You are on page 1of 12

A STUDY ON THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES AT CAMBODIA ASIA BANK

A Research Report Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School Norton University Phnom Penh, Cambodia

In partial fulfilment of The requirements for the degree Master of Business Administration
By

NUON PISITH
February 2011

APPROVAL SHEET
This Research Report entitled A Study on The Human Resource Management Procedures at Cambodia Asia Bank was prepared and submitted by Nuon Pisith in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree Master of Business Administration

Approved by the Committee with a grade of passed

RESEARCH REPORT SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE

Chairperson of Committee

_________________________

Ung Vannthoeun, Ph.D.

Committee Member

_________________________

Domingo S. Aranal, Ed.D.

Committee Member

_________________________

Balakrishnan V M, MBA

Course Facilitator

_________________________

Balakrishnan V M, MBA
Date of Research Report submission _________________________

Accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Business Administration (MBA)

_________________________

David A. Clarke, Ph.D


Dean of the Graduate School

ABSTRACT
A decade of globalization, deregulation, and technical advances has vastly increased the degree of competitiveness most organizations face today. Companies today must therefore be better, faster, and more competitive just to survive, and they need committed employees to achieve such competitiveness. Human resources are the most valuable and unique assets of an organization. The scarcity of talented resources and the growing expectations of the modern day worker have further increased the complexity of the human resource function. It is therefore necessary for all managers to understand and give due importance to the different human resource policies and activities in the organization. Human Resource Management outlines the importance of HRM and its different functions in an organization. It examines the various HR processes that are concerned with attracting, managing, motivating and developing employees for the benefit of the organization. This study aims to report on the practical experiences of Cambodia Asia Bank regarding their recruitment, selection, and succession planning as well as to understand problem it is facing and to illustrate the strategy used to overcome on those problems.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to express my gratitude to my parents, brothers, and sisters for their continuing love, support, and encouragement for my personal growth and improvements. My best regard to the Lecturers of Norton University. Especially, Prof. Balakrishnan, my course facilitator, for his valuable time of support, guidance, and professional advice that immensely contributed to the completion of this research. I would like to express my thanks to Cambodia Asia Bank human resource department manager and human resource staffs that facilitated my research and provided me the information and data to support my research study. I also would like to express my thanks to all my classmates batch 16 evening class for sharing ideas and experiences, group work activities in the class, and having good relations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ...........................................................................................................................................................i APPROVAL SHEET ..............................................................................................................................................ii ABSTRACT ...........................................................................................................................................................iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................................................................................................................iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...............................................................................................................................................vii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...............................................................................................................................viii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Presented to....................................................................ii In partial fulfilment of.......................................................................ii The requirements for the degree........................................................ii Master of Business Administration...................................................ii By.............................................................................................ii 1.1 Background of the Study.......................................................................................................1 1.2 Statement of the Problems....................................................................................................1 1.3 Objectives of the Study.........................................................................................................1 1.4 Significance of the Study......................................................................................................1 1.5 Scope and Delimitation.........................................................................................................1 1.6 Research Methodologies.......................................................................................................1 2.1 Review of Literature.............................................................................................................2 2.2 Discussion.............................................................................................................................4 Research Question 1: What are the practices of Cambodia Asia Bank in recruitment, selection and succession planning?......................................................................................4 Research Question 2: What problems does Cambodia Asia Bank face in their recruitment, selection, and succession?...............................................................................7 Research Question 3: What problems does Cambodia Asia Bank encounter in recruitment and hiring and succession planning program management?............................7 3.1 Conclusions...........................................................................................................................7 3.2 Recommendations.................................................................................................................8 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FUGURES
Figure 1: Cambodia Asia Bank Logo....................................................................................................................6

iii

Figure 2: Recruitment and Selection Procedures...................................................................................................8 Figure 3: Recruitment and Selection at Cambodia Asia Bank..............................................................................14

