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OUTDEAST
A GUIDE C LCRIDA AMD MEARBY 5HCRE5
by
NLKbLK S. !N
in consul tati on with the staf of the
|LCkIDA bTATL NULUN
Goinesvie, |orido
ILLU5!RA!ICN5 8Y DCRC!HA AND 5Y 8ARLCW
1111T 111TJ1 1111
GOLDEN PRESS NEW YORK
FOREWORD
With a climate uniquely favored, the Southeast supports a
multitude of native and exotic plants and a richness of
wildl ife. These features, along with its subtropical scenery,
bring it thousands of visitors. Here is a Golden Regional
Guide that introduces the natural and human history of
this fabulous region. It attempts to aid the reader to see,
understand, and more thoroughly enjoy the Southland.
Scores of individual s have helped with this book. My
gratitude to all, and especially to Arnold B. Grobman,
Director of the Florida State Museum, and to Walter Auf
fenberg, Ripley P. Bullen, J. C. Dickinson, Jr., R. M. DeWitt,
John . Kilby, James N. Layne, A. M. Laessle and William
J. Reimer. Thanks also to R. W. Patrick, U, of Florida, to
Daniel B. Beard, formerly Superintendent of the Everglades
Nat. Park, and to William B. Robertson and Ernest Christ
enson. Also to Robert P. Allen, Research Director of the Nat.
Audubon Soc., Donald F. Hofmeister, Hobart M. Smith and
Hurst H. Shoemaker of the University of Illinois, and to
Alexander C. Martin.
The following organizations have supplied photographs
and information: Fla. News Bureau (credited as FNB), Fla.
Attractions Assn., Fla. Dept. of Agriculture, Chambers of
Commerce in New Orleans (NOCC), Biloxi, Mobile,
Charleston and Miami; U, S. Nat. Park Service, U. b. Fish
and Wildlife Ser., U. S. Geol. Survey, Miami Public Library
and Fairchild Gardens. N..Z.
Copyrig
h
t 1959 by Golden Press, I nc. Al l rights reserved, i ncluding
the ri ght of reproduction in whol e or i n part i n any for m. Desi gned
and produced by Arti sts and Writers Press, I nc. Pri nted in the U. S.A.
by Western Pri nti ng and Li thographi ng Company. Publ i shed by
Gol den Press, I nc., Rockefel l er Center, New York 20, N. Y. Publ i shed
si mul taneous l y i n Canada by The Musson Book Company, Ltd. , Toronto.
CONTENTS
MEET THE SOUTHEAST
I ts l ocati on, extent, cl i mate and features. What
to wear, tri ps to take; what to see and do.
THE MODERN SOUTHEAST
I ts l arger ci ti es; nea rby i sl ands; i ndustri es.
SHADOWS OF EARLY DAYS
Hi stori cal ti metabl e, I ndi an l ife, di scovery, ex
pl orati on and settl ement.
LAND FROM THE SEA
The geol ogi cal story of the coastal pl ai n.
PLANT LIFE
Native and exoti c speci es of the area.
Trees
Pal ms
Sh rubs and vi nes
Southeast fowers
Tropi cal pl ants
45
59
65
7 1
79
4
15
24
36
44
ANIMAL LIFE 85
Most common and easi l y observed speci es.
Mari ne and shore l i fe 86
Fi shes 93
Repti l es and amphibi ans 99
Bi rds 1 07
Mammal s 1 1 8
WHAT TO SEE AND DO 123
National and state parks and other publ i c areas.
Fl ori da 124
loui si ana 142
Mi ssi ssi ppi 145
Al abama
1 47
Georgi a
1 49
South Carol i na
15 1
Commerci al attracti ons 153
INDEX 157
Woodibis
in fight
4
JJJ
MEET TH E S OUTH E AST
Thi s is an area har d to bound or defne. It is part of the
great coastal pl ai n whi ch begins at Cape Cod and stretches
al ong the Atl anti c, expandi ng to i ncl ude al l of Fl ori da and
t he l ower Mi ssi ssi ppi Val l ey as i t curves to t he west. Our
area i s furt her set of by two cl imatic condi tions. Fi rst i s its
warmth. Over the past severa l decades, t he col dest day
i n winter has averaged 2 degrees F. or hi gher-and i n
much of t he regi on, frosts are rare. Second, most of t hi s
area receives D i nches or more of rai n annual l y. T
h
us,
there i s ampl e warmt h a nd moisture for the growth of
pl ants-some of which are not foun d el sewhere in t he
Uni ted Stttes.
Our area of J2, to JD, square mi l es i ncl udes
al l of Fl or i da and parts of at l east fi ve other states. I t ex
tends from eastern Texas to North Carol i na. Whatever its
exact boundaries, thi area has about 2A, mi l es of de
tai l ed s horel i ne i ncl udi ng bays
, sounds,
and i n l ets. I t i s a di
versifed region of forests, far ms, grass l ands and wet l ands.
Famed for its agricu l t ure, it i s now devel oping n ew i ndus
tri es. As an a l l -year vacati on l and it has few competitors.
5

L ver nche5 o rono onnuoy


Less lhon nche5 o ro nfoonnuoy
Pvero@e of owesl onnuo
lemQerolures sZ

or h gher
M LWUWY which makes up the south
eastern coastal plain has a common origin
in the sand, mud and lime deposited in
shallow water as the East and Gulf coasts
slowly rose during the past 50 million years. Soils formed
from these sediments are mainly sand, marl and silt, with
areas of peat and muck. The sandy soil s are low in organic
matter and lose water rapidly. The peat and muck are just
the opposite. Fertilizing, draining and irrigating, can make
even poorer soils yield abundantly.
Long growing seasons and adequate rainfall are com
pensations for poor soil. Nearly all of this region has a
growing season of more than 250 days, and the annual
rainfall is usually between 50 and 60 inches. The area
receives from 50 to 70 per cent of all possible sunshine
this varies, of course, with location and season.
M LM forming the low coastal plain is cut by
rivers and broken by low ridges that parallel the ocean.
Along the Atlantic, the plain is about 100 miles wide.
Its southward sweep includes all of Florida. To the west
it widens to about 200 miles along the Gulf, loops up the
Mississippi Valley, narrows in Texas.
Lro88-8eclon ond v eW of Plonlc Lou8lo o n
Along the Atlantic, the coastal plain slopes 20 to 30
feet per mile toward the sea. Along the Gulf, the slope is
greater-30 to 40 feet per mile. In some places these slop
ing sediments are 20,000 feet thick, lying on a foor of
ancient, altered rocks. The coastal plains sediments have
not been disturbed or altered. Younger layers lie closer
to the shore, where new sediments form. Older layers
reach the surface farther inland, as shown above. The
ancient rocks break through at the fall line.
Florida's highest point is only 345 feet above sea level,
and this is high for the coastal plain as a whole. The land
is low and fat over large areas. If the sea level shifted 25
feet one way or another, there would be great changes in
the size and shape of Florida.
Qresenlshore
g
e of ordo
shore ne fseo eve
sonk Z feel
shore ne f5eo eve
rose Z feel
om

8
THE SEA is i ntimatel y con
nected wi t h the l and. Bel ow
the ti demark, t he bottom-usu
al l y smooth and sandy-sl opes
graduall y to the cont i nental
s hel f. Spits, bars and shoals
are common, and coral reefs
r i ng southern Fl ori da. Good
harbors are at t he mouths of
ri vers. Exposed shores occa
si onal l y sufer storm damage.
Sport and commerci al fs hi ng
are excel l ent, as are sai l i ng
and boati ng. The I nl and Wa-
W
terway provi des a protected
L@hlhousePme o lsond.
route f or smal l craft.
CLI MATE deter mi nes thi s regi on ( p. 4) an d i s one of its
great natural resources. Mi l dness i s the keynote. The di f
ference between average January and J u l y temperatures
ranges from 1 3 for Key West to 33 at J ackson, Mi ss.
Averages tel l on l y part of the story. The hi ghest recorded
temperature for this regi on was about 1 05 and the l ow
est, just bel ow zero. Temperatures are more extreme i nland
and to t he north. Al ong t he coasts, the s ea has a moder
ati ng efect.
About hal f t he regi on' s rai nfal l comes i n summer. Fogs
are l ocal and br i ef. Compl etely cl ear and compl etel y over
cast days are rare. More typi cal is a happy medi um of
partl y cl ouded ski es wi th ampl e sunshi ne. Rel ati ve humi di ty
runs from to 85 per cent, varyi ng wi th season and t i me
of day. Majesti c t hunderstorms are common i n summer.
Tampa tops t he country, havi ng over 80 days wi th thunder
storms annual l y. The rest of the area has 60 days or more,
but hai l i s rare.
Though t hi s is a hurri cane area, l ess t han 1 00 hurri canes
have been recorded si nce weather records have been kept.
They average l ess than two a year, but seem to be gr ad
ual l y i ncreasi ng. Ei ghty per cent occur dur i ng August,
September an d October. Wi th advanced war ni ngs and
better bui l di ng constructi on, l oss of l i fe has been shar pl y
reduced i n recent years. The most vi ol ent hurri can e known
hit the F l or i da Keys on September 2, 1 935, when t he
bar ometer gave the l owest readi ng ever recor ded i n the
United States-26. 35 i n. The U. S. Weat her Bureau mai n-
tai ns a h urri cane warni ng center i n Mi ami .
SUMMARY OF SOUTHEAST CLIMATE
City Average Average Avg. an n ual Growi n g
J an . temp. J ul y temp. rai nfal l season
Baton Rouge, La. 53

F. 82

F. 58 i n. 269 days
Bi l oxi, Mi ss. 54 82 59 276
Char l eston, S. C. 50 8 1 40 285
Ft. Myers, Fl a. 65 8 1 52 365
Gai nesvi l l e, Fl a. 58 8 1 49 285
Jacksonvi l l e, Fl a. 57 8 1 48 299
Jackson, Miss. 49 82 5 1 234
Key West, Fl a. 70 83 38 365
Miami, Fl a. 68 82 59 365
Mobil e, Al a. 53 82 6 1 298
New Or l eans, La. 54 80 60 292
St. Augusti ne, Fl a. 58 8 1 48 3 1 2
St. Peters burg, Fl a.
64 83 5 1 365
Savannah, Ga. 53 8 1 45 273
Tal l ahassee, Fl a. 55 8 1 55 282
Typical extremes of temperature
City Hi ghest recorded lowest recorded
Charl eston, S. C. 1 04

