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Carving into the Past a look at the sculpture of Earths surface by weathering and erosion processes

Ms. Lamake 9 Grade Regents Earth Science


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Table of Contents
I. II. III. IV. Enduring Theme Instructional Goals/ Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan Instructional Plan V. Application of Common Core Standards For Regents Earth Science VI. Enduring Understandings VII. Essential Questions VIII. Common Core Standards Objectified In This Unit IX. Unit Timeline (weekly assessment plans and instructional goals) X. Grading Policy XI. Grading Scale XII. Samples of Assessments: a. Pre-Test (subjective and objective formative test) b. Daily Homework (subjective and objective formative assessment) c. Lab Activity (objective formative assessment) d. Performance Based Test (subjective, summative assessment) e. Paper and Pencil Test (objective summative test)

I. Enduring Theme: There are many visible (directly and indirectly) cycles that can be observed on the planet; the Earths surface is constantly changing- pieces are being broken down and reformed everyday II. Instructional Goals/ Learning Outcomes This unit on weathering and erosion follows a subsequent unit on rock and mineral formation and precedes a unit on stratigraphy and sedimentology. Its placement is such that it seeks to broaden the students view of the plant as being old and unchanging to one that is hot, moving, cyclic, and dynamic by further developing the idea of the rock cycle through rock and mineral destruction, in the students mind; and sets up for future units to delve deeper into Earths history and dynamic processes. This unit hopes to create the understanding that there are many variables that act upon the Earth; that not one variable is independent from the rest. Similarly, the Earth has history; although there are observable geologic features that may have taken millions of years to be produced, geologic history is happening everyday-no matter how large or trivial a geologic event may seem, everything that happens every day has an effect o the rock record- everything is data its up to the scientist to figure it out and make meaning of it. Lastly, weathering, erosion, and deposition, are constant Earth processes that help shape the crust of the Earth; the reason they are so effective is because they are constant. III. Assessment Plan New York state, high school Earth Science, is primarily taken by students who wish to receive a Regents high school diploma upon graduating from school. Because of the nature of the content explored in the class(inorganic and not liberal arts based), and required reasoning strategies needed to used explain or investigate phenomenon (e.g. math and scientific method), the Regents Earth Science exam can daunting and tedious obstacle for students to overcome. In order to take the Regents Earth Science Exam, students are required to complete both 180 days of classrooms instruction, and 1200 minutes of lab work in Earth Science. The goals of this units assessment plan are the same as the goals of previous units; and they are to promote critical thinking and higher order Blooms taxonomy thinking of course content and skills, and to provide students with practical, hands on experience taking similar regents type tests and lab practicals. Furthermore, the goal of this assessment plan is to get students used to combining prior knowledge and newly learned knowledge when answering test questions. Many times the Regents test does not ask a lot of complex questions in them; but instead it is up to the test-taker to understand that there is complexity to the questions and they need to access all of their knowledge and resources to answer the question. A large part of doing science it about doing research- reading and interpreting information with as little bias as possible, and interpreting graphs and charts or data.

On the regents students are given thin paper guides, called the Earth Science Reference Tables (ESRTs) that contain all sorts of bits of information one could use to solve a multitude of different Earth Science related problems. Another goal of this assessment plan is to get students used to accurately working with their ESRTs. IV. Instructional Plan (Modeled from Dr. Snowdens Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit Plan template) The instructional goals of this unit follow the instructional assessment goals for this unit; they are to get students accessing all their available resources (prior knowledge. Electronic or paper resources, etc) V. Enduring Understandings: 1. Water is everywhere and exists in many forms- each form (solid, liquid, and gas) has the ability to cause weathering and erosion. Temperature and pressure are also catalysts in erosion and weathering; often work hand and hand with wind and water in sculpting Earths surface. 2. There are layers upon layers of evidence of chemical and physical erosion and weathering that can be studied if certain patterns are recognized. VI. Essential Questions: 1. What are the most common/ major causes of weathering and erosion? 2. What sorts of features/ evidence are left behind/ created as a result of different weathering and erosion processes (are there also long or short term consequences/ evidences)? 3. What are some common themes between cycles and erosion/weathering patters on Earth? 4. What evidences of weathering and erosion are visible in strata? VII. Application of Common Core Standards:
All Regents Earth Science Common Core Standards for Earth Science:
STANDARD 1Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. STANDARD 2 Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information, using appropriate technologies. STANDARD 4 Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science STANDARD 6Interconnectedness: Common Themes Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. STANDARD 7Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life

problems and make informed decisions.