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
HRM HRD HR NBC CAB Human Resource Management Human Resource Department Human Resource National Bank of Cambodia Cambodia Asia Bank

iv

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study A decade of globalization, deregulation, and technical advances has vastly increased the degree of competitiveness most organizations face today. Companies today must therefore be better, faster, and more competitive just to survive, and they need committed employees to achieve such competitiveness. Human resources are the most valuable and unique assets of an organization. The scarcity of talented resources and the growing expectations of the modern day worker have further increased the complexity of the human resource function. It is therefore necessary for all managers to understand and give due importance to the different human resource policies and activities in the organization. Human Resource Management outlines the importance of HRM and its different functions in an organization. It examines the various HR processes that are concerned with attracting, managing, motivating and developing employees for the benefit of the organization. As part of an organization then, human resource management be prepared to deal with the effects of the changing world of work. This means understanding the implications of globalization, technology changes, work force diversity, changing skill requirements, continuous improvement initiatives, the contingent work-force, decentralized work sites, and employee involvement. Developing effective human resource management systems and processes to fit the needs of the expanding business can assist in managing growth and maintaining strong performance in business delivery. As we all know that human capital is the key to business success. Therefore, it is a study is important in order to develop a clear plan for managing the human resource function on a full-time basis. Of particular significance, recruitment, selection, and succession are clearly supported for maximum productivity and to meet the desired corporate objectives. 1.2 Statement of the Problems The main question of the study addressed: What are the Practices of Human Resource Management Procedures at Cambodia Asia Bank in terms of recruitment, selection, and succession? Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What are the practices of Cambodia Asia Bank in recruitment, selection, and succession planning? 2. What problems does Cambodia Asia Bank face in their recruitment, selection, and succession? 3. What did Cambodia Asia Bank do to solve problems in their recruitment, selection, and succession? 1.3 Objectives of the Study The study aims: 1. To determine the practices of Cambodia Asia Bank in recruitment, selection, and succession planning. 2. To understand the problems Cambodia Asia Bank is facing in their recruitment, selection, and succession. 3. To examine the solutions taken by Cambodia Asia Bank to overcome the problems in their recruitment, selection, and succession. 1.4 Significance of the Study The result of this research will contribute importantly for the enhancement of Cambodia Asia Bank policies and practices in terms of recruitment, selection, and succession planning. Hopefully, it will help make clear managements understanding of how effective their recruitment and selection as well as how well they did prepare for management back up, or succession. Moreover, findings of this research will be a significant resource for staff and management of similar banks to better understand on related human resource challenges and in overcoming them. In addition, results of the study will inform students and scholars who will be interested to study and understand human resource management practices. 1.5 Scope and Delimitation The problem in finding qualified candidates from internal sources for supervisory as well as lower management vacant positions today in Cambodia Asia Bank might be caused from ineffective recruitment and selection or by ineffective succession planning within itself. Hence, this research was limited only into two areas in human resource management: (1) recruitment and selection, and (2) succession planning. Finding of this study cannot be generalized to other subsidiary organizations of the Cambodia Asia Bank. 1.6 Research Methodologies There are two methods of data collection used to complete this research. One is by interviewing the human resource manager, the staff performance and management analyst, and other relevant human resource departments staff. Second is by

2
reviewing Cambodia Asia Bank website at: www.cab.com.kh, human resource policies and procedures, and other relevant documents. Some of the questions which the researcher asked the interviewees are exemplified below: - Please describe your current recruitment and selection? - What are some challenges HR department is facing in terms of recruitment and selection? - Please describe your succession planning? - What are some problems you encounter in succession planning? - What are tools and mechanism you have taken to overcome those challenges?