F. ?
o
F.
Jacksonvi l l e, Fl a. 1 04 1 0
Key West, Fl a. 1 00 41
Mi ami, Fl a.
98 27
Mobi l e, Al a. 1 03 -1
New Or l eans, La. 1 02 7
St. Petersbu rg, Fl a. 98 28
Savannah, Ga. 1 05 8
9
An cvergude Kle e5 over Luke Lkeechobee.
ANI MAL LI FE, so vari ed and abundant, i s one of the
prime attr acti ons of t hi s regi on. Of al l t he conspi cuous
animal s, t he bi rds are most attracti ve and most n umerous
-over 500 ki nds have been seen, i ncl udi ng several rare
s peci es l i ke the Evergl ade Ki te ( above), found onl y near
lake Okeec hobee i n Fl ori da. About 1 000 ki nds of fshes
l i ve in fresh and sal t water.
PLANT LI FE i n the Southeast is as ri ch as animal l ife, i f
not ri cher. I n additi on to a weal th of nati ve pl ants
fowers, s hr ubs and trees-there are hundreds of exoti c
pl ants grown i n gardens and as ornamental s. One sees
trees and shr ubs from Afri ca, Asi a, Austra l i a and South
Ameri ca growi ng al ong the streets. Subtropi cal Fl ori da
has fl owers al l year round, and scores of uni que pl ants.
PEOPLE make thi s area a new ki nd of mel t i ng pot. The
ri si ng popul ati on i s so swel l ed from al l parts of the North
that here, farthest south, much of the regi on i s not typi cal l y
Souther n. Yet, t here i s sti l l a l arge Negro popul ati on try
i ng to fnd its proper pl ace in the new South. Al so, rural
areas are sti l l domi nated by l ocal fol k of ol d stock, who
l i ve c l ose to t he soi l . Some are "crackers"-whose ances
tors were known for thei r uncanny ski l l at cracki ng the bul l
whi p. On t he Keys, t he ol d-timers are "Conchs. " Ol der
sti l l are the Semi nol e, who i ncl ude remnants of other
I ndi an tri bes.
ordo bu whQ
TRAVEL I N THE SOUTHEAST is easy-by ai r, trai n, bus
or i n the fami l y car. Drive over modern, paved roads-nary
a mountai n! Gravel ed and al l -weat her u npaved roads are
safe, but make i nqui ri es before goi ng back-country on di rt.
Check your car, of course, before a l ong tri p. Make your
pl ans wel l i n advance. Get pamph l ets from Chambers of
Commerce and from state and federal i nformati on agen
ci es ( p. 1 23) . I f you want to camp, t here are fne camp
si tes i n State Par ks, Nati onal Parks and Forests. You wi l l
fi nd ampl e motel s an d trai l er courts . I n resort areas, rates
ar
e
hi gher from December to Apri l , but el sewhere costs
for food and l odgi ng are di sti nctl y l ess.
You are comi ng to a warm regi on. Li ght, i nformal cl oth
i ng i s desi rabl e. Bri ng equi pment for swi mmi ng, fs hi ng
and photography. Watc h out f or s unbur n. When hi ki ng,
wear stout s hoes and be careful on trai l s . As a vi si tor and
guest, respect peopl e and property. Li tteri ng th
e hi ghway
i s not onl y bad manners, but it may al so bri ng a sti f fne.
Enj oy the parks and wi l d areas, and keep t hem cl ean.
Leave wi l d ani mal s al one and remember that wi l dfowers
are never as beauti f ul as i n t hei r nat ural surroundi ngs.
P wok n Nyokko Kver btote ork, ordo.
1 2
TOURI NG THE SOUTHEAST has i nfn i te poss i bi l i ti es.
Here are t hree sampl es for shorter vacat i ons. The di rec
ti ons can be reversed and the tours extended-a ful l mont h
i s needed to expl ore t hi s regi on adequatel y. Pages 1 5 to
2 1 and 1 23 to 1 56 gi ve detai l s on what to see.
One-week tour i s jampacked-250 mi l es dai l y, pl us
many t hi ngs to see. Add a day or two if you can .
Fi rst Day: Char l eston, S. C. ( histori c si tes, gar dens) vi a Savannah and
J acksonvi l l e t o St . Augusti ne. Al l ow l ate after noon an d eveni ng far
Casti l l o de San Marcos Nat. Monument an d St. Augusti ne.
Second Day: Fol l ow Rt e A 1 A, the shore r oad to Mar i nel and an d
Daytona Beach; then vi a US 92 t o Del and, Orl ando an d Lake Wal es.
Thi rd Day: On to Sebr i ng ( Hi ghl and Hammock) . Then east on Rte 70
to Br i ghton an d south th rough the Semi nol e I ndi an Reservati on. On to
Lake Okeechobee ( US 27), Cl ewi ston-th r ough Ever gl ades to Mi ami .
fourth Day: Around Mi ami . Try the Fai r chi l d Gar den, Matheson
Hammock, Uni versi ty of Mi ami campus, Par rot J u ngl e, Seaqu ari u m.
Then h ead west on t h e Tami ami Trai l ( US 41 ) t o Fort Myers.
Fi fth Day: F rom Fort Myers conti n u e nort h th rou gh Sarasota and
Br adent on, over t he maj esti c Su nshi ne Skyway bri dge t o St. Peters
bur g. Now, al ong t he s hor e (US 1 9-Ait . ) to Tar pon Spr i ngs; hence vi a
Brooksvi l l e ( Rtes 4 1 , 200) to Ocal a ( Si l ver Spri ngs, etc. ) .
Si xth Day: North t o Gai nesvi l l e ( Uni versi ty of Fl a. ond Fl a. State
Museum) ; then on to Per ry (US 27) and Tal l ahassee ( capi t al and
State Un iversity Museums) . Conti nue west i nt o t he F l or i da panhandl e
t o spend t he ni ght at Panama Ci ty.
Seventh Day: Hu rry on t hr ough Pensacol a ( US 98), Mobi l e ( histori c
si tes, Azal ea gar dens) , Bi l oxi , and i nto New Or l eans. Seven days
about 1 750 mi l es-and many pl easant memori es.
One-week tour in southern Florida, easi er (700
to 800 mi l es) and l ess hurri ed, gi ves you the feel of the
regi on. Best from December to J une.
Fi rst Day: Mi ami a nd vi ci n ity. Choose two or more: Fai r chi l d Gar den,
Matheson Hammock, Seaq uar i um, Uni versi ty of Mi ami ca mpus, Par rot
J u ngl e, Serpentar i u m, Mon key J u ngl e.
Second Day: Spend t he day ( or most of i t) at Ever gl ades Nat i onal
Pa rk; on t he Anhi nga and Gu mbo L i mbo t r ai l s. Dr i ve down t o Fl a
mi ngo. End t he day t her e, or dri ve on to Homestead or t he Upper Keys.
Thi rd Day: Down the Keys t hrough Taver ni er an d Mar at hon, over
t he 7-mi l e br i dge, to Bi g Pi ne Key ( Key Deer) and on to Key West.
fourth Day: Back up t hr ough the Keys to Homestead. Take Rte 27
to t he Tami ami Trai l and head west to Evergl ades or Marco I s l and.
Fi fth Day: On t hr ough Napl es ( Car i bbean Gar dens) to fort Myers
( Edi s on' s wi nt er home) , wi th a si de tri p to San i bel I s l and, if you l i ke.
Si xth Day: Turn east ( Rte 80) t hrough La Bel l e; then on north t hr ough
Semi nol e I ndi an Reservati on ( Rte S72 1 ) . At Bri ghton, Rt e 70 wi l l take
you di rectl y to ft. Pi erce on t he east coast.
Seventh Day: Head south agai n t hrough St uart (Men n i nger Nursery) ;
go to Pal m Beach, fort Lauder dal e, and on to Mi ami .
Two-week tour gi ves a more rel axed l ook at t he
Southeast wi th about 1 800 mi l es of dri vi ng.
One day: Char l eston, S. C. , v i a Savan nah, t a Waycross, Ga. and the
famed Okefenokee Swamp.
One day: J acksonvi l l e, St. Augusti ne, Wi nter Park and Orl ando.
Two days: Wi nter Haven, l ake Wal es, Bri ght on I nd. Reservati on,
Cl ewi ston and Mi ami .
Two days: Miami : museu ms, par ks and commerci al attracti ons.
Two days: To Ever gl ades Nat. Park, the Fl or i da Keys an d Key West.
One day: Back via Homestead; Tami ami Trai l to fort Myers.
Two days: To Sa rasota, St. Petersbu rg, Tarpon Spri ngs, an d Ocal a.
One day: To Gai nesvi l l e, Perry and (vi a US 98) t o Tal l ahassee.
One day: On to Panama Ci ty vi a Apal achi col a, an d Pensacol a; fni sh
the day at Mobi l e.
One day: Vi a Bi l oxi , to New Orl eans and the Bayou country.
_ one week tour
- two week tour
inset shows one week
tour of southern Florida
GEO RGIA
14
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
(Verify these dates local l y)
January-Jan . 1, New Year's footbal l cl assi cs-Or ange Bowl , Mi ami ,
and Sugar Bowl , New Orl eans; New Year's Regatta, Ft. Myers; Jan. 6,
Greek Epi phany Ceremony, Tarpon Spr i ngs; l at e J anuary, F l ori da
Orange Festi val , Wi nter Haven; l ate January or earl y Febr uary, F l or i da
State Fai r and Gaspari l l a Pi r ate Festi val , Tampa.
February-through March, Azal ea Trai l Festival , Mobi l e; February
Camel l ia Show, Savannah; week precedi ng Shrove Tues. , Mar di Gras
at Mobi l e, Bi l oxi , New Or l eans; Feb. 1 0, Festival of li ght, Ft. Myers;
mi d February, Cent ral Fl a. Exposi ti on, Or l ando; Feb. 24, Cu ban I nde
pendence Day, Key West, Tampa. No fxed date, Azal ea Festival ,
Pal atka, Fl a. ; t he Pagean t of Sara de Sot o and Cou nt ry Fai r at Sara
sota; I nternati onal Orchi d Show, Miami .
March-Mar . 1 to 5, Strawberry Festival , Pl ant Ci ty, Fl a. ; Mar. 2 to
9, L. S.U. Li vestock Show and Rodeo, Baton Rouge; watch l ocally thi s
month al so for Pensacol a's Camel l i a Show, Mobi l e and t he Gul f Coast's
Azal ea Trai l an d Spr i ng Festi val ; t he Natchez Pi l gr i mage to ol d estates;
and ei t her i n March or Apr i l for t he Audubon Pi l gr i mage i n E. Fel i ci ano
Pari sh, La.
April -Ear l y Apr i l , Mi ami Fl ower Show, Dinner Key; frst t wo weeks,
Spri ng Fi esta Events, New Orl eans; near end of month, Spr i ng Festi val ,
Orange Bowl , Mi ami .
May-At Sarasota, wat ch for t he th ree-day Fl a. St at e Uni v. ci rcus;
at La Fi tte P. O. , on the Del ta i n Loui si ana, for t he Pi rogue Race.
June-Earl y J une, Pan-Ameri can Regatta, New Orl eans; start of
Tarpon Roundups at Tampa, St
. Peters burg and most sport-fshi ng
centers, conti nui ng thr ough August .
July-No fxed date, at Mobi l e, Dauphi n I s l and, Al abama Deep Sea
Fi s hi ng Rodeo.
August-Watch for festival s of Bl essi ng the Shr i mp Fl eet at bayous,
Houma, La. to Bi l oxi , Mi ss.
September-Sept. 1 to 3, Shr i mp Festi val an d Bl essi n g of t he Fl eet at
Morgan Ci ty, La. ; Sept. 28 to 30, Cotton Festi val , Vi l l e Pl atte, La.
October-Mont h of Fai rs: Greater Gu l f State Fai r, Mobi l e; N. Fl a.
Fai r, Tal lahassee; Ri ce Car ni val , Crowl ey, La. ; Sugar Festi val , New
I beri a, La. ; Gai nesvi l l e, Fl a. Homecomi ng Festi vi ti es.
November-Peanut Festival , Dothan, Al a.
December-Dec. 1 5 to Feb. 1 5, F reshwater Bass Tour nament, Cl ear
water, Fl a. ; Dec. 3 1 , Ki ng Orange Jamboree Parade, Mi ami .
Nom-be8l-known boulheo8l cly.
THE MODE RN S OUTHEAST
The Southeast impresses the vi si tor both wi th its ri ch past
and its tremendous present. I ndustry and commerce have
expanded; ci ti es s how phenomenal growt h. Here are the
l arger ci ti es. Some are centers of hi stori c or sceni c i nterest.
For detai l ed i nformati on on what to see and do, see
pages 1 23-1 56.
ATLANTI C COAST CITI ES
Charl eston, S.C. ( pop. 70,200)
i s a l arge, protected port, ri ch i n
histori c si tes ( p. 1 52) . An i mpor
tant s hi ppi ng center for cotton,
tobacco and l umber . I ndustry i n
cl udes cl ay pr oducts, l umber and
pul p, texti l es and fshi ng.
Savannah, Ga. { pop. 1 1 9,600)
on the Savannah Ri ver, shi ps l um
ber, cotton, paper, an d tobacco.
Fou n ded by J ames Ogl ethorpe i n
1 733; captured b y the Bri ti sh dur
i ng t he Revol uti onary War; Sher
man's march to the sea ended
here i n 1 864. Vi si t Forsyth Par k.
North on US 1 7 i s Savannah Nat.
Wi l dl ife Refuge; south is U. S.
Exp. Farm ( bamboo far m) .
Jacksonvi l l e, Fl a., settl ed i n
1 8 1 6; named for Andrew J ackson
i n 1 822. I n dustri al and commer
ci al center; Fl ori da's second ci ty
{ pop. 204,500) and l argest port,
on St. J ohns ri ver, wi th paper,
l u mber, ferti l i zer and gl ass i n.
dustri es. See mu n i ci pal zoo and
beaches. U. S. "mothbal l feet" i s
anchored at Green Cove Spri ngs.
St. Augusti ne, Fl a. (pop. 1 3,-
600)-see p. 1 28.
Daytona Beach, Fl a. { pop. 30,-
200) has a broad, sandy beach
over 500 ft. wi de and 20 mi l es
l ong. Worl d speed recor ds have
been broken here. Dri vi ng on the
beach i s per mted.
15
THE GOLD COAST
West Palm Beach, Fl a. ( pop.
51 ,000), and adj oi ni ng Pal m
Beach are on Lake Worth, a l arge,
protected waterway provi di ng ex
cel l ent boati ng. These renowned
t ouri st centers are pl anted wi th
royal pal ms and many ot her or
namental s. To t he north at St uart
is t he Menni nger col l ecti on of
tropi cal and foweri ng trees (vi si t
on weeken ds) . To t he west,
arou nd Bel l e Gl ade, are mi l es of
wi nter vegetabl es; al so the Ever
gl ades Experi ment al Stati on. Lake
Okeechobee i s t he protected nest
ing grounds for many bi rds. Far
ther west and north i s t he Bri ght
on Semi nol e I ndi an Reservati on.
Fort Lauderdal e, Fl a. ( pop.
62,900) was fou nded du ri ng t he
Semi nol e wars by Major Wi l l i am
lau derdal e. Nearby, at Dani a, i s
a Semi nol e I ndi an reservati on .
A c an al goes t o L ak e Okeecho
bee, past huge pl ant i ngs of s ugar
cane and wi nt er vegetabl es. Fort
Lauder dal e i s a center for Gul f
Stream fsh i ng. Anderson Memo
ri al Gardens has fne h i bi scus .
Mi ami ( pop. 260, 000) mer ges
i nto Mi ami Beach and two dozen
more nei ghbor i ng commu ni ti es. A
cent ury ago onl y a few houses
stood here on Mi ami Ri ver. Devel
opment was sl ow unt i l t he r ai l
r oad came i n 1 896. St eady growth
spi r al ed i nto a boom ( 1 92 1 - 1 925)
and bust ( 1 926) . Si nce the depres
si on, Mi ami has bl ossomed i nto
the l argest and fastest-growi ng
metropol i tan area i n t he Sout h.
Mi ami and Mi ami Beach are
famed as vacati on centers. Mi ami
al so has expandi ng manufactur
i ng and l i ght i nd ustry. I t i s a
maj or port for Lat i n-Ameri can ai r
t ravel , an d a center for commer
ci al and sport fs hi ng. To t he south
and west i s t he Redl ands f r ui t
and far mi ng area. Vi si t t he Sub
tropi cal Experi ment Stati on near
Homestead. Mi ami has many free
( p. 1 39) and commerci al attrac
ti ons ( p. 1 55) . I t i s t he gateway
to t he Everg l ades Nat. Park ( pp.
1 24- 1 25) , t he Bahamas and Cu ba
( pp. 20-2 1 ) and the Fl or i da Keys
( pp. 1 40- 1 41 ) .
oo ond @ordensN om beoch hote .
I NLAND CITI ES
Al bany, Ga. ( pop. 3 1 ,200) i s the
l argest pecan mar ket, wi th nearl y
a mi l l i on trees growi ng nearby.
Radi u m Spr i ngs ( US 1 9, south) i s
the l argest spr i ng i n Georgi a.
Waycross, Ga. ( pop. 1 8,900) a
tobacco aucti on town and shi ppi ng
center for far m and l i vestock, i s
i n the cent er of a r i ch l umber re
gi on. Okefenokee Swamp, to the
south, is a 700-sq.- mi l e wi l dl i fe
refuge. Exhi bi ts at Okefenokee
Swamp Park on Rte 1 77.
Tal l ahassee, F l a., capital of the
state, has a popul at i on of 38, 1 00.
I t i s an agri cul tu r al t radi ng cen
t er . For t hi ngs t o see and do
see p. 1 36.
Gai nesvi l l e, Fl a., i s the seat of
the Uni versity of Fl ori da and of
the Fl or i da State Museum. I t i s
al so a center of tung oi l produc
ti on. These trees, from Chi na ( p.
58) , yi el d oi l for pai nts and var
ni shes. Pop. 26,900.
Ocal a, Fl a. ( pop. 1 1 ,700) l i es i n
t h e Fl ori da l akes regi on. I t i s a
resort center, 6 mi l es from Si l ver
Spri ngs (p. 1 56) and near other
commerci al attracti ons. Ocal a
Nat. Forest to the east i nc l udes a
wi l d l i fe a rea wi th the state's l arg
est deer herd; al so the J upi ter
Spr i ng Rec. Area wi th campi ng,
boati ng and swi mmi ng. The spri ng
fows 6 mi l l i on gal l ons dai l y.
Orl ando; Fl a. , i s the l a rgest ci ty
of the Fl ori da l akes regi on ( pop.
52,400) and i s far enough south
to have ri ch growths of pal ms and
semi tropi cal pl ants. As a resort
ci ty it boasts a fne mu n i ci pal
par k and recreati on center, swi m
mi ng, fshi ng and other sports.
Dri ve t hr ough the cou ntrysi de.
Vi si t Lake Eol a Park. Wi nter Park,
home of Rol l i ns Col l ege an d Seal
Shel l Museum, i s to the north.
Winter Haven, Fl a., is another
resort center, forty mi l es i n l and
from Tampa and wi t hi n easy reach
of scores of l akes. I t i s in the
heart of the ci trus area ( pp. 54
and 55). The Fl or i da Ci trus Expo
si ti on i s hel d i n J an uary. Cypress
Gar dens an d Bok Tower ( car i l l ons
and bi rd sanctu ary) are nearby.
Pop. 8,600.
1 7
18
GUL F COAST CI TI ES
Beaumont, Tex., and Por t Ar
thur mark t he western l imi ts of
thi s gui de. Beaumont i s on the
Neches Ri ver; Port Arthu r on the
protected mouth of the Sabi ne.
Lake Charl es, La., is a port
connected by can al wi t h the Gul f.
Shi ps ri ce, l umber and petrol eum
products. Pop. 41 ,000.
Baton Rouge, La. ( pop. 1 25,-
000), at the head of deep-water
navi gati on i n t he Mi ssi ssi ppi , i s a
s hi ppi ng center for cotton, s ugar
and petroleum. Al so has l arge re
fneries. For what to see and do
i n t hi s state capi tal , see p. 1 42.
New Orl eans, La. i s the l argest
ci ty in the sout h ( pop. 570,000)
and the most i mportant port. Sal t,
s ul f ur, oi l , cotton, s ugar and l um
ber are marketed and shi pped to
many lati n-American ports an d to
the Nort h. I t i s a man ufact ur i ng
center al so. Pages 1 42- 1 44 tel l
what t o see a nd do i n and arou nd
t hi s hi stori cal ci ty.
Bi l oxi , Mi ss. , (Pop. 37,000) a
l arge s hr i mp and fs hi ng cent er,
is better known as a resort town
an d the ol dest settl ement i n the
state ( p. 1 46) . Gul fport to the
west and Pascagoul a to the east
are fshi n g an d s hi ppi ng ports.
Mobi l e, Al a. , ( pop. 1 29,000) i s
the state' s on ly maj or port. lo
cated on Mobi l e Bay, i t is a shi p
pi ng center for cotton and l um
ber . Paper, met al an d petrol eum
are processed. For scen i c and hi s
tori c si ghts, see p. 148.
Pensacol a, Fla., i s 860 mi l es
from Key West by road-a bi t
farther than New Yor k i s from
Chicago. Thi s resort, fshi ng and
s hi ppi n g center i s on a protected
harbor behi nd Santa Rosa I s l and.
Founded by the Spani sh, Pensa
col a became the capi tal of Fl or i da
when t he Br i t i sh took over i n
1 763. I t changed hands 1 7 ti mes
before it became a permanent
part of the U. S. See the forts on
Santa Rosa I sl and and the f ne
beaches near them. Vi si t the fsh
i ng wharves (famous for red snap
per) and the pl aza. Pop. 43,500.
Panama Ci ty, Fla., ( pop. 25,-
900) i s a sport and commerci al
fshi ng town. Lumber, paper and
chemical s are produced. Settl ed
by the Engl i sh about 1 765.
Tampa and St. Petersburg,
F l a. , are t wi n ci ti es on O' d Tam
pa Bay whi ch have spread to the
Gul f and i nl and. Both are resort
ci ties wi th much to see and do (p.
1 37) but they are al so maj or i n
dustr i al and commerci al ci ti es.
Tampa i s a ci gar center. Phos
phates, ci t rus frui ts and cement
are exported. St. Peters burg has
a popul at i on of 96, 800; Tampa,
2 1 6,800.
Sarasota, Fla., sout h of St. Pe
tersbu rg, i s a resort center famed
as the wi nter headquarters of the
ci rcus. A long stri ng of beaches
runs north and sout h. Fi shi ng from
pi ers and boats i s popul ar .
Among t he commerci al att racti ons
( p. 1 56) ar e: t he Ri ngl i ng muse
ums, Cars of Yesterday, Sunshi ne
Spri ngs and others. Bradent on, t o
t he north, has DeSoto Nat . Me
mor i al (p. 1 26) and the S. Fl or i da
Museum ( adm. fee); Myakka Ri v
er State Par k i s east on Rte. 72.
Fort Myers, Fla. , ( pop. 1 3, 1 95) ,
wi del y pl anted wi th pal ms, i s a
west-coast resort town n oted for
i ts cl imate, fs hi ng and shel l i ng.
I t i s al so a packi n g cente r for
ci trus f r ui ts, vegetabl es an d wi n
t er fowe rs. Thomas Edi son's wi n
ter home and l aboratory a re open
to the publ ic (p. 1 55) . By ferry
vi si t Sani bel I sl and-famed for i ts
shel l beach. Swi m at Fort Myers
Beach where there a re fne publ i c
recreat i ona l faci l i ti es.
Key West, Fla., l ies due south
of Fort Myers and on l y 90 mi l es
from Havana, Cuba. Thi s i mpor
tant naval base has served as a
wi nter Whi te House. Pages 1 40
and 1 4 1 l i st t hi ngs to see an d do.
ondslondNunc Qo ork, bl . elersbur@, or do.
20
NEARBY ISLANDS-the
Bahamas and Cuba-fal l
wi thi n t h e Southeast orbi t.
Both are easi l y reached
by air or boat for qui ck
vi sits or l onger tours.
THE BAHAMAS extend
to wi thi n 50 mi l es of
Mi ami . Over 700 i s l ands
or cays and some 2000
reefs and rocks cover an
area of over 4000 sq. mi .
About 50 i s l ands, of whi ch
Andros i s t he l argest, are
i nhabi ted. Nassau, on
New Providence I s l and, i s
ohomo morkel.
the capital and resort
center ( pop. 46,200) . Col umbus l anded in t he Bahamas
(Wattl ing I s. ) i n 1 492. Many l oyalists fl ed here after t he
Ameri can Revol uti on. These Briti sh is l ands are noted for
boat bui l di ng, fshi ng, and for winter vegetabl es. As a
vacati on- l and, they ofer a c l imate si mi l ar to southern
Fl orida, pl us excel l ent swi mmi ng, fi shi ng and di vi ng at
tropical beaches or al ong the reefs. Hi storic si tes and a
forei gn favor make Nassau and the rest of t he Bahamas
a del ight. Many pl ants and bi rds seen i n sout hern Fl ori da
are found here, i n additi on to other Car i bbean species.
Bimi ni and Cat Cay-cl osest to F l orida-are noted for
their fs hi ng. Andros, l argest of the isl ands, has rich bird
l ife, especial l y ar ound the fresh water ponds. El eut hera
was sett l ed by col on i sts who came i n JAB in search of
rel igious freedom. I t is the best known of the outer is l ands.
To t he sout h are Cat I sl and, Long I s l and and the Exumas.
Al l can be reached by air.
CUBA, near l y 800 mi l es l ong, is the l argest of t he West
I ndi es. I ts tropi cal c l imate i s pl easant l y moderated by
trade wi nds. Rai ns are mai nl y i n the summer and fal l .
Havana, the capi tal , i s onl y 90 mi l es from Key West an d
i s eas i l y access i bl e by pl ane or boat from Mi ami . A "car
ferry" operates from Key West. I n Havana see the Capi tol ,
Presi denti a l Palace, t he Un i versity and ot her government
bui l di ngs; Morro Cast l e, t he Col umbus Cat hedra l and
other churches and forts. Hi stori c rel i cs are preserved i n
the Nati onal Museum. Wal k t he broad streets, t he boul e
vard al ong the sea wal l , the ol d Spani sh secti on wi th its
narrow streets. See the new ci vi c and resi denti al areas.
Beyond Havana i s a ri ch countrysi de of farms, sugar
and tobacco pl antati ons, smal l vi l l ages and ol d citi es.
The 2500 mi l e coast l i ne supports fne commerci al and
sports fshi ng. Cuba has i ron, copper, chr ome an d man
ganese deposi ts; al so fi ne marbl e. There are tropi cal for
ests of pi nes and hardwoods, and i nterest i ng wi l dl i fe. I n
the mountai n areas, whi ch are rel ati vel y i naccessi bl e,
peaks ri se over 6000 feet. About 2000 mi l es of roads are
paved. Use extra care i n dri vi ng and reserve accommo
dati ons i n advance. Cuba i s now out o. f bounds for United
States ci ti zens.
Lubo-voey neor melongo5. FNB
THE I NDUSTRI AL SOUTH is l eapi ng ahead, especi al l y
the southeast area. Unfortunatel y, the story of i ndustry is
di fcul t to tel l , for o
u
r southeast regi on i ncl udes on l y one
state i n f ul l , and on l y parts of t he remai ni ng si x. Hence
the compi l ati on of stati sti cs i s al most i mpossi bl e. The i n
dustri al story of Flori da hol ds general l y true for nearby
parts of the coastal pl ai n, though it may not appl y to nei gh
bori ng states i n t hei r enti rety. Here i s the story of Fl or
i da's economic growth and detai l s on southeast i ndutsry.
FLORIDA'S i n dustri al growth has paced
her ri si ng popu l ati on, i ncreasi ng 72 per
cent f rom 1 950 to 1 959. I n 1 958, resi
dents had a total personal i ncome of
more t han $8 bi l l i on. I n 1 959, more
than 1 1 mi l l i on touri sts spent more t han
$1 V2 bi l l i on t here and total ag ricul t ur al
prod ucti on amounted to $800 mi l l i on .
Val ue added by man ufact u re i n 1 958
was $1 V2 bi l l i on, whi l e mi ner al produc
ti on was nearl y $ 1 40 mi l l i on. Export
commerce, sal es, services, el ectri c power,
commerci al fshi ng, l umberi ng and naval
stores, and mi l i tary i nstal l at i ons com
pl ete an impressi ve pict ure.
bhQQngJock5onv e, ordo. FNB
MAJOR SOUTHEAST
I NDUSTRI ES
TOURISM i s the regi on' s maj or i ndustry.
Attracted by the cl i mate, scenery, sports and
wi ldl ife, about t en mi l l i on vi si tors fnd their
way here every year .
AGRI CULTURE, lon g the backbone of thi s
regi on, now has a new l ook i n t he form of
huge corporate far ms, gi ant ci tr us cooper
ati ves and modern machi nes an d methods.
Cit rus leads i n Fl ori da, wi th over 200 mi l
l i on bushels h arvested yearly. To the north,
cotton i s sti l l ki ng, though soy beans, pea
nuts, tobacco and corn hel p di versi fy farm
i ng. Coastal Loui si a na i s our mai n ri ce area.
Pecans and tu ng trees provi de n uts for food
a nd chemi cal use. Fi nal ly, the g rowi ng of
wi nter vegetables and fowers for northern
markets i s steadi l y i ncreasi ng.
LIVESTOCK is growi n g in i mportance too,
and Fl ori da now r anks 1 3th in cattle pro
ducti on. Brahman cat t l e and other purebred
stock have i mproved southern herds. New
pasture grasses and better feeds mean in
creased meat. The mi ld cli mate favors poul
try ( Georgi a fryers are famous) and egg
producti on.
LUMBER i s bei ng cut i ncreasi ngly,
b
ut pl ant
i ng an d seedi ng a re conservi ng southern
forests. Some cypress and much pi ne are cut
for l umber. More pi ne goes i nto t i es an d
poles, pulp for paper, cardboard and for
chemical use.
MINERALS mi ned i n thi s regi on i ncl ude oi l ,
s al t and s ulf ur along t he western Gul f and
cl ay i n Fl ori da an d Georgi a. F lori da has
ri ch deposi ts of phosphate rock, used for
ferti l i zer and in chemi cal products.
COMMERCIAL FISHING is wel l establ i shed
al l along the lon g coastl i ne-for mullet,
menhaden an d s napper. Shri mpi ng i s con
centrated i n thi s area, too, and sport fs hi ng
i s a maj or i nd ustry i n itself.
24
S HADOWS OF EARLY DAYS
Europeans may have seen thi s regi on as ear l y as 1500
but expl orati on di d not begi n unti l Juan Ponce de Leon
l anded i n Apr i l , 1 51 3, and named t hi s l and Fl orida. I n
the century that fol l owed, Spai n, France and Engl and
founded sett l ements al ong t he coast and pushed i n l and
(detai l s on pp. 26-27) . They fought wi th t he I ndi ans and
wi th each other t o establ i sh a frm hol d on t ne New Worl d.
Mi ssi ons were erected, forts were bui l t, and tradi ng posts
grew i nto settl ements and ci ti es. By the ti me the Ameri can
col oni sts had won thei r i ndependence, Georgi a and South
Carol i na were ready to become part of the t hi rteen ori gi
nal states. I t took the Loui si ana Purchase, a war wi th
Engl and and a near-war wi th Spai n to br i ng the rest of
thi s area wi thi n the United States orbi t.
The map shows the pr i nci pal earl y settl ements and forts,
the routes of expl orers, t he I ndian tri bes at t he ti me of
thei r frst contact wi th Europeans and other hi stor i cal data.
Fl ori da, i n a 1 71 4 Dutch at l as, was s hown to extend west
to the Rocki es and north to Cape Hatteras . The present
boundari es were set before Fl ori da became a state.
J
I
I
,
I
..... Indian Trails
cole ol m
r T i 3l Y
c
r
H0