VIII. Common Core Standards Objectified In This Unit: Reading Skills Outcome: STANDARD 2 Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information, using appropriate technologies. Key Idea 1: Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information as a tool to enhance learning. The teacher will use different resources, written literature (books, reference tables etc), electronic sources (private and government), direct observation and experiment, when building knowledge. Writing Skills Outcome STANDARD 1Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering designs, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Key Idea 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process The teacher will model analysis, inquiry and design, in direct instruction and in the format of lab report instructions. Teacher will format written material to stylistically represent/ support scientific method procedure and thinking. Student will organize similar reports and design written material to encourage further thinking and understanding, provide valid support for ideas and oral presentation, and demonstrate ownership and mastery of knowledge. Speaking and Listening Skills Outcome: STANDARD 1Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering designs, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

Throughout the semester the teacher will model good public speaking practices (preparing for lecture, making direct eye contact, checking for understanding, engaging the audience, and integrating prior knowledge of audience into deliverance of new material). Teacher will introduce new material by fist engaging students with a bellringer activity or discussion, follow the bell ringer up with direct instruction, provide real-world examples, model, and/or have students complete a lab activity to reinforce new concepts. Teacher will also provide evidences and reasoning for the validity of her research and understanding. Student will produce similar, mini, oral presentations in science fair type format, where the class will tour the classroom and listen to presentations as students explain their research, models/ props, and/or experiments to the class. Students will be given a rubric that details the requirements for the assignment and what students may do to go above and beyond the assignments requirements. Students will also be required to submit accompanying essays for their research and understanding as a way to help students organize and review/ prepare for their oral presentation and to also accommodate for students who may not have had much public speaking experience/ training. Students will be encouraged to use and think about science in their everyday lives; will be given practice, as a way to build confidence and improve communication skills in science and their everyday lives. Visual representation Skills Outcome STANDARD 6Interconnectedness: Common Themes Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. Key Idea 1: Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions. The teacher will provide historic and current, examples of weathering and erosion; will provide models of similar phenomenon in labs. Students will complete lab exercises and also create a final, summative presentation that will include a variety of visual evidences (e.g. photographs, topographic maps, drawings etc) to demonstrate knowledge and understanding (e.g. In order to provide evidence for an idea that X boulder at X might have been overturned during a storm event a student could provide a cross-section of a stretch of that outcrop, talk about the law of superposition, and correlate unique stratigraphy in the boulder with those in the outcrop. Similarly, observations about the shape of the rock (are the edges rounded or sharp), or

the condition of the rocks surface (is there patina or oxidation? -What does a freshly broken sample look like?) would support the students ideas. Student will model similar behaviors in preparing for class (completing homework), and in preparing and presenting research. Students will also practice developing evidence and synthesizing information during labs and then during the research project activity. Over a period of four weeks, students will complete three labs, a pre-test, and two summative assessments (one being a regents-style paper and pent type test, the other being a performance based test where students do research and make observations about rock outcrops), as well formative homework assignments. Students will also be assigned material from the class textbook to read; will be given corresponding in-class-group work and homework. Students are expected to participate and engage in class discussions and group assignments. A final paper and pencil type exam will be given in regents test style formatting, incorporating teacher made and original questions from previous regents exams. The test will last one class period with ten minutes to spare for answering questions before the test and for students to get situated (~60 minutes), and consist of 55 multiple choice,1 short answer (constructed response), and (2) extended response questions. Students will be required to research an area found in the Roadside Geology of New York handbook, or a local outcrop of their choice (as long as they can find supporting information on the outcrop in a published piece of literature- pre-approved by the teacher), give a science fair type oral presentation (~15-20 minutes), at his/her desk to the class and include a written essay 2-3 pages, about the area/ outcrop/ its history. The students will make interpretations about what types of weathering/erosion have taken place at their site (both in the geologic past- as seen in strata and in recent times ~ 100300 years), what forces could effect that location in the future, and what it might look like, then the students will explain the research they have done, and how they have come to these conclusions. IX. Unit Timeline: One Week Prior to Unit introduction Students will take mini pre-test to assess their understanding of material. Week One: Lesson Topic: 1. Hydraulic Cycle Assessments: (formative) Bell-Ringer students will be questioned about their knowledge of the rock cycle- prior knowledge will be keyed about the dynamics between rocks and minerals and how there might be similar observable

