hinterland Survey 60


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


773216.4081 3575058.125 318 Architectural Fragment
773192.9431 3575054.160 319 Architectural Fragment
773532.6756 3574939.050 320 22) Cave/Shelter
773518.6625 3574934.230 321 52) Cistern
773536.8179 3575064.581 322 22) Cave/Shelter
773474.9628 3575050.696 323 22) Cave/Shelter
773293.9045 3574947.012 324 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
773271.5314 3574937.528 325.1 22) Cave/Shelter
773278.1270 3574937.706 325.2 22) Cave/Shelter
773286.7270 3574933.499 325.3 22) Cave/Shelter
773358.8418 3574812.252 326 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773356.0151 3574812.176 327 Dr
773498.1823 3574854.872 328 Architectural Fragment
773506.1817 3574872.848 329 Architectural Fragment
772530.4062 3574483.528 331 Architectural Fragment
772706.6274 3574766.869 332 D5) Wall
772569.9744 3574764.289 333.1 Architectural Fragment
772580.4886 3574759.023 333.2 Architectural Fragment
772567.9402 3574769.783 333.3 Architectural Fragment
772628.9636 3574674.870 334 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772631.1495 3574593.907 335 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772709.6416 3574550.521 336 22) Cave/Shelter
772732.2992 3574584.429 337 D5) Wall
772682.3924 3574512.048 338 99) Sarcophagus
772683 3574512 339 50) Rock Cut Basin
772683 3574512 340 83) Rock Cut Tomb
772798.7593 3574707.203 341.1 Architectural Fragment
772797.6373 3574713.832 341.2 Architectural Fragment
772693.1304 3574533.426 342 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772703.0184 3574481.528 343 Architectural Fragment
772792.5221 3574379.616 344 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772789.3657 3574391.739 345 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772735.7004 3574423.587 346 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772710.1395 3574427.336 347 24) Isolated Structure/House
772506.6812 3574733.723 348 Architectural Fragment
772508.6112 3574697.149 349 52) Cistern/ Spring
773098.3634 3575239.174 350 71) Quarry
773102.7622 3575215.986 351 52) Cistern
773104.8866 3575207.164 352 52) Cistern
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773309.1730 3575253.759 353 Dr
773310.9673 3575257.137 354 D5) Wall
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773361.8454 3575258.514 355 Dr
773365.9257 3575281.933 356 50) Rock Cut Basin
773365.9257 3575281.933 356 88) Grave
773365.9257 3575281.933 356 71) Quarry
773365.9257 3575281.933 356 71) Quarry

Jarash Hinterland Survey 61


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


773235.6157 3575323.911 357 24) Isolated Structure/House
773407.9635 3575296.390 358 71) Quarry
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773401.1880 3575302.866 359 Dr
773081.6539 3574915.742 360 71) Quarry
773100.3426 3574991.720 361 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
773322.8199 3575338.259 362 24) Isolated Structure/House
773019.8449 3574865.235 363 71) Quarry
773126.3881 3574900.303 364.1 88) Grave
773126.3881 3574900.303 364.2 88) Grave
773126.3881 3574900.303 364.3 88) Grave
773107.0637 3574917.539 365 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
773120.1347 3574922.332 366 71) Quarry
773093.4104 3574899.411 367 71) Quarry
773088.7171 3574863.768 368a Architectural Fragment
773096.2248 3574865.081 368b Architectural Fragment
773090.6015 3574863.819 369 71) Quarry
773090.1392 3574846.048 370 Architectural Fragments
773031.5289 3574816.715 371 Architectural Fragment
773126.5681 3574893.649 372 71) Quarry
773125.5059 3574898.060 373 22) Cave/Shelter
773120.8304 3574826.900 374 Architectural Fragment
773134.6216 3574805.075 375 71) Quarry
773220.3343 3574808.504 376 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
773119.1492 3574714.754 377 71) Quarry
773119.1492 3574714.754 377.1 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
773327.3765 3574790.313 378 Dr
773268.6280 3574800.931 379 71) Quarry
773401.7413 3574760.139 380 71) Quarry
773463.2568 3574751.815 381 Architectural Fragment
773409.5495 3574750.361 382 71) Quarry
772811.7541 3574749.730 383 D5) Wall
772902.9616 3574654.524 384 Architectural Fragment
772955.8342 3574617.107 385 Architectural Fragment
772772.7198 3574728.698 386 Architectural Fragment
772778.2533 3574733.287 387a Architectural Fragment
772778.2533 3574733.287 387b Architectural Fragment
772770.6586 3574665.378 388 Architectural Fragment
772776.8947 3574678.865 389 32) Church / Chapel
772776.8947 3574678.865 389 31) Temple
772747.8951 3574670.313 390. 81) Cemetery
772747.8951 3574670.313 390.1 Architectural Fragment
772767.4589 3574644.204 390.2 Architectural Fragment
772763.7798 3574640.774 390.3 Architectural Fragment
772777.5404 3574620.058 390.4 Architectural Fragment
772793.4387 3574624.927 390.5 Architectural Fragment
772805.0452 3574614.142 390.6 Architectural Fragment
772802.3983 3574607.411 390.7 Architectural Fragment

