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2

Weierstrass

1.1

Weierstrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2.1

Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

2.2

Newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

2.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

27

3.1

L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

3.2

L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

3.3

L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

Pad
e

37

4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

4.2

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

43

5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

5.2

Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

49

6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

6.2

B- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

6.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

6.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

6.2.3

B- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

53

7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

7.3

Schoenberg-Whitney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

(I)

57

8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

8.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

8.3

59

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

II

61

9.1

Riesz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

9.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

9.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

9.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

Gabor

10.1 Gabor

65

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

10.2 Gabor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

10.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

10.5

69

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Weierstrass


. , . Weierstrass
, , .
.

1.1

Weierstrass

1.1 (Weierstrass ) f C[a, b]. , > 0


P
max |P (x) f (x)| .

axb

Bernstein . , [a, b] = [0, 1].


f C[0, 1],
Bnf (x) :=

f (k/n)Bn,k (x),

k=0

( )
n k
Bn,k (x) :=
x (1 x)nk .
k

Bnf [0, 1] f , , > 0 n0 ,


n n0 ,
max |Bnf (x) f (x)| .

x[0,1]

WEIERSTRASS

Weierstrass . ,
|f (x) Bnf (x)| = |

f (x)Bn,k (x)

k=0

f (k/n)Bn,k (x)|

k=0

|f (x) f (k/n)|Bn,k (x) +

|knx|n3/4

n + 2M

|f (x) f (k/n)|Bn,k (x)

|knx|>n3/4

Bn,k (x),

|knx|>n3/4

,
n :=

max

(k,x):|knx|n3/4

|f (x) f (k/n)|,

M := max |f (x)|.
x[0,1]

f , n , n 0.

Bn,k (x).

|knx|>n3/4

n3/2

Bn,k (x) < nx(1 x) n/4.

|knx|>n3/4

1
Bn,k (x)
4
3/4

( )1/2
1
.
n

M
< n +
2

( )1/2
1
.
n

|knx|>n

|f (x)

Bnf (x)|

n3/2

Bn,k (x) < nx(1 x) n/4.

|knx|>n3/4

n3/2

|knx|>n3/4

Bn,k (x) <

(k nx)2 Bn,k (x)

k=0

(k nx)2 Bn,k (x) = nx(1 x) n/4.

k=0

1.2

1.1 Bernstein Bn,k (x) =

(n)
k

xk (1 x)nk .

, , Bezier Bernstein
. Bernstein .

1.2

Weierstrass . Weierstrass
? . . f g R
,

(f g)(x) :=
f (y)g(x y)dy.
R

1.2 f g L1 (R), f g L1 (R) . f g1 f 1 g1 .


1.1
f g = g f,

(f g) h = f (g h).

, . ,
L1 (R), f L1 (R),
f = f?
, , . ,
{Kn }nN , n , Kn f f f .
, {Kn }nN .
Dirac . K1 , K2 , . . . Dirac
()
1. n N, Kn 0
2. n N,

Kn (x)dx = 1;

3. > 0 r > 0, n0 ,
n n0 ,

|x|r

Kn (x)dx < .

WEIERSTRASS

Dirac
1.3 f R , {Kn }nN Dirac .
{Kn f }nN f f .
M R f R . S , f .
f S . , > 0 r > 0 ,
x1 , x2 S |x1 x2 | r,
|f (x1 ) f (x2 )| < .
, x S,
|Kn f (x) f (x)|




=
Kn (t)(f (x t) f (x))dt

=
Kn (t)|f (x t) f (x)|dt +
Kn (t)|f (x t) f (x)|dt
|t|r
|t|r

Kn (t)|f (x t) f (x)|dt + 2M ,

|t|r

, n n0 ().

Kn (t) dt = .
Kn (t)|f (x t) f (x)|dt
R

|t|r

,
|Kn f (x) f (x)| + 2M = (1 + 2M ).
.
Weierstrass . Laudau

1 (1 x2 )n 1 x 1
cn
Kn (x) =
0
|x| 1.
cn

Kn (x)dx = 1.

Weiersstrass :
1.1

1. {Kn }nN Dirac

2. n N, Kn f .

1.3 FOURIER

Fourier

1.3

, 2 f ,
. R Dirac , [, ] Dirac ,
[, ] . [, ] .
R 2 f g, (f g)

(f g) (x) =
f (y)g(x y)dy.

, (f g) . n N, Kn
2 . , x R, Kn (x) = Kn (x + 2).
Kn , n = 1, 2, . . . 2 Dirac ,
1.
Kn (x) 0,

2.

3. r > 0,

x [, ].

Kn (x)dx = 1.

|Kn (x)|dx = 0,

lim

r|x|

1.4 Kn , n = 1, 2, . . . 2 Dirac , f 2
.
lim (f Kn )(x) = f (x)

f x . f , .
f Fourier . 2 f , Fourier

f ()

f(n)ein ,

n=

1
f(n) =
2

f ()ein d.

f N Fourier
SN (f )() :=

n=N

f(n)ein .

WEIERSTRASS

10

, R, sN (f )() f (). , f ()
, .
, . Dirichlet
DN () :=

N
1
exp(ik).
2 k=N

, f N Fourier
N

SN (f )() := DN f =

ck exp(ik),

k=N

ck =

1
2

exp(ikt)f (t)dt.

, , DN Dirac .
, N Fourier , ,
.
s1 + s2 + s3 + .
, N
SN :=

sj ,

j=1

, S limN SN = S.
. , , ,
, . ,
1 1 + 1 1 + .
N
1, 0, 1, 0, 1, . . . ,
.
N :=

S1 + + SN
,
N

N N . N N Ces`aro . ,
Cesaro , 1/2.

1.3 FOURIER

11

Fourier ,
N (f )(x) =

S0 (f )(x) + + SN 1 (f )(x)
.
N

KN :=

1
(D0 + + DN 1 ),
N

, KN Fej
er .
1.1 Fejer
KN (x) =

1 sin2 (N x/2)
,
2N sin2 (x/2)

Dirac .
,
1.5 (Fej
er-Ces`
aro) f 2 ,
1
(S0 (f ) + + SN 1 (f ))
N
R f .
, Weierstrass :
1.1 f 2 . , > 0 T
,
max |f (x) T (x)| .

|x|

12

WEIERSTRASS

, .
y = f (x) x , f n + 1 . n + 1
x0 , . . . , xn ,
yi = f (xi ),

i = 0, . . . , n.

p
p(xi ) = f (xi ) i = 0, . . . , n.
p m ,
p(x) = a0 + a1 x + + am xm , am = 0.
a0 , . . . , am
p(xi ) = f (xi ),

i = 0, . . . , n.