patterns elsewhere on Earth. Students will be given homework, to research a model/ cartoon of a water cycle, draw it, and explain its origin and processes. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students will illustrate an Earth Science cycle, and begin to make interpretations about what role it plays as a weathering/erosion variable and how one system might affect another. 2. Surface and Ground Water Assessments: (formative) students will conduct a lab experiment using salt crystals and water in order to observe in what ways and how quickly water can begin to weather rock. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students will set up an experiment that mimics real-world phenomenon. This experience combined with the experience of drawing and manipulating cyclical information will allow students to begin to formulate relationships between large, abstract concepts, to everyday (meaningful) understandings. 3. Glaciers Assessments: (formative) in small groups students will mind-map the life of a glacier, from birth to death; the class will then shale their ideas with the class. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students have been using the ideas of weathering and erosion caused by water in its liquid and vapor states; not students will be able to make generalizations about have different materials might behave if their state was altered. Students will practice labeling and organizing data in a logical/ meaningful way. Week Two: Lesson Topic: 1. Wind Processes Assessments: (formative) Students will answer critical thinking questions about wind processes for homework. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students will make correlations between wind and water erosion and weathering patterns. 2. Mass-Movements and Deposition Assessments: (formative) Students will in-class and for homework complete a guided worksheet on Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students will use the law of superposition to help describe the relative age of strata. Also students will make observations, and compare and contrast bedding features (graded bedding, cross-bedding, etc) and their relationships to depositional facies. 3. Pollutants and Weathering and Erosion Assessments: (formative) students complete a worksheet, accompanying a video on acid rain and industrial pollutants, and their effect on weathering. Students will, for homework, find a current article about pollution and write a one paragraph response on how the presence of that pollutant might speed up or slow down weathering and/ or erosion. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students will make connections about material they have been learning about the past with material they are learning about the future.

Week Three: Lesson Topic: 1. Bringing it all Home Assessments: (formative) students will engage in Q& A bell-ringer review session, reflecting on the past two weeks. Students will be asked to share their articles from previous weeks homework on pollution. Teacher will check for understanding by facilitating a discussion about pollution and Earth cycles in general cycles. Students will take a summative pretest (~25 MTC and 5 short answer questions) on all material presented in class. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Activities in this lesson are designed to being the sewing-up of loose ends, the presentation of material. Students will begin to now to be able to predict what and how different variables affect weathering and erosion. Students will be later asked to make generalizations about observed features in real life outcrops. 2. Bringing it all Home cont Assessments: (formative) Students will receive back their pre-tests; students will work in pairs to fix/explain (in a different color pen/pencil) mistakes (Think, Pair, Share). As a class, the correct answers to the test will be discussed. Teacher will re-collect the pre-tests and review the revisions to check for understanding at the end of the class. Students will be prompted to be ready to ready to take a field trip next class period. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students will be able to examine and reflect on their misunderstandings and will be able to criticize (in a constructive manor) their own work. Students will begin to deepen their ownership of the material. 3. Bringing it all Home cont Assessments: (formative) Teacher will check for understanding using a similar Q& A bell-ringer review as the first day. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Week Four: Lesson Topic: 1. The Winding Down Assessments: (summative) Students will submit their essays on their rock outcrops for grading; present their findings to the class. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Give students an opportunity to make conclusions about real-world observations using previously and recently learned knowledge. 2. The Winding Down Assessments: (Summative) Students will take the paper and pencil unit final tests. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Students successful completion of the above two summative assessments will assess students knowledge and understanding of unit material. 3. END