25
26
Spani sh
1513-1763
1783-1821
French
1562; 1564-65
1699-1763
FL AGS OVE R T HE SO UT HE AST
HI STORI CAL TI MET ABLE
Great Britai n
1763-1783
1 51 3 Ponce de Le6n l ands in Fl ori da and names i t
1 52 1 -28 Several attempts at col oni zati on unsuccessful
1 539-41 De Soto expl ores most of Southeast
1 562 Jean Ribaut expl ores coast; Ft. Car ol i ne bui l t
. 1 565 Span i s h take Ft. Carol i ne and massac re French;
St. Augusti ne founded by Menendez
1 568 Franci s Drake burns and l oots St. Augusti ne
1 573-1 679 Franci scans bui l d chai n of Cathol i c mi ssi ons
1 670 Char l eston, S. C. , settl ed under Engl i sh grant
1 672 Casti l l o de San Marcos buil t at St. Augusti ne
1 682 La Sal l e sai l s down the Mi ssi ssi ppi to i ts mouth
1 699 French settl e at Mobi l e and Bi l oxi
1 71 8 New Or l eans begun by French under de Bi envi l l e
1 733 Ogl et horpe and Bri ti sh Col onists l and at Savannah
1 762 France cedes Loui si ana to Spai n
1 763 Spai n gi ves Fl orida to Bri ti sh for Havana
1 776-78 Revol uti onary War i n South-Savannah taken
1 783 Bri tai n trades Fl ori da to Spai n for Bahamas
1 785-1 82 1 Border di sputes between Spai n and U. S.
1 788 Georgi a and Sout h Carol ina ratify consti tuti on
1 800 Spai n cedes Loui si ana back to France
1 803 Loui si ana Pur chase: U. S. gets Mi ssi ssi ppi basi n
Confederate
1861-1865
18 1 2 loui si ana admi tted to the Uni on
1 8 1 7 Mi ssi ssi ppi becomes the 20th state
1 8 1 9 Al abama admitted to t he Uni on
u.s.
1865-1959
1 82 1 U. S. gets East and West Fl ori da from Spai n
1 835-42 Second Semi nol e War i n F l ori da
1 845 Fl ori da admi tted to the Uni on-the 27t h state
1 860-65 Secessi on. Ci vi l War carri ed i nto South
1 867-77 Era of mi l i tary r ul e and "carpetbaggi ng"
1 868 Ku Kl ux Kl an founded i n South Car ol i na
1 886 Fl agl er rai l road and devel opment program begi ns
at St. Augusti ne
1 888 Phosphate r ock deposits di scovered i n Fl ori da
1 898 Southern ports grow, because of Span. Amer. War
1 91 4 Fi rst commerci al ai r l i ne, Tampa to St. Petersburg
1 925-26 Boom and Bust i n Fl ori da real estate
1 927 large-scal e sugar pl anti ng begun; great Fl ori da
hurri canes, 1 926-28
1 940 Southern paper and pul p i ndustry gets under way
1 941 -45 Wor l d War I I bri ngs new i ndustry and many
mi l i tary establ i shments t o t he South
1 950 Ci trus i ndustry boosted by frozen concentrates.
Savannah Ri ver Atomi c Project begun
1 955 Supreme Court desegregati on ruli ngs announced
1 957 Worst wi nter hits Fl ori da.
F l ori da turnpi ke i n operati on
27
28
lolem Qo e
Q Qe
she scooQ
r eh slor c loo s ond ob[ecls
I NDI ANS were living in the Southeast for perhaps 1,
years before the Europeans came. Of the frst Indians very
little is known. They undoubtedly hunted and killed large
bison, camels, mastodons, and other now extinct animals.
later Indians left tremendous piles of fresh- and salt-water
shells (middens). These and early village sites yield scant
remains of bone, shell and stone tools. Still later the Indians
buried their dead in specially built mounds and, after
agriculture became well established, built large platorm
mounds for religious ceremonies. Some ceremonial mounds
had the shape of animals. Others had buildings on top. A
number of mounds have been excavated scientifcally,
yielding pottery, tools, and burials-usually simple and
with the bodies in a fexed position.
Early explorers found several diferent Indian groups
in South Florida (see map, pp. 24-25). These people
hunted, fshed and gathered shellfsh. The largest group,
the Calusa, were a warlike tribe of 3000 or more (in 1 650) .
They were excellent boatmen, who made trips as far as
Excavati on by Florida State Museum.
Cuba. By t he 1 800s onl y a few hundred were l eft i n
Fl ori da. Some joi ned the Semi nol es and went to Okl ahoma
wi th them. Others probabl y went to Cuba. One smal l
group, the Tekesta, were the ori gi nal i nhabitants of Mi ami .
I n northern F l ori da, the agri cul tural tri bes were better
of. They had l arger vi l l ages, greater weal th, and Spanish
ai d. The Ti mucua and the Apal achee were the most pow
erful groups . The former total ed about 1 3,000 i n 1 650.
But in l ess than a century, di sease and warfare wi ped out
nearl y al l t he North F l ori da I ndi ans. A few survi vors may
have joi ned the Semi nol es about 1 40. Others drifted
southward and migrated to Cuba in 1 763.
Farther west a l ong the Gul f, the Choctaw were the
l argest and most i mportant tri be. The Choctaw were al
ways at peace wi th the United States and devel oped thei r
own model government. These agri cul tural I ndi ans num
bered about 20,000 a century ago. Many moved west
al ong the Gul f. Others went to Okl ahoma. There are sti l l
several hundred Choctaw i n Loui si ana and Mi ssi ssi ppi .
29
30
THE SEMI NOLES, best
known Sout heast I ndians,
are actu al l y newcomers to
F l ori da. Or i gi nal l y i nhabi
tants of Georgia, t hey were
part of the Creek Confeder
acy. Attracted by the good
agricul t ural l and i n North
F l ori da, these I ndians be
gan to turn southward i n
the 1 700s, after t he agricu l -
t ural I ndi ans of nort hern
F l ori da had been decimat
ed by disease an d war and
by t he destruction of the
Spanish m1ss1ons where
^1 many l i ved and worked.
Lsceo ofrom on od prnt.
About 1 750, one Creek
group, the Oconee, mi grated south and sett l ed i n northern
F l or i da. Later, t he Muskogee and other Creeks joi ned
t hem, and toget her t hese peopl e became the Semi nol es.
They grew corn, hunted, raised cat
t
l e, pi gs and chi ckens,
got al ong wel l with the Spanish and the English.
For ffty years t he Semi nol es prospered and grew pow
erful . But after the Uni ted States took over Fl or i da in 1 82 1 ,
troubl e began. The Seminol es harbore
d
r unaway sl aves,
and the sett l ers i nvaded I ndi an l ands. By 1 835 t here was
open warfare, and dur i ng the next seven years the Semi
nol es were pushed sout h into the wi l d Evergl ades. Thei r
vi l l ages were burned and their l eader, Osceol a, was taken
by treachery. The Semi nol es responded wi th gueri l l a war
fare and ambus h. Eventual l y most were captured or sur
rendered. These were sent west to I ndi an Terri tory ( Okl a
homa), where they have si nce done wel l .
do 8
womon
mon
eg
rull e
On l y a few hundred Semi nol es remai ned deep i n the
Evergl ades. These scattered bands never surrendered.
Now, about 900 of t hem l ive on or near thei r reservations
( p. 1 29) . Men are farmers, catt l emen, l umber men and
constructi on workers. Women sew col orfu l gar ments and
make arti c l es f or touri sts. Ol der Semi nol es cl i ng t o t hei r
ol d ways. Younger men try to ft i nto newer ways of l ife,
though t hi s i s not easy. Each year, toward the end of J une,
Semi nol e fami l i es gat her for their most i mportant cer
emony-the Green Corn Dance. This i s al so the occasion
when tri bal matters are discussed, probl ems are i roned
out, ofcers are el ected and j ustice i s admi nistered i n the
ol d tribal way-a f unction t hat is recognized oy Fl orida
l aw-enforcement ofci al s.
mode conoe
bo8tck
31
32
Loslo de bon Norcos bl. uguslne, ordo.
FNB
THE SPANI SH, FRENCH AND ENGLI SH expl ored and
settl ed Fl ori da-an area much l arger t han t he present
state. Spai n came fi rst, i n 1 5 1 3, wi th Ponce de Le6n search
i ng for gol d and a fountai n of youth i n fabu l ous Bi mi ni .
Narvaez, de Soto, and de Luna fol l owed. I n 1 565, after
French Huguenots under J ean Ribaut had expl ored the
area and sett l ed at Ft. Carol i ne on the St. J oh ns, Spai n
establ is hed a per manent base at St . Augustine. That year
they sl aughtered the French i n col d bl ood, and ended
French sett l ements i n Fl ori da.
Spani sh fr i ars started a chai n of mi ssi ons across Nort h
Fl ori da, and the fort at St. August i ne grew i nto a sett l e
ment. By 1 6 1 5 t here were twenty mi ssi ons. Pl ants and
an i mal s were i ntroduced. The mi ssi ons and t he I ndi ans
prospered. Meanwhi l e, Engl and watched the Sout heast.
From sett l ements i n Vi rgi ni a and the Carol i nas, troops and
I ndi an al l i es pushed south. The next 50 years were a peri od
of border rai ds and war.
About t hi s t i me, the French worked down t he Mi ssi -: sippi .
La Sal l e attempted a Gul f sett l ement i n 1 685. Spai n cou n
tered wi th a fort at Pensacola. Fr ance bui l t at Bi l oxi , and
i n 1 71 8 at New Or l eans. I n 1 7 1 9, Pensacol a fel l t o France.
The Eng l i s h and t hei r Creek I ndi an al l i es destroyed t he
Span i sh mi ssi ons between 1 702 and 1 704. Troubl e con
t i n ued al ong t he Carol ina border, and Geor ge I I i nvi ted
more by permi tti ng James Og l et hor pe to sett l e Georgi a i n
1 733. War wi t h Spai n began i n 1 739. Ogl et horpe i nvaded
Fl ori da, and t he Span i sh feet attacked Georgi a. Aft er an
uncertai n peace ( 1 7 48- 1 761 ) , Engl and conquered Ha
vana, and two years l at er traded i t back f or a l l of F l or i da.
Wi t h the Amer i can Revol uti onary War, l oyal i sts moved
sout h. There were r ai ds and count er- rai ds between "Rang
ers" and " Pat ri ots . " I n t he treaty of Par i s ( 1 783) Engl and
gave Fl or i da back t o Spai n i n ret ur n f or t he Bahamas.
Wi t hi n a decade the Un i ted States was agai n expandi ng.
By 1 82 1 , al l of Fl ori da was under t he Stars and Str i pes.
Wbb1 LK
rtsh Lrown coones of bost ond West ordo n
1 764. bost ordo remoned unconquered durng
lhe Kevoutonory Wor.
34
cqu red by 1reolyof1795
Lccuped by U. b. n 1810
Lccuped by U. b. n 181 3
cqured by 1reotyof 1 821
THE AMERI CAN SOUTHEAST dates
back to the end of the Revol uti onary War,
wi th Georgi a and South Carol i na both rati -


