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Abstract

An open problem in geometry is to produce all monohedral tilings of the disk such that at least one tile does not touch the centre of the disk. We present all currently known solutions to this problem.

Introduction

A monohedral tiling is a tiling in which all tiles are congruent. A specic case of the problem is to produce a monohedral disk tiling such that the centre of the disk is contained entirely within the interior of one tile. This was presented in [1] as an unsolved problem, and discussion found at [7] seems to suggest this is not possible, but no real progress has been made to prove this conjecture. During these discussions, the other case has been mentioned. Namely, produce a tiling such that the centre lies on the boundary of more than one tile, but does not touch all tiles. This is the problem under consideration in this paper. Section 2 lists and generalises all previously known tilings of such type. The second tiling in Figure 2 appears as the logo of the Mass Program at Penn State [6]. On their website it is stated: We do not know whether there is a partition of the disc into congruent pieces other than the logo such that not all pieces contain the center and not all boundaries are circle arcs. Section 3 gives a construction of a new innite family of tilings, members of which are exactly of this type. We make no claim that this list exhausts all possible solutions. The author would like to thank Karene Chu for the initial introduction to this problem, and Ian Porteous and Colin Wright for enthusiastic discussion. A big thank you also to both Andy Wellings and Jean Dacre for inspiring my career in pure mathematics. Readers unfamiliar with this problem are strongly encouraged to revisit this paper after attempting the puzzles for themselves.

A known solution to this problem may be found by slightly modifying a very elementary tessellation of regular polygons. Figure 1 shows how we may construct a regular hexagon by placing 6 equilateral triangles around a point which 1

becomes the centre of the regular hexagon. An equilateral triangle has three lines of symmetry. We may include these lines in the diagram of Figure 1 in such a way that cyclic symmetry is preserved, but reective symmetry is not.

Figure 1: A regular hexagon tiled by 6 equilateral triangles, and 12 congruent scalene triangles.

It follows that this tiling is a solution to a similar problem thinking of the hexagon rather than the disk, since 6 out of the 12 tiles do not touch the centre of the hexagon. We return to tiling the disk with congruent tiles. Since some tiles touch the boundary of the disk, all tiles must have at least one edge which has the same curvature. Figure 2 show a modication of the hexagonal tiling in Figure 1, created by curving all edges in a cyclic way so that each edge has the same curvature as the perimeter of the disk. We refer to tiles of this type as shields. In an absolutely similar manner to that of the hexagon, we now proceed to split each shield in half down its line of symmetry. Note that we are forced to do this in a cyclic way according to the curvature of the interior edges. Since 6 out of the 12 half-shields dont touch the centre of the disk, Figure 2 gives a solution 1 to the tiling problem. We call this tiling a tiling of type 1, denoted T12 , where i Tj denotes a tiling of type i containing j tiles.

As well as being a curved version of the tessellation of the hexagon by equilateral triangles, this is also a curved version of part of a non-periodic tiling of irregular quadrilaterals found in [3]. The part of this innite planar tiling we are interested in is shown in Figure 3. This object also appears on page 236 of [2] in the setting of piano-hinged dissections of regular dodecagons. 2

We continue the classication. Figure 4 shows how the tiling of 6 shields may be considered to be a sub-tiling of a cyclic tiling of order 12 with all tiles congruent. Highlighted in this gure is the shield. The shield has a line of symmetry, so we can ip each pair of tiles within each of the 6 shields getting a 2 second solution to the problem. We call this a tiling of type 2, denoted by T12 .

2 Figure 4: A disk tiled by 6 shields, and two tilings with 12 tiles (T12 ).

2 The tiling T12 was constructed by splitting each shield into 2 parts in a natural way. If we similarly split each shield into n parts (n 2), we get a 2 tiling which we denote T6n after ipping each n-tuple of tiles within each of the 6 shields. Figure 5 displays some of these tilings.

2 2 In fact, each T6n represents a set of tilings. Some members of T12 are shown in Figure 6. The rst of these is similar to a tiling appearing in the discussion [7] as a counter example to the conjecture that all tilings solving this problem should have non-trivial cyclic symmetry.

1 2 2 The tilings T12 and T12 are widely known. The tiling T6n is not obviously 2 present in the literature but is a generalisation of T12 . In section 3 we present a construction of a new family of solutions general1 ising T12 .

