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THERMODYNAMICS

Research Question: Calculate the specific heat capacity of water when the resistance, time, and electric current of water are given. Correct it to 2 decimal places. Hypothesis: From pre acquired knowledge I will hypothesis that the specific heat capacity of water are dependent on the mass of the water, change in temperature and amount of heat energy supplied. mc-Heat energy of water. Where, m is mass of the water c is specific heat capacity is change in temperature is angle I2Rt-Heat energy of the filament Where, I is current R is resistance T is Time. Heat across filament when current I is passed through resistor R for time T. H I2 H R [here H is in joule] Ht

H I2Rt If heat is supplied to water of mass m and change in temperature is then: H c H m H H mc Now by energy conservation we can conclude that I2Rt=mc So, C= I2 Since (y=m/x) Selection of variables: 1. Manipulated/ independent Time 2. Controlled / fixed- Mass, Controlled Resistance and Current 3. Responding Final Temperature of Water

Material Required: Water Ceramic Cup Stop watch Weighing Scales Resistor Ammeter Thermometer Voltammeter Nicrome Wire

Methods to control variable: Manipulated: Time Time can be kept in check by using a digital stopwatch, which has the least count of 1/1000 second in order to get accurate as well as precise reading. It is very necessary to start the time exactly at the moment when we start the experiment by supplying heat to the current, in order to avoid any error. Usage of LAP button is also suggested in order to record time intervals at regular level. Controlled: Mass of water It should be taken care that no water is lost by splashing out since it causes a change in heat capacity of water, therefore keeping a check on water in the ceramic cup is highly necessary. Resistance: In order to check the resistance of the wire , it should be taken care that the length and the temperature of the wire remains constant since these are the factors which can cause change in resistance. Current: Constant current should be passed and the factors such as length, temperature and mass of the wire should remain constant since these factors have a direct impact on the current supplied.

Responding: Temperature of the water: Temperature readings should be taken properly and it should be taken care that there is no loss in mass of water since it can cause in the temperature of the water.

Procedure: Take some amount of water in a ceramic cup. Put it on the weighing scales and carefully note down the mass of the water. It is necessary to insulate the ceramic cup properly in order to avoid any heat loss in form of conduction and radiation. This can be done by covering the ceramic cup properly with the help of an aluminum foil. Complete the electric circuit by properly arranging the ammeter, voltammeter, resistor and the switch with the help of a nicrome wire. Use of nicrome wire is suggested since it is a good conductor of heat and electricity, which in turn helps in increasing the rate at which experiment is performed. Immerse some part of this nicrome wire in the ceramic cup filled with water. Complete this set up by immersing a thermometer in the ceramic cup in order to observe any temperature change. Once this set up is complete start the flow of current in order to start the experiment.

It is highly recommended to start the digital stop watch at the same time, in order to avoid any kind of random error. Properly observe the readings in the thermometer and start noting them down at regular interval of time. It is highly recommended to try to avoid any kind of systematic or random error while performing this experiment since it can cause deviation from the true value.

Safety measures: Proper safety measures are needed to be taken while performing the experiment. Experiment should be performed under proper guidance of the teacher in charge. Proper care is to be taken while handling different devices such as resistor, weighing scales, ammeter, etc. Gloves are to be worn while performing the experiment in order to provide safety against excessive heat and electric current as well. It should be taken care that hands should not be wet while operating any live electric instrument otherwise it could lead to an electric shock.