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Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester IV MI0040 Technology Management Assignment - Set- 2 Q1. Explain Technology Generation.

Explain Technology Development. Discuss the importance Technology Generation and Development. Answer: Technology Generation: We will start our discussion with the meaning of technology generation. Technology generation and development is often identical with the term "Research and Development (R&D)". However, technology generation involves R&D efforts, while technology development involves further stages of translating R&D efforts into marketable products, processes and services. Basically, we can consider the R&D process as having four distinct stages as shown in figure

Stages of R & D Process The development" includes creation, design and production and marketing of the generated idea. Through the entire process, its ideas and knowledge which are being followed, and the process is not complete, until the new idea is converted into a marketable product or service, which can be a hardware or software intensive technology. Corporate R & D and R&D Projects: Corporate research and development is the principal corporate asset for long-term technological competitiveness. We can classify corporate research activities by the purpose of the research: To support current businesses. To provide new business enterprise. To explore possible new technology basis. The R&D projects tend to go through the following stages: Basic research and invention. Applied research and functional prototype. Engineering prototype and testing.

Production prototype and pilot production. Product testing and modification. Initial production and sales. Process: As we are discussing about the technology generation, let us now discuss about the process of technology generation. Let us have a look at an illustration of the various inputs required for generation of technologies in Figure

Process of Technology Generation In the figure, goals, surroundings, criteria and resource allocation are some of the inputs to R&D, the output of which is technology. The input resources into R&D organisations are the traditional inputs such as money, materials, facilities, energy, labour and management, and the intelligence-based inputs such as science, knowledge, skills, information and existing technologies. The effectiveness of any R&D is determined in terms of the 'usefulness' of the technologies it produces with respect to the overall objectives of the corporation Besides these factors, the R&D or technology generation involves many other aspects such as, monitoring and evaluation of R&D projects, funding of R&D, training and development, resource personnel, interactions at all levels, management policies and support, the availability of support structures and incentives at government level, timely collection and interpretation of technical and other information. The quality of resource leadership and commitment of the top management for research is extremely important. In Indian industry or corporate sector, it is generally observed that the research personnel occupy secondary place to finance, marketing and production personnel, and are not given due importance in decision-making at corporate level. Sometimes, inefficient personnel from other departments are posted or transferred to R&D department, thereby indicating a complete neglect of R&D concept. Such management attitudes need to be changed in the overall interest of the company.

Importance Technology Generation and Development: In-house R&D: Technology development activities are generally carried out through setting up of separate in-house R&D units within the business, managed and headed by a well-qualified and experienced chief, directly reporting to the top management. However, this unit has close interactions with other departments within the company and there could even be exchange of personnel among different departments. The strength and facilities in the in-house R&D unit would depend upon the technology policy of the company and the nature of the business. In large companies, there are sometime R&D labs for each department and a central R&D lab for major R&D projects. Industrial R&D is mostly product or process oriented with specific objectives and time schedule; and not basic research. Incremental developmental efforts or import substitution efforts are generally common in most of the industries in developing countries including India, while emphasis is on new technologies or new applications of technologies in advanced countries. Co-operative R&D: A group of companies in a particular industrial sector promotes an R&D centre as a society or a non-profit making company. The R&D is funded by the participating companies and the government. This R&D centre undertakes R&D as per the requirements of the companies in their larger interest, and sets up expertise and facilities of common nature and which are usually expensive. A company can also support specific projects to this centre. Cooperative research facilities are normally utilised for the projects which are not of cautious nature from the business point of view. Otherwise, most important part of the R&D can be done at the centre and the remaining part involving finer details or critical technological aspects affecting the competitiveness is done at the in-house R&D division of the company. Contract research: A company may contract components of technology development to suitable R&D organisations, academic institutions, or consultants or experts. The in-house R&D unit may coordinate the progress of the activities, to develop the desired technologies. This approach usually requires considerable internal technological and managerial capabilities coupled with a strong Science and Technology (S&T) information base. R&D collaboration: A company may collaborate with another company in areas of common interest, if costs of development are high. Such inter-firm collaborative R&D efforts are becoming common in developed countries mainly due to high costs and shorter technology life cycles. It is found in areas such as micro-electronics, materials, information technologies, bio-technologies, and so on. A firm may also collaborate with the public funded or privately funded R&D institutions on case-to-case basis, where R&D results are shared mutually, and so are the expenses. A company in India may even collaborate with another company or R&D institution abroad, on mutually agreed terms. Research societies: Large corporations or industrial houses may set up independent research societies, in addition to their in-house R&D units. Such societies may undertake R&D activities mostly relating to the broad interests of the promoting companies in line with the national interests. They will also take advantage of those facilities for the activities and programmes in their in-house R&D unit. Governments usually encourage such societies and provide several tax concessions and financial incentives. Research companies: Large firms of technology innovative industrialists may support research companies, specifically for conducting research and development of technologies for others on commercial basis. The development costs and reasonable profits are recovered from the sale and transfer of technologies. Such a concept is common in USA, and other developed countries while it is yet

