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Rolf Harren

University of Dortmund

2007.09.07

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Introduction Problem Preparation Square Packing Separation into Large, Medium and Small Items Packing the Large Items Optimally Adding the Small Items Putting Everything Together Hypercube Packing Generalization Summary

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Outline

1

Introduction Problem Preparation Square Packing Separation into Large, Medium and Small Items Packing the Large Items Optimally Adding the Small Items Putting Everything Together Hypercube Packing Generalization Summary

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

...

...

Objective: an orthogonal, non-rotational and non-overlapping packing into a given space such that...

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

B IN PACKING ...the number of bins is minimized

k=1 2 3

...

h

Rolf Harren

selection

... ...

Approx. the Orthogonal Knapsack Problem for Hypercubes

Problem Preparation

Considered problem All items are squares, cubes or hypercubes 0 < a1 , . . . , an 1 Items have prots pi Bin has unit size

selection

...

...

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Results

APX-complete Bansal, Correa, Sviridenko

S TRIP PACKING AFPTAS Kenyon, Rmila 1.691.. open Hypercube S TRIP PACKING AFPTAS APTAS

Bansal, Han, Iwama Sviridenko, Zhang

Kenyon, Sviridenko

2- dim d- dim

APTAS

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Results

APX-complete Bansal, Correa, Sviridenko

S TRIP PACKING AFPTAS Kenyon, Rmila 1.691.. open Hypercube S TRIP PACKING AFPTAS APTAS

Bansal, Han, Iwama Sviridenko, Zhang

Kenyon, Sviridenko

2- dim d- dim

APTAS

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Results

K NAPSACK PACKING General 2- dim 3- dim d- dim 2+ 7+ APX-complete open

Jansen, Zhang Diedrich, H., Jansen Thle, Thomas

2d +1 2d

Hypercube 5 4 +

9 8

+ +

PACKING WITH LARGE RESOURCES , MAXIMIZING THE VOLUME , MAXIMIZING THE NUMBER ,

...

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Results

K NAPSACK PACKING General 2- dim 3- dim d- dim 2+ 7+ APX-complete open

Jansen, Zhang Diedrich, H., Jansen Thle, Thomas

2d +1 2d

Hypercube 5 4 +

9 8

+ +

PACKING WITH LARGE RESOURCES , MAXIMIZING THE VOLUME , MAXIMIZING THE NUMBER ,

...

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Open Question

NP-Completeness It is unknown for all previous packing problems whether the restriction to Hypercube packing is NP-hard for d 3.

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Applications

Cutting Problems All packing problems can be seen as cutting problems, e.g., cutting textile or wood Transportation Industry Arranging container on a ship Arranging items inside a container

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Applications

Cutting Problems All packing problems can be seen as cutting problems, e.g., cutting textile or wood Transportation Industry Arranging container on a ship Arranging items inside a container

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Applications

Advertisement Placement Arranging ads in a newspaper Arranging ads on a ash page Scheduling Bounded running time on a computer with a grid layout for the processors Tasks need a xed running time on a rectangular grid of processors

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Applications

Advertisement Placement Arranging ads in a newspaper Arranging ads on a ash page Scheduling Bounded running time on a computer with a grid layout for the processors Tasks need a xed running time on a rectangular grid of processors

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Outline

1

Introduction Problem Preparation Square Packing Separation into Large, Medium and Small Items Packing the Large Items Optimally Adding the Small Items Putting Everything Together Hypercube Packing Generalization Summary

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

NFDH

l4

N EXT-F IT-D ECREASING -H EIGHT (NFDH) is a very efcient layer based packing algorithm for small items

l3 l2 l1

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Gaps in a Packing

Lemma Given a packing P of m squares we can partition the free space into at most 3m rectangles

At least one item in P has to be aligned to the bottom of the bin

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Shifting Technique

L

... ...

dispose

L h

S1 S2 S3 S4

...

Si

...

Sl

w=1

Lemma For small items ai it is possible to free a given line L by shifting the items into a gap losing not more than O()p(I) of the prot.

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

Shifting Technique

L

... ...

dispose

L h

S1 S2 S3 S4

...

