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Page 1

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Important Formulas

Chapter 3 Data Description

X

Mean for individual data: X

n

f Xm

n

X 2 [X 2n]

n1

f X m2 [ f Xm 2n]

n1

range

4

n

Addition rule 1 (mutually exclusive events):

P(A or B) P(A) P(B)

Addition rule 2 (events not mutually exclusive):

P(A or B) P(A) P(B) P(A and B)

Multiplication rule 1 (independent events):

P(A and B) P(A) P(B)

Multiplication rule 2 (dependent events):

X

XX

or

s

Mean of sample means: mX m

Standard error of the mean: sX

n

X

Central limit theorem formula: z

n

Standard score z

Sample Size

z confidence interval for means:

X z 2

Conditional probability: PB A

n!

pX q nX

X !X!

Mean for binomial distribution: m n p

Variance and standard deviation for the binomial

distribution: s2 n p q

s n p q

Binomial probability: PX

s

s2 [X 2 P(X)] m2

s [X 2 PX ] m2

s

Variance and standard deviation for a probability

distribution:

P A and B

P A

n

X z n

X t 2

s n

X t s n

z 2

E

maximum error of estimate

of a sequence when each event has a different

number of possibilities: k 1 k 2 k 3 k n

n!

taking r at a time is n Pr

n r !

n!

selected from n objects is n Cr

n r !r!

p z 2

p q

p

p z 2

n

where E is the

p q

n

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B&W CONFIRMINGS

Sample size for a proportion: n p q

E

z 2

variances not equal):

X

and

q 1 p

n

Confidence interval for variance:

p

where

n

t

n 1 s2

1 s2

2

right

2left

1 s2

2right

n

X2 1 2

s21 s22

n1 n2

Formula for the confidence interval for difference of

two means (small independent samples, variance

unequal):

n

X1

1 s2

2left

X1

X2 t 2

s21 s22

1 2

n1 n2

X

s n

t

t test: t

X

sn

for n

30 (d.f. n 1)

p p

pqn

X1

n1

n

(d.f. n 1)

X1

X2 t 2

X1

21 22

n1

n2

X2 t 2

X2

z 2

n1

n1 n2 2

n1

1 s21 n 2 1 s22

n1 n 2 2

t

means (large samples):

X1

21 22

1 2

n1

n2

1

1

n1 n2

1

1

n1 n2

1

1

n1 n 2

and d.f. n1 n2 2.

t test for comparing two means for dependent samples:

X2 1 2

1 2

z

n1 n2 2

means (small independent samples, variances equal):

1 s 2

2

Two Means, Two Variances,

and Two Proportions

X2 1 2

(d.f. n1 n2 2)

X1

s21 s22

n1 n2

t test for comparing two means (independent samples,

variances equal):

z

X1 X2 t 2

X

z test: z

for any value n. If n

30,

n

population must be normally distributed.

X1 X2 z 2

21

n1

22

n2

s2

F test for comparing two variances: F 12

s2

where s 21 is the larger variance and

d.f.N. n1 1, d.f.D. n2 1

sD

D D

sD n

where

D

D

n

D 2 [D 2n]

n1

d.f.

n 1

and

difference for dependent samples:

SD

S

D

D t 2 D

n

n

(d.f. n 1)

D t 2

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Page 3

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Standard error of estimate:

z

p1

p 2 p1 p2

where

1

1

pq

n1 n2

__

sest

X

p 1 1

n1

y t 2 sest

X

p2 2

n2

y

y t 2s est

two proportions:

p2 z 2

p 1 q1 p 2 q2

p1 p2

n1

n2

p1 p 2 z 2

p 1 q1 p 2 q2

n1

n2

Correlation coefficient:

r

y2 a y b xy

n2

X X2

p 1

n1 n2

_

q1p

p1

nxy xy

[nx2 x 2][n y2 y 2]