(2.1)

a0 + a1 x0 + a2 x20 + + am xn0 = y0
a0 + a1 x1 + a2 x21 + + am xn1 = y1
..
.

(2.2)

a0 + a1 xn + a2 x2n + + am xnn = yn .
(2.2) m = n. , m = n.
(2.2) . xj , j = 1, . . . , n
, (2.2) . , m = n,
(2.2) . , m = n, p
Lagrane Newton
.
13

14

2.1

Lagrange

. n i
i (xi ) = 1

i (xj ) = 0,

pn (x) =

i = j.

yi i (x)

i=0

(2.1). x0 , . . . , xi1 , xi+1 , . . . , xn i , i (x)

i (x) = c(x x0 ) (x xi1 )(x xi+1 ) (x xn ),


c . i (xi ) = 1,
c=

1
.
(xi x0 ) (xi xi1 )(xi xi+1 ) (xi xn )

,
i (x) =

(x x0 ) (x xi1 )(x xi+1 ) (x xn )


.
(xi x0 ) (xi xi1 )(xi xi+1 ) (xi xn )

(x) := (x x0 ) (x xn ). , i
i (x) =

(x)
.
(x xi ) (xi )

, Langrange
pn (x) =

yi

i=0

(x)
.
(x xi ) (xi )

,
2.1 {xi : i = 0, . . . , n} [a, b] n + 1 , f C[a, b].
, n pn (2.1). , pn

pn (x) =

i=0

yi

(x)
,
(x xi ) (xi )

, (x) = (x x0 ) (x xn ).
2.1 f (1) = 2, f (1) = 1 f (2) = 1. Lagrange .

2.2 NEWTON

15

2.1 2.1 exp(x2 ) sin(x), [5, 5]


, 7 11 .
1

2.5

0.8

0.6
1.5
0.4
1
0.2
0.5
0
0

0.2

0.4
5

0.5
5

2.1: exp(x2 ) 7 , 11 .
, .

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.5
5

1.5
5

2.2: sin(x) 7 , 11 .
, .
, exp(x2 ), ,
sin(x), ,
. 2.4 .

2.2

Newton

Langrange , , .
, 1 ,

16

. Newton . , pn

pn (x) = a0 + a1 (x x0 ) + + an (x x0 ) (x xn1 ).
n ,
a0 = f (x0 ),

a1 =

f (x0 )
f (x1 )
+
.
x0 x1 x1 x0

, , pn
pn (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 , x1 )(x x0 ) + + f (x0 , . . . , xn )(x x0 ) (x xn1 ). (2.3)
, f (x0 , . . . , xi ) i-,
f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xi ) :=

j=0

f (xj )

k=0;k=j (xj

xk )

(2.4)

(2.3) .
2.2 (2.3) n pn
pn (xi ) = f (xi ),

i = 0, . . . , n.

. n = 0 . ,
n 1 . n .
q n
q(xi ) = f (xi ), i = 0, . . . , n.
pn (2.3) ,
pn (xi ) = pn1 (xi ), i = 0, . . . , n 1.
, 0 i n 1
q(xi ) = pn1 (xi ) = pn (xi ).

q pn .
, q Lagrange. ,
q

j=0

f (xj )
= f (x0 , . . . , xn ).
k=0;k=j (xj xk )

2.3

17

, pn f (x0 , . . . , xn ). , q pn n 1
, n x0 , . . . , xn1 . ,
q pn .
.

2.3

Newton , (2.4) . ,
, .
,
2.3 (2.4)
f (x0 , . . . , xn ) =

f (x1 , . . . , xn ) f (x0 , . . . , xn1 )


.
xn x0

(2.5)

(2.4),
f (x0 , . . . , xn1 ) =
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) =

n1

j=0
n

j=1

n1

f (xj )

k=0,k=j (xk

xj )

f (xj )
.
k=1,k=j (xj xk )

(
)
n1
n1

f (xj )
f (xj )
f (xj )

=
(x

x
)
.
n1
n
0
n
(x

x
)
j
k
k=1,k=j
k=0,k=j (xj xk )
k=0,k=j (xj xk )
j=1
j=1
(2.5)
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) f (x0 , . . . , xn1 )
xn x0

n1
n

1
f (xj )
f (xj )
n
(

xn x0 j=0 n1
k=1,k=j (xj xk )
k=0,k=j (xj xk )
j=1
n

j=0

f (xj )
= f (x0 , . . . , xn ).
k=0,k=j (xj xk )

.
. ,
f , min{x0 , x1 } < < max{x0 , x1 }
f () = f (x0 , x1 ).

18

2.4 f n . , min{x0 , . . . , xn } max{x0 , . . . , xn },

f (x0 , . . . , xn ) =

f (n) ()
.
n!


g(x) = f (x) pn (x),
, pn n , pn (xi ) = f (xi ), i = 0, . . . , n. ,

g(x0 ) = g(x1 ) = = g(xn ) = 0.


, g (n) () = 0. ,
f (n) () = p(n)
n ().
pn
f (x0 , . . . , xn )xn

p(n)
n () = n! f (x0 , . . . , xn ).
,
f (x0 , . . . , xn ) =

f (n) ()
.
n!
.

:
1. R,
( f )(x0 , . . . , xn ) = f (x0 , . . . , xn );
2. (f + g)(x0 , . . . , xn ) = f (x0 , . . . , xn ) + g(x0 , . . . , xn );
3. f (x0 , . . . , xn ) x0 , . . . , xn , x0 , x1 , . . . , xn
, .
4.
(f g)(x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ) = f (x0 )g(x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )+f (x0 , x1 )g(x1 , . . . , xn )+ +f (x0 , . . . , xn )g(xn ).

2.4

19

5. f (x) = xm , m N,

f (x0 , . . . , xn ) =

xr00 xr11 xrnn .

r0 ++rn =mn

0, n > m
f (x0 , . . . , xn ) =
1 n = m

2.1 f n .
xj , j = 1, . . . , n, x0 , pn f Taylor n + 1 .
, Taylor .
:
1. h f (x0 , . . . , xn ) = h(x0 + + xn ), n 1. , f
n n = 1 , [1] .
[2] n = 2 , .
2. , . ,
, . , ,
. , ,
. Leibniz ( [3, 4, 5]).