fyi ng the new consti tuti on in 1 788. After unsuccessful at
tempts at purchase i n 1 803 and 1 805, we acqui red F l ori da
by stages; these are shown at the top of t he page. The
formati on of t he "Republ i c of West F l ori da, " wi th i ts lone
Star fl ag, and the encouragement of rebel l i on agai nst
Spai n hel ped. The loui si ana Purchase of 1 803 brought the
western Gul f area and much more l and under our control .
For most of t he South, the frst hal f of the ni neteenth c
e
m
t ury was a peri od of sett l ement, growth and heated pol it
i cal compromi se. South Carol i na seceded in 1 860 and
wi thi n months ci vi l war had begun. War brought bl ockade,
pri vati on and di srupti on. And the end of the war di d not
br i ng rel i ef. There fol l owed a l ong peri od of mi l i tary occu
pati on, spol i ati on and economi c col l apse. I t was not unt i l
1 875- 1 900 t hat recovery was wel l under way.
Vi si tors who want to understand t hi s regi on shoul d take
the ti me to devel op a hi stori cal perspecti ve of the past,
from whi ch present probl ems have come.
MORE I NFORMATI ON
The Southeast i s so bi g and vari ed that t he reader may
want a more compl ete i nt roducti on to t he regi on, i ts hi story
and i ts peopl e. If so, try some of the fol l owi ng. Books on
natural hi story are l i sted i n the secti ons on geol ogy, pl ants
and an i mal s.
Ameri can Gui de Seri es gi ves a r i c h backgrou nd, state by state,
pl us speci fc (though dat ed) i nformat i on on travel and si ghts. Al l were
written by the Feder al Wri ters Proj ect.
LOU I S I ANA, Hasti ngs House, N. Y. , 1 941
ALABAMA, Hast i ngs House, N. Y. , 1 94 1
MI S S I S S I P P I , Hasti ngs House, N. Y. , 1 949
F L OR I DA, Oxford Uni v. Press, N. Y. , 1 939
GE ORGI A, Tupper and Love, Atl anta, 1 954
SoUTH CAROL I NA, Oxford Un iv. Press, N. Y. , 1 949
THE FLOR I DA HAN D BOOK, Morri s. Peni ns ul ar Pub. Co. , Tal l ahassee, Fl a. ,
1 957. A factual and stati sti cal reference, packed wi th i nformati on.
FL OR I DA, A. Hepbur n. Houghton Mi fi n, Boston, 1 956. Thi s wel l
or gani zed tou ri st gui de to si ghts, pl aces, food, l odgi ng and t hi ngs
to do covers the state, secti on by secti on.
THE CU RV I N G SHORE , L. Ormerod. Harper, N. Y. , 1 957. An i nteresti ng and
readabl e descri pt i on of t he Gul f coast from Brownsvi l le to Key West.
FL OR I DA, LAN D OF CHANGE, K. Han n a. Un i v. of N. Carol i na Press, Chapel
Hi l l , 1 949. A schol arl y, h i stori cal account of t he g rowth of t he state.
FL ORI DA' s SE MI N OL E I N D I ANS , W. Nei l l. Ross Al l en' s Repti l e l nst. , Si lver
Spr i ngs, Fl a. , 1 956. A short, readabl e account of t he Semi noles.
THE I N D I ANS OF T H E SOUT H EAST E RN UN I TED STATES, J. R. Swant on. Bur.
Amer. Et h. Bul l . 1 37; G. P. O. , Washi ngton, D. C. , 1 946. The best and
most complete accou nt of I ndi an l i fe of the regi on.
THE SE MI N OL E I N D I ANS, S. Bl eeker. Morrow, N. Y. , 1 954. A profle of t he
Semi nol e way of l i f e for younger readers.
THE EVERGLADES, RI VER OF GRASS, M. S. Dougl as. Ri nehart, N.Y. , 1 947.
The hi story and l i fe of the far Sout h. Ri vers of Amer. Seri es.
F LOR I DA U N DE R F I V E F LAGS, R. W. Patri ck. Un i v. of Fl ori da Press, Gai nes
vi l l e, Fl a. , 1 946. A popular hi story of old and new Fl ori da by a top
local aut hori ty.
Fi cti on gi ves an added di mensi on i n u nderstandi ng a regi on . Some
f amous wri ters have wri tten of thi s country i n a reveal i ng way. Try
these books and ot hers:
BAREFOOT MAI L MAN, Theodore Pratt; THE YEARL I N G and SOU T MooN
UN DER, Mar j or i e Rawl i ngs; BR I GHT F EAT HE R and F LAMI NGO RoAD, Robert
Wi l der; CR U NCH AND Des, Phi l i p Wyl i e.
W
hrM
|8|t
|N\A81UHO

35

X
om
1heQresenl boulheoslondlhesubmerged ordo oleou.
LAND F ROM TH E S E A
FLORI DA and the nearby Southeast are part of a great
pl ateau (as shown above), two-t hi rds of whi ch i s now be
l ow t he sea. The core of t hi s pl ateau i s ol d, hard, a l tered
rock, l i ke that of the Pi edmont and Bl ue Ri dge Mountai ns.
None of i t comes t the surface i n thi s regi on. I t is buri ed
over hal f a mi l e i n northern Fl ori da and much deeper to
the south. For the past hundred mi l l i on years, sedi ments,
main l y c l ay, sand and l i me, have been coveri ng thi s ol d
core. At ti mes t he Fl ori da pl ateau has been above water.
More often the area has been whol l y or partl y submerged.
Then the shal l ow border seas were s l owl y f l l ed wi th sand
washed down from the north or wi th l i me deposi ted by
mari ne pl ants and ani ma l s.
P cross seclon through cenlro ordo [ beow] shows the dmng
from eosl to west. 1o the wesl the younger deposls hove been
Ledor Keys
\
ocene ?
36
estocene
b L L b N c
Some 35 mi l l i on years ago,
when thi s area was above water,
a s l ow steady pressure domed
up t he rocks of cent ral Fl or i da
several hundred feet, as shown
bel ow. Si nce t hen t hi s area has
been s ubmerged several t i mes.
Each s ubmergence i s mar ked by
the formati on of new deposi ts
wi th characteri sti c types of foss i l s .
One format i on, formed about 1 0
mi l l i on years ago-probabl y at
t he mouth of an anci ent ri ver
contai ns a val uabl e concentrati on
of phosphates. Dur i ng t he past 20
mi l l i on years Fl or i da has been
mai nl y el evated. The rock at t he
s urface has a l tered to red l oam
and sandy soi l . Drai nage pat
ter ns have devel oped, and many
l akes have formed.
r esenl shorene ond shorene
1 00 lo200 lhousond yeorsogo.