to gain recognition in developing countries such as India. A company may adopt any of the approaches or a combination of the approaches depending on its needs and resources. Q2. Explain the dimensions of technology transfer and features of technology package. Answer: Basically technology transfer is categorised into passive and active modes. The modes of technology transfer refer to the transferors role in the application of technology to solve the users problem. The technology transfer is called active, if the transfer methods assist the possible user in its application. In active mode, the transfer process goes after the interpretation of the transmitted information, suggests the user how to use the technology, or shows the applications of the technology for the apparent use. However, there may be an intermediate mode also, known as semi-passive mode. In semi-passive mode, the transfer activity is in the middles of the other two modes, that is, active and passive modes. The time and resources required to transfer a given technology depend upon: The technology progress varies in character, that is, whether it is transferring or diffusing. We transfer technology from an enterprise to an individual, and diffuse the technology from an individual to an enterprise. To understand the implication of the culture, you must praise the variation between transfer and diffusion. The advancement of the technology depends on the combined effect of transfer and diffusion. From the above concept, we can say that the individual is the pivotal point of technology movement, whether transfer or diffusion. It conveys you the concept of cultural dimension. Several years ago, a minibus manufacturing plant was closed in Pakistan. A program of ten years for the transfer of built-up and market technology had failed. The buses produced were identical with those successfully built and marketed in foreign country. But in Pakistan, they could not maintain the buildingup quality. The sale of buses was dull, and required excessive maintenance and repair. They could not find the solutions even after the investigation of the problem. So, they left their program forgetting their whole experience. Actually, the problem was with the bus and not with the customers. Since the vehicle was designed as per the supervision and administration of British manufacturing plant, distribution and marketing organisation. It was designed to be driven in England or similar environments where repair services and spare parts will be easily available. As we find difficult to adjust with the foreign culture, technology is also not culture free. Those creating and applying technology perform within the context of their culture, and incorporate it into their work. In our discussion, the manufactured product works with the culture from which it came. The same is true for other technologies like, refineries, electric power stations, mining machinery, computerised information systems, engineering, education, and so on. So, either the technology must adapt different culture or the people who use the technology must adapt to the culture used in the technology for successful transfer. Usually, the combination of both is required for the successful technology transfer. If it is transferred without any adjustments can be referred to the result of blind luck. Most recently developed technologies are embedded with western type cultural qualities, including that available from developed countries. Most of these qualities are considerably different or do not exist in other cultures. However, they influence both the transfer and successful application of the technology. The qualities often include: The problem-solving method and logic. The decision making social authority structure.