2.4

, pn f . , ,
x , |f (x) pn (x)| . , f
.
2.5 x0 , . . . , xn [a, b] f C n+1 [a, b]. , x [a, b],
(a, b)
E(f ; x) := f (x) pn (x) =

(x) (n+1)
f
(),
(n + 1)!

(x) = (x x0 )(x x1 ) (x xn ).
x = x0 , . . . , xn , . , x
.
F (t) = f (t) pn (t)

(t)
(f (x) pn (x)).
(x)

20

, t , x . , F (x) =
0, F (xj ) = 0, j = 0, . . . , n. , Rolle F (n+1) (a, b) .
,
(n + 1)!
(f (x) pn (x)) = 0.
(x)

F (n+1) () = f (n+1) ()
,
f (x) pn (x) =

(x) (n+1)
f
().
(n + 1)!
.

2.2 , n N, f n + 1 ,
f . 2.1 2.1
. ex , [5, 5] , ,
2

. sin(x)
[5, 5] , , sin(x).
. [a, b] m Z.
f, f (1) , . . . , f (m1) [a, b] , f (m) |f (m) (x)| Mm , x [a, b],
f W m (Mm ; a, b). ,
E(f ; ) := f () pn ().
, x0 , . . . , xn [a, b].
2.6 m Z 1 m n + 1. f W m (Mm ; a, b),
Km (t) =

1
E((x t)m1
; ),
+
(m 1)!

Km (t)f (m) (t)dt.

E(f ; ) =
a

2.5

: {x0 , . . . , xn } pn
f . , . C[a, b] [a, b]
, f ,
f = max |f (x)|.
axb

2.5

21

{xi : i = 0, . . . , n}. X : C[a, b] n , X(f ) n


xi , i = 0, . . . , n f . X Lagrange , X

X := sup X(f ).
f =1

d := min f p.
pn

, d n f . ,
f C[a, b], X(f ) f X d . , X
X(f ) f .
2.7
f X(f ) (1 + X)d .
p n f ,
d = f p .

f X(f ) f p + p X(f )
= d + X(p f ) d + X p f = (1 + X)d .
.
2.8 Lagrange X
X = max

axb

|i (x)|,

i=1

i Lagrange .
X,
X = sup X(f )
f =1

=
=
=

sup max |

f =1 axb

max sup |

axb f =1

max

axb

i=1

i=1
n

f (xi )i (x)|
f (xi )i (x)|

i=1

|i (x)|.

22

.
Lagrange X , :
2.9 (Erd
os, Brutman) Lagrange X
2
log n + 0.5212.

X . :
X ? Chebyshev . Chebyshev

Tn (x) = cos(n cos1 x).


, , Chebyshev cos((2j 1)/2n).
, Chebyshev .
2.10 X Chebyshev Lagrange ,
0.9625 < X

2.6

2
log n < 1.

. , ,
n , [a, b] n .
. .
F D .
{f1 , . . . , fn }
F . n
{x1 , . . . , xn } D.
xi , yi R . , ,

f =

cj fj F,

j=1

yi = f (xi ) =

j=1

cj fj (xi ), 1 i n.

2.6

23

(fj (xi ))j=1,...,n; i=1,...,n


. , yi , i = 1, . . . , n
.
2.11 F D n . yi , i = 1, . . . , n,
F f
f (xi ) = yi ,

i = 1, . . . , n

0 yi , i = 1, . . . , n, F 0 .
yi , . yi , i = 1, . . . , n,

yi =

cj fj (xi ), 1 i n,

(2.6)

j=1

cj , j = 1, . . . , n . , (2.6) . ,
yi = 0, (2.6) 0 .
, 0 yi , i = 1, . . . , n, F 0 .
0=

cj fj (xi ), 1 i n,

(2.7)

j=1

0 . , (2.7) . , yi ,
.

.
n F Haar , F 0 D 0

n, F D n,
0.
2.12 F D ,
{f1 , . . . , fn }. ,
a. F Haar .
b. D n x1 , . . . , xn
det(fj (xi )) = 0.

24
Haar Chebyshev .
R Chebyshev :
1. 1, x, . . . , xn
2. e1 x , . . . , en x

1 < < n .

(0, )Chebyshev:
3. x1 , x2 . . . , xn

1 < < n

4. (x + 1 )1 , . . . , (x + n )1

0 1 < < n .

, R2 , , Chebyshev
Haar .
2.13 (Haar) D Rd x0 , d 2.
f1 , . . . , fn , n > 1, D , x0 .
F := span{f1 , . . . , fn } Haar .
U S x0 , fj , j = 1, . . . , n
. U n x1 , . . . , xn .
det(fj (xi )) = 0
(, F Haar ). x3 , . . . , xn . U
x1 , x2 , . U Rd (d 2) , ,
x1 x2 , x3 , . . . , xn . , x1 x2 ,

det(fj (xi ))
, . , fj
. , 0. , F
Haar .

, , .
. p1 , . . . , pn .
P := span{p1 , . . . , pn }.
f R2 , x1 , . . . , xn R2 n .
p P
p(xi ) = f (xi ), i = 1, . . . , n.

(2.8)

2.6

25

Haar , , x1 , . . . , xn ,
(2.8). f , (2.8),
x1 , . . . , xn P . P k ,
k (R2 ) := {xk1 y k2 : k1 + k2 k}.
. p P 0 . , P
:
{(x, y) : p(x, y) = 0, p P}.
.
2.1 x1 , . . . , xn P , P
.
2.1 .
. . ,
Bezout .
2.14 (Bezout ) p1 , p2 m, n . p1 p2
mn, p1 p2 .
Bezout , .
2.15 x1 , . . . , xk n ,
q(x, y) = 0 , 1 2. (n + 3) 1
x1 , . . . , xk , n+ .
.
.
2.1 X R2 #X =
x X

Lx1 , . . . , Lxn

(n+2)
2

. X n

X \ {x} Lx1 Lxn , x


/ Lx1 Lxn .
, L , L
. X , xi X
n
xi :=

Lx1 i Lxni
.
Lx1 i (xi ) Lxni (xi )

26

xi (xi ) = 1,

xi (xj ) = 0,

j = i.

, ,
n

f (xi )xi .

i=1

2.2 () n + 2 ,,
. . ,
n .
2.3 () , n .
, . , .
, n .
, 1982
2.1 n , n + 1 .
, n 4 ([6]).

H C[a, b] , f C[a, b], p H


p H f . H n ,
n . , .
f C[a, b] X, n p ,
p X f ,
p f X = min p f X .
pn

, . .