Duri ng t he i ce ages of the past mi l l i on years, t he l evel


of the sea has r i sen and fa l l en. Because Fl or i da and the
coastal pl ai n i s fl at, thi s has meant a great change i n the
total l and area. Above i s a di agram of t he Fl or i da shore
l i ne at a t i me between I ce Ages, when t he sea l evel was
hi gh. Si nce southern F l or i da i s especi al l y l ow and fat i t
i s i nteresti ng to specul ate on poss i bl e changes i n t he s hore
l i ne whi ch may come about if the wor l d cl i mate becomes
sl i ghtl y warmer or col der dur i ng the next century or so.
worn owoy more, ond lheo der bocene rocks ore exposed on lhe
surfoce. 1he vertco sco e of lhs cross seclon s exoggeroled.
L N b b 1 L N b b
ocene eslocene
Nocene
38
THE AGE OF THE ROCKS of the coastal pl ai n vari es
from about one to si xty mi l l i ons years . Al l t he rock i s sedi
mentary, formed mai n l y under water from materi al s
washed down from nearby l and or from l i me taken from
the sea by pl ants and an i mal s. Sedi ments s i nk s l owl y to the
bottom, for mi ng l ayers. The l ayers deposi ted at the mouths
of ri vers di fer from those formed i n qui et l agoons . Layers
formed cl ose to s hore di fer from those for med i n deeper
water. Ol der l ayers may be compl etel y buri ed by younger
rock, or come to the surface farther i nl and. The s l ow f l l i ng
of the Gul f basi n i s ti l ti ng Fl ori da, r ai si ng and erodi ng the
west coast more than the east. Hence, more ol der rocks are
exposed al ong the west coast.
Geol . ti me
di vi si ons
Recent
Pl ei stocene
CENOZOI C
Pl iocene
Mi ocene
Ol i gocene
Eocene
Pal eocene
MESOZOI C
PALEOZOI C
The Story of the Earth i n the Southeast
Mi l l i ons of
years ago
. 01
1
1 1
30
40
58
60
60-200
200-500
Li fe of the ti mes
Muck, coral ; modern pl ants and a ni mal s .
Gl aci ers advance and retreat. Great l akes
and present ri vers for m. Modern man de
vel ops. South Fl ori da rocks for m.
Fi nal u pl i ft of western mt s. Ani mal l i fe
practical l y moder n. Fl ori da phosphate
beds for m an d other al l uvi al deposi ts.
El evati on of t he Al ps, Hi mal ayas a nd
other mount ai ns. Grasses an d modern
pl ants devel op. Ri se of t hree-toed horses
and ot her gr azi ng ani mal s.
Badl ands for m i n West; wi de southern
submergence and l i me deposi ts. Devel op
ment of pr i mi ti ve grazers; frst monkeys.
Extensi ve i nteri or seas. Oi l s hal es form.
Fi ve-toed horses and ot her pri mi ti ve graz
ers. Wi despread Ocal a l i mestone formed.
A bri ef transi ti on peri od from Mesozoi c.
Age of repti l es; frst bi rds; many s hal l ow
seas. Rocks of thi s age under l i e Southeast.
Wi despread seas wi th si mpl e mar i ne l i fe.
Fi rst vertebrates. Some rocks hi ghly al
tered. None exposed i n Southeast.
staghorn
coral
LI MESTONE AND CORAL are rel at ed, t hough on l y a
very s ma l l part of t he l i mestone, whi ch u n der l i es al l of
Fl or i da an d muc h of the adj oi ni ng pl ai n, i s of coral ori gi n.
Extens i ve depos i ts of l i me have for med i n t hese s hal l ow
seas s i nce Eocene t i me ( 58 mi l l i on years ago) . Much of i t
i s from t he s hel l s of forami ni fera-mi croscopi c an i mal s
whi ch l i ved by t he bi l l i ons i n t he war m waters. Many
ki nds of mol l usks added t hei r remai ns to t he l i mestone.
Li me-secret i ng a l gae formed deposi ts, t oo.
Coral an i mal s pr oduce l i mestone a l so, and coral col
on i es can be found al ong al l Fl or i da coasts, but especi a l l y
i n t he Fl or i da Keys. The u pper keys are an anci ent reef,
on whi ch new coral rock i s constant l y for mi ng. Coral skel
etons are attracti ve, but l i vi ng coral i s even more so.
Where beds of l i mestone are now cl ose to t he s urface,
rai n water percol at i ng t hr ough di ssol ves the rock al ong
cracks and fi ssures. Caves may for m. Thei r roofs may col
l apse, maki ng s i nkhol es . These often become l akes. Under
ground wat er i s abundant i n humi d l i mestone regi ons .
For more about Southeastern geol ogy, read:
PHYSI OGRAPHY OF EASTE RN U. S. , N. M. Fenneman. McGraw- Hi l l , 1 938 .
.
GEOLOGY OF FL ORI DA, C. W. Cooke. Fl a. Geol . Su r. , Tal l ahassee, 1 945.
NATU RAL FEAT U RES OF S. F L OR I DA, J. H. Davi s. Fl a. Geol . Sur. , 1 943.
DowN TO EARTH, C. G. Cronei s and W. Kr umbei n . Uni v. of Chicago
Press, Chicago, 1 936.
ROCKS AND MI N ERALS, H. S. Zi m and P. R. Shafer. Gol den Press, N. Y. ,
1957.
39
FOSSI LS are t he r emai ns or i mpri nts of l i vi ng t hi ngs
preserved i n t he rocks. Most of t he Southeastern l i me
stones are r i ch i n fossi l s-mai n l y of mar i ne an i mal s . They
are eas i l y col l ected i n roadcuts and quarri es and a l ong
canal ban ks-see LeO| Ogy Of r|OrdO ( p. 39) f or detai l s
of format i ons and l ocat i ons. The ol dest rocks contai n fossi l s
most di ferent fr om t he an i mal s of t oday. I n t he more re
cent rocks ( Pl i ocene and Pl eistocene) are foss i l s i denti cal
or very s i mi l ar to l i vi ng speci es. I n recent rocks, t he s hel l s
of mar i ne ani mal s are preserved i ntact; i n ol der rocks, t hey
may have di ssol ved, and onl y a mol d or cast ( i mpressi on)
remai ns.
Some Southeastern l ocal i ti es yi el d bones of l and ani
mal s. The ol dest (Mi ocene) i s t he Thomas Far m format i on.
Next i s t he Bone Va l l ey formati on of mi xed mar i ne and
l and foss i l s (Mi ocene to Pl i ocene) . The Melbour ne beds
contai n Pl ei stocene an i ma l fossi l s-i ncl udi ng mastodons,
mammoths, gi ant cats and, possi bl y, pr i mi ti ve man.
Potami des
Fossil shel l s several mi l l ion years ol d-from Fl ori da.
Sea ph el l a
MI NERAL RESOURCES of t he Southeast are rich, t hough
metal s are in meager s uppl y. Al ong t he coast of Texas
and Lou i siana, sal t domes have concentrated great de
posi ts of s ul f ur ( an n ual pr oducti on over 5 mi l l ion tons)
and al most u n l i mited reserves of sal t. Some sal t domes
al so yi el d oi l , an d wel l s have been s unk in the tidal
marshes and ofs hore. Central Fl ori da produces near l y 1 0
mil l i on tons of phosphate rock annual l y, wi th h i gh- cl ass
reserves of 2 bi l l ion tons more. Limestone i s avail abl e for
road bui l di ng, construction and cement. Cl ays in the coast
al bel t yiel d brick an d t i l e. Some of the dark s ands of past
and present Fl or ida beaches have concentrati ons of metal
l i c ores from whi ch thori um, ti tani um and zircon can be
obtai ned.
The two most i mportant mi neral res ources of the Sout h
east are soi l and water. The ground-water s uppl y has
been s ufci ent f or industry, domestic use and agricu l ture,
but now l arge wel l s near the sea s how sal t water i nf l tra
ti on. Soi l , whi l e general l y poor, can be mai ntained and
even i mproved by good farmi ng practi ces.
41
42
GENERAL SOI L TYPES
IN THE SOUTHEAST
SOI L in the Southeast vari es consi der
abl y. Much southern pi nel and i s on
l i ght, sandy soi l , l yi ng on a dark hard
pan (yel l ow on the map) . I t has l i ttl e or
gani c matter and is good onl y for pas
ture. Occasi onal l y thi s soi l is l oamy, and
t hen i t i s excel l ent for potatoes. An
other sandy soi l ( brown on map) al so
covers wi de areas. Thi s i s l i ght-yel l ow-
i sh, brown or gray. When properl y ferti l i zed, i t grows
nearl y al l F l ori da ci trus and, to the north, produces cotton,
tobacco and peanuts. Bog soi l s ( green) are mai nl y al ong
the coasts. These peats and mucks are of l ittl e val ue ex
cept when drai ned. Then they are fne for sugar cane and
wi nter vegetabl es. South F l ori da i s rockl and ( red) whi ch,
when scari fed and ferti l i zed, grows s ubtropi c fruits and
wi nter vegetabl es. The al l uvi al s oi l ( l avender) of t he Mi s
si ssi ppi and other ri ver val l eys is i nherentl y fert i l e and
val uabl e when wel l drai ned. A band of dar k soi l ( pi nk)
over a l i me c l ay i n Loui si ana and Texas grows ri ce-other
crops when drai ned. Fi nal l y, a fne, si l ty, easi l y eroded
l oam ( not i l l ustrated) paral l el to the Mi ssi ssi ppi al l uvi um,
is excel l ent for many crops. The yi el d of most Southern
soi l s can be i mproved by fert i l i zers.
RI VERS, LAKES AND SPRI NGS mark t he Southeast.
Maj or ri vers (see pp. 24 and 25) were i mportant i n ear l i er
days when shal l ow-draft steamers brought cotton a nd to
bacco down to t he head of sal t-water navi gati on . Now
ri vers provi de water and power for i ndustry. Lakes are
numerous i n Central Fl ori da, whi ch reputedl. has 30,000.
Largest is Lake Okeechobee-700 square mi l es, t he sec
ond- l argest freshwater l ake wi t hi n the U. S.
Fl ori da' s porous l i mestone, wh i ch permits free move
ment of underground water, creates many spr i ngs. Thei r
total fl ow of water is over four bi l l i on gal l ons a day, two
and a hal f bi l l i ons comi ng from 1 7 "fi rst magni tude"
spri ngs. Some are l i sted bel ow:
Spri ngs
Si l ver Spr i ngs
Rai nbow Spri ngs
l chatuckee Spr i ngs
Homosassa Spr i ngs
Wakul l a Spr i ng
Ri ver Si nk
Manatee Spr i ngs
Bl ue Spr i ngs
Weeki Wachee Spr i ng
Nat ural Bri dge
Al exander Spr i ng
Locati on
5m NE Ocal a
4m NE Dunnel l on
5m NE Hi l dreth
1 m W Homosassa
1 4m S Tal l ahassee
1 2m SW Tal l ahassee
7m W Chiefand
5m NE Mari anna
1 2m SW Brooksvi l l e
6m E Woodvi l l e
6m SW Astor
Fl ow
( cu. ft. per sec.}
808
699
335
1 85
1 83
1 78
1 68
1 63
1 60
1 24
1 1 7
43
\
PLANT L I FE
WHITE SPI DER LI LI ES are na
ti ve. Several speci es have stamens
connected by a membrane. Leaves
l i ke amaryl l i s, a rel ated pl ant.
RED SPI DER LI LY, from the
Ori ent, i s wi del y pl anted. Fl owers
with l ong stamens appear i n fal l .
Someti mes 6 ft. hi gh.
PLANT LI FE is ri chest and most outstandi ng i n the south
east coastal pl ai n. Over 9000 speci es of foweri ng pl ants
are nati ve here. Fl ori da has over 300 s peci es of nati ve
trees, dozens of whi ch grow nowhere el se. I n addition,
many hundreds of forei gn speci es have been pl anted.
Nowhere el se can one see so many di ferent pl ants from
Asi a, Afri ca, Austral i a and the Ameri can tropi cs growi ng
i n the open. Thi s regi on al so boasts many ki nds of unusual
ferns, mosses and other non-foweri ng pl ants. The books
l i sted bel ow wi l l give you more hel p i n i dentifyi ng pl ants.
You can hel p others enjoy our pl ant l ife by obeyi ng al l
state conservati on l aws.
For more about Southeastern pl ants, read:
FLOWERS, H. S. Zi m and A. C. Marti n. Gol den Press, N.Y., 1 950.
TREES, H. S. Zi m and A. C. Marti n. Gol den Press, N. Y. , 1 956.
FLOWERS OF T HE SouTH, W. F. Greene and H. L. Bl omqui st; Uni v. of N.
Carol i na Press, Chapel Hi l l , 1 953.
FLOR I DA WI LD FLOWERS, M. E. F. Baker. Macmi l l an, New York, 1 938.
THE NATI VE TREES OF FLOR I DA, West and Ar nol d. Uni v. of Fl ori da Press,
Gai nesvi l l e, 1 956.
FLORA OF T HE SouT HEASTERN UN I TE D STATES, J. K. Smal l . The Aut hor, New
York, 1 933.
FERNS OF THE SOUT HEASTERN UN I TED STATES, J. K. Smal l , Sci ence Press,
Lancaster, Pa. , 1 938.
LAN DSCAPE PLANTS FOR FLORI DA HOMES, Watki ns. Fl ori da Dept. of Agri
cul ture, Tal l ahassee, 1 955.
44 FLPM LI FE
BALD CYPRESS, t hough a coni fer, sheds its thi n, fat
tened l eaves in wi nter. Recogni ze thi s tree by t he heml ock
l i ke l eaves, by t he rounded, one- i nch cones whi ch form i n
l ate s ummer, and by t he strai ght trunk, often swol l en and
buttressed at t he base. Bark gray to brown, t hi n and
shaggy. Coni cal or fattened "knees" grow u p from the
roots. Bal d Cypress i s an excel l ent ti mber tree, growi ng
over a hundred feet hi gh
.
The wood i s durabl e and resi sts
rott i ng. It i s found al ong l ake margi ns and i n swamps,
where it has been extensi vel y cut for l umber. Pond Cypress,
a smal l er vari ety, has t hi n twi gs and mi nute, scal y l eaves.
Pond cypress
LONGLEAF PI NE has l ong nee
dl es ( 1 2 i n. ) i n cl usters of th ree,
and l ong (6 to 1 0 i n. ) spi ked cones.
Bark gray, twi gs heavy. Attracti ve
young t rees are cut for Chri stmas
decorati on. Wood hard, heavy.
SHORTLEAF PI NE or Yel l ow Pi ne,
pri zed southern ti mber tree, has
needl es i n cl usters of two or three;
smal l cl ustered cones; bark i n
scal y pl ates-gray to reddi sh. Pre
fers d ry, upl and soi l .
POND PI NE i s a s mal l er tree of
swamps and sandy soi l . Needl es
i n th rees, 6 to 8 i n. l ong. Cones
round when open, 2 to 3 i n. l ong.
Bar k f ur rowed, reddi sh brown.
Wood heavy, coarse.
..
46 Kbbb
SLASH PI NE a l so prefers wet
soi l s. With longl eaf Pi ne i t pro
duces gu m and t urpent i ne. leaves
8 to 1 2 i n. , i n cl usters of two or
t hree. Cones 4 i n. l ong, oval , wi th
. smal l spi nes. Bar k, dark gray.
RED CEDAR is a smal l , wel l
shaped tree wi th risi ng branches
and two di sti nct types of fol i age
-sharp and spreadi ng on you ng
trees; rounded, over l appi ng scal es
on ol der. Frui t, smal l , purpl e.
WHI TE CEDAR is a l arge tree
of coastal swamps wi th poi nted,
overl appi ng, scal e-l i ke l eaves and
s mal l , rou nded, dry fruits. Bark
fbrous, reddi sh brown; wood soft,
even, cl ose-grai ned.
LOBLOLLY PI NE h as l on g needl es
i n threes, l i ke other yel l ow pi nes.
Cones are nar row, 4 i n. l ong, per
si stent, wi th smal l spi kes on scal es.
Bark gray, deepl y furrowed. A
M fast-growi ng tree of sandy soi l .
/
SAND PI NE or Scrub Pi ne groVs
mai nl y i n Fl ori da sand dunes.
Needl es in twos, sl ender, 3 i n.
l ong. Cones open chi efy after
fres; remai n on tree for several
years. Used for paper pul p.
TREES 47
LI VE OAK, a rounded, spreadi ng maj est i c tree, is a sym
bol of t he Deep South. Thi s member of t he White Oak
group has sweet, edi bl e, near l y-bl ack acorns and oval
dark-green l eaves. These are often downy bel ow, and
persi st on t he tree through t he wi nter. The bark i s gray,
heavy and furrowed. Once val ued for shi p t i mbers, li ve
Oak i s now used i n street and ornamental pl anti ng.
LAUREL OAK, of t he Bl ack Oak
group, has bi tter acorns that ma
ture i n two years. Leaves have
wavy margi ns and persist on the
tree t i l l spri ng. Tal l (to 75 ft. ) ,
with smooth dar k gray bark
cracked i nto verti cal furrows.
48 Kbbb
MYRTLE OAK is a shr ubby tree
{ rarel y over 30 ft. ) wi th short
twisted branches. Forms deep
thi ckets on dunes and dry i nteri or
scrubl ands. Bar k t hi n, gray to
brown. Thi ck, shi ny l eaves more
rounded than Laurel or Live Oaks.
SOUTHERN RED OAK (Spanish
Oak) has stout, smoot h, dark
twi gs beari ng shi ny l eaves cov
ered with yel l ow hai r bel ow. Vari
abl e l eaves have 3 to 7 sharp
l obes and a wedge-shaped base.
The smal l acorns mature in two
years. Bark ri dged, nearl y bl ack.
TURKEY OAK grows to 30 ft.
Bark gray with deep furrows and
ri dges. Leaves l i ke oak above but
wi der and wi t h hai rs onl y at forks
of vei ns. They t ur n crimson i n
fal l and hang on the tree al l wi n
ter. Turkey Oak prefers dry,
sandy soi l s.
WATER OAK i s a tree of swamps
and moi st meadows. I t grows to
75 ft. wi th l arge, ri si ng branches.
Bark smooth when young, spl i t
ti ng i nto fat pl ates. Leaves round
ed, thi ck, smoot h on bot h si des.
A short-l i ved member of the
Bl ack Oak group. Acorns smal l .
POST OAK i s a Mi dwestern oak
occurri ng hal fway down Fl ori da.
Note the wi de, heavy l eaves,
hai ry beneath. Acorns matu re i n
one season. Bar k gray-brown,
scal y. Tree grows to 75 ft. , but i s
smal l er i n the South.
TREES 49
RI VER BI RCH is t he most com
mon southern bi rch, wi th reddi sh,
papery bark. Fl owers are catki ns,
frui t cone-l i ke. Prefers swamps
and ri ver banks, north of the
Suwan nee. Hei ght : 60 to 80 ft.
RED MAPLE wi th gray bar k
( browni sh when ol der) , and red
twigs and fruits, is col orful in fall.
Grows 90 ft. hi gh wi th short,
ri si ng branches. Opposi te leaves,
wi th 3 to 5 lobes and smal l teeth.
TULI PTREE, a magnol i a, has u n
us ual l eaves and l arge t ul i p- l i ke
fowers. Grows to 1 00 ft. tal l from
Cent ral Fl or i da nort h. Note fat
tened buds and cone- l i ke frui ts.
Wood yel low, soft, easi ly worked.
PERSI MMON i s found al ong roads
i n Southeast, often i n t hickets.
Leaves al ternate, dar k green,
smooth edges. Bark: dar k, fur
rowed. F r ui t : orange-brown, edi bl e.
FRI NGETREE is s mal l , someti mes
s hr ubby (ht. to 25 ft. ) wi th l arge,
t hi n, opposi te l eaves. Fl owers m
spri ng) are t hi n, whi te and
droopi ng; frui t s mooth and bl ack.
From central Fl ori da northward.
SWEE T GUM has star-shaped
l eaves somewhat l i ke mapl e, but
al ternate, on corky twi gs. Frui t i s
a l arge horned bal l . Not rel ated
to Bl ack Gum; prefers dri er soi l .
PECAN i s a native hi ckory fou nd
from the Gul f northward, and
now cul ti vated wi del y i n the
South. Wood i nferi or but the n uts
of papershel l vari eti es are excel
l ent. Ht. to 1 20 ft.
BLACK GUM common except i n
S. Fl ori da i s a swamp tree wi th
short, i rregul ar branches. Leaves
are al ternate, edges smooth. Bark
i s gray, wi th thi ck ri dges. Frui t
i n pai rs, dark bl ue and oval .
SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA is the
best known of t he magnol i as for
whi ch the South i s famous. A tree
60 to 80 ft. hi gh, i t has a heavy
gray t r un k, t hick twi gs and l arge,
deep green l eaves, rusty bel ow.
Creamy fowers of ear l y summer
mat ure i nto coni cal frui ts.
BI G-LEAF MAGNOLI A occurs i n
i sol ated groups from western
Fl ori da northward. Leaves to 2 ft.
l ong; Fl owers 8 to 1 2 i n . across.
Tree to 30 ft. hi gh, wi th gray
bark; grows i n open woods. Fr ui t
al most round, wi t h smal l open
i ngs; beLomes red as i t matures.
52 Kbbb
SWEET BAY i s a s mal l er magno
l i a, found f r om Fl ori da nort h. I t
prefers swamps and ri ver ban ks,
where i t reaches 60 ft. As wi th al l
magnol i as, l eaves are alternate,
and si mpl e. Bay i s si lvery un der
neath. Fl ower smal l, whi te, and
fragrant. Bar k smooth and gray.
CHI NESE MAGNOLI A i s a smal l
ori ent al magnol i a pl anted i n t he
southern states. Lar ge pi nk fow
ers open before t he l eaves. Other
cul ti vated magnol i as of the South
i ncl ude the whi te-fowered Star
Magnol i a and the fragrant Dwarf
Magnoli a.
deto| | of boooooewer
t|pefto|t
C U LT I VATE D T RE E S
Cul t i vated and Exot i c Trees outnumber nat ive speci es and
are an outstandi ng feature of t hi s ar ea. They come from
al l tropi cal regi ons of t he worl d and i ncl ude ki nds which
are not seen el sewhere i n t hi s country. Even thei r names
Banyan, Cher i moya, Mel al euca, J uj ube-are exot i c. Most
numerous are speci es from the West I ndi es and nearby
Central An. . .. ca. Many trees have attracti ve fowers and
frui ts whi ch you shou l d not sampl e u n l ess you are sure
they are edi bl e.
Bananas are not woody and so are not trees to t he bot
ani st. They are to the vi si tor, who notes that several vari
et i es grow and bear fr uit i n F l ori da. The Dwarf or Caven
di sh Banana i s common. A nati ve of Ch i na, it grows to 7 ft.
tal l , wi th 4-ft. l eaves, and up to 200 frui ts to a c l uster.
TREES 53
ORANGES came west soon after Columbus. Now the
annual harvest is over 200 million bushels. Originally from
China, the Sweet Orange has yielded over 25 varieties:
the Valencia, Pineapple and Jafa are best known. Trees
grow about 25 ft. high, rounded, with few or no thorns.
Leaves: oval, glossy, winged, about 4 in. long.
LI MES grow f ar south on smal l er
( 1 5 ft. ) spi ny trees. leaves 2 to 4
i n. , oval , gl ossy. F l owers whi te,
i n cl usters. Key li mes have smal l ,
round fr ui t ( yel low when ri pe) .
Persi an Li mes, l arger and har di er,
are grown commerci al l y
.
b4 TREES
GRAPEFRUIT i s pr obabl y a cit
rus sport f rst found in J amai ca.
Grapel i ke fr ui t cl usters suggested
name. Tree grows 30 ft. hi gh.
Twi gs wi t h f ew or no spi nes;
leaves 6 i n. l ong wi th wi ngs at
base.
Grapefrui t
C I T RUS
CALAMONDI N, from the Phi l i p
pi nes-a hybri d ci trus-i s a smal l
or namental t ree wi t h t i ny t hor ns
and smal l el l i pti cal leaves. Fr ui ts
when ri pe are l i ke mi ni at ure, t hi n
ski nned oranges, attracti ve but
s our . Used f or j uice and i n mar
mal ades.
TANGERI NES, or i gi nal l y from
south Ch i na, are a form of Man
dar i n Orange bear i ng a pumpki n
shaped fr ui t an d wi t h a t hi n,
easi l y peeled s ki n. Trees are
smal l ; l eaves smal l , too, and wi t h
out wi ngs. The Dacy Tangeri ne
has a reddi sh ski n
.
KUMQUATS are al l smal l trees.
Pl ants s hr u bby, some wi t h smal l
spi nes. Leaves narrow, stal k not
wi nged. Of th ree species, the Oval
(shown above) is most common;
others have rou n ded frui ts. En
t i re frui t is eaten. Ri nd is sweet
and pungent; pu l p more sour.
KI NG ORANGES, cl osel y rel ated
to tangeri nes, have si mi l ar frui ts,
but larger an d rou nder. Leaves
may have narrow wi ngs. Another
easy-peel i n g ci trus fr ui t i s the
Pummel o, large and pear-shaped,
l i ke a t hi ck, rough g rapefrui t.
leaves wi nged an d hai ry bel ow.
Kbbb 55
56 Kcbb
PAPAYA is not a true tree,
havi ng a somewhat herbace
ous stem, though it grows 20
ft. hi gh or more. This unusual
pl ant wi t h deepl y cut l eaves
on l ong stal ks grows from cen
tral Fl ori da south and pro
duces l arge mel on- l i ke frui ts
excel l ent eati ng when ri pe.
Mal e and femal e fowers on
separate trees, fowers yel
l owi sh, fragrant. Many varie
ties-from southern Mexico.
LOQUAT, a smal l tree with
thick, oval , wool l y l eaves, i s
pl anted from the Carol i nas
south. Yel l owi sh fowers devel
op i nto orange pl uml i ke frui ts
with l arge seeds; good eati ng
with a tart favor. Loquat is a
member of the rose fami l y
from the warmer parts of the
Far East, wi del y pl anted as an
ornamental and for its frui t.
I t is tol erant of poor soi l s and
resistant to frost.
AVOCADO came to us vi a
the Aztecs and the Spani sh.
Now i mproved hybri ds grow
al l through Fl ori da and i n
other Medi terranean cl i mates.
Trees are smal l ; twi gs green;
l eaves si mpl e, oval i n shape
and cl ustered at the ends of
branches. Smal l fowers devel
op i nto round or pear-shaped
frui ts ( 1 to 3 l bs. ) , tasty, di s
ti ncti vel y favored .
MANGO is a tal l , wel l -formed
tree from I ndia, brought to Brazi l
and hence to the Southeast. Trunk
strai ght, bark gray and furrowed.
Leaves si mpl e, l ong, nar row,
sl i ghtl y curved, and often cl us
tered at the ends of twi gs. Fruits
on long stal ks, ri pen duri ng the
summer. New i mproved hybrid
mangoes ( Haden and others) bear
the choicest of tropi cal fruits. The
sap i s i rritati ng to the ski n of
some peopl e.
GUAVA, from tropi cal America,
i s a l oose, i r regul ar tree with
spreadi ng branches and scal y
brown and yel l ow bark. Leaves
hai ry, opposite, oval , with strong
vei ns. Whi te fragrant fowers gi ve
way to rounded fruits 1 to 2 i n.
in di ameter, yel l ow and strongl y
favored. Guavas are eaten raw
or i n preserves. Strawberry or
Cattley Guava i s a smal l er shrub
with smal l er red or yel l ow frui t.
SAPODI LLA produces the chi cl e
of whi ch chewi ng gum i s made. I n
Fl ori da i t i s g rown as a frui t and
ornamental tree with attractive
evergreen fol i age. Fl owers yel
l owish and smal l . Fr ui ts mature
sl owl y ti l l 2 to 4 i n. i n di ameter,
brown-ski nned and pearl i ke i n
consistency, with a di sti nct favor.
I mproved vari eti es of sapodi l l a
have been devel oped, but not on
a commerci al scal e.
types of
frui t
AUSTRALI AN PI NE, t hough ever
green, has onl y mi n ute scal e- l i ke
l eaves. The green "needl es" ar e
you ng t wi gs. The t r ee i s not a
pi ne-i ts nearest rel ati ve is t he
hi ckori es. Pl ant ed wi del y from
central Fl or i da sout h as a wi nd
break and or nament al .
TUNG oi l has been used i n Asi a
for cent ur i es. Now Tung trees
a re wi del y pl ant ed i n the South
east, except i n S. Fl or i da. Leaves
simpl e, l ar ge; fowers i n cl usters
at ends of twi gs. " Nuts" contai n
about 1 5% oi l ; used i n pai nts.

