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African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (5), pp. 763-784, 6 March, 2009 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.

org/AJB ISSN 16845315 2009 Academic Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Indigenous uses of economically important flora of Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad, Pakistan
Asma Jabeen1, Mir Ajab Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Muhammad Zafar2* and Farooq Ahmad2
2

Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Accepted 6 February, 2009

Informal interviews provided data about 245 useful plants of 77 families of 55 trees, 54 shrubs, 105 herbs, 15 climber, 10 grasses and 6 crops recorded from the Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad. Two hundred and fifteen local/ vernacular names were noted of total plants. The inhabitants of the park have for a long time been dependent on surrounding plant resources for their food, health care, fodder, fuel wood and other cultural purposes. A list of plant species along with their local name, plant part/s used, popular uses (or troubles treated) are given. The pastoral nomads of the area make use of 159 (64.89%) as native medicine, 79 (32.24%) as fodder for their livestock, 47(19.18%) as fuelwood, 33 (13.46%) as food (fruits), 18 (7.34%) as vegetables, 14 (5.71%) as timber, 6 (2.44%) as industrial, 4 (1.63%) as tannin, 3 (1.22%) as gum and 2 (0.81%) as fiber. Medicinal uses of the 126 plant species have also been described. This information will serve as reference for the benefit of pharmacists, researchers, Hakims (herbalist), veterinarians and public at large. Key words: Indigenous uses, flora, Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad, Pakistan. INTRODUCTION Margallah Hills National Park, occuping an area of 15,883 hectares in North East of the National Capital Islamabad in the province of Punjab is lying 33 43 N latitude and 7255 E longitude (Ibrar and Khan, 1998). The topography of the area is rugged, varying in elevation from 465 to 1600 m comprising mainly of steep slopes and gullies where the rock structure is basically limestone (Nasir and Robina, 1987). The area falls in the far end of monsoon zone and the bulk of monsoon precipitation occurs in July and August, with monthly average of 267 and 309 mm respectively (Maqsood, 1991). The soil of the area is derived from wind, water laid deposits and sedimentary rocks (Hijazi, 1984). The average maximum and minimum temperature are 33.3 and 19.5C, respectively. The hottest months are May and June when the temperature may raise up to 42C and the coldest months are December and January when temperature falls below zero (Hussain, 1986). Pakistan is rich in medicinal plant resources due to its varied climatic and edaphic factors. Of the almost 6000 species of vascular plants reported to occur in Pakistan, about 1000 species have been recognized to possess phyto-chemical properties. Between 350 - 400 species are traded in different drug markets of the country and are used by leading manufacturing units of Unani and Homeopathic medicines. Besides, a number of medicinal plants and their derivatives required by pharmaceutical industries are also imported under a liberal import policy of the Government for those drug plants whose cultivation is not feasible in the country. Furthermore, about 40,000 - 50,000 tabibs (practitioner of Greco-Arabic medicine), vaids (practitioner of Ayurvedic and folkmedicine) and a number of un-registered practitioners scattered in rural and remote hilly areas use more than 200 drug plants in traditional and folk-medicines as household remedies for several diseases. In recent years, there has been a consistent growth in the demand for plant-based drugs and several plant products from a variety of species. This has given rise to large-scale collection and habitat degradation. It has resulted in the scarcity of a number of valuable medicinal plant species and their wide range of chemical diversity is diminishing with the present scale of selective extraction from natural habitats.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: catlacatla@hotmail.com.

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Hijazi (1984) reported that Dodonaea viscosa was the most common shrub of Margalla Hills National Park. Khattak and Ahmed (1990) compared the vegetation on the north and south facing slopes of Margalla Hills and reported the presence of Pinus roxburgii, Apluda mutica and Quercus incana community on the north facing slopes and Acacia modesta, Woodfordia fruticosa, D. viscosa community on the south facing slopes. According to them, the north facing slopes showed greater species diversity as compare to the south facing slopes having the similarity index as 46%. Population is randomly distributed, mostly located near water streams and springs. In a census of Capital Development Authority CDA acquired land in August 1991, there were 5744 people in 23 settelments (villages). These people are living in 975 houses and own 3910 heads of livestock. People allow their livestock to graze freely, they cut trees for fuel, gather fodder for animals and divert water for cultivated plots. Livestock also compete with the native animals for food and space. Maqsood (1991) estimates that of the 7,000 domestic ungulates in the park, 42% are goats, 31% are cattle, and 25% are water buffaloes. It is not possible to protect the viable population of Grey Goral and Barking Deer if livestock are also permitted to graze in the same area. They unwittingly deplete the natural system of biomass and diversity. The principal direct cause of degradation of Pakistan's rangelands and forests is the rapidly increasing domestic livestock population. Between 1945 and 1986, numbers of cattle almost doubled, while the numbers of buffaloes, sheep and goats more than tripled. Overall livestock numbers continue to increase at a rate of 2% per year. While much of this increase has been fed by the production of fodder within irrigated areas, persistent over-grazing has reduced forage production in Pakistan's rangelands to one-third the potential (a loss of almost 50 million tonnes per year), and in some areas to as low as 15% of potential forage production (GOP/JRC, 1992). Villagers are only partially supported by the cash economy, consequently they dependent for their survival on livestock, gardens, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal uses, food, shelters etc. Different parts of the Napoleona imperialis are used for different purposes in the West Africa including mulching and fodder (leaves and twigs),and firewood, chewing stick and ethno-medicine (stem and root) (Osei-Owusu, 1981; Okafor and Fernandez, 1987). Humans consume the juice from the fruits and pods and the seeds are discarded. The seeds have very low human food preference or any industrial use as of now and could therefore form an alternative feeding redient for livestock production. Quarries, abandoned roads and villages, springs and eroded trails are the significant areas of impact. People invariably ignite wild land fires in Margallah Hills. Some fires are probablycaused by carelessness. An over-riding aspect of the indigenous knowledge system is that it tends to be held by the older, as opposed