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND DISCUSSION


This chapter is comprised of tow sections. The first section is a review of related literature on the theories of recruitment, selection, and succession planning. The second section is a discussion on the research findings. 2.1 Review of Literature Overview of Cambodia Asia Bank Cambodia Asia Bank opened on the 29th April 1992 and started its operation on the 23rd February 1993. Since 22 December 2000, CAB has been granted a new license by National Bank of Cambodia to operate as a full commercial bank. The license is to enable CAB to launch money new financial services including cash management and trade finance to full fill the need of its existing and perspective customer. It provides a very large scale of financials moderns products dedicated to privates and companies. Providing all bank services and also affiliated to the Western Union service of money transfer . A window is specially opened for Visa card holder for cash delivery all year long, with no interruption. With 4 branches in Phnom Penh, 3 in Siem Reap, 1 in Bavet, 1 in Poipet and 1 in Shianoukville this bank covers all the needs of customers in Cambodia. It has employed a world class banking technology to bring transaction to live and has the largest branch network in Cambodia that give customer a convenient access to any services and products of the bank. The Bank remains loyal to that same commitment made in December 2000 to provide the best financial services available by looking forward-reaching higher with banking-in couch with you and focus on you. Cambodia Asia Bank Vision, Mission, Goals, and Objectives The banks vision is aim to be an established bank conductive for nation building to secure the future of the people of Cambodia by providing commercial banking facilities at competitive rates and mobilize saving to fund the economic growth of Cambodia. To achieve this, the mission of the bank is a strong and stable commercial bank. Through a professional, friendly, courteous and knowledgeable staff, they will provide products and services needed by their market in a profitable and people oriented manner. They will aggressively pursue and provide services for business and consumer market segments within their entire trade area. The goal of CAB is to increase household economic capacity and reduce poverty by making sustainable microfinance services available to the poor Cambodian families across Cambodia. CAB strives to help families become economically viable to provide for themselves in a way that is empowering and contributing to the fullness of life for all. Figure 1 shows the logo of CAB.

Figure 1. Cambodia Asia Bank Logo Human Resource Management Human resource management (HRM) is one of the most complex and challenging fields of management. It deals with the people dimension in management and provides an institution with an effective work force in order to meet its mission. Effective human resource management uses systems and tools to bring together, the right number of people, with the right attitude and skills, in the right place at the right time. Every organization is comprised of people. Acquiring their services , developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives, according to (David and Stephen, 2002). This is true regardless of the type of organization, government, business, education, health, recreation, or social action. Getting and keeping good people is critical to the success of every organization. Furthermore, the authors have also highlighted that HRM in the context of microfinance generally covering six broad categories: (i) human resource planning, (ii) human resource policies, (iii) recruitment and selection, (iv) salary, benefits and incentives, (v) performance management, and (vi) training and development. As discussed earlier, this study is focused on the recruitment and selection, and succession planning. Consequently, the literature review focuses on this two human resource management practices. Recruitment and Selection

3
Recruitment is the process of seeking and attracting the right kind of people to apply for a job in an organization. The recruitment policy of an organization effectively defines and determines the pattern, the sources and the methods of recruitment of the firm. A good recruitment policy is based on the organization's objectives, complies with the government policy, and results in successful placements in the organization at the minimum cost and time. Selection is the process of evaluating the qualifications, experience, skill, knowledge, etc, of an applicant in relation to the requirements of the job to determine his or her suitability for the job. The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information from applicants and selecting the most suitable among them, based on an assessment of how successful the employee would be in the job, if he or she were placed in the vacant position (David and Stephen, 2002). (Dessler, 2000), drew attention of managers to understand and comply its recruitments and selection with legal binding act including equal opportunity and affirmative action. The whole process begins with identifying your needs and ends with negotiating the final offer with the candidate and making the hire. (David and Stephen, 2002), recommend the following certain procedures when hiring new staff (see Figure 2).

Initial Screening Completion of the Application Form Application Form Employment Tests The Comprehensive Interview Background Investigation Conditional Job Offer Medical or Physical Examination Job Offer
Source: (Human Resource Management by David A. Dezenzo& Stephen P. Robbins, 2002) Figure 2. Recruitment and Selection Procedure

Step1: Initial Screening


As a culmination of recruiting efforts, they should be prepared to initiate a preliminary review of potentially acceptable candidates. This initial screening is, in effect, a two-step procedure: (1) the screening of inquiries and (2) the provision of screening interviews. If their recruiting effort has been successful, they will be faced with a number of potential applicants. Base on the job description and job specification, some of these respondents can be eliminated. The screening interview is also an excellent opportunity for HRM to describe the job in enough detail so the candidates can consider whether they are really serious about applying (David and Stephen, 2002).