"

;
t
"
58 1Kbbb
CHI NABERRY, of t he mahogany
fami l y, is found fr om the Caro
l i nas south as a street and yar d
or namental . The fat umbrel l a
shaped vari ety wi th l i l ac fowers
and cl usters of smal l yel l ow frui t
i s t he one usu al l y seen. Leaves
are l arge an d doubl y compound.
ceceoot
ctesssect|eo
PALMS ( 1 200 ki nds) grow in t he tropi cs. A
dozen or so speci es are nati ve to t he South
east. However, scores of i nt roduced pal ms
grow as exoti c or namental s. See t he wor l d
r enowned col l ecti on at the Fai rc hi l d Gardens
near Mi ami . Al l pal ms, though woody pl ants,
are r el ated to grasses, sedges and bananas.
They l ack a bar k and t hei r "wood" i s very di f
ferent from oak or pi ne. Pal ms rarel y branch.
The l arge l eaves wi th paral l el vei ns f or m onl y
at the crown . Best known of a l l pal ms i s the co
conut. I n southern Fl or i da i t grows over 60 ft.
hi gh, with a swol l en base, l ong l eaves and
cl usters of frui t at di ferent stages of ripeness.
LLLLNU1
6 mes.
59
wUK WVL PPLNb are concentrated i n Flori da and
adj oi ni ng states. The Washi ngton Pal m ( p. 62) , from t he
Southwest, and many other exoti c pal ms and cycads,
grow wi del y i n the Southeast al so. Some pal ms requi re
ri ch, moist soi l ; others t hri ve in ari d soi l s or on beach sand.
The two pal ms on p. 61 i l l ustrate two types of pal m l eaves
-pal mate or hand-shaped on Cabbage Pal metto, and
pi nnate or feat her-shaped on t he Royal Pal m.
SAW PALMETTO is someti mes a
tree, but more often a l ow shr ub
formi ng l ar ge thi ckets. I ts pal mate
l eaves have smal l spi nes al ong
t he stal ks. Fl owers are yel l owi sh;
frui t round and bl ack i n l oose
cl usters. Saw Pal metto is common
throughout Fl ori da. Two other
shrubby pal mettos are si mi l ar, but
nei ther i s thorny. The Scrub Pal
metto has l arge pal mate l eaves
that end i n stri ngy fl aments. The
l eaves of Bush Pal metto l ack these
threads. I ts seed stal ks are erect.
60 TREES
THATCH PALMS grow only i n
the southern t i p of Fl ori da and on
the Keys. There are two species,
both trees up to 30 ft. hi gh with
pal mate l eaves. The l eaf stal ks are
smooth; l eaves about 3 ft. across.
Fruits are dar k wi th whi te fesh;
those of the Bri ttl e Thatch Pal m
are about Z i n. thi ck-hal f t he
di ameter of the Jamai ca Pal m. ( For
mor e about pal ms, read NATI VE
AND EXOTI C PALMS Of FL OR I DA by
Harol d Mowry, Bul l . 1 52, Fl a.
Agri c. Ext. Ser. , Gai nesvi l l e. )
ttookof
yeoogttee
CABBAGE PALMETTO may grow
80 ft. hi gh-but usual l y to onl y
half that. I t has a stout stem and
a compact crown. The fanl i ke
l eaves with promi nent mi dri bs are
6 ft. l ong, the ti ps of the bl ades
endi ng in l ong threads. The l eaf
stal k i s smooth. Whi te fowers ap
pear i n spri ng, i n l arge droopi ng
cl usters. These r i pen by fal l i nto
round, quarter-i nch bl ack fruits.
Semi nol e I ndi ans used to eat the
heart or "cabbage" at the center
of the crown.
ROYAL PALM, most beautiful
native speci es, is l i mited i n its
natural range to S. Fl ori da and i s
preserved i n t he Evergl ades Nat.
Park. It is al so wi del y pl anted i n
ri ch moi st soi l . Long pi nnate l eaves
are up to 1 2 ft. l ong, with 2- to
3-ft. l eafets. Royal Pal m grows
over 1 00 ft. hi gh, with a smooth
trunk that bu l ges at the base and
agai n towafd the top. Bel ow the
crown of l eaves the t r unk is
bri ght green. Fl owers white, form
i ng open cl usters of bl ui sh fruits.
TREES 61
GOLDEN FEATHER-Areca or
Cone Pal m-grows i n cl umps of a
dozen or more, 20 ft. hi gh. Tr unks
t hi n, smoot h, wi t h yel l ow ri ngs.
Leaves l ong, feat hery, d roopi ng,
yel l owi sh i n col or . Prefers moi st
soi l . Thi s handsome tree comes
from Madagascar.
FI SHTAI L PALM has doubl y com
pound l eaves wi t h roughl y t ri an
gul ar l eafl ets t hat gi ve t he pal m
i ts name. Grows to 40 f t . hi gh,
wi t h smooth tru n k and spreadi ng
crown. Grows wel l i n sandy soi l s.
F l owers on l ong droopi ng spi kes
l eaf
WASHI NGTON PALM, nati ve
of our Sout hwest an d resi stant to
col d, i s pl anted al ong Southeast
streets. Spi ned pal mate l eaves
cover t he tru n k of ol d trees, u nl ess
removed. Two speci es-Cal iforni
an and Mexi can-t he l atter pl ant
ed mor e i n Fl or i da.
MANI LA PALM, nati ve to the
Phi l i ppi nes, l ooks l i ke a s mal l
versi on o f Roya l Pal m, b u t wi t h
stouter l eaves and br i l l i ant cl us
ters of i nch- l ong red fr ui t s i n
fal l . Pl anted as an or namenta l , i t
grows wel l i n l i me soi l s.
frut
BOTTLE PALM, a short, stocky
tree, has a s mooth tru n k t hat
bu l ges at t he base i n a bottl e-l i ke
efect_ Large, t hick pi nnate leaves
grow wi th a deci ded twi st. Spi n
dl e Pal m i s a tal l er rel ati ve. Both
have l arge bl ack frui t set below
the crown . Nati ve to Mauri t i us.
QUEEN or Cocos Pal m is wi dely
pl anted as it grows r api dl y where
Royal Pal ms wi l l not t hri ve. Tru n k
smooth wi th bases o f l eaves re
mai ni ng under the crown. Leaves
feathery and droopi ng. Orange
fr ui ts are large. F rom Brazi l .
DATE PALMS n u mber over a
dozen. The Common Date Pal m
(from Arabi a) wi th long, sti f
grayi sh- green pi nnate l eaves and
t hi ck t run k does not prod uce good
fr ui t i n Fl or i da. I t and other date
pal ms are qui te hardy. Grown
commerci al l y i n Cal i for ni a.
FAN or HAIR PALM is best
known because i t comes from
sout hern Europe-the onl y pal m
f r om t hat regi on. I t i s a dwarf,
bushy pl ant wi th sti f, s pi ny pal
mat e l eaves about 2 f t . wi de.
Tr u n k shor t and t hick.
zami a
sago pal m
64 TREES
CYCADS are a smal l group of
unusual pl ants more c l osel y re
l ated to pi nes t han to the pal ms
wi th whi ch they are confused.
They are wi despread i n t he
tropi cs, though n ever common.
I n the di stant past t hey were
much more common and i mpor
tant than they are now.
ZAMIA, or Coonti e, is a native cycad
found i n the dry, sandy upl ands of thi s
regi on. The stem is underground; the
l eaves ri si ng two feet or so, i n a l oose
cl ump. The brown frui ti ng cones seem
al most too l arge for the pl ant. Used by
I ndi ans and settl ers as a stapl e food.
"Coonti e" i s from an ol d Semi nol e term
meani ng "whi te-bread pl ant. "
SAGO PALM i s a cycad from Java
wi del y pl anted as a southern ornamen
tal . leaves are stif, dar k green, up to
6 ft. l ong, wi th the edges of the l eafets
turned under. Pl ants grow up to 1 0 f.
hi gh, wi th a rough trunk and a spread
ing crown of l eaves. Seeds l arge and
br i ght red.
FERN PALM i s someti mes cal l ed True
Sago Pal m, whi l e the speci es above i s
cal l ed Fal se Sago. Thi s one grows l arg
er (to 1 5 ft. hi gh) , i s topped by a crown
of stif l eaves which may each grow to
8 ft. l ong. Leafets are stif, broader
than i n above speci es. Mal e frui ti ng
cones grow up to 2 ft. l ong. Femal e
cones bear orange seeds. More com
monl y pl anted i n southern Fl ori da. Na
tive of East I ndi es.
BLACK HOLLY, common in the
coastal pl ai n, grows 20 ft. hi gh
with wedge-shaped, l eathery
l eaves and gl ossy bl ack frui ts.
OLEANDER, wi th si mpl e, narrow
evergreen l eaves and pi nk or
whi te fowers, is wi del y pl anted.
I ts mi l ky j uice is poi sonous.
S HRUBS AND VI NE S
Shrubs and vi nes are somewhat negl ected woody pl ants
whi ch come i nto thei r own i n the Southeast. Here, i n ad
di t i on t o the many nati ve speci es of woodl ands, meadow
borders and s hores
,
there are hundreds of exoti c ki nds
pl anted as or namental s or for fruit. Shrubs are erect
woody pl ants, rarel y growi ng as hi gh or l arge as trees,
wi th several trunks i nstead of one. Vi nes are not sel f
supporti ng, but cl i mb on trees or bui l di ngs. Some vi nes
can be trai ned to shr ubl i ke growth, as Bougai nvi l l ea. Si nce
shrubs and vi nes i ncl ude some of the most attracti ve fow
eri ng pl ants, wi l d s peci es need protecti on. Laws can hel p,
but you and your fri ends can hel p more. For f urther i n
formati on on s hrubs and vi nes you wi l l need t o l ook wi del y,
as t here are few speci fc books on these pl ants. Owers
Of fhe bOufh ( p. 71 ) is one of t he best for begi nners.
SHRUBS AND VI NES 65
MYRTLE DAHOON is a hol l y
wi th thi n, l eat hery evergreen
l eaves endi ng i n a si ngl e spi ne.
Fou nd i n swamps and al ong
ponds. Round frui ts, yel l ow t o
r ed, remai n on t he twi gs. Dahoon
i s s i mi l ar, but i s often a tree, wi t h
wi der l eaves, downy beneath.
WAXMYRTLE or Bayberry i s a
wel l - known s hr ub of upl and mea
dows, hammocks an d shores. Rec
ogni ze i t by t he thi ck cl usters of
waxy, g ray berri es whi ch cover
the twi gs al l wi nter. Leaves aro
mati c and evergreen; al ternate,
si mpl e, wi th a few coarse teet h.
66 bHKUb PM V Mbb
WHITE TITI is a common swamp
s hr ub wi t h s i mpl e, al t ernate l eaves
2 to 4 i n. l ong and short spi kes of
tiny whi te fowers in spr i ng.
Smal l yel l ow rou n d frui ts persi st
i nto wi nter. Al ong the Gul f coast,
White Ti ti forms dense t hi ckets 6
to 1 0 ft. hi gh.
SPARKLE BERRY, or Tree Huckl e
berry, someti mes grows to tree
si ze. More often i t i s an attrac
ti ve s hr ub wi t h g l ossy, a l t ernate,
si mpl e, somewhat rounded l eaves.
The droopi ng, bel l - shaped whi te
fowers ri pen i nto bl ack, seedy
frui ts eaten by s mal l ani mal s .
GRAPES A score or more of wi l d
and cul tivated speci es grow i n t he
south. The best-known wi l d grape
i s the Muscadi ne wi t h l eaves
rounded and scarcel y l obed. The
Scupper nong is i t s cul tivated form.
The Summer Grape has soft
l eaves, rusty bel ow.
CORAL BEAN i s a southern pl ant
whi ch is someti mes a s hr ub or
tree. Leaves compound, wi th three
l eafl ets. Tubul ar, droopi ng scarl et
fowers grow i n a n arrow spi ke.
They ri pen i nto l ong pods whi ch
spl i t to reveal bri ght red, poi son
ous seeds.
GREENBRI ER, or Bamboo vi ne,
and other members of the thorny
smi l ax group a re common al l
al ong t h e south coast al pl ai n.
Thi s speci es i s a l arge vi ne wi th
obl ong, ever green l eaves whi ch
taper to a wedge-shaped base.
Fl owers s mal l and greeni sh; frui ts
round and bl ack.
SUPPLE JACK, or Rattan Vi ne,
i s a strong cl i mber of southern
woods and swamps wi th si mpl e,
al ternate l eaves, marked by con
spi cuous paral l el vei ns. The smal l ,
greeni sh-whi te fowers a re fve
petal ed, in short spi kes. Frui ts are
oval and bl ui sh- bl ack.
67
BOUGAI NVI LLEA from Brazi l
is seen i n most of Fl ori da as a
vi ne or tri mmed shrub. The smal l
yel l owi sh fowers are set of by
purpl e bracts. Twi gs thorny,
l eaves, si mpl e, narrow, hea
shaped. Hybri ds are yel l ow,
orange and deep red in col or.
POI NSETTI A, i ntroduced
Mexi co, has become a Christmas
symbol . Fl owers s mal l , surround
ed by conspi cuous l eafy bracts.
Peopl e who have onl y seen poi n
settia potted are taken aback by
the l arge shr ubs of central and
southern Fl ori da.
CRAPE MYRTLE is an ol d-ti me
pl ant of gardens and borders wi th
attractive pi nk, red or purpl e
fl owers i n erect cl usters. Leaves
smal l , si mpl e and al ternate. I t
i s easi l y grown. Ori gi nal l y from
I ndia but pl anted wi del y where
mi l d cl i mate permits.
HI BI SCUS is probe most
common ornamental shr ub of the
South, wi th over 700 vari eties
some native, most from Asia and
Afri ca. Leaves al ternate, toothed
but vari abl e. Fl owers l arge fve
petal ed, often doubl e. Col ors
white, pi nk, yel l ow, orange, red.
CONFEDERATE JASMINE, or
Star Jasmi ne, i s an ol d-fashi oned
vi ne from S. Chi na, wi del y pl ant
ed i n southern gardens. Leaves
opposi te, gl ossy and thick. Fl ow
ers white (some yel l owi sh), about
1 i n. across and very fragrant.
JASMINES are a variabl e group
of shrubs and vi nes, some very
hardy. Leaves evergreen, si mpl e
or i n three or more l eafl ets, de
pendi ng on vari ety. Whi te- and
yel l ow-fowered speci es, wi t h a
fragrant fattened fower devel op
i ng from a tube.
GARDENIAS i ncl ude two African
and one Chi nese speci es. Al l have
opposite, gl ossy l eaves wi th
smooth edges. The fowers are
whi te, u nfol di ng from a tubul ar
base. The Chi nese speci es, al so
cal l ed Cape Jasmi ne, i s most com
monl y pl anted.
CAMELLIAS, from Chi na, are al so
evergreen shrubs wi th stif, waxy
fowers. These are white, pi nk or
red-often doubl e. The l eaves are
al ternate, si mpl e and toothed.
Camel l i as are somewhat hardi er
than Gardeni as and thrive i n ri ch,
shady aci d soi l .
69
SWAMP AZALEA ( l eft) is wi de
spread on t he coastal pl ai n, not
onl y i n swamps. F l oVers, whi te t o
pi nk, open wi t h t he l eaves.
FLAME AZALEA ( r i ght ) i s a br i l
l i ant speci es found t o t he nort h .
However, Fl ori da has one wi t h
yel l ow to orange fowers.
AZALEAS are so cl osel y rel ated to Rhododendrons, those
extravaga
n
t l y fowered evergreen shr ubs of sout hern
mountai ns, t hat they are now cl assi fed together. Nati ve
azal eas have fve- petal ed f unnel - shaped fowers and drop
t hei r smal l l eaves i n fal l . They grow i n swamps and open
wood l ands, fower i ng i n spri ng. Most states protect these
beauti f ul pl ants. Forei gn azal eas, wi del y pl anted i n aci d
soi l s al l t hrough t he south, fal l i nto th ree groups, of whi ch
the I ndi a and the Kurume Azal eas are best known. Potted
azal eas usual l y bel ong to the former gr oup. The famous
azal ea gardens of the South are best seen i n ear l y spr i ng.
I NDI A AZALEA fowers ( l eft), to
3 i n. across, are whi te, red, pu r
pl e and vari egated.
KURUME AZALEAS ( ri ght) , from
-_:i Japan, have smal l er fowers. Col
ors r un fr om whi te to pi nk, rose
S OUT H E AS T F L OWE RS
Thi s i s the l and of fowers; wit
ness the name Florida itsel f.
Fl owers, or more fu l l y, fl ower
ing herbaceous pl ants, are as
numerous an d prol i fc i n the
Southeast as t he woody trees,
shr ubs and vi nes. Wi th more
t han 9000 s pecies of fl oweri ng
pl ants, t he Southeast prob
abl y exceeds any other com
parabl e area in t he Uni ted
CHEROKEE ROSE, whi te to
pi nk, from Chi n a, cl i mbs
over Southern wal l s
.
States. The native speci es are augmented by hundreds ot
exotic and cul ti vated ki nds grown i n pots, beds and gar
dens. Many of these have escaped to become part of the
l ocal pl ant commu ni ty and competi tors of native s pecies.
Because of the c l i mate, some s peci es whic h di e of farther
north, here grow al l year. Other herbaceous speci es be
come woody and s hrub- l i ke. I n sout hern Fl ori da many
pl ants sl ow down or l ose t hei r l eaves duri ng t he dry
season. On l y common species are i l l ustrated. See books
bel ow for others.
For more about Southeastern fowers, read:
FLOWERS, H. S. Zi m and A. C. Marti n; Gol den Press, 1 950. A begi nner' s
gui de .arranged by col or; i ncl udes range maps.
FLOWERS OF T HE SoUTH, W. F. Greene and H. L. Bl omqui st; Uni v. of N.
Carol i na Press, 1 953. An excel l ent gui de to fowers, fower i ng trees
and shrubs. Native and exoti c pl ants separated; many i l l ustrati ons.
Su BTROPI CAL GARDE N I N G I N FL ORI DA, N. Smi l ey; Univ. of Mi ami Press,
1 95 1 . Covers many aspects of southern gardeni ng and garden fow
ers, sh rubs and trees.
FLOR I DA WI L D FLOWERS, M. E. F. Baker; Macmi l l an, New York, 1 938.
An ol d but standard gui de to h erbaceous foweri ng pl ants.
YoU R FL ORI DA GARDE N, Watki ns and Wol fe; U. of Fl a. Press, 1 956. A.
gui de to tropi cal gardeni ng and exotic pl ants.
FLOWERS 71
AI R PLANTS, or epi phytes, grow attached to or perched
on trees, pol es or even wi res where they may be abl e to
get more sunshi ne and rai n. They hol d water by the use of
speci al i zed roots or stems. Some store moi st ure in "tanks"
at the l eaf bases; some have bul bl i ke reservoi rs; others
use scal e hai rs. Many fami l i es of pl ants i ncl ude epi phytes,
rangi ng i n si ze from microscopi c al gae to l arge ferns and
orchi ds. Rel ati vel y few ai r pl ants are foweri ng. Among
these the best- known ar e members of t he pi neappl e an d
orchi d fami l i es.
SPANI SH MOSS ( pi neappl e
fami l y) i s nei ther a moss nor a
parasite, though a heavy growth
can smother trees. Ti ny yel l ow
green fowers appear duri ng May
and J une. I t absorbs water
through scal e hai rs. Sti l l used for
uphol steri ng.
WI LD PI NEAPPLE, most col or
ful nati ve ai r pl ant, grows in l arge
cl umps. I ts gray-green l eaves be
come ti nged wi th pur pl e i n spri ng
when t he pl ant bl ooms. Fl ower
stal k i s a bri ght red; the vi ol et
fowers t hemsel ves are smal l .
BALL MOSS or Bunch Moss l ooks
l i ke a bal l of coarse Spani sh Moss
-to whi ch i t i s rel ated-but l eaves
are l onger and more curved.
Common on trees, fences, and on
tel ephone wi res. Thi n fower stal k
bears smal l vi ol et fowers.
CORKSCREW AI R PLANT i s
named from the spi ral rosette
formed by t he s mal l , l i ghtl y
banded, twi sted l eaves. Long,
branched fower stal k has cl usters
of smal l whi te to pur pl i sh fowers.
A South Fl ori da speci es.
bLWLK-LLVL LLW-
b is a small epiphyte with del
icate leaves often tipped with red
at the time of blooming. Flower
stalk red with small purple fow
ers. All these are in the pineap
ple family-not orchid.
ORCHI DS, mai nl y tropi cal , i ncl ude over 1 5, 000 species;
about 200 in North Ameri ca, 1 1 0 in the Southeast. They
may take 4 to 8 years to bl oom. The fower, speci al i zed
for i nsect pol i nat i on, usual l y has an enl arged, col orful
" l i p" wi t h a nectar spur at t he base. Orchi ds grow i n fi el ds,
swamps and woodl ands. Tree-dwel l i ng ( epi phyti c) orchi ds
are found nowhere el se i n t he U. S.
74 FLOWERS
BUTTERFLY ORCHID i s the most
common of those growi ng on
trees. Green bul bs produce nar
row l eaves and a l ong, thi n fower
stal k, beari ng a l oose cl uster of
yel l owi sh, purpl e-spotted fowers,
ti nged with brown. Native orchi ds
are protected by l aw.
GREEN-FLY ORCHI D i s a hard
i er rel ative of the Butterfy Or
chid, found to the Carol i nas and
west t o Loui si ana. Leaves have no
bul b at the base. The del i cate,
fragrant fowers on a 1 2- to 20-i n.
stal k are greenish wi t h a ti nt of
purpl e. Bl ooms in s ummer.
GRASS PI NKS, found i n damp
pi ne woods and meadows, are a
group of pi nk to purpl e spri ng
bl oomi ng orchi ds. These del i cate
pl ants usual l y have a si ngl e l eaf
or cl uster of smal l l eaves at the
base of a stal k whi ch bears from
3 to 20 fowers. Not an epi phyte.
YELLOW FRI NGED ORCHID is
a showy member of a l arge group
found wi del y i n the East, but more
common i n southern moi st woods
and meadows. A spi ke of orange
fowers, each wi th a l ong, fri nged
l i p, appears i n summer. Narrow
basal l eaves are 8 to 1 0 i n. l ong.
seri ous pest t hroughout
t he Southeast, i ncl ude at l east si x s peci es. The common
form, probabl y f r om Sout h Ameri ca, has bl adder- l i ke
swel l i ngs bel ow each l eaf. I t spreads rapi dl y from run
ners ( l i ke strawberri es) and soon covers ponds, chokes
ri vers and cl ogs drai nage di tches. Expensive programs of
raki ng, mowi ng and sprayi ng hel p hol d it i n check. Vi s
i tors are attract
e
d by t he del i cate bl ue and pur pl e fl owers
borne on t hi ck stal ks, seen i n al l seasons, but wi t heri ng
qui ckl y when pi cked. Wat er hya
ci nths are of l itt l e use to wi l dl i fe or
to man. By crowdi ng out more de
si rabl e speci es, they are to nati ve
water pl ants what Engl i s h Spar
rows are to nati ve bi rds.
Range of water
hyaci nth i n the
Southeast
FLOWERS 75
PI TCHER PLANTS are unusual,
with hollow, trumpet-shaped
leaves, erect in some species. In
sects trapped in the leaves decay,
providing nitrogen for the plant.
Flowers attractive, with a bright
central canopy. Protected by l aw.
MOSS VERBENA with hairy,
deeply-cut leaves, grows close to
the ground along roads from cen
tral Florida northward. It blooms
spring and summer, with fat
topped clusters of small, purple
fowers.
MEADOW-BEAUTI ES are a
group of about a dozen species
of purple-fowered perennial
meadow plants. The attractive,
four-petaled fowers open in sum
mer. The simple, straplike leaves
grow opposite.
RAI LROAD VI NE or Goats-foot
is a morning glory found from
Georgia south and west into Tex
as, on beaches and roadsides.
Recognize it by the long, rope
like stems; thick, half-folded
leaves; and large purple fowers.
PI PEWORTS are common sum
mer- bl oomi ng pl ants of t he south
ern coastal regi ons. The t hi n fow
er stal ks wi th a ti ght crown of
white fowers ri se from a smal l
rosette of basal l eaves. Several
speci es grow i n moist, aci d soi l .
ROSE GENTI ANS (some to
dozen speci es) are cl osel y rel ated
to the bl ue-fowered genti ans.
They grow 1 to 3 ft. ta | | wi th sl en
der, branched stal ks and si mpl e,
opposi te l eaves. The fowers-usu
al l y pi nk, someti mes white
bl oom in s ummer.
MI LKWORTS are a l arge,
vari ed group with fowers rangi ng
from white t o yel l ow, orange and
purpl e, i n compact heads or open,
fat-topped cl usters. The smal l ,
si mpl e l eaves often grow at the
base of the fower stal k.
PI CKERELWEED, found al ong
shores of ponds, ri vers and ditch
es, fowers from J une to October.
Dark bl ue, thi ck fower spi kes are
somewhat si mi l ar to Water Hya
ci nth (p. 75), but l arge l eaves wi th
i ndented base are characteri sti c.
78 LLWbK
LI FE PLANT is the name
gi ven t o speci es of Kal an
choe ( Bryophyl l um) . Al so
known as live-forever, Fl op
pers or Ai r pl ant. Thi s tropi
cal group forms new pl ants
at notches or at ends of
l eaves.
SNAKE PLANT or Bow
stri ng Hemp i s so often
seen potted that i t i s a sur
pri se to fnd cl umps and
borders of t hi s thi ck- l eaved,
Afri can pl ant. Most speci es
are "steml ess, " l eaves grow
i ng from a stout rootstock.
BI RD OF PARADI SE pl ant
has a seri es of col orful fow
ers ari si ng from a shal l ow
purpl e bract. This unusual
member of t he banana
fami l y grows 3 ft. hi gh i n
r i ch moi st soi l . Another
speci es has whi te fowers.
CORAL VI NE i s abundant
i n the South, cl i mbi ng over
si des of bui l di ngs. I t has
l i ght green, wri nkl ed, ar
row-shaped l eaves and
pi nk fowers. A white vari e
ty i s l ess common.
TROP I CAL F L ORI DA
The area shown on the map
reaches cl oser t o t he tropi
cal zone than any other
part of t he United States.
hO cl i mate, al so, i s trop
i cal ; wi nter temperatures
average above 65 F. ; frosts
are rare or absent. As a
resu l t, many native pl ants Key West