Jarash Hinterland Survey 62


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


772805.2849 3574605.269 390.8 Architectural Fragment
772789.7761 3574585.982 390.9 Architectural Fragment
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772778.0002 3574707.752 391 Dr
773457.2541 3574799.379 392 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772527.5599 3574728.737 393 43) Mill
772800.0245 3574834.875 394 52) Cistern
772550.7123 3574709.384 395 Spring
772513.9353 3574709.501 396.1 Architectural Fragment
772517.0613 3574698.487 396.2 Architectural Fragment
772517.0613 3574698.487 396.3 D5) Wall
772548.8278 3574709.333 397 44) Agricultural Terrace
772548.2306 3574661.592 398 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772574.3596 3574636.769 399 Architectural Fragment
772518.0612 3576337.827 400.1 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772646.5589 3576606.564 400.10 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772596 3576606 400.11 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772686.4978 3576628.731 400.12 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772594.2197 3576659.535 400.13 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772455.0982 3576574.755 400.14 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772594.1431 3576697.269 400.15 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772622.9869 3576711.367 400.16 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772622.4045 3576698.033 400.17 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772616.2559 3576751.141 400.18 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772621 3576771 400.19 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772512.4223 3576372.082 400.2 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772443.9329 3577232.622 400.20 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772629.0537 3576207.638 400.21 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772763.0622 3576098.049 400.22 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772657.0844 3576635.705 400.23 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772527.0734 3576457.940 400.3 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772513 3576458 400.4 51) Aqueduct or Warer Channel
772524.2308 3576493.379 400.5 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772568.2816 3576537.855 400.6 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772577.3427 3576551.419 400.7 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772565.6919 3576598.830 400.8 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772573.5579 3576586.833 400.9 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772514.6359 3576359.933 401 99) Sarcophagus
772515.3684 3576367.722 402 Architectural Fragment
772488.6283 3576450.242 403 99) Sarcophagus
772508.3219 3576454.103 404 Architectural Fragment
772512.9424 3576457.558 405 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772512.9424 3576457.558 405 41) Hamlet / Farmstead
772560.1759 3576558.724 406 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772560.1759 3576558.724 406 41) Hamlet / Farmstead
772526.8414 3576641.066 407 99) Sarcophagus
772510.0154 3576356.478 408 41) Hamlet / Farmstead
772510.0154 3576356.478 408 52) Cistern
772556.5367 3576344.416 409 Architectural Fragment

Jarash Hinterland Survey 63


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


772603.6107 3576346.797 410 Architectural Fragment
772631.9163 3576380.859 411 Architectural Fragment
772642.6220 3576403.346 412 Architectural Fragment
772631.0270 3576518.462 413 Architectural Fragment
772461.9646 3576495.028 414 99) Sarcophagus
772477.7785 3576677.478 415 Architectural Fragment
772615.8832 3576730.043 416a Architectural Fragment
772615.8832 3576730.043 416b Architectural Fragment
772621.8014 3576790.138 417 Architectural Fragment
772602.9307 3576790.738 418 Architectural Fragment
772622.4307 3576766.847 419 Architectural Fragment
772533.5295 3576882.094 420 Architectural Fragment
772454.7884 3576865.539 421a Architectural Fragment
772454.7884 3576865.539 421b Architectural Fragment
772435.5831 3577018.186 422 59) Milestone
772427.8100 3576956.932 423 59) Milestone
772423.9821 3576959.048 424 59) Milestone
772447 3577041 425 01) Sherd Scatter
772438.7086 3577007.172 426a Architectural Fragment
772438.7086 3577007.172 426b Architectural Fragment
772439 3577007 427 59) Milestone
772439.0596 3577203.633 428 59) Milestone base
772440.8538 3577207.011 429 Architectural Fragment
772576.9391 3576217.329 430 46) Wine Press
772576.9391 3576217.329 430 45) Oil Press
772630.0258 3576206.554 431 Architectural Fragment
772631.3574 3576192.161 432 Architectural Fragment
772620.3219 3576181.874 433 96) Other Type of Tomb
772610.5880 3576158.303 434 Architectural Fragment
772610.1851 3576138.314 435 96) Other Type of Tomb
772610.1851 3576138.314 435 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772561.7950 3576114.810 436 96) Other Type of Tomb
772564.9508 3576102.686 437 99) Sarcophagus
772564.4580 3576086.024 438 Architectural Fragment
772580.7733 3576075.366 439 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772636.1178 3576085.740 440 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772600.5874 3576074.791 441 44) Agricultural Terrace
772603.3838 3576075.977 442 Architectural Fragment
772571.8179 3576022.959 443 Architectural Fragment
772571.8179 3576022.959 443 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772575.5129 3575990.872 444 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772601.4292 3575973.813 445 Architectural Fragment
772594.7281 3576012.479 446 83) Rock Cut Tomb
772575.7960 3576015.297 447 41) Hamlet / Farmstead
772575.7960 3576015.297 447 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772612.6582 3576011.853 448 Architectural Fragment
772686.2963 3575938.369 449 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772687.8509 3575950.620 450 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772687.8509 3575950.620 450a Architectural Fragment