Assessments: (formative) Students will receive their tests back and teacher will hold one final review session to answer any lingering questions. Link to Instructional Goal(s): Provide closure and sense of satisfaction for students that they had gone from knowing possibly nothing- a little about a subject, all they way to being able to make observations about their real-world lives. X. Grading Policy: Unit Grades Class Participation- Active engagement in classroom bell-ringers, discussion and tasks, as well a maintaining a positive disposition- (10%) Homework/In-Class Group Work- (20%) Labs- Student must both be in school and class to earn full lab credit hours- (40%) Unit Final (summative assessment)- (30%) -consists of three parts: (objective), paper and pencil test, 55 MTC questions (50% of unit final grade) (partially subjective, partially objective),(1) short answer question, (2) extended response questions (25% of unit final grade) (subjective) Performance based, exercise (25% of unit final grade) XI. Grade Scale
Percenta ge Score 94-100% 9093.9% 8889.9% 8587.9% 8084.9% 7679.9% 7075.9% 6669.9% 6065.9% 0-59.9% Letter Grade A AB+ B BC+ C D+ D E

XII. Samples of Assessments: a. Pre-Test Sample: Mrs. Lamake 9 Grade Regents Earth Science
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Weathering and Erosion Pre-Assessment Mini Quiz Show me what you know!
(0 points /+ 5 Bonus points- you will not get penalized for getting answers wrong answers - This quiz is design need to help you and me figure out what we will learn in out next unit!)

Circle One True False: If the statement is true, circle it; if the statement is false; correct it to receive a fraction of a bonus point! (each question is worth 1/3 of a bonus point)

1. Graded bedding is when sediments pile up on top of each other, randomly. (True/False). 2. Rounded particles/sediments will always be younger than angular gagged sediments (True/False). 3. Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller particles/ sediments (True/False). 4. Erosion is the process that transports/ moves weather sediments (True/False). 5. Freeze/ Thaw action produces physical weathering of rock (True/False). 6. Rocks and sediments are moved and changed by physical and chemical processes called erosion and weathering (True/False). 7. Wind often suspends and carries large sand particles in the air great distances (True/False). 8. The most influential weathering and erosion happen spur of the moment and fast (True/False). 9. Saltation is a wind and water personal process (True/False). 10. Mudslides occur when the ground is too dry (True/False).
Please answer in complete sentences: (each question is worth 1/3 of a bonus point)

11. Differentiate the difference between physical and chemical weathering.

12. Provide one example of a catalyst to weathering. 13. Provide one variable that can increase the rate of erosion. 14. Can you give an example of an observation you have made of something being weathered or eroding?

15. What sort of environmental factors would you need to take into consideration when estimating the rate of erosion of an object?

Pre-Test Sample Key: Mrs. Lamake 9th Grade Regents Earth Science Weathering and Erosion Pre-Assessment Mini Quiz Show me what you know!
(0 points /+ 5 Bonus points- you will not get penalized for getting answers wrong answers - This quiz is designed to help you and me figure out what we will learn in out next unit!)

Circle One True False: If the statement is true, circle it; if the statement is false; correct it to receive a fraction of a bonus point! (each question is worth 1/3 of a bonus point)

12. Graded bedding is when sediments pile up on top of each other, randomly. False- Graded bedding refers to the patter created when sediments are sorted from heaviest to lightest in the direction of wind/ water flow (lighter sediments travel farther than heavier ones). 13. Rounded particles/sediments will always be younger than angular gagged sediments. False- Rounded sediments have been weathered by water or wind to round down its edges, a rounded sediments, more often than not, either are older or have endured less weathering and erosion than sharp/ jagged ones. 14. Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller particles/ sediments. True. 15. Erosion is the process that transports/ moves weather sediments. True. 16. Freeze/ Thaw action produces physical weathering of rock. True.