3.1

X L ,
inf max |p(x) f (x)|.

pn axb

p ,
e(x) := p (x) f (x),

A := {x [a, b] : |f (x) p (x)| = max |e(x)|}.


axb

, Kolmogorov p :
3.1 p n f C[a, b] n ,

max(f (x) p (x)) q(x) 0,


xA

27

q n .

28


max(f (x) p (x)) q(x) 0,
xA

q n .

p n , q(x) := p (x) p(x). x0 A,


(f (x0 ) p (x0 )) q(x0 ) 0.

f p2 (f (x0 ) p(x0 ))2 = (f (x0 ) p (x0 ) + q(x0 ))2


= (f (x0 ) p (x0 ))2 + 2q(x0 )(f (x0 ) p (x0 )) + q(x0 )2
(f (x0 ) p (x0 ))2 = f p 2 .
, p f C[a, b] .
p n f C[a, b] . ,
, x A,
(f (x) p (x))q(x) < 0.
t > 0,
f (x) p (x) + tq(x) < f p .
p n f C[a, b] .
.
Chebyshev
3.2 f C[a, b] n .

p n f n + 2
a x1 < x2 < < xn+2 b

f (xi ) p (xi ) = (1)i f p , f (xi ) p (xi ) = (1)i+1 f p .


f p n + 2 .
3.1 f C 2 [a, b], f (x) > 0, a x b. f 1
.

3.1 L

29

pn (x) n 1 , pn :
pn (x) = xn + cn1 xn1 + + c1 x + c0 .
, cn1 , . . . , c0
max pn (x)

1x1

. .
f (x) = xn n 1 .
Chebyshev , Chebyshev [1, 1]
. Chebyshev
Tn (x) = cos(n arccos x).
Tn .
n , Tn . n , Tn .
Tn
Tn+1 (x) = 2xTn (x) Tn1 (x),

n = 1, 2, . . . .

Tn xn 2n1 .
, k = 0, . . . , n , Tn 1.
xk = cos k
n
3.3 x [1, 1] n . xn
p n ,
Tn (x)
max p(x).
1x1 2n1
1x1
max

3.2 6 [1, 1] cos x. Taylor ,

q6 (x) = 1

1
8!

x2 x4 x6
+
.
2!
4!
6!

= 0.000 025. cos x Taylor 8 ,

x8 6. , 6 q6 .
1
cos x 10!
+

1
26 8!

< 0.000 000 47.

30

3.2

L1

X L1 ,
b
inf
|f (x) p(x)|dx.
pn

L1 , . , ,
, L1 .
p n f L1 .

1, f (x) < p (x)

s (x) = 0,
f (x) = p (x),
a x b.

1,
f (x) > p (x)
L1 .
3.4 f C[a, b]. f n
E := {x : f (x) = p (x), a x b}
. p n f L1 ,



b



s (x)p(x)dx
|p(x)|dx

a

E

p n .
, E ,
,

|p(x)|dx = 0. , p f L1

s (x)p(x) = 0,

p Pn .

, , f 0 p (x) = f ((a +
b)/2).
, , f .
, 1 . 1
f Rm , w = (w1 , . . . , wm ), wi > 0,
f w,1 :=

i=1

wi |fi |.

3.2 L1

31

1 , H Rm , p H
p f w,1 = min p f w,1 .
pH

1 . p H,

1, f (t) < p (t)

s (t) = 0,
f (t) = p (t)
t = 1, . . . , m.

1,
f (t) > p (t),
3.5 p H f Rm 1
p H

m





w(t)s (t)p(t)
w(t)|p(t)|,

t=1

tZ

Z := {t : p (t) = f (t), 1 t m}.


,
3.6 dimH = n. p H f Rm 1 ,
Z := {t : p (t) = f (t), 1 t m}.
,
#Z n.
1 . f Rm
, . f k, k m. , H
f 1 H 0 T {1, . . . , m}
#T m k,

tT
/

w(t)|p(t)|

w(t)|p(t)|,

(3.1)

tT

p H . (3.1) . , H
, s m A
H = {x Rm : Ax = 0}.

32

, A H
, RIP . k RIP ,
T {1, . . . , m} #T k
(1 )xT 2 T xT 2 (1 + )xT 2
.
. f Rm
k. A Rsm , 0 {x : Ax = 0} .

P0 : minxRm
s.t.

f x1
Ax = 0.

H = {x : Ax = 0} f 1 . H ,
P0 0. t = f x.
P1 : minxRm
s.t.

t1
At = Af.

P0 0 P1 f . , Af f .
A . , , f
, P1 f . , A ,
H = {x : Ax = 0} . , RIP .
RIP .
[7, 8].

3.3

L2

[a, b] L , 0
0. . [a, b]
f , f L , f L [a, b] , f 2 L, f
L2 [a, b] . L2 [a, b] f ,

f ,2 =

(x)f 2 (x)dx.
a

3.3 L2

33

, f g,2 f, g . L2
f C[a, b] p n
f p,2
.
[a, b] . f g :

(x)f (x)g(x)dx = 0
a

f g [a, b] .
1 , 2 , . . .
[a, b] , [a, b]
.
Legender
1
pn (x) = n
2 n!

d
dx

)n
(x2 1)n , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

[1, 1] .
Chebyshev
Tn (x) = cos(n arccos x), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
[1, 1] (1 x2 )1/2 .
Fourier .

(x)k2 (x)dx.

Ak =
a

1
ck =
Ak

(x)k (x)f (x)dx, k = 1, 2, . . .


a

Fourier
f (x)

k=1

ck k (x)

34

3.7 n,
F (x) =

ak k (x)

k=1

f ,
(
F f ,2 =

)1/2

(x)(F (x) f (x)) dx


2

F Fourier Sn (x) :=

(x)f 2 (x)dx
a

k=1 ck k (x).

)1/2
Ak c2k

k=1

Sn f 0. ,
n

Ak c2k

(x)f 2 (x)dx.
a

k=1

Ak c2k

(x)f 2 (x)dx,
a

k=1

Bessel . , Bessel
Parseval

Ak c2k

(x)f 2 (x)dx

=
a

k=1

lim Sn f ,2 = 0.

, Legender {pn }, Laguerre


{Ln } Hermite {Hn }.
.
1. Legender
[1, 1] = 1 pn Legendre
,
1
pn (x) = n
2 n!

d
dx

)n
(x2 1)n .

