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FLUVIAL DELTAIC SEDIMENTATION

FLUVIAL-DELTAIC DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONTMENT


Fluvial systems are the primary agents for collecting sediment which has been weathered from continental highlands and transporting it into lacustrine and marine basins

Delta

A delta is formed by the accumulation of fluvial sediment at a river mouth, either on a lacustrine/lake or marine coastline

Delta Mahakam

FLUVIAL SYSTEM

Fluvial Characterization
SEDIMENT Mud rich LOW Straight Sand - rich HIGH
Bars ( 3%>) Low Small Small Low Low Bed load/Total load ratio Sediment size Sediment load Flow velocity Gradient High (>11%) Large Large High High

LOW Braided

Channel patterns displayed by dingle-channel segments and the spectrum of associated variables. (modified from Schumm, 1981)

LOW

Channel Boundary Flow

RELATIVESTABILITY

SINUOSITY HIGH Meandering

$ L
DELTA Suspended Load y Contact Plain Distributaries Continous Shallow Mixed Load FLUVIAL SYSTEM Suspended Load Mixed Load y y Piedmont Riverine Plain Distributaries Tributaries CHANNEL FLOW Intermediate WATER TADLE Shallow FAN

y y

Bed Load Montane Plain

Hypothetical fluvial system traversing a montane basin and associated riverine plain, and then debouching onto a prograding, deltaic coastal plain. The trunk channel evolves through bed-load, mixed-load suspended-load styles as sediment-load, gradient, and discharge vary along the system.

CHANNEL GRADIENT
Flashy Deep

Generalized depositional model, vertical sequences of grain size and sedimentary structures, and electric (S.P.) log profiles produced by a low--sinuosity, braided channel. Sequence A is dominated by migration of a gravelly longitudinal bar. Sequence B records deposition of successive transverse bar crossbed sets upon a braid channel fill.

Generalized depositional model, vertical sequences, and electric (S,P.) log profiles of a meanderbelt sand body produced by a highsinuosity channel. Sequence A illustrates a complete fining-upward sequence typical of the mid-or downstream point bar. Section B illustrates the truncated vertical sequence commonly found in the upstream end of the bar.

CHANNEL COMPOSITION OF TYPE CHANNEL FILL

CHANNEL GEOMETRY CROSS SECTION MAP VIEW SAND ISOPACH

INTERNAL STRUCTURES SEDIMENTARY FABRIC VERTICAL SQUENCE

LATERAL RELATIONS

BED LOAD CHANNEL

Dominant Sand

High width / depth ... Low to moderate relief on Basal scour surface Straight to slightly sinuous Bed accretion dominates Sediment infill Irregular, fining up, poorly developed

broad continous bed

Multilateral channel fills commonly volumetrically eroded overbank deposit

MIXED LOAD CHANNEL

Mixed sand, silt, and mud

Moderate width / depth Ratio High relief on basal scour surface Sinuous Complex, typically bedded belt

Bank and bed accretion Both preserved in sediment infill

Variety of fining up Profiles well developed

Multistory channel fills generally subordinate & surrounding overbank deposits

SUSPENDED LOAD CHANNEL

Dominantly silt and mud

Low to very low / Depth ratio High-relief scour with Streep bonks, some segMents with multiple thotwegs Highly sinuous to anastomosing Shoestring or pod

Multyhistory channel fill, Bank accretion encased in abundant (either symetrical or Sequence dominated by overbank mud & clay asymetrical) dominates fine material, this vertical sediment in fill trends may be obscure

Geomorphic and sedimentary characteristic of bed-load, mixed-load and suspended-load channel segments and their deposits. (from Galloway, 1977)

1. Braided channels system

2M

Abandoned Channel sequence

Sand deposite in active braided channels

Mudy deposition in abandoned channels

Active Channel sequence

Fluvial Deltaic for Explorationis t

Physiography and facies of a braided alluvial channel system

1. Braided channels architecture

Nemec, 1992

Modern braided channels

Mini Braided Channel

Modern braided channels

2. Meandering channels system

Block diagram Ideal of meandering system channel (from Walker, 1992)

Meurebo River, Meulaboh, Aceh (Rimba 2005)

2. Meandering channels architecture

2. Meandering channels architecture


Thalweg

2. Meandering channels architecture


Channel Outcrop

Bojongmanik Fm, Rangkasbitung

2. Meandering channels architecture


Natural Levee

Terrace (abondoned floodplain) Deposits Floodplain Deposits Natural Levees

Active Channel
Cross section of ideal channel system with natural levees

2. Meandering channels architecture


Crevasse Splay

2. Meandering channels system


Point Bar (Lateral Accretion Surfaces)
CH N AN F EL

Lateral Accretion A

LE

O LO

VE

D AN

G LA

POINT BAR
E

AVERAGE GRAIN SIZE

E-LOG PROFILE

LeveePedagonic structures Complex lamination

A profile illustrates a complete upward-fining sequence; typical of the lateral accretion (Galloway, 1989).

