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SEMESTER 1 SESI 2011/2012 SFE 3013 BASIC ELECTRONICS

LABORATORY REPORT 4 RECTIFYING CIRCUIT

NUR HAFIZAH BT ABDUL HADI D20091035072 NAME SITI NOR AMIRA BT MOHMAD NOOR D20091035073

DATE LECTURER

1 NOVEMBER 2011 DR SYED ABDUL MALIK

Experiment 4 Title : Rectifying Circuit Objective : To understand the principles and features of half-wave bridged rectifier. To understand the principles and features of full wave bridge rectifier. To understand the principles and features of bridge rectifier.

(A) : Half-wave Rectifier Circuit. Procedures : (1) Half- wave rectifier circuit without a filter capacitor 1. First, fix The module KL-23002 was first fixed in the KL-21001 Linear Circuit Lab, then the block marked 23001- block c was located. 2. The short-circuit jumper clip is inserted by referring to Figure 4.1 and the short-circuit clip jumper arrangement diagram in Figure 4.2. 3. AC source 9V is applied to Vac from AC Supply on KL-21001 Linear Circuit Lab. 4. V is measured by using ACV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope respectively, then was recorded in Table 4-1 (a). 5. The output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, where the DC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope is used to test the ripple. 6. Then it was recorded in Table 4-1(a). 7. Experiment Result: Indicated in Table 4-1(a).

(2) Half- wave rectifier circuit with a filter capacitor. 1. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to Figure 4.3 and the short-circuit clip jumper arrangement diagram in Figure 4.4 (C6 : 220)

2. AC source 9V is applied to Vac from AC Supply on KL-21001 Linear Circuit Lab. 3. The input terminal Vac is measured by using ACV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope respectively, then was recorded in Table 4-1 (a). 4. VR4 (1 M) is adjusted to minimum, then the output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, where the DC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vr (ripple). Then, the readings are recorded in Table 4-1 (a). 5. VR4 (1 M) is adjusted to maximum, then step 4 is repeated. 6. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to the short-circuit clip jumper arrangement in Figure 4.5 (Change C6 to C5, change R1 to 1 k).

7. The output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, where the DC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vr (the ripple). Then, the readings are recorded in Table 41(a). 8. Experiment Result: Indicated in Table 4-1(a)

(B) : Full-wave Rectifier Circuit Procedures : (1) Full- wave rectifier circuit without a filter capacitor 1. First, the module KL-23002 is fixed in the KL-21001 Linear Circuit Lab, then the block marked 23001- block c is located. 2. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to Figure 4.6 and the short-circuit clip jumper arrangement diagram in Figure 4.7

3. AC source 9V-0V-9V is applied to Vac1 and Vac2 respectively. 4. Vacl, Vac2 are measured by using ACV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope respectively, then was record in Table 4-1 (b). 5. The output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope, where the DC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope is used to test the ripple. Then was record in Table 4-1(b). 6. Experiment Result should be indicated in Table 4-1(b).

(2) Full- wave rectifier circuit with a filter capacitor. 1. The short- circuit clip is inserted by referring to Figure 4.8 and the short- circuit clip arrangement diagram in Figure 4.9(C6 : 220)

2. AC source 9V-0V-9V are applied to Vac1, Vac2 respectively. 3. Vac1, Vac2 are measured by using ACV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope respectively, then were record in Table 4-1 (b). 4. VR4 (1 M) is adjusted to minimum, then the output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope, where the DC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vr (ripple). Then were record in Table 4-1 (b). 5. VR4 (1 M) is adjusted to maximum, then step 4 is repeated. 6. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to the short-circuit clip jumper arrangement diagram in Figure 4.10 (Change C6 to C5, change R1 to 1K).

7. The output terminal (OUT) is meausred by using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, where the DC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vr (the ripple). Then, were record in Table 4-1(b). 8. Experiment Result: Indicated in Table 4-1(b).

(C) Bridge Rectifier Circuit. Procedures : (1) Bridge rectifier circuit without a filter capacitor 1. First, the module KL-23002 is fixed in the KL-21001 Linear Circuit Lab, then the block marked 23001- block c is located. 2. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to Figure 4.11 and the short-circuit clip arrangement diagram in Figure 4.12.

3. AC source 18V is applied to Vac. 4. Vac is measured by using ACV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope respectively, then was record in Table 4-1 (c). 5. The output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope, where the DC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vr (the ripple). Then were record in Table 4-1(c). 6. Experiment Result: Indicated in Table 4-1(c).

(2) Bridge rectifier circuit with a filter capacitor. 1. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to Figure 4.13 and the short-circuit clip jumper arrangement diagram in Figure 4.14. (C6 : 220)

2. AC source 18V is applied to Vac. 3. Vac is measured by using ACV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope respectively, then was record in Table 4-1 (c). 4. VR4 (1 M) is adjusted to minimum, then the output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of Multimeter and Oscilloscope, where the DC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of Oscilloscope is used to test Vr (ripple). Then, were record in Table 4-1 (c). 5. VR4 (1 M) is adjusted to maximum, then step 4 is repeated.