3.3 L2

35

pn (x) Legendre
d2 y
2x dy
n(n + 1)

+
y=0
2
2
dx
1 x dx
1 x2
x = 0 y(1) = 1 . pn (x)

1
=
pn (x)z n , |z| < 1.
2
1 2xz + z
n=1

2. Laguerre
, [a, b] . , L2
. Laguerre {Ln },
(0, +) ex .
( )n
d
Ln (x) = ex
(xn ex ).
dx
, Ln n
( )
n

n
Ln (x) =
(1)nk
n(n 1) (n k + 1)xnk .
k
k=0
3. Hermite
Hermite {Hn } (, ) ex
2

.
(
x2

Hn (x) = e

d
dx

)n
(ex ).
2

36

Pad
e

Taylor. ,
Taylor . , .
Taylorf Pade.
, PadeTaylor. ,
.

4.1
f

f (x) =

cj xj .

j=0

f [L/M ] Pade
[L/M ] = PL /QM
PL QM LM ,
f (x) PL (x)/QM (x) = O(xL+M +1 ).
, QM
QM (0) = 1,
PL QM .
PL QM
PL (x) = p0 + p1 x + + pL xL
QM (x) = 1 + q1 x + + qM xM .
37

38


PADE

,
(1 + q1 x + + qM xM )(c0 + c1 x + ) = p0 + p1 x + + pL xL + O(xL+M +1 ).
,
c0 = p0 ,
c1 + c0 q1 = p1 ,
c2 + c1 q1 + c0 q2 = p2 ,
.. ..
. .
cL + cL1 q1 + + c0 qL = pL ,
cL+1 + cL q1 + + cLM +1 qM = 0,
.. ..
. .
cL+M + aL+M 1 q1 + + cL qM

= 0.

Pade. Pade

4.1
f (x) =

1
1
3
5
= 1 x + x2 x3 + .
2
8
16
1+x

, f [1/1]Pade
1 + x/4
.
1 + 3x/4
, PadeTaylor.

11/ 1 + x, [1/1]Pade2Taylor
.
, LM , [L/M ]Pade

f (x) = 1 + x2 +
f [1/1]Pade. , p1 , p1 , q0 , q1
p0 + p1 x
= 1 + x2 + O(x3 ).
q0 + q1 x

4.1

39
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

0.5

1.5

p0 + p1 x = q0 + q1 x + q0 x2 + O(x3 ).

p0 = q0 , p1 = q1 , q0 = 0.
,
0 + q1 x
= 1.
0 + q1 x
, 1 = 1 + x2 + O(x3 ). , f [1/1]Pade. , ,
Pade, , Pade, .
4.1 (Frobenius-Pade) f , [L/M ]Pade,
.
[L/M ]Pade, Jacobi
4.2 [L/M ]Pade,

cLM +1
cLM +2

..
..
..

.
.
.
det

cL
cL+1

L
L
j
j

j=M cjM x
j=M 1 cjM +1 x

[L/M ] =
cLM +1 cLM +2 cL+1

..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.
det

cL
cL+1
cL+M

M
M 1
x
x

cL+1
..
.
cL+M
L
cj xj
j=0

40


PADE

f (x) = e =

xj

j!

j=0

Pade.
Pade,
4.3 f0
l
t
t=0 ct x

m
1 + u=1 eu xu
Pade
[L/M ] = f0
L l, M m.
Pade, 1973Baker
4.4 ,
1. M , Lj , [Lj /M ]
2.L, Mj , [L/Mj ]
3.J, Mj , [Mj + J/Mj ].

4.2

-Shanks-Wynn.
(0)

(1)

(2)

0 , 0 , 0 , . . . ,

(j)

1 = 0, j = 0, 1, . . . .
,
(j)

(j+1)

(j+1)

k+1 = k1 + (k

k )1
(j)

(4.1)

4.2 -

41

. --
(0)

(0)

0
(1)

(0)

1
(1)

(0)

0
(2)

2
..
.

(1)

1
..
.

(2)

0
..
.

(3)

1
..
.

(4.1)-
(j)

k
(j+1)

(j)
k+1 .

k1

(j+1)

k
-

()

0
,
()

()

1 , 2 , . . . .
()

()

, 1 , 0 .
Pade.
(j)

0
f (x) =

ci xi

i=0

j + 1x = x0
(j)

0 =

ci xi0 .

i=0
(j)

, 2k f [(k + j)/k]Padex = x0 . , -
[(k + j)/k]Pade.

42


PADE

5.1

[a, b]L , 0
0. . [a, b]f ,
f L, f L [a, b], f 2 L, f L2 [a, b].
L2 [a, b]f ,

f =

(x)f 2 (x)dx.
a

, f gf, g.
.

5.2

Fourier

[a, b]. f g:

(x)f (x)g(x)dx = 0
a

f g[a, b].
1 , 2 , . . .
[a, b], [a, b]
.
43

44


1, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, . . .
[, ].
Legender
1

pn (x) =

2n n!

d n 2
) (x 1)n , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
dx

[1, 1].
Tchebyshev
Tn (x) = cos(n arccos x), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
[1, 1](1 x2 )1/2 .
Sturm-Liouville
y + (x)y = 0, y(a) = y(b) = 0,
, [a, b], . 0,
. , .
, ,
1 , 2 , 3 , . . .
y 1 , y2 , y 3 , . . . .
, [a, b].
Fourier.

(x)k2 (x)dx.

Ak =
a

ck =

1
Ak

(x)k (x)f (x)dx, k = 1, 2, . . .


a

Fourier
f (x)

k=1

ck k (x)

5.2 FOURIER

45

5.1 n,
F (x) =

ak k (x)

k=1

f ,
b
F f = (
(x)(F (x) f (x))2 dx)1/2
a

F FourierSn (x) :=

k=1 ck k (x).

b
n

Sn f = (
(x)f 2 (x)dx
Ak c2k )1/2 .
a

k=1

Sn f 0, ,
n

(x)f 2 (x)dx.
a

k=1

Ak c2k

Ak c2k

(x)f 2 (x)dx,
a

k=1

Bessel. , BesselParseval

Ak c2k

(x)f 2 (x)dx

=
a

k=1

lim Sn f = 0.

, , , {ck }L2
f Fourier, Fourierf

5.2 k [a, b]. ck

Ak c2k < +

k=1

n
L2 [a, b]f f Fourierck k=1 ck k f .