Step 2: Completion of the Application Form


Once the initial screening has been completed, applicants are asked to complete the organizations application form. The amount of information required maybe only the applicants name, address, and telephone number. Some organizations, on the other hand, may request the completion of a more comprehensive employment profile. In general terms, the application form gives a jobperformance-related synopsis of what applicants have been doing during their adult life, their skills, and their accomplishments. According to (David and Stephen, 2002). The Weighted Application Form. The weighted application form appears to offer excellent potential in helping recruiters to differentiate between potentially successful and unsuccessful job performers. To create such an instrument, individual form items, such as number of years of schooling, number of months on last job, salary data for all previous jobs, and military experience, are validated against performance and turnover measures and given appropriate weights. A Successful Application. The application form, as noted earlier, has had wide success in selection for a number of diverse jobs. For instance, in various positions in the hotel industry, analysis of the application form has been valuable. Evidence that the application form provides relevant information for predicting job success is well supported across a broad range of jobs. Finally, management should be aware of the possibility that the application information given is erroneous. A background information can verify most of the data.

Step 3: Employment Tests


Organizations historically relied to a considerable extent on intelligence, aptitude, ability, and interest tests to provide major input to the selection process. Even handwriting analysis and honesty tests have been used in the attempt to learn more about the candidate-information that supposedly leads to more effective selection. However, a basic understanding of a few test types can be beneficial for HRM practitioners. Performance Simulation Tests. To avoid criticism and potential liability that may result from the use of psychological, aptitude, and other types of written tests, there has been increasing interest in the use of performance simulation tests.

4
Work Sampling. Is an effort to create a miniature replica of a job. Applicants demonstrate that they possess the necessary talents by actually doing the tasks. By carefully devising work samples based on job analysis data, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for each job are determined. Then each work sample element is matched with a corresponding job performance elements. Assessment Centers. A more elaborate set of performance simulation tests, specifically designed to evaluate a candidates managerial potential, is administered in assessment centers. Assessment centers use procedures that incorporate group and individual exercises. Testing in a Global Arena. Many of the standard selection techniques are not easily transferable to international situations. Where the decision has been made to recruit and employ host-country nationals, typical American testing will be acceptable in some countries but not in others. For example, although handwriting or graphology tests are sometimes used in the United States, but they are frequently used in France.

Step 4: The Comprehensive Interview


The applicants who pass the initial screening, application form, and required tests are typically given a comprehensive interview. The applicant my be interview by HRM interviewers, senior managers within the organization, a potential supervisor, potential colleagues, or some or all of these. The Realistic Job Preview. The primary purpose of any selection device is to identify individuals who will be effective performers. But it is not in an interviewers best interest to find good prospects, hire them, and then have them leave the organization. Therefore, part of selection should be concerned with reducing voluntary turnover and its associated costs.

Step 5: Background Investigation


The next step in the process is to undertake a background investigation of those applicants who appear to offer potential as employees. Background investigations are intended to verify that what was stated on the application form is correct and accurate information. This can include contacting former employers to confirm the candidates work record and to obtain their appraisal of his or her performance, contacting other job-related and personal references, verifying the educational accomplishments shown on the application.

Step 6: Conditional Job Offer


If a job applicant has passed each step of the selection process so far, it is typically customary for a conditional job offer to be made. Conditional job offers usually are made by an HRM representative. In essence, what the conditional job offer implies is that if everything checks out okay-passing a certain medical, physical, or substance abuse test-the conditional nature of the job offer will be removed and the offer will be permanent.

Step 7: Medical or Physical Examination


Physical exams can only be used as a selection device to screen out those individuals who are unable to physically comply with the requirements of a job. For example, firefighters are required to perform a variety of activities that require a certain physical condition. Whether it is climbing a ladder, lugging a four-inch water-filled hose, or carrying an injured victim, these individuals must demonstrate that they are fit for the job. For jobs that require certain physical characteristics, then, the physical examination may be job related.