(d.f. n 2)

n2

1 r2

n x X 2

1

1

n n x 2 x 2

(d.f. n 2)

Variance (ANOVA)

Chi-square test for goodness of fit:

E 2

E

(d.f. no. of categories 1)

x2 a

O

proportions:

E 2

E

[d.f. (rows 1)(col. 1)]

x2 a

O

ANOVA test: F

X

sB2

where

XGM

sW2

N

where

N n1 n2 nk

where

k number of groups

xxy

x 2

nxy xy

b

nx 2 x 2

d.f.N. k 1

d.f.D. N k

sB2

niXi XGM 2

k1

explained variation

Coefficient of determination: r

total variation

sW2

ni 1 s2i

ni 1

where a

y x2

nx2

1

n x X 2

1

n n x2 x 2

7/21/06

08:21 PM

Page 4

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Procedure Table

STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

STEP 4

STEP 5

Procedure Table

STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

STEP 4

STEP 5

ISBN 978-0-07-331781-6

MHID 0-07-331781-0

blu3496X_IF.qxd

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08:21 PM

Page 5

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Table E

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

.0000

.0398

.0793

.1179

.1554

.0040

.0438

.0832

.1217

.1591

.0080

.0478

.0871

.1255

.1628

.0120

.0517

.0910

.1293

.1664

.0160

.0557

.0948

.1331

.1700

.0199

.0596

.0987

.1368

.1736

.0239

.0636

.1026

.1406

.1772

.0279

.0675

.1064

.1443

.1808

.0319

.0714

.1103

.1480

.1844

.0359

.0753

.1141

.1517

.1879

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

.1915

.2257

.2580

.2881

.3159

.1950

.2291

.2611

.2910

.3186

.1985

.2324

.2642

.2939

.3212

.2019

.2357

.2673

.2967

.3238

.2054

.2389

.2704

.2995

.3264

.2088

.2422

.2734

.3023

.3289

.2123

.2454

.2764

.3051

.3315

.2157

.2486

.2794

.3078

.3340

.2190

.2517

.2823

.3106

.3365

.2224

.2549

.2852

.3133

.3389

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

.3413

.3643

.3849

.4032

.4192

.3438

.3665

.3869

.4049

.4207

.3461

.3686

.3888

.4066

.4222

.3485

.3708

.3907

.4082

.4236

.3508

.3729

.3925

.4099

.4251

.3531

.3749

.3944

.4115

.4265

.3554

.3770

.3962

.4131

.4279

.3577

.3790

.3980

.4147

.4292

.3599

.3810

.3997

.4162

.4306

.3621

.3830

.4015

.4177

.4319

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

.4332

.4452

.4554

.4641

.4713

.4345

.4463

.4564

.4649

.4719

.4357

.4474

.4573

.4656

.4726

.4370

.4484

.4582

.4664

.4732

.4382

.4495

.4591

.4671

.4738

.4394

.4505

.4599

.4678

.4744

.4406

.4515

.4608

.4686

.4750

.4418

.4525

.4616

.4693

.4756

.4429

.4535

.4625

.4699

.4761

.4441

.4545

.4633

.4706

.4767

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

.4772

.4821

.4861

.4893

.4918

.4778

.4826

.4864

.4896

.4920

.4783

.4830

.4868

.4898

.4922

.4788

.4834

.4871

.4901

.4925

.4793

.4838

.4875

.4904

.4927

.4798

.4842

.4878

.4906

.4929

.4803

.4846

.4881

.4909

.4931

.4808

.4850

.4884

.4911

.4932

.4812

.4854

.4887

.4913

.4934

.4817

.4857

.4890

.4916

.4936

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

.4938

.4953

.4965

.4974

.4981

.4987

.4940

.4955

.4966

.4975

.4982

.4987

.4941

.4956

.4967

.4976

.4982

.4987

.4943

.4957

.4968

.4977

.4983

.4988

.4945

.4959

.4969

.4977

.4984

.4988

.4946

.4960

.4970

.4978

.4984

.4989

.4948

.4961

.4971

.4979

.4985

.4989

.4949

.4962

.4972

.4979

.4985

.4989

.4951

.4963

.4973

.4980

.4986

.4990

.4952

.4964

.4974

.4981

.4986

.4990

Area given

in table

Source: Frederick Mosteller and Robert E. K. Rourke, Sturdy Statistics, Table A1 (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley,