to the younger generations. The major loss of indigenous knowledge in the population of villages is the disruption of the traditional channel of oral communication due to shift to written exchange ofcommunications. This made it difficult for the older generation to pass their knowledge on to the younger generation. Depletion of flora at an increasing rate is another crucially important problem of Margallah Hills meaning that important economic species are being lost. The exploitation of ethnobotanical values (Table 1) of Margallah Hills will be helpful in a variety of ways particularly focusing on exploitable potential, status and value for disease control, status and value for disease control, commercialization, marketing aspects and createawareness about the related issues.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Knowledgeable and reliable elderly people, plant lovers and Hakim from Margallah Hills National Park were contacted to record the first hand knowledge about the economical/medicinal uses of native species of the area. The ethno-botanical information were collected by using a specifically designed questionaire incorporated in Table 2. Data on parts (leaves, twigs, fruits, pods) of plant species used and ethno-botanical values viz. fodder, medicinal, fiber, food (vegetable, fruit), fuel wood, timber, industrial, tanning and gum were collected. For medicinal uses, in addition to information on the plant parts used, their collection, processing, preparation of drugs, properties of medicine and diseases cured by them were also collected.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION About 245 plant species belonging to 77 families of which 55 trees species, 54 shrubs, 105 herbs, 15 climbers, 10 grasses and 6 fodder crops have been identified. It has been observed that all of these plant species are being used by the people of Margallah Hills National Park for their varied ethno-botanical importance (Table 2). The ethno-botanical uses of plants can be categorized into ten broad categories (Table 3). Major proportion of these plant species are used as native medicine (64.89%) and second major use of these plant species is as fodder (32.24%) for their livestock. Forty seven plants (19.18%) are used as fuel wood, thirty three (13.46%) are used as food (fruit), eighteen (7.34%) as food (vegetable), fourteen (5.71%) as timber, six (2.44%) as industrial, four (1.63%) as tannin, three (1.22%) as gum and two (0.81%) are used as fiber. The Margallah Hills National Park has sustained these ethnobotanical uses for long time. The uses of these plant species are restricted to local people who collect these plant species as and when required (Table 4). Indigenous uses of medicinal plants of Margallah Hills Timbar (Zanthoxylum armatum) fresh and dried both of one cup is used in the morning and one in the evening

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Table 1. Ethno-botanical values of plants of Margallah Hills National Park. a. Trees.

S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Botanical name Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. A. farnesiana A. modesta Wall. A.. nilotica (L.) Delile Aesculus indica (Wall.ex Camb.) Hook. f. Albizzia lebbek (L.) Benth. Bauhinia variegata L. Bombax ceiba L.

Family Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Hippocastanaceae Mimosaceae Caesalpinaceae Bombacaceae

Vernacular name Khair,Katha Vilaiti kikar Phulai Kikar Bankhor Shareen Kachnar Simbal, Simal

English name

Part used Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Buds, leaves, fruit Bark, stem, roots, seed Bark, leaves, stem Bark, leaves, stem Entire plant Stem, leaves, seeds, root, bark Entire plant Leaves, stem, fruit Fruit, stem Leaves, stem, roots and bark Stem, fruit, Stem, bark

Use freq R R C C C C C R

Ethnobotanical values Medicinal, fuelwood Fodder, fuel wood, Industrial Medicinal, fuelwood Medicinal, fuelwood Fodder, fuel wood, medicinal Fodder, fuel wood, medicinal Fodder, food (Vegetable), medicinal Fuelwood, medicinal, Industrial Fodder, Industrial Fodder, fuel wood, fiber, medicinal, gum Food (Honey production) Medicinal, fuel wood, tannin, timber

Babul Horse chestnut Siris

9 10 11 12

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L Herit ex Vent Butea monosperma (Lam.) O. Kuntz. Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels Cassia fistula L.

Moraceae Papilionaceae Myrtaceae Caesalpinaceae

Kaghzi tut, Malaing Palas, dhak, Chichra

Silk cotton tree, Cotton tree, Kapok tree Paper Mulbery Flame of the forest BottleBrush Tree Golden Shower, Pudding pip-tree, Indian Laburnum Himalayan Cedar Nettle tree Shisham

C R R C

Kingo, Amaltas

13 14 15 16

Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don Celtis eriocarpa Decne. Cordia oblique Willd.Phytogr Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC Ehretia obtusifolia Hochst ex DC. Erythrina suberosa Roxb.

Pinaceae Ulmaceae Boraginaceae Papilonaceae

Deodar Batkhar, Kharak Lasura Tali, Sissoo

R C C C

Timber, medicinal Fodder, food (Fruit) Medicinal, fruit, fuelwood, Fodder, fuel wood, medicinal, timber Fuel wood, fruit, timber Fuel wood, medicinal

17 18

Boraginaceae Papilionaceae

Puna Dhauldak

Coral tree

R R

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Table 1. Cont.

19 20

Ficus auriculata Lour. Syn: F. roxburghii Wall. Ex Miq. Ficus benghalensis L.

Moraceae Moraceae

Trembal, Dusi Bohr

Banyan

Leaves, fruit Leaves, root, bark, seeds Seed, bark, fruit, wood Fruit, leaves Fruits, gum Stem Leaves, fruit, stem Stem

R R

Fodder, fruit Medicinal

21

Ficus religiosa L.

Moraceae

Pipal

Medicinal, fodder, fruit, timber Fodder, medicinal Fruit, gum, medicinal Fuelwood, timber Fodder, fruit, fuel wood Fuel wood

22 23 24 25

Ficus virgata Wall. ex Roxb Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merill Grevillea robusta Cunn. Ex R. Br. Grewia optiva Drummond .ex Burret Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don (J. ovalifolia R. Br.)

Moraceae Flacourtiaceae Proteaceae Tiliaceae

Phagwara Kokoh Dhaman, Salat Nila GulMohar

Silky oak -

C C R C

26

Bignoniaceae

Greenebony, Sharp leaf Jacaranda Himalayan Walnut -

27

Juglans regia L.

Juglandaceae

Akhraot

Fruit, bark, leaves Bark, leaves Fruits, leaves, bark Seeds, stem, leaves Stem, leaves, flowers, leaves Leaves, flowers, fruits, bark Leaves, stem, bark, fruit Fruit, leaves, bark, wood Stem, leaves,

Fruit, fodder, medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

28 29

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt)Merrill Mallotus phillipensis (Lam.) Muell.Arg Maytenus royleanus (Wall.ex Lawson) Cufodont. Melia azedarach Linn.

Anacardiaceae Euphorbiaceae

Kamlai Kamila, Kambal Pataki, Pataki Dhrek, Bakain

R C

30

Celastraceae

Medicinal, fodder Fodder, timber, medicinal

31

Meliaceae

China berry, Bead tree, Persian Lilac -

32

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Moringaceae

Sohanjna

Fodder, food (Vegetable), gum Medicinal, fruit, fuel wood, fodder Medicinal, fodder, fuel wood Fuel wood, fodder

33

Morus alba L.

Moraceae

Tut, Chitta tut, Spin tut Kao, Kahu, Khuwan

White Mulberry Wild olive

34

Olea ferruginea Royle

Oleaceae

35

Parkinsonia aculeata Linn.

Leguminosae

Kabuli kikar, vilayeti Kikar

Jerusalem Thorn

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Table 1. Contd.

36

Prunus cerasoides D.Don

Rosaceae

Fruit

Fruit

37

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson ( P. excela Wallich ex D. Don) Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb

Rosaceae

Batangi, Medlar

38 39

Rosaceae Pinaceae

Aru Biar

Peach Himalayan Blue Pine Wild Date Palm

Fruit, leaves, stem, Fruit Stem

Fruit, fodder, fuel wood Fruit Timber

R R

40

Palmae

Jangli khajur

41

Phyllanthus emblica L.