are compl etel y di ferent
:
from those of northern Fl ori da. A number are rel ated to
speci es of the Bahamas, West I ndi es or Mexi co. The regi on
al so abounds wi th pl ants from Afri ca, S. Asi a, Austral i a,
S. Ameri ca, and t he Paci fc I sl ands, rangi ng from t i ny per
enni al s to l arge trees wi th unusual fl owers.
For more about plants of tropical Fl orida, read:
400 PLANTS OF SouT H F LOR I DA, J. F. Morton and R. B. Ledi n.
Text House,
Coral Gabl es, Fl a. , 1 952.
CoMMON EXOTI C TREES OF SouTH FL ORI DA, M. F. Barrett. Univ. of Fl a.
Press, Gai nesvi l l e, 1 956.
NAT I VE TREES AND PAL MS OF SOUTH FLOR I DA, W. M. Buslwel f . Uni v. of
Mi ami Bul l eti n, Vol . 1 9, No. 6, 1 945, Coral Gabl es, Fl a.
SHADE AND OR NAMENTAL TREES F OR S. FL OR I DA AND CU BA, D. Sturrock
and E. A. Menni nger. Stuart Dai l y News, Stuart, Fl a. , 1 946.
ALLAMANDA, from Brazi l , is a
vi ne with whorl ed l eaves and fun
nel -shaped yel l ow ( or pu rpl e)
fowers. Propagated by cutti ngs.
CERIMAN i s an eye-catchi ng
cl i mber wi th l arge, deepl y-cut and
"hol ed" l eaves. The whi te fower
spathe forms a l arge, edi bl e frui t.
79
80 TROPI CAL PLANTS
GUMBO LI MBO, seen from Tam
pa south, i s found al so i n Centra l
Ameri ca and t he West I ndi es.
Noted for t he way i t s branches
root qui ckl y when st uck i n t he
soi l . I ts papery, reddi sh- brown
bar k has a bi rch- l i ke textu re.
Leaves compound (3 to 7 l eafl ets) ,
al ternate. Fr ui ts pu rpl e, _ i n .
l ong, i n cl usters.
POI SONWOOD, t he Sout h Fl or
i da s uppl ement to Poi son I vy, i s
a handsome but dangerous tree
40 ft. hi gh wi t h a gray-brown
faky bark over an i nner or ange
l ayer. Leaves ar e compound; l eaf
l ets t hi ck, dar k green, gl ossy, wi t h
fattened bases-compare wi th
Gumbo Li mbo and Mahogany.
Oval , orange frui t, i n l oos e cl usters.
COCO PLUM i s a l ow ( to 30 ft. )
rou nded tree of sout her n Fl ori da,
the West I ndi es and Central
Ameri ca. Ti ny whi te fl owers, i n
spi kes, devel op i nto l arge, edi bl e,
sweet, whi ti sh-to- purpl e fr ui ts.
Leaves are rou nded, tough and
gl ossy, dar k green, i ndented O bi t
at t he t i p. Coco Pl u m i s O coastal
tree, found al ong canal s and wa
terways. Bar k: reddi sh- brown.
FLORI DA STRANGLE R FI G be
l ongs i n a l ar ge fami l y, al l hav
i ng a mi l ky sap. Smal l seeds from
t he red, pai red fr ui ts l odge i n a
pal metto or ot her h ost. Here they
grow, s endi ng roots downward
al ong the tru n k; br anches and
l eaves cut of su n l i ght and even
t ual l y strangl e t he host . Leaves:
thi ck, oval , 4 i n. l ong. Bar
k
:
smooth, dar k gray.
RED MANGROVE, 1 5 to 70 ft.
h i gh, wi th spreadi ng st i l t roots, i s
seen al ong most sout her n Fl or i da
shores. Seeds ger mi nate on t he
t r ee and devel op i nto seedl i ng
"penci l s" whi c h f al l and fl oat
away. Leaves l eat hery, opposi te.
Bl ack Man grove l acks sti l t roots,
is more t reel i ke-wi th smal l
l eaves, fragrant fl owers.
WI LD TAMARI ND i s fou nd south
of Mi ami as a tal l tree (to 60 ft. )
wi th brown, scal y bar k. The l eaves
are feathery and twi ce compound
ed. I n spr i ng, t he mi n ute fl owers
form t i ght, f uzzy, d roopi ng
gl obes. By fal l , t he fl at, brown
frui t pods have for med, and may
hang on t he twi gs for some t i me.
Al so occurs i n t he West I ndi es.
WEST INDI ES MAHOGANY i s
found wi l d on the mai n l and and
t he Keys, and i s al so p l anted for
s hade. I t i s a handsome tree (to
50 ft. ) ; bar k g ray- brown, scal y on
ol der trees. Leaves al ter nate, wi th
4 to 8 l eafl ets wi th sharp ti ps and
unequal bases. F rui ts are erect
brown pods, whi ch spl i t open, re
l easi ng wi nged seeds.
SEA GRAPE i s an eye-fl l i n g tree
for mi ng dense t hi c kets on coastal
beaches. Al so pl anted wi del y.
Spreadi ng br anches d roop to t he
gr ound. The rou n d l eat hery l eaves
wi th red vei ns cannot be mi stak
en; young l eaves are a del i cate
br onze. The ti ny fowers for m a
thi ck spi ke. Pur pl e fr u i ts, fn e for
j el l y, a re eaten by wi l dl i fe.
TROPI CAL PLANTS 8 1
ROYAL POI NCI ANA, from Mad
agascar, i s wi despread i n t he
West I ndies and southern Fl ori da.
Handsome at any ti me, i t i s su
perb i n l ate spri ng when i t i s a
mass of orange-red fowers. Seed
pods are heavy, brown; often 2
ft. l ong. The tree has O wi de,
spreadi ng crown and fe_atherl i ke,
twice-compounded l eaves. Grows
to 40 ft. hi gh.
ORCHI D TREE i s a wi del y pl ant
ed shr ub or smal l tree (to 35 ft. )
native to I ndi a. Several speci es
are al l marked by si mpl e two
wi nged l eaves of an unusual but
terfy shape. The orchi d-l i ke fow
ers whi ch appear in wi nter vary
from whi te to pi nk, l i l ac, and
purpl e, dependi ng on t he speci es.
Seeds are l ong, browni sh pods.
WOMAN' S TONGUE gets its
name from the t hi n, browni sh seed
pods, whi ch rattl e in the sl i ghtest
breeze. This weedl i ke, qui ck
growi ng Asi ati c shade tree i s nat
ural i zed i n southern Fl ori da. I ts
spreadi ng branches bear pom
82 TROPI CAL PLANTS
poms of greeni sh-yel l ow fowers,
and twi ce compound l eaves wi th
rou nded l eafets. Mi mosa fami l y.
TRAVELER' S TREE-from Mada
gascar-a member of the banana
fami l y, grows wel l i n tropi cal Fl or
i da. I t i s not a true tree, t hough
i t may grow 30 ft . hi gh, wi t h i ts
9-ft. l eaves for.i ng a h uge fan.
Travel ers, far from t hei r hotel ,
can fi nd water trapped i n the
base of the l eaves. There are al so
bri ght bl ue seeds and a cl ear,
sugary sap, both edi bl e.
CENTURY PLANTS from Mexico
and Central Ameri ca join one na
ti ve speci es to for m a stri ki ng,
easi ly i denti fed group. The ro
sette of thi ck, spi ked leaves grows
sl owl y, and after 20 years or so
( not a cent ury) sends up a tal l
stal k of creamy fowers, and di es.
These pl ants produce si sal fber
and the Mexi can dr i nks pulque
and fequilla.
ACALYPHA or Copper leaf, com
monl y used as a hedge or or na
mental pl ant, is a branchi ng shrub
( to 1 5 ft. ) wi th red, vari col ored,
curl ed, heart-shaped l eaves. Fl ow
ers are smal l an d red, i n short,
droopi ng spi kes. A native of S.
Paci fc i sl ands. A cl ose rel ati ve,
the Cheni l l e Pl ant, has more
showy fower cl usters.
TROPI CAL ALMOND bel ongs to
a l arge fami l y of tropi cal trees
from southern Asi a. Fast-growi ng,
it reaches 75 ft. hi gh wi th thi ck,
hori zontal branches. long, l eath
ery l eaves, cl ustered at ends of
twigs, t urn red wi th drought or
col d. Fl owers smal l , in droopi ng
spi kes. Frui ts ( not true al monds) ,
i n a green husk, are edi bl e.
BANYAN of I ndi a is a famous
t ree whi ch spreads aer i al roots t o
form new tru nks. Thi s and other
members of the fg fami l y are
wi del y pl anted as shade trees.
The Fal se Banyan, the Benj ami n
Fi g and t he Rubber Tree are gen
eral l y s i mi l ar, wi th si mpl e, thi ck,
gl ossy l eaves. The l eaves of the
edi bl e fg are l obed l i ke mapl e.
CROTONS become more and more com
mon as one goes south i n Fl ori da, where
they are a uni versal front-yard pl ant.
Dozens of vari eties al l have mul ti col ored
thi ck l eaves-twi sted, cut, l obed or el on
gated. Leaf col or vari es from green through
yel l ows, r eds and purpl es. Fl owers smal l ,
yel l owi sh, in a t hi n spi ke.
FLAE VI NE from Brazi l i s a
spectacul ar cl i mber whi ch grows
rapi dly and bears handsome tu
bul ar fve-petal ed orange fow
ers. I n Fl ori da these do not de
vel op i nto frui t. Leaves wi th 2 to
3 l eafets, and a t hree-branched
tendr i l by whi ch the pl ant cl i mbs.
ALOES, ori gi nal l y from Afri ca
and the Medi terranean regi on,
have sti f, succul ent, upcu rved
l eaves formi ng a feshy rosette.
Fl ower stal k bears yel l ow or red
spi kes. Barbados Al oe i s the com
mon South Fl ori da speci es. At
l east a score more are cul ti vated.
COMMON SCREW PI NE, or
Pandanus, grows tree hi gh (20
ft. ) wi th strong prop roots.
Long, strapl i ke leaves with
needle-toothed margi ns, grow
cl ose i n ascendi ng spi ral s.
From Madagascar. Other spe
ci es, some wi th vari col ored
l eaves, from South Paci fc
I sl ands.
ANI MAL L I FE
Ani mal l ife i n t he Southeast vi es
i n abundance and diversi ty wi th
the pl ants. Of the ani mal s, fs h
es and bi rds are per haps best
known, but anyone i nterested
in any phase of ani mal l i fe wi l l
fnd the Southeast has some
thi ng exci ti ng to contri bute. As
the face of the Southeast
changes, the i ncrease i n popu
l ati on, i n i ndustry and i n agri
cul ture l i mi ts the wi l dl i fe popu
l ati on. The number of bi rds i n
the great F l ori da rookeri es is
on l y a smal l fracti on of what
ROSEATE SPOONBI LL of S.
Fl ori da and the Keys, has a
uni que bi l l for feedi ng on
smal l fs h and shal l ow-water
l i fe. Length : 30 i n.
i t was a generati on ago. Enj oy and study wi l dl i fe, but
don' t t ake i t for granted, even i n refuges and parks bel ow.
W LL b KbUbb [ red dols] under lhe su-
perv son of lhe U. b. sh & Wd fe bervce
prov de reslng ond feedng grounds for
wolerfow ond olher mgrolng brds. Vs-
lors ore wecome. Lheck o8o for blole
refuge8 ond lhose e8lobshed by lhe No-
lono Pudubon boc.
Wh le Heron