Taking initiative action for analysis value. The time management and plan as it relates to tasks and activity. The relationship between performance and incentives. The view and appreciation of pre-emptive action to prevent future problems. The social suggestion including questionnaire, conflict and confrontation. Source of personal status in the work place and society. The relationship of fatalism and self-determination. The vertical and horizontal orientation to organisational authority. Features of Technology Package: Technology package is nothing but the technology services, which include estimated market price, annual payments, and so on. The technology package consists of three principal elements, namely, product design, production technique, and management systems. Product design may range from simple items to highly complex (example, automotive) parts. The techniques related to production and the layout of the plant comprises of photocopies and flowcharts, formulas, sheets for process, instructions for fabrication, designs of tools and fixture, operational procedures and material specifications. Management Systems comprises of different plans, blueprints and technical control systems (along with relevant marketing and financial controls). These covers design and blueprint of plant, quality control and testing, acquirement of material, inventory control, techniques for equipment maintenance and repair, and machine loading. The three principal categories of technical information or know-how inherent in technological systems are general knowledge, system-specific and firm-specific knowledge. These various categories of knowledge may be in the form of written fabricating or processing equipment. General Knowledge refers to information common to industry such as blueprint reading, tool and fixture design and fabrication, welding techniques, and so on. Since the technology is a package (or service) type that cannot be viewed, it shows the feature attributes of packages, which includes: Indivisibility: Since there are few demanding parties, a lot of time and effort is required to find out apparent customers, unlike product transfer. In particular, industry is gaining good reputation corresponding to company credit- rating and technology capability because of different language, culture, and commercial practice that overseas customers have. Consumer participation: Technology transfer activities together with objective technology data, technology sales data, document submissions in Korean and local governments and so on needs various documentation systems. As a result, technology peacekeeping troops are needed to accomplish English documentation tasks, negotiation, and contracts. They must be experts in international manner and language skills, financial analysis and marketing research skills, international contracts skills, and communication skills to sensibly persuade counterparts. So, technology transfer responsibilities should be recognised as technology mediation rather than being a duty domain of patent attorneys. Non-traceability: Since the technology is an indefinable item, it can gain trust only by providing the technology capability as per the customer requirement. In particular, samples or demonstration along with data from public organisations as evidences with authority are essential. The authoritative public organisations may include the patent office, testing and research centres, and so on.

Difficulties in standardisation: The scope of the corporate market can be widened with the help of technology transfer. In terms of market size and opportunities and overall good market expansion opportunities, growth and revenue are very important factors that can be gained respectively without production facilities or operation funds. Q3. Briefly describe the concept of technology choice. List and explain the steps involved in technology assessment process. Answer: Technology choice: Choice of technology has significant involvement in growth and productivity of an organisation. The use of technology is always related to an objective. Because we can use different types of technologies to realise an organisation's goals, but the issue of choice arises. The effective choice depends on previously decided measures for a technology's conference specified requirements. In addition, it depends on the ability to identify and evaluate opportunities in different technologies. The expected result is that the organisation will go for the most "appropriate" technology (AT) in this situation. The technology choice in the framework of society and its creation is the idea of imaginary assumptions and are the key sources of meaning in social and cultural life. Imaginary assumptions can be considered as conscious or unconscious symbolic representation of human actions in the creation of meaningful and sense making ideas. Symbolic representation proposes implications which require perceptions of not only the real or rational, but also an additional imaginary component. This eventually comes from the original ability of positing or presenting oneself with things and associations that do not exist and have never been given in any depiction. The social world is, in every situation, constituted and expressed as a function of such a system of implications. These implications exist after they have been formed, in the method of what we call the actual imaginary or the imagined. These imaginary designs play an important role in modelling the choice of symbolic representation constituted by the world, and especially the choice of its organisational symbolism as well as the ends to which it supports functionality. In the perspective of technology choice, we can say that imaginary implications are the result of both rational technology based economic behaviour and complex imaginary struggles that emerge at various points and in many shapes by providing archives of meaning about the content of technology and its application. These implications and dominant interests are reflected in the shape and functioning of technology in imaginary practice. This is an imaginary field which individuals and institutions create in order to maintain and show representations and projections of possible alternative realities and ideas of possible fate related to the content and application of a technology. Because of this balance between the assumed, the real and the imaginary components of these implications, the technology and its choice encloses not only the preferred technology based economic implications of the technology itself, but also the engraved imaginaries of technology in society, work, and institutions. For example, the acquirement of certain technologies can simultaneously provide verification of membership of certain social groups, indicate cherished relationships and include imaginaries about knowledge practices, expertise and relations to other actors by encouraging new aspects of subjectivity. Technology Assessment Process: We can say that the process of technology assessment comprises of recurring cycles of planning, data gathering, and reporting results. We can classify these three cycles into nine steps, as given in the figure Technology assessment has been defined as a form of policy research that assesses short-term and longterm results of the application of technology.

Instructional technology assessment involves recurring cycles of planning, gathering data, and reporting. It is good to plan the technology assessment at the same time we coordinate the technology introduction, so that we can take necessary steps such as collection of baseline data. Figure explains the technology assessment process.