Jarash Hinterland Survey 64


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


772687.8509 3575950.620 450b Architectural Fragment
772687.8509 3575950.620 450c Architectural Fragment
772687.8509 3575950.620 450d Architectural Fragment
772675.7532 3575944.744 451 Architectural Fragment
772704.9982 3576048.754 452 99) Sarcophagus
772707.0623 3576042.151 453 99) Sarcophagus
772713.4772 3576048.984 454 Architectural Fragment
772712.2991 3575987.907 455 99) Sarcophagus
772699.2893 3575980.896 456a Architectural Fragment
772699.2893 3575980.896 456b Architectural Fragment
772716.2212 3575912.540 457a Architectural Fragment
772716.2212 3575912.540 457b Architectural Fragment
772717.8057 3575923.682 458 Architectural Fragment
772713.2749 3575916.900 459 Architectural Fragment
772704.4231 3575895.573 460 Architectural Fragment
772684.9082 3575885.057 461a Architectural Fragment
772684.9082 3575885.057 461b Architectural Fragment
772627.4252 3575849.097 462 Architectural Fragment
772632.9416 3575889.202 463 99) Sarcophagus
772302.8127 3575615.026 464 Architectural Fragment
772724.6626 3576053.725 465 43) Mill
51) Aqueduct or Water Channel – Rock
772784.8289 3576199.638 466 Cut
772744.0320 3576488.219 467 43) Mill
772716.4765 3576670.607 468 Architectural Fragment
772480.1860 3575785.187 469 94) Mausoleum
772480.1860 3575785.187 469 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772504.2483 3575766.968 470 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772461.5370 3575812.431 471 52) Cistern
772461.5370 3575812.431 471 96) Other Type of Tomb
772465.5151 3575804.769 472 96) Other Type of Tomb
772476.8506 3575803.965 473 94) Mausoleum
772476.2199 3575897.179 474 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772504.9049 3575812.492 475 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772480.8866 3575864.008 476 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772486.4795 3575866.379 477 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772528.0228 3575864.171 478 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772511.9259 3576041.320 479 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772498.9599 3576067.607 480 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772420.1945 3576156.492 481 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772416.8593 3576175.270 482 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772366.2241 3576234.948 483 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772299.8526 3576598.312 484 52) Cistern
772294.1703 3576599.268 485 51) Aqueduct or Water Channel
772294.1703 3576599.268 486 45) Oil Press
772294.1703 3576599.268 486 96) Other Type of Tomb
772319.4120 3576572.202 487 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772303.8901 3576588.432 488 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772302.0203 3576622.788 489 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter

Jarash Hinterland Survey 65


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


772297.1888 3576697.020 490 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772392.2018 3576669.618 491 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772412.0724 3576736.748 492 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772293.5845 3576725.780 493 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772196.1951 3576736.471 494 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772221.1216 3576756.012 495 Architectural Fragment
772263.1842 3576769.356 496 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772282.5023 3576822.042 497 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772401.0351 3576796.384 498 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772402.6358 3576772.010 499 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772508.6567 3574660.524 500.1 44) Agricultural Terrace Wall
772495.8988 3574679.047 500.2 44) Agricultural Terrace Wall
772497.9030 3574674.662 500.3 44) Agricultural Terrace Wall
772505.4408 3574674.865 500.4 44) Agricultural Terrace Wall
772541.3513 3574636.988 501 44) Agricultural Terrace
772536.6700 3574635.752 502 44) Agricultural Terrace
772525.8876 3574581.076 503 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772545.5094 3574622.672 504.1 Architectural Fragment
772526.6359 3574553.349 504.2 Architectural Fragment
772526.6359 3574553.349 504.3 Architectural Fragment
772540.6812 3574487.135 505 43) Mill
772523.6308 3574490.004 505.1 43) Mill
772534.2051 3574482.520 505.2 D5) Wall
772544.4203 3574488.346 505.3 D5) Wall
772492.7894 3574584.623 506 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772471.1622 3574617.336 507 Architectural Fragment
772450.3738 3574549.072 508.1 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772454.5318 3574534.755 508.2 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772478.8063 3574508.773 508.3 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772452.5882 3574466.999 508.4 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772428.6124 3574551.814 509 D5) Wall
772569.2309 3574582.246 510 Architectural Fragment
772560.7649 3574616.424 511 Architectural Fragment
772555.4407 3574604.072 512 Architectural Fragment
772557.2968 3574535.309 513 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772606.9242 3574443.417 514 Architectural Fragment
772590.0235 3574440.741 515 Architectural Fragment
772573.7499 3574484.698 516 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772482.9624 3574634.303 517 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772440.8163 3574588.770 518 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772487.3599 3574611.114 519 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772362.4095 3576865.265 520 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772360.2379 3576980.635 521 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772360.2379 3576980.635 522 71) Quarry
772353.2545 3576994.875 523 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
83) Rock-Cut Tomb (Simple Entrance or
772312.1930 3577049.262 524 Dr
772347.0336 3577015.795 525 99) Sarcophagus
772344.2974 3577012.392 526 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter

Jarash Hinterland Survey 66


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Easting Northing Site Number Site Type


772369.0731 3577037.478 527 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772362.7301 3577132.758 528 01) Sherd / Flint Scatter
772135.2313 3575745.914 529 Quarry
771895.0551 3574721.675 Quarry 30/12/1999 00:00
772072.7775 3574739.780 Quarry1 30/12/1999 00:00
771630.9984 3575774.507 Quarry10 30/12/1999 00:00
771648.0929 3575804.934 Quarry11 30/12/1999 00:00
771821.7905 3574816.262 Quarry2 30/12/1999 00:00
771808.5564 3574852.532 Quarry3 30/12/1999 00:00
771635.2198 3575092.042 Quarry4 30/12/1999 00:00
771851.9403 3575132.281 Quarry5 30/12/1999 00:00
771687.9050 3575306.557 Quarry6 30/12/1999 00:00
771845.4025 3575445.093 Quarry7 30/12/1999 00:00
771692.7240 3575652.971 Quarry8 30/12/1999 00:00
771892.2645 3575700.520 Quarry9 30/12/1999 00:00

Jarash Hinterland Survey 67


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

ARTEFACT AND CRATE PACKING LIST AND DEPOSITION


DETAILS

JHS 08 Crated Finds


Crate Bag Site Contents
11
260 251 4 x Bases
261 251 4 x Handles
262 251 14 x Rims
263 251 65 x Body Sherds
264 251 2 x Plaster Fragments
265 251 32 x Body Sherds
266 251 11 x Rims
267 251 1 x CBM
268 251 2 x Handles
310 251 2 x bases
311 251 6 x handles
312 251 1 x cbm
313 251 5 x rims
314 251 40 x body sherds
837 251 1 x ceramic water pipe with lead filter
838 251 2 x complete cbm (square)
12
334 1000 6 x rims
335 1000 1 x base
336 1000 4 x cbm
337 1000 8 x handles
338 1000 44 x body sherds
384 1001 1 x handle
385 1001 1 x rim
386 1001 21 x body sherds
13
242 203 1 x Flint
249 204 2 x Basalt
274 220 14 x flint
300 285 2 x flints
304 284 2 x flint
305 284 1 x tessera