Step 8: Job Offer


Those individuals who perform successfully in the preceding steps are now considered to be eligible to receive the employment offer. Who make the final employment offer? The answer, of course, is, it depends. The actual hiring decision should be made by the manager in the department where the vacancy exists. While this might not be the situation in all organizations, the manager of the department should have this authority. First, the applicant will eventually work for this manager, and therefore a good fit between boss and employee is necessary. Second, if the decision made is not correct, the hiring manager has no one else to blame.

Succession Planning
Succession planning refers to the process of identifying and tracking high potential employees. Succession planning helps organizations in several different ways. It requires senior management to systematically review leadership talent in the company. It assures that top level managerial talent is available. It provides a set of development experiences that managers must complete to be considered for top management positions; this avoids premature promotion of managers who are not ready for upper management ranks. Succession planning systems also help attract and retain managerial employees by providing them with development opportunities that they can complete if upper management is a career goal for them (McGraw-Hill, 2003). Succession planning is the proves that helps ensure the stability of the tenure of personnel. It is perhaps best understood as any effort designed to ensure the continued effective performance of an organization, replacement, and strategic application of key people over time. It has been defied as a means of identifying critical management positions and supervisor and extending up to the highest position in the organization. It also describes management positions to provide maximum flexibility in lateral management move and toe ensure that as individuals achieve grater seniority, their management skills will broaden and become more generalized in relation to total organizational objectives rather than to purely departmental objectives (Rothwell, 2005). 2.2 Discussion Research Question 1: What are the practices of Cambodia Asia Bank in recruitment, selection and succession planning?

5
Recruitment is one of the main function that actively support in supplying manpower to the institution. Figure 3 illustrates the process of recruitment and selection at Cambodia Asia Bank. These steps are outlined below:

Conduct Job Analysis Job Advertisement Shortlist Applicants Writing Test Interview Test Reference Check Make an Offer
Source: (Cambodia Asia Bank HR Steps)

Figure 3. Recruitment and Selection of Cambodia Asia Bank

Step 1: Conduct Job Analysis. By strongly involvement with hiring manager and head of concerned department, responsible HR staff formulates job description. Job analysis relies heavily on hiring manager and head of concerned department. It is critical to get their input since they are the one who know clearly of what an incumbent will assign to perform. Below are steps taken in doing job analysis within Cambodia Asia Bank: 1. Know the purpose of having the position by simply asking why the position is needed; 2. What course of actions that the incumbent should perform to achieve the purpose, then, write down all of that activities the incumbent need to perform; 3. Putting activities in its nature of works or flow them under four functions of management such as planning, implementing, leading and controlling, and evaluation; 4. Think of the other tasks that incumbent might require to perform including administrations, reporting, frequency of meeting to be participated.etc; 5. Think of kind of skills, knowledge, experiences, qualifications, and qualities required for the incumbent to posses to be able to perform the job well. Step 2: Job Advertisement. The first priority of CAB is to seek and screen among its internal staff looking for possibilities where potential staff can fill the vacant position. The bank is doing this by conducting survey with all relevant managers to search for pool of potential staff and motivate them to apply. There is also internal job announcement open for every staff to apply. CAB might use direct appointment if the senior management see it fit, the details of direct appointment will be explained at later page in this study. Moreover, the bank wants to balance the diversity in acquiring new skills and experiences from talented candidates outside the bank as well by making public announcement. These make the CAB to have more options in selecting the right candidates. While doing job announcement, responsible HR staff have to think of how to use it effectively by seeking the best tools to disseminate job vacancy information to the target candidates. Responsible HR staff needs to think of what kind of persons that CAB is looking for? Where those people staying or where those people usually getting access to information? Cambodia Asia Bank so far, advertise its job vacancy through websites, newspaper, posting at universities especially for some positions that target to university student, posting on internet and external announcement boards, using bank website. The period of job advertisements usually rang from 10 to 15 days. Sometimes, Cambodia Asia Bank uses recruitment agency to recruit for the bank. Step 3: Shortlist Candidates. After collecting all applications, responsible HR staff either recruitment officer or manager reviews on all applicants application form and CV matching them to the initial requirements of the position to range the candidates from most meet criteria to the least one. Where necessary responsible HR staff forwards the applicants application form and CV to hiring manager for review and discussion on the each of individual candidate profile and background for shortlist. In case of no one are satisfied, the deadline extension or re-advertisement will be used.