Euphorbiaceae

Amla, Ambli, Aonla

42 43

Pinus roxburghii Sargent Pistacia chinensis subsp. Integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. Platanus orientalis L. Prunus armeniaca L. Pyrus communis L.

Pinaceae Anacardiaceae

Chir Kakar singhi Kangar Chenar Hari Nashpati

Chil

Fruit, juice of tree, root, kernel Fruits, food, flowers, seed, root bark Wood, resin Entire plant Stem Fruit Fruit

Fruit

Medicinal, Fruit, food (vegetable)

C C

44 45 46

Platanaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae

Oriental Plane Apricot Pear

R R R

Timber, fuelwood Fodder, timber, medicinal Fuel wood, timber Fruit Fruit

47

48

Quercus floribundla Lindley ex A Camus (Q. dilatata Lindley) Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus Robinia pseudoacacia Linn.

Fagaceae

Barungi

Entire plant Oak Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Stem

Fodder, fuel wood, tannin Fodder, fuelwood, timber Fodder, fuel wood Fuel wood, fodder, tannin Fuel wood

Fagaceae

Rin, Shah Baloot, Ban

49

Leguminosae

50 51

Salix babilonica Oinn. Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.

Salicaceae Euphorbiaceae

Bed Majnu Makkhan charbi, Vilayiti shishtum Doda Barmi Lahura

False acaia, Black loust Weeping willow Chinese Tallow Tree

C C

52 53 54

Sorbus lanata (D.Don) Schauer Taxus baccata L. subsp. Wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger Tecomella undulata (Roxb.) Seeman Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew.

Rosaceae Taxaceae Bignoniaceae

Fruit Himalayan Yew Entire plant Bark, seed, wood Fruit

C R R

Fruit Timber, fruit, fodder Medicinal, fuel wood, timber Fruit

55

Rhamnaceae

Phitni, Amlai

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Table 1b. Shrubs

S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Botanical name Acacia hydaspica J.R. Drummond ex Parker Barleria cristata L. Berberis lycium Royle Buddleja asiatica Lour Buxus papillosa C.K.Schneid Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines Colebrookia oppositifolia Smith Cotinus coggyria Daphne mucronata Royle Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper & Wood Dodonaea viscose (L.) Jacq.

Family Mimosaceae Acanthaceae Berberidaceae Buddlejaceae Buxaceae Asclepiadaceae Capparidaceae Apocynaceae Labiatae Anacardiaceae Thymeleaceae Urticaceae Sapindaceae

Vernacular name

English name

Part used Leaves, stem

Use freq C C C C C C C C C C C C C

Ethnobotanical values Fodder, fuel wood Medicinal Medicinal, fuel wood Walking sticks Fuel wood Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal Fodder Fruit Fruit Medicinal, fuel wood

Tadrelu, Bansa siyah Sumbal Batti, Banna Shamshad aak Karir, Karildelha Granda Shakardana Bhan, Wig Kuttilal Chajul Sanatha Smoke tree Sodoms Apple Kashmal, Zarch

Whole plant Whole plant Wood Entire plant Entire plant Fruit, flowers Entire plant Entire plant Leaves Fruit Fruit Leaves, bark, seed, wood Crown-ofThorns Poinsettia Entire plant Entire plant Seeds Entire plant Fruit Leaves Leaves Flower, root, juice Entire plant Leaves, flowers, roots, stem Hedge-flower Entire plant

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Euphorbia milii Des Moul. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch Embelia ribes Burm. Euphorbia royleana Boiss. Grewia asiatica L. Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex Brandis Jasminum humile var humile f. pubigerum (D.Don) Grohmann Jasminum officinale L. Justicia adhatoda L.

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Myrsinaceae Euphorbiaceae Tiliaceae Tiliaceae Papilionaceae Oleaceae Babrung, Baobirung Danda thor falsa Kango, Gwangi Kainthi Peeli chambeli Chambeli Bhaikar

R C R C R R R C

Protect the tops of wall Hedge plant Medicinal Medicinal, hedge plant Fruit Fodder Fodder Medicinal

22 23

Oleaceae Acanthaceae

R C

Medicinal Medicinal, fuel wood

24

Lantana camara L.

Verbenaceae

Panch phali

Medicinal, fuel wood

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Table 1b. Contd.

25 26

Lantana indica Roxb. Mimosa rubicaulis Lam. subsp. Himalayana (Gamble) Ohashi Myrsine africana L.

Verbenaceae Mimosaceae

Ghaneri Arlu, ral, Shiah-kanta Gukoon, Khokal, Baybring Chatai palm, Mazri Kanair, Ganira Nagphana Chiti Buti, Bui, Phut kanda Oleander, Rose Bay Prickly Pear Marjoram

Leaves, stem Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Leaves

C C

Medicinal, Fuel wood MedicinaL

27

Myrsinaceae

Medicinal, fodder, fuel wood Medicinal, industry Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal Fodder

28 29 30 31

Nannorrhops ritchieana (Griff.) Aitchison Nerium oleanderL. Syn: N. indicum Mill. Opuntia monacantha (Willd.) Ham. Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss. Pavetta tomentosa Roxb. ex Smith Rabdosia rugosa (Wallich ex Benth.) Hara (Plectranthus rugosus Wallich ex Benth.). Plectranthus coetsa (Buch. Ham.ex D. Don) Hara Prinsepia utilis Royle Prunus bokhariensis Royle ex C. Schneider Pteracanthus urticifolius (Kuntze) Bremek Syn. Strobilanthes alatus Nees Punica granatum L. Rubus ellipticus Smith. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus sanctus Schreber R. ulmifolius L. Reinwardtia indica Dumort. (R. trigyna (Roxb.) Planchon) Ricinus communis L.

Palmae Apocynaceae Cactaceae Labiatae

R C F C

32 33

Rubiaceae Labiatae

Leaves, roots Leaves

R R

34 35 36 37

Labiatae Rosaceae Rosaceae Acanthaceae

Bakal Aloocha, Alu bokhara

Leaves Seeds Fruit Entire plant

R R R R

Fodder Medicinal Fruit Fodder

38 39 40 41 42 43

Punicaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Linaceae Euphorbiaceae

Anar, Daruna Aakain Karwara

Wild pomgranate

Entire plant Fruit, leaves

C C R R C C

Medicinal, fuel wood Fruit, fodder Medicinal, fruit Fruit Fodder Medicinal

Blackberry

Fruit, leaves Fruit

Basant Arand, Arind Castor oil plant

Leaves Seed, leaf, bark, root Fruit, leaves Entire plant Stems Fruit Fruit, wood

44 45 46 47 48

Rosa macrophylla Lindley Solanum incanum L. Staphylea emodi Wallich ex Brandis Viburnum cotinifolium D.Don V. grandiflorum Wall. ex DC.

Rosaceae Solanaceae Staphyleaceae Caprifoliaceae Caprifoliaceae

Ban gulab Chitra Taliana Guch

Himalayan Musk Rose -

C C R R C

Fruit, fodder Medicinal Medicinal Fruit Fruit, fuel wood

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Table 1b. Contd.