Jarash Hinterland Survey 68


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


13
324 400.8 1 x tessera
342 406 2 x tesserae
342 406 2 x tesserae
347 360 3 x stone tool fragments
357 425 2 x flints
358 425 5 x tesserae
367 330 2 x tesserae
377 365 1 x tessera
378 365 3 x flint
380 406 3 x tesserae
380 406 3 x tesserae
382 405 3 x tesserae
394 361 10 x flint
396 361 1 x tessera
407 444 3 x tesserae
417 435 1 x tessera
422 368 2 x flints
423 368 1 x tesserae
433 440 6 x tesserae
434 440 7 x flint
435 308 9 x flint
436 308 1 x stone
438 365 14 x tesserae
451 424 1 x tessera
459 376 1 x flint
463 361 3 x stone
464 361 1 x flint
470 389 67 x tesserae
472 389 4 x stone
473 389 3 x flint
480 334 1 x flint
481 390 17 x tesserae
484 335 1 x flint
486 335 2 x tesserae
494 474 3 x tesserae
495 474 2 x stone - calcite banded marble
496 345 1 x flint
497 345 6 x tesserae
514 398 24 x tesserae
515 398 1 x flint
516 398 1 x marble
523 526 6 x tesserae
529 449 2 x worked limestone
530 449 1 x marble - carbonated ultramafic fragmented
531 449 10 x marble - green micaceous
532 449 2 x marble - white crystalline
533 449 1 x marble - red iron stained
534 449 1 x marble - haematitic

Jarash Hinterland Survey 69


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


13
535 449 1 x limestone arc fragment
536 449 1 x flint
543 508.3 2 x tesserae
544 508.3 1 x flint
549 469 1 x tessera
558 483 2 x tesserae
565 346 1 x flint
569 476 4 x tesserae
570 476 1 x flint
583 523 33 x tesserae
584 523 3 x marble
585 523 2 x basalt
588 389 2 x tesserae (joined together)
595 517 4 x tesserae
596 517 1 x marble
612 478 1 x tessera
618 482 2 x tesserae
619 482 1 x flint
624 519 1 x tesserae
627 519 1 x flint
636 343 3 x tesserae
637 343 3 x flints
646 516 3 x tesserae
647 516 1 x flint
653 487 1 x pierced limestone (loomweight)
654 487 3 x flints
655 487 2 x marble
657 487 3 x tesserae
661 498 3 x tesserae
666 470 4 x tesserae
670 513 3 x tesserae
678 489 2 x tesserae
679 489 3 x flints
689 523 1 x drilled stone (possible loomweight)
690 523 1 x basalt tool
695 494 33 x tesserae
696 490 11 x tesserae
697 490 5 x flint
698 490 1 x marble
707 492 3 x tesserae
714 508.4 1 x marble
715 508.4 1 x limestone tool
721 398 16 x tesserae
722 398 5 x flints
727 392 2 x flints
731 480 4 x tesserae
733 480 1 x flint
739 496 10 x tesserae

Jarash Hinterland Survey 70


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


13
745 497 11 x tesserae
746 497 2 x flint
760 503 1 x tessera
761 503 3 x flints
767 493 1 x flint
768 493 5 x tesserae
773 499 1 x tessera
787 506 1 x stone object
791 527 1 x tessera
792 529 1 x sculpted limestone frag
798 518 4 x flint
799 518 7 x tesserae
805 518 7 x tessera
813 517 6 x tessera
814 517 2 x flint
820 520 1 x flint
821 520 3 x tessera
827 508.1 1 x marble
828 508.1 1 x basalt (smooth)
835 508.2 2 x flint
836 508.2 1 x stone (with hole)
14
231 200 1 x Handle
232 200 8 x Body Sherds
233 203 12 x Rims
234 203 7 x Bases
235 203 5 x CBM
236 203 11 x Black painted pot
237 203 1 x Body Sherds
238 203 9 x CBM
239 203 96 x Body Sherds
240 203 35 x Handles
241 203 38 x Rims
243 204 4 x Bases
244 204 8 x Rims
245 204 7 x Handles
246 204 21 x Body Sherds
247 204 1 x Pottery Waster
248 204 6 x Patterned Body Sherds
250 206 7 x Body Sherds
251 206 1 x CBM
252 206 2 x Bases
253 206 6 x Rims
254 206 5 x Handles
255 210 8 x Rim
256 210 2 x Handles
257 210 3 x Bases
258 210 1 x Body Sherd

Jarash Hinterland Survey 71


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


14
259 210 4 x CBM
269 254 6 x Bases
270 254 12 x Handles
271 254 22 x Rims
272 254 7 x CBM
273 254 40 x Body Sherds
275 220 3 x Rims
276 220 2 x CBM
277 220 1 x Body Sherd
278 220 2 x Handles
279 257 1 x Body Sherd
280 257 1 x Handle
281 257 2 x Bases
282 257 5 x Rims
283 215 10 x Body Sherds
290 205 4 x Rims
291 205 10 x Handles
292 205 3 x Bases
293 205 40 x Body Sherds
294 202 25 x Body Sherds
295 202 8 x Rims
296 202 3 x Bases
297 202 2 x Handles
315 203 19 x sherds of same pot?
348 231 1 x handle
349 231 14 x body sherds
350 230 10 x body sherds
351 230 2 x rims
361 231 3 x rims
362 231 26 x body sherds
845 230 4 x body sherds (from robbers upcast)
15
284 263 4 x Kiln Wasters
285 263 8 x CBM
286 263 7 x CBM
287 263 2 x Rim
288 263 2x Bases
289 263 2x Body Sherds
298 285 3 x rims
299 285 17 x sherds
301 284 3 x handles
302 284 9 x rims
303 284 62 x body sherds
306 284 1 x base
307 284 1 x cbm
308 284 1 x slag
343 360 1 x base
344 360 3 x handles