Technology Assessment Process 1. Description of technology and context: In the first step of technology assessment, we must describe the technology we are going to use, in terms of the function or intention or purpose of the technology, its possible affects, and the resources that are required. 2. Identification of stakeholders and their requirements: In the second step of technology assessment process, we identify the stakeholders, and their requirements, that is, their needs. Identification of their needs will help us to aim attention at the technology assessment process, so that we can get good results. 3. Identification of the purpose of assessment: This is the third step of technology assessment process. In this step, we identify the purpose of the assessment of technology. This will help us in determining the procedure of conducting the assessment. 4. Identification of the intended uses of the assessment: In this fourth step of technology assessment process, we identify the intended uses of the assessment. We can define intended uses as the particular ways in which the results of the assessment will be applied. 5. Creation of an assessment plan: This is the fifth step in the process of technology assessment, in which, we create a plan for the technology assessment. This plan is an elaborated description of the procedure of implementation of the assessment, which comprises of the identification of resources existing for the implementation of the plan, information to be gathered, method(s) to be used for research, description of the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders those were identified in step 2, and time duration for the accomplishment of the tasks. 6. Data gathering: This is the sixth step in the process of technology assessment. In this step, we gather data as per the assessment plan. Data gathering comprises of the indicators, sources of the data to be gathered, and methods to use, information quality and quantity, and the relevance in which the data gathering occurs.

7. Analysis of data: After gathering the data as per the assessment plan, analysis of that data takes place. This analysis of data covers the identification of patterns in the data, either by isolating the significant findings (analysis) or by combining information sources to reach a larger understanding (synthesis), and making decisions about the procedure to organise, divide, interrelate, compare, and display information. We guide these decisions by the questions being asked, the types of data existing, and input from the stakeholders. 8. Making conclusions and recommendations: After analysis of gathered data, we made conclusions and recommendations wherever needed. Whatever conclusions we made, connected to the proof gathered and verified against agreed-upon standards set by stakeholders. And, the recommendations we made are the actions for consideration that are based on the conclusions we made, but go beyond simple verifications about efficacy or interpretation of the proof gathered. 9. Reporting results: This is the final step in the process of technology assessment. In this step, we report the results of the assessment. We must consider some factor while reporting the results. These factors are: - Creating a report content for the audience. - Describing the aim of the study and its limitations. - Listing both the strengths and weaknesses of the technology. Q4. Briefly explain the factors influencing the high performance innovative technology based organisations. Answer: International competition, shorter product lifecycles and increasingly challenging customer satisfaction are creating significant problems for the creation of innovative organisations. Thus, we can interpret innovation potential as a combination of parameters, internal and external to the organisation, which are correlated to the organisations ability to continuously innovate. Innovation capacity is therefore considered as a complex conception because it can be influenced by factors internal and external to the organisation, such as leadership capabilities and the level of industry innovativeness, respectively. As demands for innovation have increased, new measures and drivers have also evolved, such as, government regulations, sustainable development and a focus on speeding up new product development. They are taking leading roles in assisting transformation of knowledge into new products, processes and services. These three factors can have a role in the innovation capability of organisations. briefly describe the external factors that influence innovation: Government regulation: Government regulation can provide organisations with opportunities or Constraints, depending on the circumstance and how they approach it. Although government regulation is not the only measure that can positively impact on the process of innovation, it is nevertheless an essential one. Regulatory measures can influence innovation ranging from tax to patent and copyright laws. However, the communications between environmental and e-Commerce regulation, and organisation and industry innovation in these two areas are examined. Environmental regulation: An organisations sustainable development orientation (SDO) shows the influence of and ability to influence environmental, political and social measures. An organisations SDO can be defined as the degree to which the organisation customs and its set of SD practices are capable and effective both in meeting financial, environmental and social needs and in assisting the strategic course of the business, hence providing greater opportunity for long-term greater business success. For example, strict environmental regulations in the developed countries have been decisive in getting organizations to focus on sustainability.