49

Vitex negundo L.

Verbenaceae

Nirgud

Marwani, banua -

50

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) S.Kurz Zanthoxylum armatum DC

Lythraceae

Dhawi

51

Rutaceae

Timbar, Timer

Kababe

52 53

54

Zizyphus mauritiana var spontanea (Edgew.) Zizyphus nummularia Burm. Syn: Rhammus hummularia Burn. Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew.

Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae

Ber, Beri, Bera Jher beri, Mala, Ber Phitni

Leaves, roots, wood Flowers, leaves, wood Bark, fruit, stem, seeds Fruits, leaves Entire plant Fruit

Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal

C C

Medicinal, fuel wood Medicinal

Rhamnaceae

Fruit

C. Herbs

S# 1 2

Botanical name Achillea millefolium L. Achyranthus aspera L.

Family Compositae Amaranthaceae

Vernacular name Akarkara Latjira, Charchita, Poth kant Atis Sumbul, Hansraj Chanlai, Dhindo Dhabbar, Jonkmari Sial Kanta, Pila Dhatura Makhan Booti -

English name Yarrow -

Part used Whole plant Entire plant Tubers Entire plant Leaves Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Leaves, roots Seed Seeds and corm

Use freq R R

Ethnobotanical values Medicinal Medicinal

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Aconitum heterophyllum Wallich ex Royle Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Amaranthus viridis L. Anagallis arvensis L. Androsace rotundifolia Hardwicke Argemone mexicana L. Argyrolobium roseum (Camb.) Jaub. & Spach Artemisia brevifolia Wall. ex DC. Syn.: A. maritima L. sensu Hook.f. Bellis perennis L. Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb. Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth (C.indicus Sprengel) Colchicum luteum Baker

Ranunculaceae Polypodiaceae Amaranthaceae Primulaceae Primulaceae Papaveraceae Papilionaceae Compositae

Blue pimpernel Prickly Poppy -

C C C C R C C R

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Fodder Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

11 12

Compositae Nyctaginaceae Itsit

Daisy -

R C

Fodder Food (Vegetable) , medicinal Food (vegetable) Medicinal

13 14

Leguminosae Colchicaceae

Arhar Surinjan Talakh

C C

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Table 1c. Contd.

15 16 17 18 19 20

Colchicum aitchisonii (Hook.f.) E. Nasir Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Commelina benghalensis L. Commelina paludosa Blume Convolvulus arvensis L.

Colchicaceae Chenopodiaceae Chenopodiaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Convolvulaceae

Surinjan Shirin Bathueya, Batho Chandan bathwa Kanchara Kanjuna Hiranpadi, Lehli, Hirran khurry Shirin Dodak Gul-eAshrafi Bhang Pohli Kasni, Chicory Pilligar, Pilajar Arbi Bindweed

Seeds and corm Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Roots Entire plant

C C C C C C

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Fodder, medicinal, food (vegetable) Fodder, food (vegetable) Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Food (vegetable), medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Convolvulus prostratus Forssk. Calendula arvensis L. Cannabis sativa L. Carthamus oxycantha M. Bieb. Cichorium intybus L. Cissampelos pareira Linn. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. (C. untiquorum Schott) Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist. Coriandrum sativum L. Datura innoxia Miller

Convolvulaceae Compositae Cannabaceae Compositae Compositae Menispermaceae Araceae

Entire plant Field Marigold Hemp Carthamus Flowers, leaves Leaves and flowering tops Seeds Entire plant Leaves, roots Elephants Ear, Taro, Dasheen Canadian Fleabana Coriander Tubers, leafstalks Entire plant Entire plant Leaves, seed

C C C C C C R

28 29 30

Compositae Umbelliferae Solanaceae

Paleet Dhania Dhatura, Sada Dhatura Dhatura, Sada Dhatura Kunj Gajar

C C R

31

Datura stramonium L.

Solanaceae

Thorn Apple

Leaves, seeds, fruits Root

Medicinal

32 33 34

Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb. Daucus carota L. Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke Euphorbia helioscopia L. Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L. Fragaria nubicola Lindl. Ex Lacaita Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley Geranium ocellatum Camb. Geranium rotundifolium L.

Dioscoreaceae Umbelliferae Rosaceae

R C C

Industry Food (vegetable) Fruit, fodder

35 36 37 38 39 40

Euphorbiaceae Convolvulaceae Rosaceae Fumariaceae Geraniaceae Geraniaceae

Chhatri dodak Sunkha pushpi Mewa Pit papra Bhand Choti Rattanjot

Carrot YellowFlowered Strawberry Sun Spurge

Root Fruit, leaves

Roots milky juice Entire plant Fruit Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

C C R C C R

Medicinal Medicinal Fruit Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal, fodder

Wild Strawberry Fumitory

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Table 1c. Contd.

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Geranium wallichianum D.Don ex Sweet Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauv. Habenaria digitata Lindl. Impatiens bicolor Royle Impatiens edgeworthii Hook. f. Lathyrus aphaca L. Lathyrus sativus L. Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. Lactuca serriola L. Syn: L. scariola L. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Leucas capitata Desf. Syn: L. cephalotes (Roth) Spreng. Linum usitatissimum L. FLAX Lotus corniculatus L. Melilotus indicus Linn. Malva neglecta Wallr. Malvestrum coromandelionum (L.) Garcke Martynia annua L. Mentha royleana L. Micromeria biflora (Buch.Ham. ex D. Don) Benth Mimulus strictus Benth. Mirabilis jalapa L. Misopates orontium (L.) Rafin. Syn :. Antirrhinum orontium L. Nepeta laevigata ( D.Don) Hand.-Mazz. Nepeta erecta (Benth.) Benth. Rorippa nasturtiumaquaticum (L.) Hayek (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Oenothera rosea L Herit ex Ait. Syn.: Hartmannia rosea (LHerit. Ex Ait.) G. Don

Geraniaceae Compositae Orchidaceae Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Compositae Compositae Labiatae

Rattanjot Chit patra

Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

R C R R R C C C C R R

Medicinal, fodder Fodder Fodder Fodder Fodder Medicinal Fodder Fodder Medicinal Fodder Medicinal

Jungli-matar, Rawan, Dokani Khasri dal, Kasari Kahu, Khas salad Marguerite Chatra, Gulloda, Goma Alsi

Yellow Vetchling

Seeds, flowers Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

Ox-eye Daisy

Entire plant Entire plant

52 53 54 55 56

Linaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae

Entire plant Birds-foot Trefoil Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

C C C C C

Fiber, medicinal Fodder Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

Sinji Saunchal, Khubsi Yard sonchal

57 58 59 60 61 62

Martyniaceae Labiatae Labiatae Scrophulariaceae Nyctaginaceae Scrophulariaceae

Choa, Hath jori Jangli podina Chai boti

Tigers Claw

Fruit Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

R R C C C R

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Fodder Medicinal Fodder

Gul-e-Abbasi

Four Oclock Plant

63 64 65

Labiatae Labiatae Brassicaceae Piriya Halim Water Cress

Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

R R C

Fodder Fodder Food (vegetable), medicinal

66 67

Nymphaeaceae Onagraceae

Kanwal Mirchi

Water Lily, Lotus Evening Primrose

Entire plant Entire plant

C C

Food (fruit), medicinal Fodder

Jabeen et al.