1 1 In this section we show how the tiling T12 may be generalised to a tiling T4n , where n 3 is odd. Let n 5 be an odd number and take a regular n-gon. Choose n+1 connected 2 edges, and split these from the rest of the edges. The remaining n1 edges may 2 then be reattached to produce a concave polygon. We call this shape a regular reex polygon. For example, see Figure 7. We dene a regular reex 3-gon to be an equilateral triangle.

If we arrange two regular reex n-gons such that the acute angles touch, this picture is indistinguishable from an intersection of two regular n-gons. This demonstrates that a regular reex n-gon has a line of symmetry (Figure 8).

Regular reex n-gons tessellate naturally. Indeed, a tiling of regular reex 7-gons can be seen in Figure 9. The original source of this picture is page 515 of [4].

The n1 obtuse angles of a regular reex n-gon are each n2 of a full turn, 2 2n since they are the interior angles of a regular n-gon. The n3 reex angles of a 2 regular reex n-gon are each n+2 of a full turn since they are the exterior angles 2n of a regular n-gon. The sum of the interior angles for any regular n-gon is equal to n2 . Let denote the size of each acute angle of the regular reex n-gon. 2 Then satises the equation n1n2 n3n+2 n2 + + 2 = . 2 2n 2 2n 2 5

1 This simplies to a linear equation with the unique solution = 2n of a full turn. We conclude that 2n regular reex n-gons may be tessellated cyclically around a given vertex adjacent to one of the acute angles, producing a tiling of a regular 2n-gon. Since a regular reex n-gon has a line of symmetry, each tile may be split in two to produce a monohedral tiling of the regular 2n-gon with 4n tiles. This is shown in Figure 10 for n = 5.

Figure 10: A regular decagon tiled by regular reex pentagons and half regular reex pentagons.

Consider now a tiling consisting of 3 reex n-gons, in which three of the acute angles meet at a vertex C. This is shown in Figure 11 for n = 7. Let e1 , e2 , e3 be edges of the respective regular n-gons forming a connected subset of the boundary of this tiling. e1 e2 e3

Replace e1 , e2 , e3 by arcs a1 , a2 , a3 , each with centre of curvature at C. For the resulting tiles to be symmetric, the opposite edges of each tile must be replaced with arcs with the same curvature. But the resulting tiles are not congruent, and more edges should be replaced with similar arcs to achieve this. Continue replacing edges with arcs in this fashion until all tiles are congruent and each has a line of symmetry. This process is demonstrated in Figure 12, again for n = 7, where the dotted lines represent the desired lines of symmetry of tiles in the rst two diagrams, and genuine lines of symmetry of tiles in the third.

a1

a2

a3

1 Since the acute angle of a regular reex n-gon is 2n of a full turn, we continue tiling about the vertex C with congruent tiles to produce a tiling with 2n tiles. Since the edges on the boundary of the tiling have C as a common centre of curvature, the boundary must be a circle with centre C, and we have produced a monohedral tiling of the disk. Each of the 2n tiles has a line of symmetry. A monohedral tiling with 4n tiles is obtained by cutting along these lines of symmetry. Half of the resulting tiles do not touch the centre of the disk. Some members of this family are shown in Figure 13.

1 We consider these tilings as generalisations of T12 since replacing the edges of a regular reex 3-gon (an equilateral triangle) with arcs in a similar manner produces the shield which was shown in Figure 2 in Section 2.

References

[1] H. T. Croft, K. J. Falconer, R. K. Guy, Unsolved Problems In Geometry, New York, Springer-Verlag (1991). [2] G. N. Frederickson, Piano-hinged dissections: time to fold!, A K Peters/CRC Press (2006). [3] M. Goldberg, A dissection problem for sets of polygons, Amer. Math. Monthly 71 (1964), 1077-1095. [4] B. Grunbaum, G. C. Shephard, Tilings And Patterns, W. H. Freeman & Company (1986).

[5] Math Overow, Is it possible to dissect a disk into congruent pieces, so that a neighborhood of the origin is contained within a single piece? http://bit.ly/dSilb4 [6] Mass program at Penn State http://www.math.psu.edu/mass/logo/ [7] XKCD.com forums, Unusual Cake Slcing, http://forums.xkcd.com/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=27963

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