Si

...

Sl

w=1

Lemma For small items ai it is possible to free a given line L by shifting the items into a gap losing not more than O()p(I) of the prot.

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

If the bin is much bigger than the items we can derive a good approximation ratio Lemma There is an approximation algorithm for R ECTANGLE PACKING into a bin B = (a, b) where a = 1 and b 1 with approximation 4 ratio (1 + )

Idea: Bin has strip-like shape Pack a selection of items with the AFPTAS for S TRIP PACKING and apply a shifting technique to the overhang

Rolf Harren

Problem Preparation

If the bin is much bigger than the items we can derive a good approximation ratio Lemma There is an approximation algorithm for R ECTANGLE PACKING into a bin B = (a, b) where a = 1 and b 1 with approximation 4 ratio (1 + )

Idea: Bin has strip-like shape Pack a selection of items with the AFPTAS for S TRIP PACKING and apply a shifting technique to the overhang

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

Separation

A little bit technical... Separation Let r =

1

Divide (unknown) optimal solution Iopt Mi = {s Iopt : s [i+1 , i [} i {1, . . . , r } with p(Mi ) p(Iopt )

Rolf Harren

Separation

A little bit technical... Separation Let r =

1

Divide (unknown) optimal solution Iopt Mi = {s Iopt : s [i+1 , i [} i {1, . . . , r } with p(Mi ) p(Iopt )

Rolf Harren

Separation

A little bit technical... Separation Let r =

1

Divide (unknown) optimal solution Iopt Mi = {s Iopt : s [i+1 , i [} i {1, . . . , r } with p(Mi ) p(Iopt )

Rolf Harren

Separation

A little bit technical... Separation Let r =

1

Rolf Harren

Separation

A little bit technical... Separation Let r =

1

Rolf Harren

Separation

A little bit technical... Separation Let r =

1

Rolf Harren

Separation

In a nutshell Large items are large (i.e., i ) Small items are small (i.e., < i +1 ) Medium items are unimportant (i.e., p(M) OPT(I)).

Rolf Harren

Separation

In a nutshell Large items are large (i.e., i ) Small items are small (i.e., < i +1 ) Medium items are unimportant (i.e., p(M) OPT(I)).

Rolf Harren

Separation

In a nutshell Large items are large (i.e., i ) Small items are small (i.e., < i +1 ) Medium items are unimportant (i.e., p(M) OPT(I)).

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

Enumeration

1 2 i

1 2 i

large

Rolf Harren

Enumeration

1 2 i

1 2 i

large

Rolf Harren

Enumeration

1 2 i

1 2 i

large

Rolf Harren

Enumeration

1 2 i

1 2 i

large

Rolf Harren

Unlled Volume

Packing of Lopt

Gaps in packing

NFDH

Small items

Rolf Harren

Unlled Volume

Packing of Lopt

Gaps in packing

NFDH

Small items

Rolf Harren

Unlled Volume

number of gaps unlled volume per gap

Unlled volume =

3m 3 3

1 2 i 1 2 i

i2

2 2i +1 2i4

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

3 Methods

Enough remaining space Several large items Only one very large item

Rolf Harren

Guess Lopt

constant packing

Packing of Lopt

Gaps in packing

partition free space in 3|Lopt | gaps

Input I

separated by i selection with

2 FracKnap+ (S, V 2i )

NFDH

...

...

V 22

22

Rolf Harren

Guess Lopt

constant packing

Packing of Lopt

Gaps in packing

partition free space in 3|Lopt | gaps

Input I

separated by i selection with

2 FracKnap+ (S, V 2i )

NFDH

...

...

V 22

22

Rolf Harren

Guess Lopt

constant packing

Packing of Lopt

Gaps in packing

partition free space in 3|Lopt | gaps

Input I

separated by i selection with

2 FracKnap+ (S, V 2i )

NFDH

...

...

V 22

22

Rolf Harren

Guess Lopt

k items constant packing

Packing of Lopt

P1

complete enumeration

Lopt \ {ak }

Gaps in packing

Input I

separated by i

P2

selection with Knapsack(S, 1 Vol(Lopt ), ) NFDH

...