6
Step 4: Writing Test. Shortlist Candidates are invited to sit for writing test arranged few days later on. The test is focused on ensuring that candidates have adequate capacity, knowledge, and experience of the job and to identify the capacity in term of problem solving skills, ability to make analysis as well as understanding of microfinance businesses. The test is developed to acquire all of information as much as possible about candidates capacity to ensure that she or he have met all requirements of knowledge and skills necessary to perform the job. In normal practice, recruitment manager meets with hiring manager or head of department to discuss and analyze on the tasks as well as activities which incumbent need to do. Then they find out what questions to be asked to assess on candidates capacity on the mentioned areas. Step 5: Interview/Stimulation Test. After completion of a correction the writing test, successful candidates from this step will be again invited for an interview or any stimulation test if required. Usually, candidate will be informed 1 or 2 day in advance about the interviewing appointment. In this process, CAB followed by structured interview which standard interview questionnaires were developed beforehand, and recruitment panel was formed. The development of the test is being followed by the same process as writing test.
Forming of recruitment panel As stated in policies, the interview has to gone through recruitment panel which consist of minimum 3 people of whom one come from HR department act as HR representative, another one generally is a hiring manager who is a direct supervisor of the incumbent, and other member is auditing manager or accounting manager who has technical capacity to assess on candidates capacity. Members are required to have discussion on interview questionnaires and read the background of all candidates beforehand. Moreover, they are agreed and assigned among themselves to ask questions on candidates. Members might dick for details from time to time when the candidates giving answer to get the most information to assess on candidates capacity. Recruitment panel discussion session This session is held after the interview with all candidates finished. Members raise their own opinion about candidate whether it relates to either candidate capacity or his or her interpersonal skills as well as other qualities of them for discussion. The discussion is also address strength and weakness of individual to find who are the most suitable one for the post for some positions, candidate might be required to have further stimulation test for example presentation skill test or computer skills test. In case of having more than one candidate are satisfied or recognized as qualified, the recruitment panel can suggest for putting him or her as reserve candidate for future needs. Members at this stage have to document its decision and got signed as evidence for decision. This decision is not yet a final one, members can just only recommend potential candidate for further recruitment step which is subjecting to reference check and approval from the senior management on the offer.

Step 6: Reference Check. Reference check is one of the important stages in selection process. CAB conducts reference check on recommended candidate brought by recruitment panel to ensure that candidate having good attitude, not involving unlawful conduct such as criminal, having good job performance, and possess other good qualities. This is a good chance that recruiter can hear what others say about the candidates in their previous work life experiences. Generally, responsible HR staff checks about all of that above mentioned information through referees given by candidates at minimum 3 referees. Candidate Character Check: It is one of the other tool planning to use in this selection process. Recruitment team is currently developing of this tool to strengthen more in its recruitment process that will help them to identify the candidates characteristic. Step 7: Make an Offer. After gone through all of recruitment steps, starting from short listing till reference check, successful candidate is about to be offered. To complete on this process, responsible HR staff prepares documents for final approval on the selection of candidate from HR manager and Executive Director and prepare employment contract for signature of both parties; a company and a successful candidate. Promotion and Upgrading and Direct Appointment: Another tool used beside the mentioned process above is promotion/upgrading or direct appointment. Promotion/upgrading is about method to award staff who has satisfactory performance. When staff meets satisfactory performance or performance standard set for promotion/upgrading, the institution promotes or upgrades them to another higher grade; for example, from officer to senior officer within their line position. On the other hand, direct appointment is about assigning staff from one position to another vacant position which can be neither in their line of position or outside their line of position; for example, institution direct appoint one staff from Teller position to Loan Officer position. These two methods are involving with rigorously evaluation by committee of 3 people to ensure that staff is capable and having good performance in their current position. The process is also involving approval from HR manager and Executive Director. Current Practices on Succession Planning
The need for managerial positions especially supervisor positions are increasingly in demand from time to time while the institution growing bigger and bigger and this world be a great challenge for manpower supports from HR department. Therefore, proper succession planning program in place is critical for institution. Cambodia Asia Bank succession planning is comprised of three parts: (1) recruitment of pool of successors, (2) capacity building program for the pools, and (3) monitoring and placement of successors. These are briefly discussed below: Recruitment of pool of successors. Per interview with staff performance and development management analyst and payroll and benefits officer, the recruitment of pool of successors conducts with rigorous process. The successors has to gone through each steps of screening. First of all, candidates are screen by provincial committee at branch level in which committee members consist of