1973). Reprinted with permission of the copyright owners.

blu3496X_IF.qxd

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08:21 PM

Page 6

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Table F

The t Distribution

Confidence

intervals

50%

80%

90%

95%

98%

99%

One tail, A

0.25

0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

Two tails, A

0.50

0.20

0.10

0.05

0.02

0.01

1

2

3

4

5

1.000

.816

.765

.741

.727

3.078

1.886

1.638

1.533

1.476

6.314

2.920

2.353

2.132

2.015

12.706

4.303

3.182

2.776

2.571

31.821

6.965

4.541

3.747

3.365

63.657

9.925

5.841

4.604

4.032

6

7

8

9

10

.718

.711

.706

.703

.700

1.440

1.415

1.397

1.383

1.372

1.943

1.895

1.860

1.833

1.812

2.447

2.365

2.306

2.262

2.228

3.143

2.998

2.896

2.821

2.764

3.707

3.499

3.355

3.250

3.169

11

12

13

14

15

.697

.695

.694

.692

.691

1.363

1.356

1.350

1.345

1.341

1.796

1.782

1.771

1.761

1.753

2.201

2.179

2.160

2.145

2.131

2.718

2.681

2.650

2.624

2.602

3.106

3.055

3.012

2.977

2.947

16

17

18

19

20

.690

.689

.688

.688

.687

1.337

1.333

1.330

1.328

1.325

1.746

1.740

1.734

1.729

1.725

2.120

2.110

2.101

2.093

2.086

2.583

2.567

2.552

2.539

2.528

2.921

2.898

2.878

2.861

2.845

21

22

23

24

25

.686

.686

.685

.685

.684

1.323

1.321

1.319

1.318

1.316

1.721

1.717

1.714

1.711

1.708

2.080

2.074

2.069

2.064

2.060

2.518

2.508

2.500

2.492

2.485

2.831

2.819

2.807

2.797

2.787

26

27

28

(z)

.684

.684

.683

.674

1.315

1.314

1.313

1.282a

1.706

1.703

1.701

1.645b

2.056

2.052

2.048

1.960

2.479

2.473

2.467

2.326c

2.779

2.771

2.763

2.576d

d.f.

This value has been rounded to 1.65 in the textbook.

c

This value has been rounded to 2.33 in the textbook.

d

This value has been rounded to 2.58 in the textbook.

b

and Statistics, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1986.

Reprinted with permission.