Customers and competitors: Customers and competitors in a specific industry can influence the innovation potential of organizations in that industry. For example, technologically advanced customers may demand more innovative products and services. In addition, geographically close competitors may be able to identify customer requirements and source mechanism more quickly than isolated ones. As a result, customers and competitors may manipulate the innovative potential of organizations. After a brief discussion on the external factors, let us now discuss the internal factors that influence innovation. In general, past studies indicate that organizations characteristics affect some relationships commonly associated with innovation. For example, the positive relationship between R&D and an organizations performance is stronger for organizations that provide high quality after-sales customer service than for organizations that do not, and that this relationship is different for growth-stage and developed companies. Therefore, in this section we analyze the literature on the relationship between innovation and the organizational quality of size, strategy, structure, technology management, and business knowledge, amongst others. Organizational size: The relationship between organisation size and innovation is complicated. The size is positively related to innovation but some measures, such as the type of organisation and the stage of implementation, moderated this relationship. For example, size was more positively associated to innovation in manufacturing than in service, and in benefits, rather than in non-benefits. As per the above discussion, organization size does not appear to be related in the same way to all dimensions of innovation nor to all environmental management practices. The relationship between company size and the company s ability to innovate seems to be moderated by factors such as the measure of size, the scope of innovation, the type of organization, and the stage of implementation. However it is clear that large and small organizations have different types of chances to innovate, and, hence it is possible to conclude that size does matter to innovation potential. Strategy: A business strategy addresses the limitation of how the company or its business units can compete with other businesses and industries. In general, research has shown that effective strategic management can help organizations to surpass their competitors. Strategic management is defined as the set of managerial findings and activities that determines the enduring performance of a corporation. Finally, a clear innovative strategy that fits in with the overall organizations strategy, and the clear understanding or definition of various factors of innovation should be related to innovation capability. Communication: Internal and external communications have been found to be associated to innovation. External communication comprises knowledge of the environment outside the organization, communication with customers and suppliers, and the contribution of employees with external professional activities and networks. Communications can be considered as the capability of innovative organizations. Since effective internal and external communication allows information to be shared by all stakeholders in the innovation process.

Q5. What is Research and Development (R&D), and how is it managed? Explain the different categories of Intellectual Property Management. Answer: Research and Development (R&D): Research and Development also known as R&D, is typically the creation and execution of new product ideas. The research part of R&D refers to the planning and examining stage of creating a new product or

upgrading an existing product. The development part involves the process of designing and testing the effectiveness of the new product or product improvement. Research and development management has transformed from the back office work to center stage, to a leading force, becoming a key part of business success. Those days have passed, when a good R&D manager required only technical knowledge. The need for growth, the search for new ideas and new ways of doing things, and growing competitive pressures has changed the R&D operation into one of the major strategic requirement. This new responsibility has drastically changed relationships with other business operations, such as production, marketing, and finance. R&D management involves the process and methods used to control the amount of funds and effort invested in research and development (R&D) projects. The key concepts used in R&D management include supervising committees, cost management, project management and product life cycle management. R&D management is generally viewed in the manufacturing, scientific and product development sectors. Companies in these industries must dedicate resources to research and development as part of a long-term management strategy. The first process of R&D management is to determine which projects to carry forward. For example, a pharmaceutical company can evaluate the market for hair shampoo that fights dandruffs and decide that there is adequate consumer interest in the product to make it profitable. The R&D management team will then review the possibilities and inform the scientists to explore the possible solutions. The product development team presents the product manager with a project layout, complete with the estimated cost and time required to develop the product. The product manager will discuss the plan with the supervisor or R&D management committee. After review and approval, the product development work can begin. Even though there are multiple stages of this process, it ensures senior management assistance for all initiatives as well as a proper understanding of the costs and the time line for each project. Cost accounting is a key feature of any R&D management system. Under a cost accounting system, every new project or activity is assigned to a cost center. All equipment, provisions and material costs related to the project are charged to this account. In addition, employees monitor the time spent on the project so that the remuneration and benefit costs also are charged to the cost account. The reason for this type of accounting is to have a proper record of the amount of money spent on a specific project at any point in time. As a function of an R&D management system, project management processes are used to create a time line, schedule resources and set goals. A clearly defined project has more chances to be successfully completed than one with unclear requirements and no deadlines. A project management plan gives a higher quality output in a shorter time frame Intellectual Property Management: Intellectual property is related to the ideas created in the mind, such as, innovations, content and artistic creations, and symbols, names, pictures, and designs used in business. We can classify intellectual property as industrial property, which comprises of patents, trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic implications of source; and Copyright, which includes content and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, images and sculptures, and constructive designs. A copyright includes the rights of artists performances, producers of syllable in their recordings, radio broadcasting and television programs. Different categories of intellectual property management:

