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Nanotechnology gy small is beautiful

and powerful too f lt


Presented by Aasim Afroz Alam Mohd. Irshad Akram

Outline of presentation

Introduction I d i History y Approach and views Nanostructures STM and AFM Applications Future scenario References

Introduction (what is it?)

The Greek word Nano means dwarf(used for one billionth). Nanotechnology , defined by a unit of length, the nanometer(nm), 1 nm = 10-9 m nanometer(nm) m. Nanotechnology range: 1nm to 100nm 100nm.

A strand of human hair is roughly 75,000 nm.

Contd

Novel properties because of their small No el p ope tie be e thei m ll size. Ability to control and manipulate at atomic scale. Covers nearly every discipline of science and engineering. We need ten hydrogen atoms lined up end-toend-to-end to make up 1 nm.

Comparison

Now science as nanoscience

Physics

Physics Ph i

SCIENCE

NANO SCIENCE

Biology Up to 20th Century

Biology 21st Century

The History

Foundation laid by Richard Feynman. At Caltech in 1959 Feynman made suggestions about manipulating and controlling things on nanoscale. nanoscale. The word nanotechnology coined by Nario Taniguchi of Japan in 1974. g p Better way of miniaturization was the bottom up y p then top down approach.

Feynmans A F Approach h

BULK

BULK

NANO

NANO

Feynmans views
There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Feynman talked about the problem of manipulating and controlling things on small scale scale. There is enough room on the head of a pin to put all of the Encyclopedia Britannica. ll f h l di i i The field is not quite the same as the others. others. It would have an enormous number of technical applications

Manipulation of Atoms p

Feynman solicit the Physicists in 1959 to make the electron microscope 100 times better. better. Manipulation of atoms became a reality in 1981 when G.Binnig and H.Rohrer of IBM invented STM. IBM, STM. In 1985 Binnig along with Gerber and Quate invented AFM which did not require the specimen to be conducting. conducting.

The first Nanostructure


In 1985,Kroto and Smalley discovered the first 1985, important nanostructure ,the C-60 i h fullerene f ll consisting of 60 Carbon atoms. atoms.

Contd Contd

The C-60 particle was named fullerene or CBuckyball. Buckminister Fuller invented geodesic domes. The structure of C-60 resembles the structure of Cthese domes domes. The C-60 Nano particle contains 12 pentagonal Cpa ticle and 20 hexagonal faces arranged like in a soccer ball. ball

Other nanostructures

Carbon nanotubes C b t b Nanowires Nanofabrics CNTFETs Silver nanoparticles coated polymer

Carbon nanotubes
Dia. 4-30nm. 4 Length 1mm. g Youngs modulus 5 times that of steel. Tensile strength 500 times that of steel. Conduct electricity better than metals.

Nanowires
Thin wires are made Thi i d of metals or semiconductors. semiconductors Crossbar array of nanowires form memory cell. 40Gb/mm2 of memory have been developed by NASA using indium oxide nanowires

Principle of Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

A sharp metal ti acts as h t l tip t probe. probe. The tunnelling current is p p proportional to tip position. p position. p The probe tip maps the contours of the specimen f h i surface. surface.

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

Applications
In medical science

Buckyballs as antioxidants antioxidants. Used as a cage to trap and flush out dangerous metals, e.g. gadolinium. Targeted drug delivery. Improving Medical Imaging

In engineering

Superconductivity in doped C60 has been found. Solar energy conversion. C-60 exhibits strong absorption in UV range. Nanowires may form a memory cell. Magnetic recording.

Contd

In CNTs the current would flow with least energy loss. loss. CNTs are used for hydrogen fuel cell. CNT transistors and molecular electronics. The cloth made of CNT fibers will be a perfect material for bullet proof vests.

Contd

In CNTs the current would flow with least energy loss. loss. CNTs are used for hydrogen fuel cell cell. CNT transistors and molecular electronics electronics. Nanomachines. Nanomachines Nanopillars and nanopaints nanopaints. Kevlar Ke la is used in making b lletp oof vests. sed bulletproof vests. ests

Future Scenario

20102010-Nanotechnology will be visible everywhere. 20152015- Advances in nanoelectronics and computers based on nanotechnology nanotechnology. 20202020- Nanomaterials in plenty. p y 20252025- Nanotechnology energy year. 20302030- Artificial intelligence development. 20452045- Nanorobotics.

Nanotechnology in India

IISc, Bangalore. , g India Institutes of Technology (IITs). Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. BHU, Varanasi. JNU, Delhi. University of Hyderabad. Punjab University, Chandigarh.

References