773

Table 1c. Contd.

68

Oxalis corniculata L.

Oxalidaceae

Khatti Buti, amlika, Khatamitha chukha Banjawain Anjbar, Masloon Dremak

Yellow Wood Sorrel

Entire plants

Medicinal, Food (Vegetables) Food (vegetable) Fodder, medicinal Medicinal Fodder Fodder Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

Origanum vulgare L. Polygonum. amplexicaulis D.Don Polygonum plebeium R. Br. Potentilla nepalensis Hook. f. Potentilla supina L. Paeonia emodi Wall. ex Royle Peganum harmala L. Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene Syn:. Lippia nodiflora (L.) L. C. Rich. Plantago lenceolata L. Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Primula denticulata Smith Prunella vulgaris L. Rumex chelepensis Mill. Solanum surratense Burm. f. Solanum americanum Mill. (Solanum villosum Miller) Salvia moocroftiana Wallich ex Benth. Saussarea heteromalla (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz Sauromatum venosum (Aiton) Kunth (S.guttatum Schott) Senecio chrysanthemoides DC. Sesamum orientale L. Syn. S. Indicum L. Sida cordata (Burm.f.) Boiss Silene conoidea L. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner Sisymbrium irio L.

Labiatae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Paeoniaceae Zygophyllaceae Verbenaceae

Wild Marjoram

Leaves Entire plant

C R C R C C C C

Bistort

Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Seeds, leaves Leaves

Mamekh Harmal Makna, Jal Nim, Makra Baltanga Ban Kakri

Himalayan Peony

77 78 79 80 81 82 83

Plantaginaceae Podophyllaceae Primulaceae Labiatae Polygonaceae Solanaceae Solanaceae

Ribwort Plantain May Apple Dog-tooth Primula Self-heal

Entire plant Root, fruit Entire plant Leaves Root

R R C R C C C

Medicinal Medicinal, fruit Fodder Fodder, Food (Vegetable) Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

Ambavati Kundiari, Momoli Mokri Muko Night-shade Black Fruit, Yellow/Oran ge Fruit Sage

Entire plant Entire plant

84 85 86

Labiatae Compositae Araceae

Kallijarri, Gahi kand, Lupra Batula, Kali ziri Sanp the boti

Leaves, seeds, roots Seeds

R C F

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

Cobra Plant

Rhizome

87 88 89 90 91 92

Compositae Pedaliaceae Malvaceae Caryophyllaceae Compositae Cruciferae Til, Sesame Simak, Bariar, Kungya bala Chhota takla Kandiali Jangli sarson, Khaksi, Khub kalan Common Mallow Catchfly, Campion Milk thistle

Entire plant Seeds Entire plant Entire plant Leaves, seeds Leaves, seeds

R C C C C C

Fodder Industry Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

774

Afr. J. Biotechnol.

Table 1c. Contd.

93 94 95 96

Sonchus arvensis L. Stachys parviflora Benth. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Taraxacum officinale Weber Trichodesma indica (L.) R. Br. Urtica dioica L. Veronica anagallisaquatica L. Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb. Verbascum thapsus L. Vetiviria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Syn: Andropogon muricatus Rotz. Vicia sativa L. Vinca major L. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Compositae Labiatae Caryophyllaceae Compositae

Dodal Bui, Kirimar, Baggibuti Gandel Hand, Dudal, Kanphul Kallri Booti, Chota kulfa, Nila karaji Bichchu buti

Corn Snow thistle

Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Leaves, roots

F F C C

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

Dandelion

97

Boraginaceae

Entire plant

Medicinal

98 99 100 101 102

Urticaceae Scrophulariaceae Violaceae Scrophulariaceae Plantaginaceae

Stinging nettle Water Speedwell

Shoots Entire plant Entire plant Leaves, flowers, seeds Root

R C F C C

Food (Vegetable) Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

Banafsha Gidar Tambaku Khas

103 104 105

Papilionaceae Apocynaceae Solanaceae

Rewari, Ankra Sada-Bahar Aksan, Asgand, Nagsor

Entire plant Myrtle, Blue periwinkle Entire plant Entire plant

C F R

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

d. Climbers

S# 1 2

Botanical name Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Clematis grata Wall.

Family Liliaceae Ranunculaceae

Vernacular name Safed musli Bilri

English name

Part used Root Stem and leaves Bark, root Stem, fruits and seeds Tubers

Use freq C F

Ethnobotanica l values Medicinal Medicinal

3 4

Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston Cuscuta reflexa Roxb

Caesalpinaceae Cuscutaceae

Kanderi, Urian Nila tar, akash bel, Zarbuti Kariari, Kalihari, Mulim Kurie, Banbatkari Endra Bindweed Climbing lily, Crisped Glory Lily Himalayan Ivy

F C

Tannin, medicinal Medicinal

Gloriosa superba L.

Liliaceae

Medicinal

6 7 8

Hedera nepalensis K.Koch Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth

Araliaceae Malpighiaceae Convolvulaceae

Leaves Leaves

C F C

Medicinal, fodder Medicinal Medicinal

Morning Glory

Entire plant

Jabeen et al.

775

Table 1d. Contd.

Lathysrus aphaca L.

Papilionaceae

10 11 12 13

Porana paniculata Roxb. Psium sativum L. Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex. Willd.) Dc. Rosa brunonii Lindley

Convolvulaceae Leguminosae Papilionaceae Rosaceae

Safed Bel Desi mattar Bidhari qand Jungli gulab, Kuji, Karir, Palwari, Tarni Jangli Chachinda

Bridal Wreath Pea

Seed and flowers Stems Fruit Tubers

Medicinal

C F C F

Industrial Food (Vegetable) Medicinal Medicinal

Himalayan Musk Rose

Entire plant

14 15

Smilax aspera L. Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

Smilacaceae Cucurbitaceae

Roots Fruit

Medicinal Food (Vegetable), medicinal

Table 1e. Grasses

S# 1 2 3 4

Botanical name Apluda mutica Aristida cyanatha Cynodon dactylon Linn. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees Dicanthium foveolatum (Del.) Roberty Heteropogon contortus (L.) Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. Ex Steud. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer and Schultes Sorghum halepense L. Pers. Themeda anathera

Family Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae

Vernacular name Lundar

English name

Part used Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Leaves and stem Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

Use freq C C F C

Ethnobotanical values Fodder Fodder Medicinal Medicinal

Talla, Dhab khabal Bans

5 6 7 8 9 10

Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae

Palwa Suriala Dila Kaie Buron

C C C C C C

Fodder Fodder Fodder Fodder Fodder Fodder

to cure jaundice. It is also grinded, mix with egg and then women wash their hairs, it used as a conditioner. Its fruit is grinded with Jangli podina (Mentha royleana) and mixes with salt for curing pain in stomach. It is sold 7 - 8 rupees per kg.Amla (P. emblica), Timbar (Z. armatum), Jangli podina, (M. royleana), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) and black salt are mix to make medicine for indigestion. The fruit of Gukoon (Myrsine africana) is used for killing the worms in abdomen, for improving

digestion and for relief of cough. Green Gukoon is sold 20 rupees per kg while dried is sold 100 rupees per kg. It is collected in December and January, dried and sold. Sumbal (Berberis lycium) root is boiled in water then mixed with milk when this become thick then Desi ghee, sooji flour of maize, sugar and almond is added and used for the pains and arthritis. Sumbal (B. lyceum) bark is taken off, dried and then sold for the treatment of pimples. Bhaikar (Justicia adhatoda) is used for curing

776

Afr. J. Biotechnol.