Two tails

One tail

Area

Area

2

t

Area

2

t

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Page 7

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Table G

A

Degrees of

freedom

0.995

0.99

0.975

0.95

0.90

0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.010

0.072

0.207

0.412

0.676

0.989

1.344

1.735

2.156

2.603

3.074

3.565

4.075

4.601

5.142

5.697

6.265

6.844

7.434

8.034

8.643

9.262

9.886

10.520

11.160

11.808

12.461

13.121

13.787

20.707

27.991

35.534

43.275

51.172

59.196

67.328

0.020

0.115

0.297

0.554

0.872

1.239

1.646

2.088

2.558

3.053

3.571

4.107

4.660

5.229

5.812

6.408

7.015

7.633

8.260

8.897

9.542

10.196

10.856

11.524

12.198

12.879

13.565

14.257

14.954

22.164

29.707

37.485

45.442

53.540

61.754

70.065

0.001

0.051

0.216

0.484

0.831

1.237

1.690

2.180

2.700

3.247

3.816

4.404

5.009

5.629

6.262

6.908

7.564

8.231

8.907

9.591

10.283

10.982

11.689

12.401

13.120

13.844

14.573

15.308

16.047

16.791

24.433

32.357

40.482

48.758

57.153

65.647

74.222

0.004

0.103

0.352

0.711

1.145

1.635

2.167

2.733

3.325

3.940

4.575

5.226

5.892

6.571

7.261

7.962

8.672

9.390

10.117

10.851

11.591

12.338

13.091

13.848

14.611

15.379

16.151

16.928

17.708

18.493

26.509

34.764

43.188

51.739

60.391

69.126

77.929

0.016

0.211

0.584

1.064

1.610

2.204

2.833

3.490

4.168

4.865

5.578

6.304

7.042

7.790

8.547

9.312

10.085

10.865

11.651

12.443

13.240

14.042

14.848

15.659

16.473

17.292

18.114

18.939

19.768

20.599

29.051

37.689

46.459

55.329

64.278

73.291

82.358

2.706

4.605

6.251

7.779

9.236

10.645

12.017

13.362

14.684

15.987

17.275

18.549

19.812

21.064

22.307

23.542

24.769

25.989

27.204

28.412

29.615

30.813

32.007

33.196

34.382

35.563

36.741

37.916

39.087

40.256

51.805

63.167

74.397

85.527

96.578

107.565

118.498

3.841

5.991

7.815

9.488

11.071

12.592

14.067

15.507

16.919

18.307

19.675

21.026

22.362

23.685

24.996

26.296

27.587

28.869

30.144

31.410

32.671

33.924

35.172

36.415

37.652

38.885

40.113

41.337

42.557

43.773

55.758

67.505

79.082

90.531

101.879

113.145

124.342

5.024

7.378

9.348

11.143

12.833

14.449

16.013

17.535

19.023

20.483

21.920

23.337

24.736

26.119

27.488

28.845

30.191

31.526

32.852

34.170

35.479

36.781

38.076

39.364

40.646

41.923

43.194

44.461

45.722

46.979

59.342

71.420

83.298

95.023

106.629

118.136

129.561

6.635

9.210

11.345

13.277

15.086

16.812

18.475

20.090

21.666

23.209

24.725

26.217

27.688

29.141

30.578

32.000

33.409

34.805

36.191

37.566

38.932

40.289

41.638

42.980

44.314

45.642

46.963

48.278

49.588

50.892

63.691

76.154

88.379

100.425

112.329

124.116

135.807

7.879

10.597

12.838

14.860

16.750

18.548

20.278

21.955

23.589

25.188

26.757

28.299

29.819

31.319

32.801

34.267

35.718

37.156

38.582

39.997

41.401

42.796

44.181

45.559

46.928

48.290

49.645

50.993

52.336

53.672

66.766

79.490

91.952

104.215

116.321

128.299

140.169

Source: Triola, ELEMENTARY STATISTICS, p. 737 Table A-4, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2001 Pearson

Education, Inc. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison Wesley.

All rights reserved.

Area

2

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Page 8

B&W CONFIRMINGS

Table I

the value given in the table. The values are for a two-tailed

test; d.f. n 2.

d.f

A 0.05

A 0.01

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.999

0.950

0.878

0.811

0.754

0.707

0.666

0.632

0.602

0.576

0.553

0.532

0.514

0.497

0.482

0.468

0.456

0.444

0.433

0.423

0.381

0.349

0.325

0.304

0.288

0.273

0.250

0.232

0.217

0.205

0.195

0.999

0.999

0.959

0.917

0.875

0.834

0.798

0.765

0.735

0.708

0.684

0.661

0.641

0.623

0.606

0.590

0.575

0.561

0.549

0.537

0.487

0.449

0.418

0.393

0.372

0.354

0.325

0.302

0.283

0.267

0.254

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