46

{k }L2 Parseval,
. {k }, f, gL2 , Fourier
{k }, {k }, Parseval

(x)f (x)g(x)dx =
a

Ak k k .

k=1

{k }, L2 [a, b]k , {k }
.
.
, :
1. {k }
2. {k }
3. Parsevalf L2
4.L2 f Fourier
5.0k
6.Fourier,
7.L2 f 1 , . . . , n , 1/n
0.
8.{k }L2 .

5.3

, Legender {pn }, Laguerre{Ln }Hermite{Hn }.


.
1. Legender
[1, 1] = 1pn Legendre,

pn (x) =

1
d
( )n (x2 1)n .
2n n! dx

pn (x)Legendre
d2 y
n(n + 1)
2x dy
+

y=0
dx2 1 x2 dx
1 x2

5.3

47

x = 0y(1) = 1. pn (x)

1
=
pn (x)z n , |z| < 1.
1 2xz + z 2
n=1

2. Laguerre

, [a, b]. , L2
. Laguerre {Ln },
(0, +)ex .
( )n
d
x
Ln (x) = e
(xn ex ).
dx
, Ln n
( )
n

nk n
Ln (x) =
(1)
n(n 1) (n k + 1)xnk .
k
k=0
3. Hermite
Hermite{Hn }(, )ex
2

.
(
Hn (x) = ex

d
dx

)n
(ex ).
2

48

6.1

= x0 < x1 < < xN < xN +1 =

(6.1)

S
1. [xj , xj+1 ], j = 0, . . . , N , Sn
2. S(, )n 1.
Sn . (6.1) n
Sn (x1 , . . . , xN ). , Sn (x1 , . . . , xN ).
6.1 dim Sn (x1 , . . . , xN ) = n + N + 1.
{1, x, x2 , . . . , xn , (x x1 )n+ , . . . , (x xN )n+ }
Sn (x1 , . . . , xN ).
nx1 , . . . , xN f , s Sn (x1 , . . . , xN )

s(xj ) = f (xj ), j = 1, . . . , N.
dim Sn (x1 , . . . , xN ) > N ,. ,
. . 2n 1S
S2n1 (x1 , . . . , xN ), (, x1 )(xN , )n 1, 2n
1. (6.1)2n 1N2n1 (x1 , . . . , xN ).

49

50

6.2 S N2n1 (x1 , . . . , xN )n 1pn1


c1 , . . . , cN
S(x) = pn1 (x) +

cj (x xj )2n1
,
+

j=1

c1 , . . . , cN

cj xkj = 0, k = 0, . . . , n 1.

j=1

dim N2n1 (x1 , . . . , xN ) = N . ,


6.3 1 n N , y1 , . . . , yN S
N2n1 (x1 , . . . , xN ),
S(xj ) = yj ,

j = 1, . . . , N.

(xj , yj ), j = 1, . . . , N , .
Holladay1957
6.4 1 n N ,
a x1 < x2 < < xN b
S N2n1 (x1 , . . . , xN )
S(xj ) = yj , j = 1, . . . , N
, f C n [a, b]:
f (xj ) = yj , j = 1, . . . , N

(S (n) (x))2 dx
a

(f (n) (x))2 dx
a

f S.

6.2

B-

B-. , B-
. B-, .

6.2 B-

6.2.1

51

f (x) = f (x) f (x 1), n f (x) = n1 f (x).


,m(m 1)B-:
1
m xm1
.
+
(m 1)!

Bm (x) :=
, Bm
Bm (x) =

6.2.2

( )
m

m
1
(1)k
(x k)m1
.
+
k
(m 1)! k=0

B1 (x) = 1, 0 x < 1,

B1 (x) = 0, x < 0, x 1.

,
Bm = Bm1 B1 ,

Bm1 (x t)dt.

Bm (x) =
0

iw

m (w) = ( 1 e
B
iw

6.2.3

)m

B-

, B-
B-
1.,


(x)Bm (x)dx =

(x1 + + xm )dx1 dxm .


x[0,1)m

2.g C m
( )

m

m
g(k).
g (m) (x)Bm (x)dx =
(1)mk
k

k=0

52
3.
Bm (x) =

1
m xm1
.
+
(m 1)!

4.
suppBm (x) = [0, m].
5.
Bm (x) > 0, 0 < x < m.
6.

Bm (x k) = 1.

7.

Bm
(x) = Bm1 (x) Bm1 (x 1).

8.
Bm (x) =
9. Bm .

x
mx
Bm1 (x) +
Bm1 (x 1).
m1
m1

7.1

[a, b],
a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b.
Sk (x0 , . . . , xn )x1 , . . . , xn k. ,
, dimSk (x0 , . . . , xn ) = n + k. {j : j =
1, 2, . . . , k + n}, j [a, b]0.
Sk (x0 , . . . , xn )[x0 , xp ][xq , xn ]0,
[xp , xq ]0, 0 < p < q < n. [xp , xq ].
s Sk (x0 , . . . , xn ). , s:
s(x) =

dj (x xj )k+ ,

a x b,

j=p

, dj

dj (x xj )k = 0,

xq x b.

j=p

,
q

dj xij = 0,

i = 0, . . . , k.

j=p

q p + k + 1, 0. q = p + k + 1,

p+k+1

dj =

i=p
i=j

1
,
xi xj

j = p, p + 1, . . . , p + k + 1.

53

54

i=p

i=p
i=j

p+k+1 p+k+1

Mp (x) =

1
(x xj )k+
xi xj

Mp B-. pMp (xp , xp+k+1 )0.


Mp [xp , xp+k+1 ]0.
7.1 s Sk (x0 , . . . , xn )[x0 , xp ][xq , xn ]0, (xp , xq )r0,
r. ,
r q (p + k + 1).
{M0 , . . . , Mnk1 }. ,
n + k = dimSk (x0 , . . . , xn ). , 2k,
. , [a, b].
{xj : j = k, k + 1, . . . , 1} {xj : j = n + 1, . . . , n + k}

xk < xk+1 < < x1 < x0 = a;


Mp ,

b = xn < xn+1 < < xn+k .

p = k, k + 1, . . . , n 1. , Mp (x)

[a, b]. , p = k, k + 1, . . . , n 1,
Mp |[a,b] Sk (x0 , . . . , xn ).

7.2 {Mp |[a,b] : k p n 1}Sk (x0 , . . . , xn ).