Jarash Hinterland Survey 72


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


15
345 360 1 x rim
346 360 6 x body sherds
363 330 3 x handles
364 330 3 x rims
365 330 32 x body sherds
366 330 1 x cbm
369 352 2 x handle
370 352 1 x rim
371 352 1 x base
372 352 5 x bodysherds
373 365 4 x handles
374 365 4 x rims
375 365 2 x cbm
376 365 34 x body sherds
387 354 15 x body sherds
388 354 1 x rim
395 361 12 x rims
397 361 43 x body sherds
398 361 1 x base
399 361 2 x cbm
408 361 3 x handles
418 368 5 x cbm
419 368 7 x handles
420 368 8 x rims
421 368 35 x body sherds
437 365 17 x cbm
439 365 1 x spout
440 365 7 x rims
441 365 2 x body sherds
442 365 6 x handles
443 377.1 1 x rim
444 377.1 1 x handle
445 377.1 5 x body sherds
446 377.1 3 x cbm
452 324 23 x body sherds
453 324 1 x aggregate
455 376 3 x cbm
456 376 5 x rims
457 376 3 x handles
458 376 25 x body sherds
460 361 2 x rims
461 361 1 x handle
462 361 1 x body sherd
466 389 23 x handles
467 389 26 x rims
468 389 1 x spout
469 389 3 x bases
471 389 25 x cbm

Jarash Hinterland Survey 73


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


15
474 389 77 x body sherds
476 334 3 x handles
477 334 3 x rims
478 334 3 x cbm
479 334 22 x body sherds
487 335 2 x rims
488 335 8 x body sherds
498 345 4 x cbm
499 345 1 x base
500 345 9 x handles
501 345 8 x rims
502 345 49 x body sherds
559 346 5 x cbm
560 346 20 x body sherds
561 346 3 x bases
562 346 4 x rims
563 346 1 x amphora foot
564 346 3 x handles
633 343 6 x rims
634 343 5 x handles
635 343 19 x body sherds
16
325 400.8 9 x handles
326 400.8 5 x rims
327 400.8 1 x cbm
328 400.8 10 x body sherds
329 405 2 x cbm
330 405 9 x handles
331 405 13 x rims
332 405 2 x bases
333 405 16 x body sherds
339 406 2 x handles
339 406 2 x handles
340 406 1 x lid
340 406 1 x lid
341 406 9 x body sherds
341 406 9 x body sherds
352 425 4 x handles
353 425 10 x body sherds
354 425 4 x rims
360 425 3 x handles
389 406 1 x base
389 406 1 x base
390 406 2 x handles
390 406 2 x handles
391 406 1 x rim
391 406 1 x rim
392 406 2 x cbm

Jarash Hinterland Survey 74


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


16
393 406 15 x body sherds
393 406 15 x body sherds
400 444 16 x cbm
401 444 1 x spout
402 444 34 x rims
403 444 32 x handles
404 444 8 x bases
405 444 1 x strainer
406 444 14 x body sherds
409 439 13 x rims
410 439 12 x handles
411 439 6 x body sherds
412 435 2 x rims
413 435 16 x body sherds
414 435 3 x cbm
415 435 3 x handles
416 435 2 x bases
424 430 5 x rims
425 430 6 x body sherds
426 430 6 x cbm
427 430 6 x rims
429 440 2 x cbm
430 440 16 x handles
431 440 19 x rims
432 440 28 x body sherds
447 424 2 x rims
448 424 3 x handles
449 424 18 x body sherds
450 424 1 x cbm
482 390 8 x body sherds
483 390 1 x handle
489 474 5 x bases
490 474 22 x handles
491 474 21 x rims
492 474 6 x cbm
493 474 44 x body sherds
509 398 38 x handles
510 398 19 x rims
511 398 9 x cbm
512 398 3 x bases
513 398 75 x body sherds
537 449 1 x quarzite
545 469 1 x plaster (from mausoleum wall)
546 469 19 x body sherds
547 469 1 x rim
548 469 1 x handle
662 470 14 x handles
663 470 16 x rims