Table 1f. Fodder crops grown

S# 1 2 3 4 5 6

Botanical name Avena sativa Brassica compestris Cicer arietinum L. Penisetum americanum (L.) Schuman Triticum vulgare Zea mays

Family Poaceae Poaceae Leguminosae Poaceae

Vernacular name Jandar Sarsoon Channa Bajra Gundum

English name

Gram, Chickpea

Poaceae

Makai

Maize

Part used Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant Entire plant

Use freq R F R R C C

Ethnobotanical values Fodder, food Fodder, food (Vegetable) Fodder, food (Vegetable) Fodder, food Fodder, food Fodder, food

F = Frequent, A = Abundant, R = Rare; C = common.

Table 2. Collection of ethno-botanical information from Margallah Hills National Park.

Parts used Buds Leaves Fruit Bark Stem Roots Seed Flowers Root bark Shoots Rhizome Corms Tubers

Purpose of use Medicinal Fodder Fuelwood Food (Fruit) Food (vegetable etc.) Timber Industrial Tannin Gum Fiber

Status Rare Frequent Common

Table 3. Ethnobotanical properties of plant species collected from Margallah Hills National Park.

S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ethno-botanical uses Medicinal Fodder Fuelwood Food (Fruit) Food (Vegetable etc.) Timber Industrial Tannin Gum Fiber

Number of species used 159 79 47 33 18 14 6 4 3 2

Plant species (%) used ethno-botanically (n = 245 ) 64.89 32.24 19.18 13.46 7.34 5.71 2.44 1.63 1.22 0.81

Jabeen et al.

777

Table 4. Medicinal plants of Margallah Hills National Park.

Botanical name Trees Acacia catechu Acacia modesta Acacia nilotica Aesculus indica Albizzia lebbek Bauhinia variegata Bombax ceiba Butea monosperma Cassia fistula Cedrus deodara Cordia oblique Dalbergia sissoo Erythrina suberosa Ficus benghalensis Ficus religiosa Ficus virgata Flacourtia indica Juglans regia Mallotus phillipensis Maytenus royleanus Melia azedarach Morus alba Olea ferruginea Phyllanthus emblica Pistacia chinensis Tecomella undulata Shrubs Barleria cristata Berberis lycium Calotropis procera Capparis decidua Carissa opaca

Local name Khair, Katha Phulai Kikar Bankhor Shareen Kachnar Simbal, Simal Palas, dhak, Chichra Kingo, Amaltas Deodar Lasura Tali, Sissoo Dhauldak Bohr Pipal Phagwara Kokoh Akhraot Kamila, Kambal Pataki, Pataki Dhrek, Bakain Tut, Chitta tut, Spin tut Kao, Kahu, Khuwan Amla, Ambli, Aonla Kakar singhi Kangar Lahura Tadrelu, Bansa siyah Sumbal Aak Karir, Karildelha Granda

Medicinal uses Astringent, applied in spongy gums Tonic, stimulant, ash is used in snuff preparation Diarrhea, dysentery, somachic, astringent, expectorant, aphrodisiac Tonic, febrifuge, rheumatic pain Restorative, astringent, piles, diarrhea, gonorrhea, carbuncle, boils, swelling, snake bite, treatment of lymphatic gland, tuberculosis Alterative, anthelmintic, tonic, astringent, skin diseases, ulcer, scrofula, dysentery, piles, diarrhea, worms, dyspepsia, antidote to snake bite Astringent, alterative, restorative, tonic, stimulants Anthelmintic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, tonic, diuretic, depurative, aphrodisiac, snake bite, diabetes Laxative, emollient, tonic, febrifuge, constipation, cathartic, emetic, astringent, purgative, pustules Carminative, diuretic Cough, disease of chest Stimulant, gonorrhea, astringent, alterative, leprosy, boils, eruptions, vomiting Febrifuge Pains and bruises, rheumatism and lumbago, poultice, abscesses, gonorrhea, astringent, tonic, diabetes, leucorrhoea, cooling, aphrodisiac Cooling, alterative, laxative, astringent, gonorrhea, purgative, scabies Laxative, demulcent, constipation, lungs and bladder diseases Jaundice, enlarged spleen, cholera Anthelmintic, astringent, rheumatism Vermifuge, purgative, cure parasitic skin diseases, used for poulticing in cutaneous diseases Toothache Cathartic, emetic, emmenagogue, resolvent, poultice to relieve nervous headaches, hysteria, rheumatism, splenic enlargement, diabetes Diaphoretic, emollient, inflammation of throat, cooling, laxative, sore throat, dyspepsia, melancholia, anthelmintic, astringent Toothache, astringent, antiseptic, antiperiodic, diuretic, hoarseness of voice, rubefacient, diabetes, asthma Cooling, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative, astringent, hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice, dyspepsia, anemia, inflammation of the eye, asthma, bronchitis, biliousness, refrigerant, aperiant Expectorant Vermifuge Swelling, cough, rheumatism, pneumonia, snake bite, ear and eye ailments Opthalmia, cooling, laxative, internal wounds, intestinal colic (antispasmodic), pharyngitis, throat pains, diabetes, bone fractures Dysentery, tonic, sudorific, alterative, antispasmodic, expectorant, emetic, digestive, stomachic, purgative, guinea worms Sporadic Treatment in worm infested sores of animals, fly repellent, stimulants, asthma

778

Afr. J. Biotechnol.

Table 4. Contd.