7.2

, Mpk kB-, k,

i=p

i=p
i=j

p+k+1 p+k+1

Mpk (x) =

1
(x xj )k+
xi xj

f (t) = (1)k+1 (x t)k+ ,

< t < ,

7.3 SCHOENBERG-WHITNEY

55

x. , f
f [xp , . . . , xp+k+1 ].
,
(1)k+1 (x xj )k+
= Mpk (x).
p+k+1
(xj xi )
i=p
j=p

p+k+1

f [xp , . . . , xp+k+1 ] =

i=j

, Mpk . ,

7.3 k > 1,
Mpk (x) =

k1
(x xp )Mpk1 (x) + (xp+k+1 x)Mp+1
(x)
.
xp+k+1 xp

g(t) = (t x),

h(t) = (1)k (x t)k1


+ ,

p+k+1

Mpk (x)

g[xp , . . . , xj ]h[xj , . . . , xp+k+1 ].

j=p

7.3

Schoenberg-Whitney

f , Sk (x0 , . . . , xn )
f (j ),

j = 1, . . . , n + k

a 1 < 2 < < n+k b.


, . .
:s Sk (x0 , . . . , xn )
s(j ) = f (j ),

j = 1, . . . , n + k.

, . ,
Schoenberg-Whitney.

56

7.4 {f (j ) : j = 1, . . . , n + k},
n1

cp Mpk (i ) = f (i ),

i = 1, . . . , n + k

p=k
k
ck , . . . , cn1 {Mjk1
(j ) : j = 1, . . . , n + k}0.

(I)

8.1

HHilbert, {n }n H. , f H,
{f, n }n f ,
8.1 {n }n H, A > 0, B > 0
f H
Af 2

| f, n |2 Bf 2 .

A = B, .
A = B = 1, n = 1, {n }n .

(U f )[n] = f, n
. , , U , .
.
:
1. e1 , e2 R2 .

e1
3
e1
3
1 = e1 , 2 = +
e2 , 3 =
e2 .
2
2
2
2
2. H, H = span{1 , . . . , N }. , {n }1nN H
.

8.2

U f [n], f .
57

(I)

58

2 () := {x : x2 =

|x[n]|2 < }

Im(U ) := {U f : f H}.
8.1 {n }n , . Im(U )2 ().
1
U U
1 U f = f, f H.
U

U f 2 =

|f, n |2 Bf 2 .

, Im(U ) (). {n }n , 0x 2 ()

x [n]n = 0.
2

, x Im(U ). , Im(U ) 2 ().


, U f = 0, f = 0. , U .
1 Im(U ) . ,
, U Im(U ). , U
.

, , Im(U ) ()
1 Im(U ) 0.
, Im(U ) . , U
2

, , . , .
U U , U f, x = f, U x. x 2 ()f H,

U x, f = x, U f =

x[n]f, n =

,
U x =

x[n]n , f .

x[n]n .

8.1
1 = (U U )1 U .
U
, . U A, B,
1 1 .
U
A

8.3

59

, . x 2 (),
x = x1 + x2 , , x2 Im(U ) x1 Im(U ). ,
1 x
1 x1
1 x1
1 x1
U
U
U
U
=
=

,
x
x
x
x1

1 U
1 .
U
x1 Im(U ),f Hx1 = U f .,
1 x = f 1 U f 1 x.
U
A
A

1 1 .
U
A

1 = (U U )1 U .
U
U U . ,
1 x = U x.
(U U )U
, x Im(U ) , . x Im(U ), .

8.3

,,.
8.2 {n }n A, B.
n = (U U )1 n .
, n
f H,

1
1
f 2
|f, n |2 f 2 ,
B
A
n

1 U f =
f =U

f, n n =

(A = B), n = A

n .

f, n n .

(I)

60

1 = (U U )1 U .
U

U x =

x[n]n .

,
1 U f = (U U )1
f =U

x[n]n .

,
1 x =
U

x[n]n .

x[n] = U f [n] = f, n ,
,
1 U f =
f =U

f, n n .

,U U
Af 2 U U f, f Bf 2 .
,
f H,

1
1
|f, n |2 f 2 ,
f 2
B
A
n

1
1
f 2 (U U )1 f, f f 2 .
B
A

8.1 L, A > 0, B > 0


f H,

Af 2 Lf, f Bf 2

L
f H,

1
1
f 2 L1 f, f f 2 .
B
A
.


9.1

II
Riesz

{n }n , . , {n }n H
Riesz. , {n }n .
p =

p , n n .

,
p , n = [p n].
, Riesz.

9.2

, {f, n }n f ,
n = (U U )1 n

f=

f, n n

f .
, , n f . .
, .

1 U f = (U U )1 (U U )f = L1 Lf,
f =U
61

II

62

Lf = U U f =

f, n n .

, f = L1 g. .
9.1 g H. f = L1 gf0 = 0. > 0.
n > 0,
fn = fn1 + (g Lfn1 ).

= max{|1 A|, |1 B|} < 1,

f fn n f ,
,
lim fn = f.

1 A/B
BA
=
B+A
1 + A/B

.
=

9.3

2
.
A+B

.
. ImU , .
9.1 2 ()ImU
1 x[n] =
P x[n] = U U

x[p]p , n .

9.4

63

, x 2 (), x = P x,
x
x[n] =

x[p]p , n , n .

U f [n]W [n], W [n]. ,

P (U f + W ) = U F + P W,

P W [n] =

W [p]p , n .

P , P W W . , E{|P W [n]|2 }
.
9.2 n = C, n . W 0E{|W [n]|2 } =
2 ,
E{|P W [n]|2 }

2 C 2
.
A

, .

9.4

f ,Fourier

f (t)eit dt.
f() =

UT := {f : suppf [/T, /T ]}.


, Shannon
9.2 f UT ,
f (t) =

f (nT )hT (t nT ),

n=

hT (t) =

sin(t/T )
.
t/T

II

64

9.3 hT (t) = sin(t/T )/(t/T ), {hT (t nT )}nZ UT .


f UT ,
f (nT ) =

1
f, hT ( nT ).
T

, f (nT ) , . ,
f (nT )Z, . Z
)
f (nT ), q[n] := f (nT
+ 12 .

W [n] = q[n] f [nT ].