Jarash Hinterland Survey 75


Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


16
664 470 4 x bases
665 470 70 x body sherds
716 398 31 x rims
717 398 7 x bases
718 398 18 x body sherds
719 398 20 x handles
720 398 4 x cbm
723 392 5 x handles
724 392 4 x bases
725 392 10 x bases
726 392 81 x body sherds
17
504 475 2 x cbm
506 475 3 x handle
507 475 11 x rims
508 475 38 x body sherds
550 477 26 x body sherds
551 477 14 x rims
552 477 12 x handles
553 477 4 x bases
554 477 1 x cbm
555 483 10 x rims
556 483 12 x body sherds
557 483 4 x handles
566 476 21 x body sherds
567 476 9 x handles
568 476 3 x rims
604 479 6 x bases
605 479 15 x body sherds
606 479 26 x handles
607 479 21 x rims
609 478 24 x body sherds
610 478 11 x rims
611 478 3 x handles
613 482 11 x handles
614 482 5 x body sherds
615 482 9 x rims
616 482 4 x cbm
617 482 1 x base
628 490 6 x handles
629 490 5 x rims
630 490 6 x body sherds
631 490 1 x base
632 490 1 x cbm
649 487 10 x rims
650 487 20 x body sherds
651 487 4 x cbm
652 487 10 x handles

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


17
658 498 6 x body sherds
659 498 4 x handles
660 498 6 x rims
673 489 24 x body sherds
674 489 18 x rims
675 489 18 x handles
676 489 2 x cbm
677 489 1 x body sherd (with pierced hole)
680 505 3 x handles
681 505 18 x body sherds
682 505 2 x rims
692 494 3 x handles
693 494 5 x rims
694 494 9 x body sherds
699 490 8 x body sherds
700 490 1 x base
701 490 25 x rims
702 490 26 x handles
703 490 2 x cbm
704 492 8 x body sherds
705 492 2 x handles
706 492 4 x rims
728 480 20 x handles
729 480 16 x rims
730 480 6 x body sherds
735 496 2 x rims
736 496 13 x handles
737 496 21 x body sherds
738 496 1 x base
740 497 20 x body sherds
741 497 15 x rims
742 497 3 x cbm
743 497 11 x rims
744 497 11 x handles
755 503 100 x body sherds
756 503 53 x rims
757 503 2 x cbm
758 503 27 x handles
759 503 7 x bases
762 493 6 x handles
763 493 1 x rim
764 493 2 x bases
765 493 3 x cbm
766 493 22 x body sherds
769 499 1 x rim
770 499 3 x handles
771 499 4 x body sherds

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


17
772 499 1 x cbm
774 499 1 x lead object
775 501 27 x bases (including 19th century sherd)
776 501 4 x handles
777 501 2 x bases
778 501 1 x rim
781 487 9 x body sherds
782 506 8 x rims
783 506 4 x bases
784 506 9 x handles
785 506 47 x body sherds
18
538 508.3 4 x handles
539 508.3 3 x cbm
540 508.3 7 x body sherds
541 508.3 4 x rims
542 508.3 3 x bases
590 517 15 x rims
591 517 15 x body sherds
592 517 4 x bases
593 517 14 x handles
594 517 11 x cbm
620 519 14 x rims
621 519 6 x bases
622 519 6 x handles
623 519 2 x cbm
625 519 24 x body sherds
638 513 36 x body sherds
639 513 5 x rims
640 513 1 x base
641 513 6 x handles
642 516 7 x bases
643 516 29 x handles
644 516 9 x cbm
645 516 64 x body sherds
648 516 37 x rims
667 513 11 x bases
668 513 11 x handles
669 513 28 x rims
671 513 1 x cbm
672 513 55 x body sherds
709 508.4 7 x bases
710 508.4 10 x handles
711 508.4 12 x rims
712 508.4 22 x body sherds
713 508.4 11 x cbm
749 518 12 x bases
750 518 56 x rims

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


18
751 518 5 x cbm
752 518 76 x body sherds
753 518 29 x handles
800 518 13 x bases
801 518 19 x handles
802 518 41 x rims
803 518 74 x body sherds
804 518 6 x cbm
806 517 1 x lid
807 517 11 x bases
808 517 8 x cbm
809 517 55 x rims
810 517 39 x handles
811 517 50 x body sherds
822 508.1 46 x body sherds
823 508.1 20 x rims
824 508.1 9 x bases
825 508.1 14 x handles
826 508.1 9 x cbm
829 508.2 11 x bases
830 508.2 10 x cbm
831 508.2 33 x handles
832 508.2 34 x rims
833 508.2 72 x body sherds
19
518 526 23 x rims
519 526 19 x handles
520 526 20 x body sherds
521 526 3 x bases
522 526 8 x cbm
525 528 2 x cbm
526 528 4 x rims
527 528 3 x handles
528 528 3 x body sherds
573 523 20 x cbm
574 523 10 x cbm
575 523 17 x cbm
576 523 40 x rims
577 523 37 x rims
578 523 70 x body sherds
579 523 100 x body sherds
580 523 46 x handles
581 523 9 x bases (includng Jarash bowl frag)
582 523 2 x kiln wasters
684 523 5 x rims
685 523 1 x handle
686 523 2 x body sherds
687 523 1 x base