7
branch management team members to discuss and evaluate on each staff to find out who are potential and most fit to the higher position. Then all the pools of potential successors recommended by provincial branch are invited for writing test to identify their capacity. The final screening process is done by head office succession planning committee which consists of top management members. This committee is to make decision to select for potential candidates to join the program by reviewing candidates profile, recommendation from provincial branch office, and writing test. Capacity Building Program for the pools. Practical management, leadership, supervisory, and other necessary job related skills were developed and included in training curriculum for pool of successors. Intensive training program aims to equip them with required knowledge and skills to be ready for position they will hold in future. Moreover, on the job training are also arranged to let successors a chance to practice a supervisory roles as well as to apply their knowledge gained from the training. Successors from time to time have a chance to meet with senior management to discuss and to encourage on their learning and improvements as it is part of mentoring program that created to assist on this capacity building. Monitoring and Placement of successors. Not all successors are automatically placed to position which he or she is been prepared to; however, it has to go through satisfactory performance and improvement. Monitoring and evaluation are conducted for all successors to ensure that they are qualified and ready for the position. Aside from this, placement of candidates needs to go through general administrative process which require approval from relevant top management members. Research Question 2: What problems does Cambodia Asia Bank face in their recruitment, selection, and succession? Managing human resource is quite a challenging job for him especially as recruitment manager he has to ensure skillful work forces are available and adequately supplies. When CAB starts to employ employees to support operational growth, it has to ensure its proper and sound recruitment strategy and process. In addition, the recruitment manager finds it also a great challenge when there is a tight labor market likely to be available during a today tough competition environment as CAB is facing. Limited pool of qualified candidates from external sources makes institution to be more proactive on how to attract new employees and retain existing one, according to (Cambodia Asia Bank Manager). Same as some other fast growing business companies, CAB is extremely in a need for talent people to hold lower or middle management positions especially a need for supervisor positions. Whenever one leave the institution, it is critical to ensure that works are still smoothly processed by having qualified or competent successor available to take the role and this is also a reason of why succession planning exists. Research Question 3: What problems does Cambodia Asia Bank encounter in recruitment and hiring and succession planning program management? As explained by the recruitment manager, HR department of CAB usually acts itself in a proactive way. To ensure an adequate supply of manpower, HR department has to come up with a strategy to recruit staff in advance to put them in inventory. When CAB is in a need for staff, they just make an offer for those in inventory right away without need to run the whole cycle of recruitment and selection process such as making job advertisement, shortlist, testing, and so on. Currently, CAB can properly response to this issue quite good enough. Moreover, recruitment unit team of CAB works closely with concerned head of department and mangers to often update the test of each position from time to time to ensure that their testing is effective to evaluate the capacity of candidates. Moreover, CAB has established its succession planning as a kind of management back up and this help the organization to respond faster when there is a need for management position. HR department tries to keep control and maintains transparency in selecting successors by establishment of through recruitment process and it continuously keeps on watch and monitor on improvement of successors providing variety of development program including training, mentoring, and on the job training.