. T0 = T /K. ,
f (nT0 ) =

1
f, hT ( nT0 ).
T

k, 1 k K, {hT (t kT /K nT )}nZ UT .
,
{n (t) = hT (t nT0 )}nZ = {hT (t kT /K nT )}1kK,nZ
K. , UT , A = B = KT = T0 . ,
,
E{|P W [n]|2 } =
{n }nZ , n =
P x[n] =

2 C 2
2
=
.
A
K
1
.
T0 n

1
x[p]hT (t pT0 ), hT (t nT0 ).
T0 p

, :
P x[n] = x h0 [n],

h0 [n] =

1
hT (t), hT (t nT0 ).
T0

Gabor
10.1

Gabor

L2 (R). Gabor.
Fourierg L2 (R),
gu, (t) = exp(it)g(t u).
g = 1,gu, = 1 (u, ) R2 . ,
Fourierf L2 (R),

f (t)g(t u) exp(it)dt.
Sf (u, ) = f, gu, =

10.1
f (t) = exp(i0 t),
, Fourier
f() = 2( 0 ).
, Fourier
Sf (u, ) = g( 0 ) exp[iu( 0 )].
FourierFourier
10.1 f L2 (R),

1
Sf (u, )g(t u) exp(it)ddu,
f (t) =
2

1
|f (t)| dt =
2

65

|Sf (u, )|2 ddu.

66

GABOR

, Fourier. Fourier,
Fourier. Fourier, Gabor .
gn,k (t) = g(t nu0 ) exp(ik0 t)
, {gn,k }(n,k)Z2 . .
10.2 {gn,k }(n,k)Z2
2
1.
u0 0
A, B:
2
B
u0 0
2
A
|g(t nu0 )|2 B
0 n
1
|
g ( k0 )|2 B.
A
u0 k
A

t R,
R,

Fourier. ,
, gn,k . Balian-Low, g
. gn,k , u0 0 = 2.
.
10.3 (Balian-Low){gn,k }(n,k)Z2 Gabor, u0 0 = 2,


2
2
t |g(t)| dt = or
2 |
g ()|2 d = .

, g, Gabor.
, ,
1
g = [u0 /2,u0 /2]
u0
u0 0 = 2, , gn,k .
Balian-Low, Zak. Zak, Weil-Brezin,
. .
(Zf )(s, t) =

exp (2it)f (s ).

10.1 GABOR

67

ZL2 (R)L2 ([0, 1]2 )


em,n (x) := exp (2imx)e(x n),
e(x) = 1, 0 x < 10.

(Zem,n )(s, t) =
exp(2it) exp(2im(s ))e(s n )

= exp(2ims) exp(2itn)(Ze)(s, t)
(Ze)(s, t)[0, 1]2 1. , ZL2 (R)L2 ([0, 1]2 )
. , ZUNITARY. Zak, (s, t)
[0, 1]2 ,
(Zf )(s, t + 1) = (Zf )(s, t)
(Zf )(s + 1, t) = exp(2it)(Zf )(s, t).
Z:
Z = {F

: R2 C : F (s, t + 1) = F (s, t), F (s + 1, t) = exp(2it)F (s, t),


1 1
|F (s, t)|2 dxdt < }.
F 2Z =
0

, ZL2 (R)ZUnitary. F Z,
1
1
(Z F )(x) =
F (x, t)dt.
0

Zakgm,n . gm,n = exp(2imx)g(x n),


(Zgm,n )(s, t) = exp(2ims) exp(2int)(Zg)(s, t).
,

|f, gm,n |2 =
m,nZ

|Zf, Zgm,n |2

m,nZ

exp(2ims) exp(2int)(Zf )(s, t)(Zg)(s, t)|2


0

m,nZ

|
0

|(Zf )(s, t)|2 |(Zg)(s, t)|2 dsdt.

=
0

, f Z, ZU U Z 1 = |(Zg)(s, t)|2 f .,
gm,n gm,n
,
Z gm,n = |Zg|2 Zgm,n .
,

68

GABOR

10.4 (i) g L2 (R). , {exp(2imx)g(x n)}(m,n)Z2 L2 (R)


A > 0, B > 0
(u, ) [0, 1]2 , A |Zg(u, )|2 B

(10.1)

A, B.
(ii)(10.1),
g
Z g(u, ) = 1/Zg(u, ).

10.2

Gabor

Gaborgn,k
gn,k = (U U )1 gn,k .
GaborGabor:
10.5 {gn,k }(n,k)Z2
gn,k (t) = g(t nu0 ) exp(ik0 t),

g = (U U )1 g.

10.3

g(t) := 1/4 exp(t2 /2).


, {gn,k }, 2 u0 0 .

10.4

10.6 g[/0 , /0 ].
t R,

2
|g(t nu0 )|2 = A.
0 n

, {gn,k }, A.

(10.2)

10.5

69

Gabor,
10.1 g L2 (R)(k , k ), k = 1, . . . , N R2 N,
{exp(ik t)g(t k )}N
k=1
.
:
P.A. Linnell, Von Neumann algebras and linear independence of translates, Proc.
AMS 127 (1999), 3269-3277.

10.5

1
t nu0 aj
j,n (t) = (
).
aj
aj
j,n

|()|2
C =
d < +.

0
10.7 {j,n }L2 ,
A
R \ {0},

C
B
u0 loge a
1 j 2
A
|(a )| B.
u0 j

10.8
() = sup1||a
=

j )||(a
j + )|
|(a

((2k/u0 )(2k/u0 ))1/2 .

k=0

u0 , a
A0 =
B0 =

1
j )|2 ) > 0
(inf 1||a
|(a
u0
j

1
j )|2 + ) <
(sup1||a
|(a
u0
j

j,n L2 (R),A0 , B0 .

70

GABOR


[1] Aczel, J, A mean value property of the derivative of quadratic polynomialswithout means values and derivatives, Math. Mag. 58, 42-45, 1985.
[2] Bailey, D. F. A mean-value property of cubic polynomials without mean values,
Math. Mag. 65, 123-124, 1992.
[3] C. de Boor, A leibniz formula for multivariate divided dierences, SIAM J. Numer.
Anal. 41(2003),856-868.
[4] C. de Boor, Divided dierences, Surveys in Approximation Theory 1 (2005), 4669.
[5] M. S. Floater, A chian rule for multivariate divided dierences, to appear in BIT.
[6] J. Carnicer and M. Gasca (2001), A conjecture on multivariate polynomial interpolation, Rev. R. Acad. Cienc. Exactas Fis. Nat. Ser. A Mat. 95, 145-53.
[7] E. Cand`es, J. Romberg, T. Tao, Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information, IEEE Trans. Inform.
Theory 52(2)(2006)489-509.
[8] A. Cohen, W. Dahmen and R. DeVore, Compressed sensing and best k-term
approximation, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 22 (2009), 211231.

71