Mid bar Trough crossstratification Lower bar and channel floor Lag Scoured base

2. Meandering channels system


Point Bar (Lateral Accretion Surfaces)
A B

A 1

. . ... . .. . . .....

. .... .

A 1
Lateral Accretion

.2. . . . .. . . . .....

. . ... . ... . .. . . . . .. . . ..... .....


3

2. Meandering channels architecture


Flood Plain Deposit

Modern floodplains surfaces

Ancient Floodplain

2. Meandering channels architecture


Distributary Channel on Delta Plain

ALLUVIAL PLAIN

DELTA PLAIN DE LTA

DISTRIBUTARY

The processes are same with fluvial

DELTA FRONT

PRODELTA

DELTA SYSTEM

Delta
What is Delta ?

Delta (noun) a triangular tract of sediment


deposited at the mouth of a river, typically where it diverges into several outlets. ORIGIN mid 16th century: originally specifically as the Delta of the River Nile, from the shape of the Greek letter

Delta
Why Delta is unique ?

Delta contains all the petroleum system components from Source Rock to Trap. Processes in Delta are composed of terrestrial processes & marine processes

Dalrymple et al, 1992

Coast Types

When Delta Formed ?:


Prerequirement:
1. Fluvial/River. 2. Standing body of water. 3. Positive feature. Sediment influx from aerial (aerial processes) is MORE dominant than sea erosion.
Fan shaped of Mahakam Deltas
Fan shaped of deltas of the Mississippi river at Gulf of Mexico

When Delta Formed ?


Standing Body of Water Create Positif feature

Component

Fluvial / river

RESULT Estuarine Alluvial Fan Tombolo, Barrier Bar, Spit bar

DELTA

When Delta Formed ?

Alluvial Fan

Estuarine

Spit

Tombolo

Estuarine

Delta
Where is Delta forming ?
from Terrestrial to the Sea
Fan Delta (delta on terrestrial)

Alluvial Fan enter to the lake Called Fan Delta

MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONTMENT OF DELTA


- Delta Plain
Dominated by Fluvial Processes & all terrestrial characters (Subaerial Delta)
MEANDERING / TRIBUTARY / FLUVIAL ALLUVIAL PLAIN

HEAD OF PASSES

- Delta Front
Indicated by Fluvial & Marine Processes (Subaerial & Subaquaeous Delta)

INTER DISTRIBUTARY DISTRIBUTARY

DELTA PLAIN

- Pro Delta
Dominated by Marine Processes (Subaquaeous Delta)

MOUTH BAR

DELTA FRONT

PRODELTA

Morphology and environment of delta (Allen, GP 1998)

Head of passes of Mahakam Delta

MISSISSIPPI

Delta Classification
Based on domination of the energy: River-dominated
Small tidal range, weak storms and large sediment flux build delta out into basin
DANUBA
Mahakam

SEDIMENT INPUT

Praquemines Modern Miss

Si Bernard (Miss) Pa Danube Lefourch (Miss)

FLIVIAL DOMINATED

Yukon?

MAHAKAM
Ebra

Tide-dominated
Large tidal ranges dominate transport, deposition & geomorphology
Nile

WAVE DOMINATED
Rhane Kelantan Brotos Sao Fransisco Burdenia

Niger Mekang

TIDE DOMINATED
Talu Calorado Fly

Cooper

Ganges - Brahmaputra Klang - Langor

Wave-dominated
Strong and repeated storms rework delta sediment

WAVE ENERGY FLUX


SAO FRANSISCO COPPER

TIDAL ENERGY FLUX


FLY

Morphologic and stratigraphic classification of delta system based on relative intensity of fluvial and marine processes. (Modified from Galloway, 1975)

Delta Morphology

Mississipi Delta
Note how sediment is carried by both river and ocean currents

Note black arrow showing sediments supply direction, McGeary 1996

Delta Processes
Delta Jetting Processes