17. Rocks and sediments are moved and changed by physical and chemical processes called erosion and weathering. True. 18. Wind often suspends and carries large sand particles in the air great distances. False- If any particle would be suspended in air for a long time it would be finer, lighter, and smaller in size (e.g. clay or silt) than sand. Sand is more often rolled by the wind aka saltation. 19. The most influential weathering and erosion happen spur of the moment and fast. While it is true that dramatic weather events may cause large scale weathering and erosion- fast, weathering and erosion happen all the time all around us; are constantly changing the landscape. 20. Saltation is a wind and water erosion process. True. 21. Mudslides occur when the ground is too dry. False, mudslides occur when the soil becomes super saturated with water, and the hydro static pressure on sediments resisting the weight overlying sediments becomes too much and there is a mass movement of sediments, instigated by gravity.
Please answer in complete sentences: (each question is worth 1/3 of a bonus point) (If the answer is correct they get the point; if the answer does not contain key concepts, the student does not get the point)

22. Differentiate the difference between physical and chemical weathering. Chemical weathering deals with the break up of rocks but changes the composition of the material. Physical weathering breaks rocks but does not chemically change a material. 23. Provide one example of a catalyst to weathering. Moisture- water plays a huge role in many chemical and physical weathering by infiltrating rock pore spaces- weakening the rock. 24. Provide one variable that can increase the rate of erosion. Wind velocity/ speed (velocity is speed and direction) but the faster the wind is blowing, the more powerful it is and the more sediments if can move. 14. Can you give an example of an observation you have made of something being weathered or eroding? Steel wool (Brillo pads) oxidize (chemically weather) quickly after being wet and exposed to air. 15. What sort of environmental factors would you need to take into consideration when estimating the rate of erosion of an object? -Temperature, speed, presence of water or moisture, gravity, biologic activity (presence or absence of vegetation) can all have an effect on the rate of erosion.

b. Daily Homework Sample Daily Homework (each question is worth 1 point each- 5 pts total) Mrs. Lamake 9 Grade Regents Earth Science
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1. What conditions are most likely to produce wind erosion? 2. How does the vegetation growing in an area affect the winds ability to modify the surface of the Earth? 3. Draw a diagram showing how deflation occurs in wind erosion. 4. Why is wind abrasion such and effective agent of erosion? 5. How do sand dunes form? Daily Homework Sample Key Daily Homework (each question is worth 1 point each- 5 pts total) Mrs. Lamake 9 Grade Regents Earth Science
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A well written sentence that contains most all the important points asked by the questions gets the point, if sentence is broken, is missing more than two pieces of information, or a large concept is missing the student gets point- 0 points for the answer. 6. What conditions are most likely to produce wind erosion? -Answer should include wind, suspension of clay/ silt particle, saltation of larger sandy sediments due to dry climates, with little to no vegetation cover. 7. How does the vegetation growing in an area affect the winds ability to modify the surface of the Earth? - Wind only has so much power behind it, if vegetation blocks the wind, then heavy particle fall out of suspension/ are not as easily lifted off the ground.- vegetation forms a fence (is ok for an answer)- better if student says particles can only fly so high. 8. Draw a diagram showing how deflation occurs in wind erosion. 1 pt if student provides an example like desert pavement phenomenon or the dust bowl. pt off if no drawing and only sentences. 0 pts if student does not show any effort.

9. Why is wind abrasion such and effective agent of erosion? -Wind is a constant force; because of the abrasive nature of the sediment it moves. 10. How do sand dunes form? (1) Object or rock hinders/ stops sediment from progressing on its path, (2) more sediments build up behind the stalled sediment and (3) as sediments attempt to climb over one another (saltation), (4) they loose momentum, furthering the sediment build up. C. Lab Sample (Lab is worth 21 points- each completed row of the table is worth 1 point- if any blacks are left the student only receives a point, more than two blacks the student receives 0 points. On the short answer section, A well written sentence that contains most all the important points asked by the questions gets 2 points, if sentence is broken, is missing more than two pieces of information, or a large concept is missing the student gets 1 point- 0 points for the answer.)