Dodonaea viscose Embelia ribes Euphorbia royleana Jasminum humile Jasminum officinale Justicia adhatoda Lantana camara Lantana indica Mimosa rubicaulis Myrsine africana Nannorrhops ritchieana Nerium oleander Opuntia monacantha Otostegia limbata Punica granatum Rubus fruticosus Ricinus communis Staphylea emodi Vitex negundo Woodfordia fruticosa Zanthoxylum armatum Zizyphus mauritiana Zizyphus nummularia Herbs Achyranthus aspera Aconitum heterophyllum Adiantum capillus-veneris Amaranthus viridis Argemone mexicana Argyrolobium roseum Artemisia brevifolia Boerhavia procumbens Colchicum luteum Colchicum aitchisonii Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Commelina benghalensis

Sanatha Babrung, Baobirung Danda thor Peeli chambeli Chambeli Bhaikar Panch phali Ghaneri Arlu, ral, Shiahkanta Gukoon, Khokal, Baybring Chatai palm, Mazri Kanair, Ganira Nagphana Chiti Buti, Bui, Phut kanda Anar, Daruna Karwara Arand, Arind Chitra Nirgud Dhawi Timbar, Timer Ber, Beri, Bera Jher beri, Mala, Ber

Astringent, gout, rheumatism, swelling, burns, fomentation Anthelmintic, alterative, tonic, carminative, stomachic Cathartic, anthelmintic Astringent, tonic, ring worm, used for destroying the unhealthy lining walls of chronic sinuses and fistulas Diuretic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, skin diseases, headache, weak eyes, scorpion sting, ulceration, eruptions, cons, otorrhoea Cough, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, stomachache, joints, eruption, dysentery, diabetes Diaphoretic, carminative, antiseptic, rheumatism, tetanus, malaria, tonic, atoxy of abdominal viscera Snake bite Piles, burns, vomiting Killing worms in abdomen, digestion purpose, cough Diarrhoea, dysentery, purgative Skin diseases, leprosy, abortion, scorpion sting, snake bite, swellings Laxative, poultice, expectorant, asthma, cough, hepatic congestion, gonorrhea Ophthalmia, gums, wounds Stomachache, cardiac, cooling, refrigerant, astringent, anthelmintic Urticaria, diarrhea, cough, fever, diuretic Boils, swelling, pain, healing wounds and sores, toothache, febrifuge, laxative, constipation Snake bite Pain, tooth brush, gum and skin diseases, headache, skin allergy Astringent, stimulant, liver complaints, hemorrhoids, dysentery, menorrhagia, mucus membrane disorder Stomachache, carminative, toothache, tooth brush, tonic, aromatic, fever cholera, dyspepsia, fritters, piles Herbal tea, blood purifier, fever, intestinal worms, dysentery Boils, scabies, astringent, cooling, bilious affections, herbal tea, blood purifier, fever, intestinal worms, dysentery, diabetes Toothache, pain, dysentery, rheumatism, skin diseases, insect bites, bowel complaints, night blindness, cough , asthma Tonic Aromatic, emollient, cough, febrifuge Emollient, scorpion sting, snake bite Jaundice, dropsy Aphrodisiac, tonic, used for increasing milk and butter production for goat Anthelmintic, worms Diuretic, purgative, febrifuge, Anthelmintic Pain Pain Laxative, Anthelmintic, hepatic disorder, enlarged spleen, jaundice, urinary diseases, rheumatism, antidote to snake bite Anthelmintic, piles Skin inflammation, laxative

Latjira, Charchita, Poth kant Atis Sumbul, Hansraj Chanlai, Dhindo Sial Kanta, Pila Dhatura Makhan Booti

Itsit Surinjan Talakh Surinjan Shirin Bathueya, Batho Chandan bathwa Kanchara

Jabeen et al.

779

Table 4. Contd.

Commelina paludosa Convolvulus arvensis Calendula arvensis Cannabis sativa Carthamus oxycantha Cissampelos pareira Conyza canadensis Coriandrum sativum Datura innoxia Datura stramonium Euphorbia helioscopia Evolvulus alsinoides Fumaria indica Geranium ocellatum Geranium rotundifolium Geranium wallichianum Lathyrus aphaca Lactuca serriola Leucas capitata Melilotus indicus Malva neglecta Malvestrum coromandelionum Mentha royleana Micromeria biflora Oxalis corniculata Polygonum. amplexicaulis Polygonum plebeium Paeonia emodi Plantago lenceolata Podophyllum hexandrum Rumex chelepensis Solanum surratense Solanum americanum Salvia moocroftiana Saussarea heteromalla Sauromatum venosum Sida cordata Silene conoidea

Kanjuna Hiranpadi, Lehli, Hirran khurry Gul-e-Ashrafi Bhang Pohli Pilligar, Pilajar Paleet Dhania Dhatura, Sada Dhatura Dhatura, Sada Dhatura Chhatri dodak Sunkha pushpi Pit papra Bhand Choti Rattanjot Rattanjot Jungli-matar, Rawan, Dokani Kahu, Khas salad Chatra, Gulloda, Goma Sinji Saunchal, Khubsi Yard sonchal Jangli podina Chai boti Khatti Buti, amlika, Khatamitha chukha Anjbar, Masloon Dremak Mamekh Baltanga Ban Kakri Ambavati Kundiari, Momoli Mokri Muko Kallijarri, Gahi kand, Lupra Batula, Kali ziri Sanp the boti Simak, Bariar, Kungya bala Chhota takla

Snake bite, vertigo, fever Purgative, skin diseases, worms Stimulant, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, wounds Refrigerant, tonic, narcotic, sedative, anodyne Ulcer, itch Stomachache, wounds, snake bite, malaria Homeostatic, stimulant, astringent, diuretic, dysentery, diarrhea, hemorrhage Digestion Boils, narcotic, anodyne, gonorrhea, hydrophobia, earache Boils, narcotic, anodyne, gonorrhea, hydrophobia, earache Cathartic, cholera, eruption, anthelmintic Tonic, asthma, vermifuge Fever, diarrhea, worms, goiter, antipyretic, blood purifier, cooling , anti periodic, eruption, diabetes, bladder infection Astringent Diuretic, astringent Astringent, toothache Narcotic, resolvent Cooling, sedative, diaphoretic, diuretic, antiseptic, hypnotic, expectorant, coughs, phthisis, bronchitis, asthma, pretties Antidote, snake bite, cough, cold Emollient, swelling, fomentation, diarrhea, bowl complaints Cooling, emollient, demulcent, piles, bronchitis, cough, ulcer, hemorrhoids, skin diseases Resolvent, emollient, cooling, sores and wounds, pectoral, diaphoretic Stomachache, carminative, diarrhea, dysentery Herbal tea Stomach trouble, intoxication, refrigerant, worms, clean rusted vessels, scorpion sting Herbal tea Pneumonia, bowel complaints, diarrhea Nervous disorders, diarrhea, purgative, emetic Toothache, dysentery Cancer Astringent, coetaneous disorder Toothache, pain, demulcent, expectorant, cough, asthma, catarrh, animal diseases Antiseptic, skin diseases, germicidal, carminative, tonic, alterative, diuretic, heart diseases, intestinal worms and swelling Poultice, dysentery, cough, cold Carminative, cure for horse bite Stimulating poultice in snake bite Rheumatism, gonorrhea, spermatorrhea, elephantiasis, demulcent, opthalmia, astringent, stomachache, diuretic, febrifuge, aphrodisiac, laxative, gonorrhea, colic tenseness, piles Emollient, fumigant

780

Afr. J. Biotechnol.