6. The short-circuit clip jumper is inserted by referring to the short- circuit clip arrangement diagram in Figure 4.15 (Change C6 to C5, change R1 to 1K).

7. The output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, where the DC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope is used to test Vr (the ripple). Then, were record in Table 4-1(c). 8. Experiment Result: Indicated in Table 4-1(a).

Results :

Vrms/Vp-p

Multimeter

Oscilloscope OUT Vdc (V)


4.0V 14.00V 11.40V 8.00V 7.00V 27.00V 23.00V 16.50V 8.00V 27.00V 22.00V 16.00V

Test Point

Circuit
Without c
C6:220- VR4:MAX

IN

OUT

IN (Vpp)
26Vpp 26Vpp 26Vpp 26Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp 54Vpp

Vr
10.00V 2.00mV 1.60V 6.00V 18.25V 6.00mV 3.00V 11.00V 18.00V 5.00mV 3.00V 11.00V

10.00V 10.05V 9.96V 10.03V 20.00V 20.00V 19.70V 20.00V 20.00V 20.00V 19.70V 20.00V

4.17V 13.30V 11.16V 7.78V 8.60V 27.10V 22.40V 15.70V 7.60V 27.30V 23.10V 15.70V

(a)Half-

wave wave

C6:220- VR4:MIN C5:10- R7:1K

Without c

(b)Full-

C6:220- VR4:MAX C6:220- VR4:MIN C5:10- R7:1K

Without c

(c)Bridge

C6:220- VR4:MAX C6:220- VR4:MIN C5:10- R7:1K

TABLE 4-1

Analysis:

We can analyst here, when we convert the AC to DC without used capacitor the ripple voltage is higher. Because the current now is leaked and it cannot filter the current flow. When we used the capacitor ripple voltage will decrease. Higher value of the capacitor will decrease the value of ripple voltage. When we used the capacitor output voltage is higher than input voltage it is because capacitor will allow the current flow with smooth and increase the voltage gain. When the voltage gain increase the current also increase. And it also filter the current flow.

Besides, the full wave and bridge will produce the approximate value of input and output voltages. Their ripple also approximate when used capacitor or not used it. Because the full wave is known as bridge. Other than that when we used oscilloscope it will displays the voltage peak to peak. When we get the voltage peak to peak we can find the Vrms. With used these formula So, from our experiment, during used multimeter we can get the Vrms while used oscilloscope we get Vpp. So their value is approximately.

Discussion:

Rectifier is a circuit that converts AC input power to DC output power. The input supply may be a single phase or a multi-phase supply. The output is DC voltage and current with certain amount of ripple components. There are two types of rectifier, namely half wave and full wave. Each type can either be uncontrolled, half-controlled or fully controlled. An uncontrolled rectifier uses diodes, while a full-controlled rectifier uses thyristor or popularly known as Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). A half controlled is a mix of diodes and thyristors. The thyristors need to be turned on using a special triggering circuit.

Half-Wave Rectifier In practice, the half-wave rectifier is used most often in low-power applications because the average current in the supply will not be zero. This may cause problems in transformer performance. While practical applications of half wave rectifier are limited, the analysis is important because it will enable us to understand more complicated circuits such as full wave-and three-phase rectifiers.

Full-Wave Rectifier Like half-wave, the objective of a full-wave rectifier is to produce a voltage or current which is purely DC or has some specified dc component. While the purpose of the fullwave rectifier is basically the same as that of the half-wave rectifiers have some fundamental advantages. The average current in the ac source is zero in the full-wave rectifier, thus avoiding problems associated with nonzero average source currents. The average (dc) output voltage is higher than half-wave. The output of the full-wave is inherently less ripple that the half-wave rectifier.

Conclusion: From this experiment we learned to understand the principles and features of half-wave bridged rectifier. Through construct the circuit and observed their voltage through the oscilloscope and multimeter. This instrument we also used in full wave bridge rectifier and bridge rectifier. We also must know about the principle and features of full wave bridge rectifier. then we understand the principles and features of bridge rectifier.

Beside that, higher Dc Voltage that we used in the experiment with capacitor will reduce the ripple voltage. Because capacitor used for smooth the current and filter the current leaked. Voltage input is higher than voltage output it is because we not used the capacitor. during convert that current. When voltage input is lower than output we used capacitor during converted AC to DC. Input is alternative current(AC) and output is direct current (DC). So this experiment is verify because the rectifier circuit is can convert AC input to DC output.

Reference: Diperolehi pada oktober 28, 2011 daripada http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/diode/diode _6.html Diperolehi pada oktober 28, 2011 daripada http://electronics-lab-experiment.blogspot.com/ 2009/02/experiment-study-of-diode-rectifier.html Diperolehi pada oktober 28, 2011 daripada http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/notes/Lab sheet2y.pdf. Manual Laboratory SFE 3013 Basic Electronic.