Mechanical Weathering Lab


Type of Lesson: Hands-on activity and discussion Time Needed: 45 minutes, or one full class period Earth and Space Science, Grades 9-12: Interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution of the earth system. We can observe some changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years. Quick Summary of Lesson This experiment will guide students in comparing the weathering of different materials. Materials rock and mineral samples - include two sizes of salt pellets in class comparison plastic jar with lid clock

scale student worksheet available in Student Activity Sheet section below Procedure 1. Each group of 2-3 students should obtain a weighed rock or mineral sample in a plastic jar. Record the weight of the sample on the worksheet. 2. Fill the jar 1/4 way with water. Screw the lid on tightly. 3.Shake the jar at a steady rate for ten minutes (you may want to share the shaking!). 4. Open the jar and rinse away the loose sediment. Pat the sample dry and get it weighed (by the teacher or assistant). Record this weight on your worksheet and mark it on the jar. 5. Write down some observations about your sample. (Has the size, shape or color changed at all?) 6. Return your sample to the jar. Clean up your work area. 7. Complete the chart on your worksheet and fill in your result on the blackboard. To figure out the "% change" take the "change in weight" and divide it by the "weight before shaking" and multiply it by 100. (For example, if the sample weighed 100 grams before it was shaken and 75 grams after, its change in weight was 100g-75g=25 g. Now 25 grams divided by 100 grams is . 25. Multiply that by 100 to get 25%. 8. Be sure and copy the results on the board from other groups! 9. Answer all the questions on the worksheet. Student Activity Sheet Weathering Worksheet Results
Rock or Mineral Weight before shaking Weight after shaking Change in weight % change

Name:____________________

Questions 1) Which rock or mineral weathered the most? -The larger mineral, it had more surface area. 2) Which rock or mineral weathered the least? -The smaller one, especially if its edges were more round to begin with- less surface area. 3) What does the shaking in water represent in real life? Saltation, suspension in moving water (there are many acceptable answers- as long as it includes water and movement). 4)In this lab we compared weathering of different materials. How could we change the experiment to measure or compare weathering? List at least two changes.
(Change mineral types, change type of weathering e.g. have solution drop on one mineral and not the other, water is chemical weathering- if you want to isolate physical or chemical weathering break the lab down into sections- just shake the mineral in a dry jar or just put the mineral is a jar of water.) 5)Why did we try two sizes of salt pellets? (think surface area)

(If you increase surface area you increase surface exposed to physical and chemical weathering.) Rocks and minerals undergo physical and chemical weathering. One type of weathering that rocks and minerals undergo is when water dissolves the

minerals. Some minerals are more resistant to weathering than others. For instance, quartz is a very resistant mineral. Surface area also affects weathering; the more surface area exposed, the more weathering that will take place.
Last modified March 18, 2002 by the Windows Team
The source of this material is Windows to the Universe, at http://windows2universe.org/ from the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA). The Website was developed in part with the support of UCAR and NCAR, where it resided from 2000 - 2010. 2010 National Earth Science Teachers Association. Windows to the Universe is a registered trademark of NESTA. All Rights Reserved. Site policies and disclaimer.

http://www.windows2universe.org/teacher_resources/mech_weather_edu.html

d. Performance Based Test Sample Performance Based Exercise (worth 18 points) Mrs. Lamake 9th Grade Regents Earth Science

Procedure: S Research an area found in the Roadside Geology of New York handbook, or a local outcrop of your choice (as long you they can find supporting information on the outcrop in a published piece of literature- pre-approved by the teacher). Give a science fair type oral presentation (~15-20 minutes), at your desk to the class and include a written essay 2-3 pages, about the area, outcrop,and its history. Using previous knowledge and new understandings of weathering and erosion, make interpretations about what types of weathering/erosion have taken place at their site (both in the geologic past- as seen in strata and in recent times ~ 100-300 years), what forces could effect that location in the future, and what it might look like, then the students will explain the research they have done, and how they have come to these conclusions. Essential Elements: *Use at least two different sources of information, one being an old fashioned paper book! * Include/ present at least three pieces of supporting data (pictures, rock samples, topographic maps etc) to support your findings. * Identified at least three variables (wind, water, mass wasting etc) that affect your outcrop (in a large or small way). * Provide a strong argument for your theory by using organized research and supporting evidence. But alternately discuss a different possibility for you outcrop to posses its