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


19
688 523 1 x cbm
691 523 1 x kiln waster
779 521 5 x body sherds
780 521 1 x cbm
788 527 2 x rims
789 527 1 x handle
790 527 4 x body sherds
793 529 1 x cbm
794 529 1 x body sherd
815 520 17 x rims
816 520 5 x bases
817 520 26 x handles
818 520 23 x body sherds
819 520 6 x cbm
20
309 284 1 x glass
320 231 2 x bronze bracelet fragments
321 231 18 x bronze sheet
322 231 4 x iron sheet
323 231 4 x glass sherds
355 230 11 x bags of human and animal bones
356 231 9 bags loose bones (human and animal)
359 425 3 x glass
368 330 1 x glass
379 406 1 x glass
379 406 1 x glass
381 405 4 x glass
383 1001 2 x glass
428 430 1 x glass
454 324 1 x glass
465 361 3 x glass
474 231 7 x bags of human bone
485 335 1 x glass
517 398 1 x glass
524 526 2 x glass
571 476 7 x glass
572 000 1 x silver Roman coin
586 523 13 x glass
587 523 1 x mother of pearl (inlay?)
589 389 2 x glass tessera
608 479 7 x glass
626 519 9 x glass
656 487 1 x glass
683 505 1 x glass
708 492 1 x glass
734 480 3 x glass
747 497 1 x glass
748 518 1 minim

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

Crate Bag Site Contents


20
754 503 1 x glass
786 506 2 x glass
795 529 1 x FE object
796 529 1 x glass
797 518 42 x glass
812 517 5 x glass
834 508.2 2 x glass
839 267 1 x glass disc
840 267 1 x mosaic fragment
841 231 1 x glass (from tomb entrance)
842 231 1 x glass (from tomb interior)
843 251 1 x Roman coin
844 231 2 x FE flat objects
846 000 bag does not exist
847 000 2 x CU alloy coin

Finds Notes

All of the above finds have been deposited in the Department of Antiquities
storeroom at Jerash. JHS08 have a copy of this list signed by the Inspector in charge
of finds (Akram). All 5 coins were individually checked in and have been placed in
one bag.

Please note that Site No. 000 means there is no find spot. Three of the coins were
donated to the project by local people we met during the survey.

Note that all finds from Site 343 are actually from Site 342. The artefacts pick-up
from Site 344 is missing and not entered into the database.

CBM = ceramic building material

The lithics have been given a preliminary non specialist assessment and are described
in the notebook included in Crate 13, which also notes bag and crate numbers.
Fragments of marble (mostly Opus Sectile fragments) have descriptive labels in the
bags, notes by Don Boyer (geologist).

A letter from David Kennedy and a letter from Dr Fawwaz al Khraysheh are required
before the finds can be removed from the storeroom for study.

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Jarash Hinterland Survey 2008 Season

LIST AND LOCATION OF PRIMARY RECORDS


The primary field records of the project include:
• Field record sheets for sites 200 to 529 inclusive in ring binder folder
• 7 field notebooks (2008 season)
• Finds and crate packing list signed as received by DoA Jarash Office
• Google satellite aerial photograph survey maps
• A4 map of Jarash
• 3 x A3 colour Google satellite AP print outs
• 3 x CDs of GIS data
• Copy of geological report by Don Boyer
• Copy of DoA site element description card
• Copy of JHS2005 site list annotated with condition do sites in 2008
• 1:50 plan and profile drawing by DC of Site 251
• 1:50 plan of mausoleum Site 469 by DK
• 1:75 plan of subterranean house Site 486 by DB
• Copy of JHS08 Permit Application
• List of land owned by the DoA in and around Jarash, with short descriptions
and maps of land parcels kindly supplied by Mrs Iman Oweis, 2005. All of
these are in Arabic and need translation into English before they can be
correlated with JHS sites.

The primary field records of the project are held by Anne Poepjes in Jarash.

Jarash Hinterland Survey 82