Table 4. Contd.

Silybum marianum Sisymbrium irio Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media Taraxacum officinale Trichodesma indica Viola canescens Verbascum thapsus Vetiviria zizanioides Vicia sativa Withania somnifera Climbers Asparagus adscendens Clematis grata Caesalpinia decapetala Cuscuta reflexa Hedera nepalensis Hiptage benghalensis Lathysrus aphaca Rosa brunonii Grasses Cynodon dactylon Dendrocalamus strictus

Kandiali Jangli sarson, Khaksi, Khub kalan Dodal Gandel Hand, Dudal, Kanphul Kallri Booti, Chota kulfa, Nila karaji Banafsha Gidar Tambaku Khas Rewari, Ankra Aksan, Asgand, Nagsor Safed musli Bilri Kanderi, Urian Nila tar, akash bel, Zarbuti Kurie, Banbatkari Endra Jungli gulab, Kuji, Karir, Palwari, Tarni Talla, Dhab khabal Bans

Aperient, sudorific, demulcent, hemorrhage Expectorant, stimulant, restorative, poultice Diuretic, sedative, cooling, hypnotic, diaphoretic, antiseptic, expectorant, cough, bronchitis, asthma, phthisis Cooling, astringent, vulnerary, kindling, broken bones, swellings Fomentation, Aperient, diuretic, tonic, chronic disorder of kidney and liver Snake bite, diuretic, depurative, swelling , joints, dysentery Purgative Diarrhea, dysentery, analgesic, antiseptic, wounds, aphrodisiac, narcotic, fish poison Diaphoretic, stimulant, refrigerant, febrifuge, emmenagogue, tonic Anti poisonous Pain, diuretic, tonic, rheumatism, alterative, astringent, aphrodisiac, sedative, coagulate milk Glactagogue, demulcent, tonic, diarrhea, dysentery, general debility Skin diseases Purgative Anthelmintic, carminative, alterative, purgative, diuretic, jaundice, pains, paralysis, vomiting, bilious disorders Diabetes Rheumatism, skin diseases Narcotic, resolvent Skin and eye diseases, biliousness, tonic

Piles, irritation of urinary organs, dropsy, vomiting, dysentery Tonic, astringent, acholics

Table 5. Medicinal plant values of plant species from Margallah Hills National Park.

Medicinal properties Astringent Tonic Stimulant Diarrhea Dysentery Somachic Expectorant Aphrodisiac Febrifuge Restorative Carbuncle Gonorrhea Boils Swelling Treatment of lymphatic gland Tuberculosis Piles

Number of plants 28 23 10 15 19 1 8 7 8 4 1 8 6 8 1 1 8

Jabeen et al.
Table 5. Contd.

781

Alterative Anthelmintic Skin diseases Ulcer Scrofula Worms Dyspepsia Snake bite Snuff preparation Diuretic Depurative Diabetes Laxative Emollient Constipation Cathartic Emetic Purgative Pustules Carminative Cough Eruptions Disease of chest Leprosy Vomiting Pains and bruises Rheumatism Poultice Abscesses Leucorrhoea Cooling Scabies Lungs and bladder diseases Jaundice Demulcent Enlarged spleen Cholera Vermifuge Toothache Emmenagogue Resolvent Hysteria Diaphoretic Antiseptic Refrigerant Melancholia Inflammation of throat Antiperiodic Asthma Rubefacient Hoarseness of voice Hemorrhage Anemia

9 14 13 4 1 12 4 14 1 17 2 9 11 8 3 4 4 11 1 8 14 5 1 2 4 1 13 6 1 1 13 2 2 5 6 3 3 3 9 4 4 1 6 6 5 1 2 2 10 1 1 3 1

782

Afr. J. Biotechnol.

Table 5. Contd.

Inflammation of the eye Bronchitis Biliousness Aperiant Pneumonia Improvement of internal wounds Digestive Ear and eye ailments, Opthalmia Sudorific Pharyngitis Stomachache Intestinal colic (antispasmodic) Bone fractures Sporadic Fly repellent Gout Fomentation Burns Destroying the unhealthy lining walls of chronic sinuses and fistulas Headache Scorpion sting Cons Otorrhoea Joints Tetanus Malaria Atoxy of abdominal viscera Abortion Gums Wounds Cardiac Urticaria Hemorrhoids Fever Menorrhagia Skin allergy Liver complaints Fritters Herbal tea Mucus membrane disorder Aromatic Blood purifiers Bowel complaints Insect bites Night blindness Dropsy Increasing milk and butter production for goat Vertigo Narcotic Itch Sedative

1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 2 1 9 3 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 7 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 6 1 4

Jabeen et al.

783

Table 5. Contd.

Urinary diseases Anodyne Homeostatic Hydrophobia Goiter Hypnotic Cold Antipyretic Phthisis Pretties Pectoral Intoxication Clean rusted vessels Cancer Catarrh Animal diseases Germicidal Horse bite Spermatorrhea Elephantiasis Colic tenseness Fumigant Vulnerary Chronic disorder of kidney and liver Kindling Analgesic Fish poison Anti poisonous Coagulate milk Glactagogue General debility Paralysis Acholics Eaeche

1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

diabetes, jaundice and pimples. Young leaves are crushed and juice is taken. It is used during summer.Kao (Olea ferruginea) has cold effect and is used in summer. Its leaves are grinded and juice is taken for pimples. Kao is used as favorite fodder and fuel wood. Kingo (Cassia fistula) fruit used as medicine and local people sell it. Their pods are used for curing constipation and pneumonia. These are boiled and decoction taken. The number of plant species used to cure different diseases incurporated in Table 5 showed that maximum plant species of Margallah Hills National Park are being used against the cure of astringent. Twenty three are used as tonic, nineteen against dysentery, seventeen against diuretic, fifteen for the cure of diarrhea, fourteen are used against anthelmintic, snake bite, cough, thirteen against skin diseases, rheumatism, cooling, twelve against worms,

eleven for the treatment of laxative, purgative and ten for the cure of stimulant, asthma. Ethnobotnical knowledge of the local people of Margallah Hills National Park provides an insight into the new or less known medicinal herbs of traditional medicine and also gives new material for the pharmacological research. This infor-mation will serve as a reference for the benefit of phar-macists,researchers,-Hakims-(herbalist), terinarians and pubic at large.
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Azam Univ. Islamabad. Hussain M (1986). Re-introduction of cheer pheasant in the Margalla Hills National Park: a report by WorldWide Fund for Nature, Pakistan and Capital Development Authority Islamabad. Khattak ZD, Ahmed S (1990) Phytosociological Studies Of The Vegetation On The North and South Facing Slopes of the Margalla Hills. J. Sc. Tech Univ Peshawar, 14: 129-132. Maqsood A (1991). Mammals of Margallah Hills National Parks: An Annotated List of Mammals, 8.