distinct features (remember this is a learning environment; just show us what youve learned). Analytical Rubric Student Employs Research to Support His/Her Ideas 2 Student used at least two different sources of information (at least one was a paper book). 1 Student reported only one reference and/or did not use a paper book. 0 Students did not cite and sources. Student Includes Data in His/Her Report and Visual Presentation to Support Claims. 2 Student included at least three pieces of supporting data (pictures, rock samples, topographic maps etc). 1 Student had less than three pieces of supporting evidence. 0 Student did not use any supporting evidence. Student Can Discusses and Assess Observations Made About His/ Her Outcrop. 2 Student identified at least three variables (wind, water, mass wasting etc) that affected his/her outcrop. 1 Student could identify one variable affecting his/ her outcrop. 0 Student could not identify and variables affecting his/her outcrop. Student Measures the Validity of His/ Her Argument with Data (Student Is Aware of More than One Explanation For the Observed Phenomenon) 2 Student provided a strong argument for his/her theory by using research, supporting evidence, and organized his/her case well; also discussed alternate possibilities. 1 Student came prepared with supporting data but did not accommodate other ideas. 0 Student was not prepared and did not contribute additional ideas. e. Paper and Pencil Test Sample Mrs. Lamake Unit Final 9 Grade Regents Earth Science (55) MTC (derived from past Regents exams) (55 points- each question is worth one point). (1) Short Answer (2 points) (2) Extended Response Questions (10 points- each question being worth 5 points each)
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1. The Pine Bush Region (From 2007 Regents Exam) The Pine Bush region, just northwest of Albany, New York, is a 40-square mile area of sand dunes and wetlands covered by pitch pine trees and scrub oak bushes. During the Ordovician Period, this area was covered by a large sea. Layers of mud and sand

deposited in this sea were compressed into shale and sandstone bedrock. During most of the Cenozoic Era, running water eroded stream channels into the bedrock. One of these buried channels is shown at location A in the cross section. Over the last one million years of the Cenozoic Era, this area was affected by glaciations. During the last major advance of glacial ice, soil and bedrock were eroded and later deposited as till (a mixture of boulders, pebbles, sand, and clay). About 20,000 years ago, the last glacier in New York State began to melt. During the 5000 years it took to melt this glacier, the entire Pine Bush area became submerged under a large 350-foot-deep glacial lake called Lake Albany. Lake Albany drained about 12,000 years ago, exposing the lake bottom. What types of deposits might one expect to find in/around the area glacial lake Albany was located above? -Delta deposits of cobbles, pebbles, and sand formed along the lake shorelines, and beds of silt and clay were deposited farther into the lake. Based on the reading, only, what is the most likely the most common rock type in the pine bush area; and what are some features the rock may contain as evidence for its depositional facies? -Sedimentary- The reading did not mention anything about contact or regional metamorphism; igneous rocks are formed from the cooling of hot molten, lava or magma and the readings did not mention any thing according to that nature. - Stratified Drift, The melt water, coming from the glacier deposited pebbles and sand forming stratified drift. - Wind erosion might have created sand dunes or losses as the glacier melted. Choose Two Questions Out of The Five: 1. What are the most common/ major causes of weathering and erosion? -Students should explore physical and chemical processes; talk about factors that influence both and which ones are interrelated. 2. What sorts of features/ evidence are left behind/ created as a result of different weathering and erosion processes (are there also long or short term consequences/ evidences)? -Students should provide examples (at least two). Diagrams are acceptable evidence that demonstrate content knowledge as long as they are accompanied by 1- 2 complete sentences explaining the diagram/cartoon. 3. What are some common themes between cycles and erosion/weathering patters on Earth? -Students should construct and interpret two cycles e.g. hydraulic, rock that have an effect on weathering and erosion processes. 4. What evidences of weathering and erosion are visible in strata? -Students should distinguish and characterize at least two.

A well written sentence that contains most all the important points asked by the questions gets full points, if sentence is broken, is missing more than two pieces of information, or a large concept is missing the student gets points- 0 points for the answer.) (MTC test to follow in an attachment)

Key for MTC: 1) A 2) C 3) B 4) A 5) D 6) C 7) D 8) C 9) A 10) C 11) C 12) B

13) D 14) B 15) C 16) D 17) B 18) B 19) D 20) B 21) B 22) B 23) C 48) B 49) C 50) B 51) C 52) C 53) A 54) A 55) C From: (Test) http://reviewearthscience.com/subjects/es/review/topic-spec/ch9.pdf (Key) http://reviewearthscience.com/subjects/es/review/topic-spec/ch9ans.pdf