...

Rolf Harren

0.5

P1

P2

0.25

0.5

0.75

k max(P1 , P2 ) ( O( ))OPT(I) k +1

Rolf Harren

0.5

P1

P2

0.25

0.5

0.75

k max(P1 , P2 ) ( O( ))OPT(I) k +1

Rolf Harren

S1

g2

amax

S4

S5 1 + amax

1 amax

g1

amax

amax

g1

S2

g2

S3

1 amax

1 amax

Use R ECTANGLE PACKING WITH L ARGE R ESOURCES for the free space

p(Lopt S ) (1 O( ))OPT(I)

Rolf Harren

S1

g2

amax

S4

S5 1 + amax

1 amax

g1

amax

amax

g1

S2

g2

S3

1 amax

1 amax

Use R ECTANGLE PACKING WITH L ARGE R ESOURCES for the free space

p(Lopt S ) (1 O( ))OPT(I)

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

We derived methods for Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Enough remaining space Several large items Only one very large item (1 O( ))OPT(I) k ( k +1 O( ))OPT(I) (1 O( ))OPT(I)

Rolf Harren

Main Idea

Rolf Harren

Generalization

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

Generalization

Direct adoption of 2-dim methods With suitable separation parameters Case 1 Enough remaining space Case 2 Several large items work as well More work needed For Case 3 we need an approximation algorithm for O RTHOGONAL K NAPSACK PACKING WITH L ARGE R ESOURCES FOR H YPERCUBES with ratio (1 + ) if the bin is big enough

Rolf Harren

Generalization

Direct adoption of 2-dim methods With suitable separation parameters Case 1 Enough remaining space Case 2 Several large items work as well More work needed For Case 3 we need an approximation algorithm for O RTHOGONAL K NAPSACK PACKING WITH L ARGE R ESOURCES FOR H YPERCUBES with ratio (1 + ) if the bin is big enough

Rolf Harren

Generalization

Wellstructured Packing

amax big enough

free of items

1

x3

space for

amax

x2 x1

Rolf Harren

Generalization

amax big enough

H2 H2 H1 H1

x3

amax

x2 x1

C

Rolf Harren Approx. the Orthogonal Knapsack Problem for Hypercubes

Generalization

Applying the algorithm for O RTHOGONAL K NAPSACK PACKING WITH L ARGE R ESOURCES FOR H YPERCUBES

S2 S1

S3

x3

space for

amax

x2 x1

Rolf Harren

Generalization

Seven similarly large cubes cannot ll a cube bin almost completely In general For d-dim Hypercube Packing, we can reduce Case 2 with k < 2d to Case 1 or Case 3

Rolf Harren

Generalization

Seven similarly large cubes cannot ll a cube bin almost completely In general For d-dim Hypercube Packing, we can reduce Case 2 with k < 2d to Case 1 or Case 3

Rolf Harren

Outline

1

Rolf Harren

Summary

Result We developed an approximation algorithm with approximation 1 ratio 1 + 2d + for d-dimensional O RTHOGONAL K NAPSACK PACKING FOR H YPERCUBES Main Steps Separation of large, medium and small items Packing the large items Adding the small items Three similarly large squares cannot ll a square bin almost completely

Rolf Harren

Summary

Result We developed an approximation algorithm with approximation 1 ratio 1 + 2d + for d-dimensional O RTHOGONAL K NAPSACK PACKING FOR H YPERCUBES Main Steps Separation of large, medium and small items Packing the large items Adding the small items Three similarly large squares cannot ll a square bin almost completely

Rolf Harren

Additional notes

Practical application of this algorithm The running time is dominated by huge enumerations, making the algorithm practically unusable. Asymptotic behavior The structure of the problem does not allow asymptotic algorithms. Neither in the size of the input, nor in the value of an optimal solution.

Rolf Harren

Additional notes

Practical application of this algorithm The running time is dominated by huge enumerations, making the algorithm practically unusable. Asymptotic behavior The structure of the problem does not allow asymptotic algorithms. Neither in the size of the input, nor in the value of an optimal solution.

Rolf Harren

The End

Rolf Harren

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