CHAPTER III CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


This chapter aims to present conclusions and recommendations for Cambodia Asia Bank based on the foregoing findings of the study. 3.1 Conclusions Reflecting CABs recruitment process with theories given in the literature review, it shows that CAB has mostly been following the best practices in recruitment, selection and planning. It has its own structure and systems of recruitment and selection starting from recruitment based on objective job analysis, job advertisement, short-listing, testing process, reference and background check, and decision on the offer. Moreover, CAB takes into account of how to prevent its recruitment process from being bias, subjective decision, hiring of relatives, corruption on recruitment, ineffective testing, by evolving from its process to recruitment panel. Whenever there are many people especially senior managers and representative from HR staff join the process as committee members it helps reduce all of the above concerns and also make institution able to select the right people. All in all, it seems to express that recruitment systems established by the institution is proper and sound enough for effectively assess on candidates capacity.

8
As far as succession is concerned, CAB is totally critical during this time of growth and challenges. A greatest challenge of finding internal qualified candidates for supervisory or management roles from the front line staff is day to day increasing. This challenge is quite normal for all fast growing institutions, not just only the case of CAB but for all institutions as well as the whole microfinance industry. Although CAB has not readily implemented its program, yet the program is rigorously developed including the sound screening process, capacity building program, monitoring, evaluation, and placement of successor. Every successors have to go through all of that processes. Firstly, the screening process are conducted by three (3) filtering steps, first from 1st succession planning committee at branch level, writing test to test recommended candidates capacity, knowledge, and their potential, and 2nd succession planning committee at head office level which consist of top management to review and making decision on the selection of pool of successors. Secondly, the pool of successors is put into ongoing intensive training program that curriculum is to focus on building each of successor capacity with knowledge and skill required for its precedent supervisory or management roles they will take in future. On the job training and mentoring program are also part of it. Finally, ongoing monitoring and evaluation to see the progress of successor in order to ensure the right time for their placement are on watched. 3.2 Recommendations Although CABs recruitment, selection, and succession planning seemingly proper and sound in terms of systems, structures, and processes, yet there are some issues that can be raised in the implementation. The question is to what level of effectiveness has CAB carried out tasks in every steps of work process? Here below are recommendations as a response in accordance to this research study findings and discussions addressing on the effectiveness of managing human resource in a growing context: Recruitment and hiring CABs staff recruitment processes should be ensure a clear job description is given at the time of promoting the vacancy and a rigorous selection process is followed ( refer to Recruitment Process Flowchart). Job analysis should be conducted with involvement from various stakeholders by not only to relies on hiring manager and head of relevant department input but to get senior staff and existing staff of position involved. It is important to listen to those who have experience on the tasks and to understand about their opinion and recommendations. Moreover, from time to time, the job analysis should be carried out on existing position and updated of job description should be done regularly as well as orientation to staff to understand about the change in their job responsibilities should be well processed. Hiring of front line staff should set high standard of requirements from candidates qualifications including knowledge, skills, experience, and other qualities required, because it will help to leave the burden from training and capacity building program that provide to staff as to build their capacity for being able to be a successors as well as can reduce some expenses on training since the front line has already had solid foundation. Succession planning program Good management and leadership are the key important for every institutions that can lead the institution to be successful. So, CAB should develop prevention strategy to cope with all issues might possibly a raises during implementation of the program including bias or favoritism might possibly happen during screening process, jealousy from other staffs who did not recommended for joining the program, and some of the other de-motivation issues might happen. CAB should provides opportunities that enable staff to maximize their contribution through the use and continuous further development of their special skills and expertise and offers ongoing staff training for in-house programs and systems to ensure the current, relevant work skills. Expected outcomes from joining succession planning program as well as joining the capacity building program shall be stated and being understood clearly by all successors. In addition, rewards or other motivational strategies should be developed to help successors keep improving and learning and to get them committed to work for CAB for at least a proper period of time; therefore, the return of investment would be maximized.

REFERENCES
David A. Dezenzo & Stephen P. Robbins (2002), Human Resource Management, Seventh Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cambodia Asia Bank Website at: www.cab.com.kh Gary Dessler (2000), Human Resource Management, Eighth Edition, Prentice Hall International, Inc. Rothwell, W.J (2005), Effective Succession Planning Ensuring Leadership Continuity and Building Talent from Within, Third Edition, American Management Association. John Bratton and Jeffrey Gold (1999), Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Macmillan Press, Inc. McGraw-Hill (2003), Human Resource Management, International Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.