Patents: This category is related to the management of patents. We can define a patent as a special license granted by the government of a country, to the owner of an invention, to create, use, produce and market the invention, provided the invention satisfies certain conditions prescribed in the law. Special license means that no one else can produce or market the invention without the permission of the patent holder. This license is available for a limited period of time. In spite of the possession of the license, the use or exploitation of the license by the owner of the patent may not be possible due to other stringent laws of the country which has granted the patent. These laws may relate to physical condition, safety, food, security, and so on. Also, existing patents in the same field may also come in the way. A patent according to law is a property right, and therefore, can be gifted, inherited, allocated, sold or licensed by others. As the right is granted by the government, it can also be withdrawn by the government under some very special conditions, even if the patent has been inherited or licensed or produced or marketed by someone else. The patent right is regional in nature, and companies will have to apply for separate patent petitions in countries of their interest, along with required amount, for obtaining patents in those countries. Trademark: A trademark is a unique symbol or logo, which identifies certain commodities or services as the ones manufactured or used by some other person or organisation. Trademarks may be single or collection of words, letters, and numerals. They may also consist of pictures, symbols, letters, threedimensional designs, such as, shape and wrapping of goods, or colours used as distinctive feature. Collective symbols are reserved by an alliance, whose members use them to recognise themselves with a level of class. International Certification grades are provided to companies for compliance with the defined standards (example ISO 9000.) formulated by international institutes and governments. A trademark is given to the owner of the mark by providing the exclusive right to use it for identification of goods or services, or to allow others to use it in return for some considerable amount. Copyrights: Copyright is a right, which is given for creating an original content or theatrical or musical or artistic work. Motion films, containing sound track and videos and recordings on discs, tapes, perforated roll or other equipments come under copyrights act. Computer programs and software are covered under intellectual works, and are protected in India under copyrights. Copyright provides protection for the expression of an idea and not for the idea itself. For example, many authors write textbooks on chemistry covering various topics like molecules, heat, compounds and so on. Although these topics are covered in several other books by different authors, each author will have a copyright on the book written by him / her, unless the book is not a copy of some other book published previously. India is a member of the Berne Convention, an international agreement on copyright. According to this standard, registration of copyright is not an important requirement for protecting the right. Hence, it means that the copyright on a work created in India, would be automatically and concurrently protected under copyright, in all the member countries of the Berne Convention. But still, it is a good idea to include a copyright notice. Industrial design: An industrial design is the decorative or artistic aspect of an article. The design can have three-dimensional characteristics, such as, the shape and composition of an article, or twodimensional characteristics, such as pattern and decoration. The design characteristics should be incorporated to an object by any industrial process or any means through which the features in the finished object are attractive.

Q6. Discuss the technology assessment and environmental impact analysis. Answer: Technology should become self-evident that each technology assessment should answer the question does this technology intrude in any way upon the problem areas of technology? If so, is the impact beneficial or, if it not, can the technology be altered so as to make a more positive contribution to the solution of a problem? And if that is not possible, can the negative impact be used in a better way? Or should the technology be dropped? The effects of activities that are not addressed for in the common area of transactions need to be considered in the decision making processes. All these effects should be identified, assessed, and evaluated against the economic advantages rising from a given activity. Here, the environmental impact assessment is considered to be the vital process as they provide a way to humankind to consider the effects of their activities on the environment. There is economic development because of the association of natural resources and technology maintained by us and designed for us. It is us who are in the centre for development. Hence it is said that all human activity whether it is economic, social, or anything else is basically to fulfil the requirements of us through modifying and using environmental resources. Environmental impact analysis: We can define environment impact analysis or assessment as an activity to identify, predict, interpret, and pass information about the impact of an activity on human s health and well-being. The following are the EIA process steps: 1. The first step is to make a fast examination of the basic environmental resources land, air, and water. This is done at a macro level where the project is to be located. The scanning is performed to evaluate the amount of fragility and exploitation of the resource base. The project and regional environment is then related. 2. The second step is to separate the project zone. 3. The third step is to identify, assess, and define all the environmental attributes.

4. The fourth step is to rank environmental resources by their fragility, significance and quality. 5. The fifth step to carry out review on every aspect of effects of the proposed project on the identified individual environmental resources available in the project zone. 6. The sixth step is to categorise the effects in a systematic order. 7. The seventh step is to prepare remedial plans for diminishing negative effects.