o
Key Wesl

ee
SHORE L I F E
ANGEL WI NGS l ive buried i n
mud and s and al ong t he Gul f
coast. Shel l s are fragi l e; 6 t o 8 i n.
l ong. The ani mal i s edi bl e.
Shore l i fe abounds al ong t he southeast shorel i ne whi ch
i ncl udes some 24, 000 mi l es of bays, i nl ets and shores.
Thi s regi on i s the Mecca of shel l col l ectors. Beaches such
as those on Captiva, Sani bel and Marco i s l ands are
famous. Shel l s from al l over t he worl d are sol d at road
si de stands, but i t i s more fun to col l ect your own. Even
better, observe and study mol l usks, starfsh and crabs as
l i vi ng ani mal s. Expl ore mudfats, rocks, ti de pool s, pi l i ng
and wrecks for vari ous ki nds of sea l i fe.
For more about southern shel l fsh, read:
AMERI CAN SEA SHE L LS, R. T. Abbott. D. Van Nostrand, N. Y. , 1 954.
AN I MALS WI THOUT BACKB ON ES, R. M. Buchsbaum. Univ. of Chi cago Press,
Chi cago, 1 948.
F I EL D GU I D E TO T HE SHELLS of our Atl antic and Gul f Coasts, P. A. Morri s.
Houghton Mi fi n, Boston, 1 95 1 .
FL ORI DA SEA SHE LLS, B. Al dri ch and E. Snyder. Houghton Mi fi n, 1 936.
SEAS HORES, H. S. Zi m and L. I ngl e. Gol den Press, N.Y., 1 955.
86 SHORE LI FE
CONCHS are a fami l y of l arge tropi cal sea snai. l s found
al ong shores and coral reefs. They move acti vel y, usi ng a
powerf ul "foot" whi ch ends i n a cl aw- l i ke hook, searchi ng
f or dead fi sh or mol l usks on whi ch they feed. Common i n
the F l ori da Keys and nearby Gu l f waters.
QUEEN CONCH is common, l arge
and attractive. Few shel l s can vi e
wi th i ts rose-pi nk i nteri or. A scav
enger of coral roofs; to 1 2 i n. ,
weight to 5 l b. The pri me
di ent of conch chowder.
HAWK WI NG is one of the smal l er
conchs-4 t o 6 i n. l ong wi t h a mottl ed
or streaked shel l . Smal l knobs mar k
the edge of the whorl s. A Fl or i da Keys
and West I ndi es speci es.
FLORI DA FI GHTI NG CONCH (3
to 5 i n. ) is si mi l ar to the West
I ndi es Fi ghti ng Conch but i s usu
al ly browner, wi th fewer knobs or
spi nes. A scavenger of shal l ow
Fl ori da waters.
88 SHORE LI FE
TURKEY WI NGS on both t he At
l ant i c and Gul f coasts l ive at
tached to rocks, grow 2 to 5 i n.
l ong, with a strai ght toothed
,,., .. ,, __ hi nge. Shel l heavy, streaked, yel -
l ow or brown.
PONDEROUS ARK is found i n
deeper waters of al l shores but i s
most common i n the Gul f. Shel l of
l i vi ng ani mal i s covered wi th a
t hi n bl ack ski n whi ch peel s of.
JI NGLE SHELLS are fou nd al ong
both coasts. Col or vari es f r om yel
l ow to pi nk, gray and white. Low
er val ve s mal l er, usual l y remai ns
attached t o rocks.
SUNRI SE TELLIN or Ri si ng Sun
l i ves i n t he s and j ust bel ow the
l ow ti de mark. Note the smooth
shel l wi th broadeni ng col ored
rays. Grows 2 to 4 i n . l ong.
SUNRAY VENUS i s l arger ( 5 t o
6 i n. ) t han the Sunrise Tel l i n but
l i ke i t has broadeni ng rays. Col or
gray, pi nk or l i l ac. Fou nd u nder
sand i n shal l ow water. Edi bl e.
CHI TONS are a gr oup of mol
l usks whi ch have O shel l of 8
overl appi ng pl ates. Found on
rocks i n t i de pool s. Common here,
but more so al ong the Paci fc.
CALI CO SCALLOP i s the most
common southern scal l op (1 to 2
i n. ); it is fou nd i n a ri ch vari ety
of col ors. About 20 radi ati ng ri bs
j oi n at the wi nged hi nge l i ne.
STI FF PEN SHELL grows attached
to rocks i n deep water. These l arge
(8 to 1 2 i n. ) sel l s are washed
ashore after storms. More
common i n the Gul f.
Note tri angul ar shape.
ATLANTI C COCKLE i s found i n
t he Gul f al so, washed ashore af
ter storms. Shel l 3 to 6 i n. in dia.
wi t h about 35 stout ri bs. Very
common. Used i n shel l souveni rs.
COQUI NAS are common, and
t hough smal l / to 3/4 i n. ) are
desi rabl e as food. Thei r col or and
pattern i ncl ude nearl y every
shade and form. Al so cal l ed But
terfy Shel l .
89
90 SHORE LI FE
BLEEDI NG TOOTH i s fou nd on
rocks and coral . Shl l marked
wi t h dark zi gzag bars. Edge of
s hel l whi te with br i ght orange
spot. Feeds on seaweeds.
TULI P SHELL is common al ong
Atl anti c and Gu l f shores. Col or a
green- gray wi t h darker mar ki ngs.
Lengt h 5 to 8 i n . A sl ow- movi ng
scavenger of s hal l ow water.
FLORI DA CERI TH ( or Hornshel l )
i s one of a grou p of spi ral -shel l ed
snai l s of war m wat ers. Col or whi te
or g ray, l ength about 1 i n. A
common ani mal on seaweeds.
ALPHABET CONE represents the
l arge fami l y of cone s hel l s fou nd
i n al l tropi cal waters. Shel l s fou n d
washed on beaches. I rregu l ar
mar ki ngs name t hi s speci es.
PEAR WHELK i s a sout hern mem
ber of a l ar ge norther n fami l y.
Shel l i s more del i cate and l ess
knobbed t han nor t her n ki nds.
Found al ong both Fl ori da coasts.
SPI NY LOBSTE R (8 to 1 6 i n. )
l acks cl aws of nort her n l obster
and has spi ny shel l . Lives under
rocks and mar i ne g rowths i n shal
l ow wat er . Excel l ent eati ng
.
BLUE CRAB is found i n oyster
reefs, bays and cha n nel s. Famous
i n Loui si ana bayous and Chesa
peake Bay. Mat ur e in 2 years;
cal l ed "soft-shel l s" when mol ti ng.
STONE CRAB, ofer ed as a del i
cacy i n restau rants, i s found on
sandy bottoms and oyster reefs i n
t he At l ant i c and Gul f. St out, hard
s hel l 6 i n. wi de. Massi ve cl aws.
HERMI T CRABS (1 to 6 i n. l ong)
use s hel l s of any sea snai l s as
portabl e homes. Prefer , rocky
beaches. Some sout her n speci es
l i ve on l and-even i n trees !
HORSESHOE CRAB, u nchanged
for 400 mi l l i on years, i s not a t r ue
cr ab. Found on shal l ow s andy
bottoms, i t i s of g reat sci ent i fc
i nterest but l i tt l e economi c val ue.
PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR
is a j el l yfsh-one of the few dan
gerous to swi mmers. The sti ngi ng
cel l s i n t he tentacl es can cause
severe and pai nf ul reacti ons.
Watch for these j el l yfsh, easi l y
recognized by thei r purpl e foat,
and remember that tentacl es may
extend over 20 ft.
found on southern rocky shores,
i s rel ated to starfshes and other
fve-rayed ani mal s. The l i vi ng Sea
Urchi n i s covered wi th purpl e
spi nes. These fal l of after death
and onl y the warty shel l i s washed
up on beaches.
NS are rel ated to coral s
but grow more erect and fattened.
They are horny, rat her t han l i my
l i ke coral . Thei r col or varies from
yel l ow to red and vi ol et. Sea Fans
are col oni al ; the hu ndreds of l i v
i ng ani mal s or pol yps are each
l i ke a ti ny tentacl ed j el l yfsh.
CORALS i ncl ude some 2500 ki nds,
but onl y a score are found on our
southern shores. Brai n Coral forms
rounded, furrowed masses. Stag
horn Coral branches as its name
i ndi cates. Cor al s are col oni al ani
mal s that secrete l i me t o bui l d
reefs and i sl ands.
F I S H E S
BLUEGI LL is a common su nfsh of
ponds and l akes; wt. to 1 l b. ;
food, i nsects and t hei r ki n. One of
the best known pan fsh, fou nd
wi th bass.
POMPANO i s common on the
East coast but more so on the Gul f
around i nl ets, channel s and ri ver
mout hs. Wt. 2 to 3 l b. Note yel
l owi sh tai l mar gi n.
Fi shes and fi s hi ng are, t o some, more i mportant t han even
the southern s uns hi ne. Thi s area i s unequal ed for i ts var i ety
of fshes an d for t he excel l ence of fi s hi ng. Over 1 1 00 speci es
of fresh
-
and sal t-water fi shes are foun d here, i ncl udi ng
many t hat ran k hi gh as food an d sports fi shes. I n South
F l ori da waters are Bahaman, West I ndi an an d other south
ern speci es never seen fart her nort h. Mar i ne fi s hi ng begi ns
wi t h t he surf, j etti es and pi ers. I t moves i nto boats f or bot
tom fi s hi ng, reef fi s hi ng (i n southern Fl ori da) an d out to
the Gul f Stream for the bi g ones. Fi shermen are j ust as
ent h usi asti c about bass and other fres h-water speci es i n
the l akes, streams an d spri ngs.
For more i nformati on about fshes, read:
F I S HES, H. S. Zi m and H. H. Shoemaker. Gol den Press, New York, 1 956.
F I S HI NG GU I D E. The Mi ami Heral d, Mi ami , Fl a. (annual edi ti ons) .
NoRT H AMERI CAN GAME F I S H ES, F. R. La Monte. Doubl eday, New York,
1 946.
HAN DB OOK OF F I S HES OF T HE ATLANT I C SEABOARD, W. Ackerman. Amer.
Pub. Co. , Washi ngton, D. C. , 1 95 1 .
LI F E STORY O F T HE F I SH, B . Cu rti s. Appl eton-Cent ury, New York, 1 938.
F I EL D BOOK OF T HE SHORE f i S HES OF BER MU DA, W. Beebe and J . Tee-Van.
Put nam, New York, 1 929.
FLOR I DA F i SH I N G, G. Lewi s. Crown Pub. , New York, 1 957.
FI SHES 93
NURSE SHARK ( harml ess) is seen
in shal l ow water from the Keys to
Car ol i nas, feedi ng on shri mp,
crabs. Length : 5 to 1 2 ft. Sand
Shark, smal l er ( t o 9 ft.), and wi th
out barbel s, i s a scavenger.
RED GROUPER i s the most com
mon of O desi rabl e group of
southern food fshes. A bottom fsh
preferri ng rocks and channel s.
Col or vari abl e; avg. wt. 5 l b. Jew
fsh i s the l argest of the groupers.
RED SNAPPER i s the best known
of the snappers-al l are fne food
and game fsh. Found mai nl y i n
t he Gulf, t hi s one averages about
5 l b. Mangrove Snapper i s smal l
er and greeni sh.
YELLOWTAI L i s a streaml i ned
snapper wi th a deepl y forked tai l
and a yel l ow streak on the si des.
Li ke other snappers, has sharp
teeth, feeds on shri mp and other
crustaceans. Wt. about 2 l b
.
BARRACUDA ( cuda for short)
l i ves both ofshore and in shal
l ows. Avg. wt. about 8 l b. -often
25 l b. or more. Thi s swift, savage
fsh feeds on s mal l er species. I t
may attack swi mmers.
94 Hb
STI NGRAY is a fattened rel ative
of sharks. Name refers to a
toothed bony sti nger near the
base of the tai l whi ch can produce
a bad wound. Wi dth of wi ngs: 2
to 3 ft. Young are born al ive.
CREVALLE JACK, l i ke others of
its fami l y, has a strong keel al ong
the si des that supports the tai l .
Thi s fattened game fs h i s found
from Georgi a southward, i n cuts,
channel s and i nl ets. Avg. wt. 3 l b.
CHANNEL BASS ranges from the
Keys to Del aware, movi ng north
i n spri ng. Use the bl ack spot near
the base of t he tai l for i denti fca
ti on. A commerci al food fsh, and
a fne sports fs h al so.
DOLPHI N or dorado i s cl ai med to
be swi ftest and most beauti ful of
game fshes. Mal e has a verti cal
forehead. Feeds on fsh, ofshore
i n the Atl anti c and Gul f. Avg. wt.
5 l b. ; rarel y to 30 or more.
TARPON, one of the best-known
game fsh, i s rarel y used for food.
Moves from open water i nto bays
and rivers in l ate spri ng. More
common in southern F l ori da. Avg.
wt. 30 to 50 l b. -but up to 300.
NK Nb bHbb
mPK Mb rl bHb
SAILFISH, named because of its
l arge dorsal fn, i s a famed south
ern gamefsh, averagi ng 35 to 45
l b., about 6 ft. i n l ength. Found
mostl y i n the Gul f Stream, i t
feeds on smal l er fshes.
SNOOK are found on the Fl ori da
East coast and al ong the Gul f, i n
shal l ows, near spits and i n canal s.
Feed on smal l fsh and crusta
ceans. Snook, O top game fsh, are
excel l ent eati ng. Avg. wt. 5 l b.
mul let
marl i n
MULLET i s common al ong shores
from Hatteras to the Gulf. It i s
a good food fsh, al so used for
bai t. I t feeds on smal l bottom
pl ants and ani mal s. Caught mai n
l y i n nets.
Avg. wt . 1 l b.
BLUE MARLIN i s the granddad
of game fsh; some reported as
l arge as 1 500 l bs. A Gul f Stream
fsh, i t moves north i n summer, but
i s al ways found of Fl ori da. Avg.
wt. 300 l bs. Length : 6 to 1 5 feet.
SOUTHERN FLOUNDER i s much
l i ke i ts northern rel ative-with col
or as vari abl e as the bottom. Thi s
fatfsh l i es nearl y buri ed i n sand,
awai ti ng crustaceans and smal l
fsh. F i ne eati ng. Avg. wt. 2 l b.
FRESHWATER FI SHES
BUFFALOFI SH-sever al speci es
l ive i n rivers, bayous an d sout hern
ponds. The coarse food fshes are
netted commerci al l y. Smal l mout h
Bufal ofsh from t he Gul f west of
Fl ori da wei gh up to 25 l bs.
LONGNOSE GAR, most common
of several speci es, l i ves i n ponds,
canal s and ri vers. Gars are an
ci ent fshes, wi t h a rmor ed s ki n.
They are pests to fs her men and
di fcul t t o catch. Two to 4 ft. l ong.
BLACK CRAPPI E ( Cal i co Bass) i s
common i n l akes and ponds. I ts
banded rel ati ve, t he Whi te Crap
pi e, i s mor e common i n t he Mi s
si ssi ppi basi n . Both are wel l
known pan fs h. Wt . about 1 l b.
EASTERN PI CKEREL i s a cl ose
rel ati ve of t he Pi ke and Muskel
l unge. I t l i ves al ong t he weedy
s hores of ponds and sl ow ri vers,
feedi ng on al l s mal l aquati c ani
mal s. Avg. wt. 1 to 2 l b.
LARGEMOUTH BASS i s the
fresh-water game fsh of t he
Sout h. I t pr efers s hal l ows, rocks,
an d over grown bottoms, feedi ng
on aquati c i nsects. Avg. wt.
about 1 l b. -record about 25.
QUEEN TRI GGERFI SH of sout h
er n Fl ori da wat ers has O br i l l i ant
l y col ored, tough ski n wi th smal l
scal es. A reef dwel l er about a foot
l ong, i t feeds
'
mai nl y on shel l fsh.
The Common Tri ggerfsh, brown
i sh and sl i ghtl y s mal l er, i s more
wi del y dist r i but ed.
RAI NBOW PARROTFI SH i s t he
l ar gest of a g roup of West I ndi es
and Fl ori da reef fshes. I t feeds on
mol l usks an d can bi te fshhooks i n
two wi th its heavy, fused teet h.
You nger Par rotfshes ar e g reener
i n col or . Lengt h about a foot;
rarel y up to 3 feet.
98 bHbb
COMMON BUTTERFLY FI SH has
var i abl e mar ki ngs, but t he bl ack
l i ne t hrough t he eye and bl ack
spot on t he upper fn a re typi cal .
The Four-eyed Butterfy Fi sh, al so
common, has bl ack fecks on si des
and an or ange band on rear fns
and tai l . Both 8 to 1 2 i n. l ong.
COMMON ANGELFI SH about
1 8 i n. l ong and bri ghtl y col ored,
l i ves i n cor al reefs and wel l up the
Fl or i da coast. I ts food i s mol l usks
and s mal l cr ustaceans
.
The Queen
Angel fsh i s si mi l ar i n si ze and
col or but br i ghter, and wi th a
dar k ' ' eye spot" on i ts forehead.
R E P T I L E S A N D AMP H I B I A N S
Repti l es and amphi bi ans recei ve more attenti on t han t hei r
i mportance warrants. Yet t hei r unusual forms make every
one curi ous. The Southeast i s ri ch i n speci es of frogs, toads,
sal amanders, turtl es, l i zards and snakes. Cl ose observati on
wi l l show how i nterest i ng these ani mal s are. Few s nakes
are poi sonous and reasonabl e safeguar ds can make thei r
danger negl i gi bl e. Fi nd out about proper c l othi ng and
frst ai d before goi ng i nto woods or open country.
For more about reptil es and amphibians, read:
REPTI L ES AND AMP HI B I ANS , H. S. Zi m and H. M. Smi t h. Gol den Press,
New York, 1 953.
GU I D E TO THE REPT I L E S, AMP HI B I ANS AN D fRE S H-WATER f i S HES OF f L OR I DA
A. F. Car r and C. J . Goi n. Un i v. of Fl a. Press, Gai nesvi l l e, 1 955.
'
HAN DB OOK SE R I ES (va ri ous authors) . Comstock Pub. Assoc. I thaca, 1 947-
57. A seri es of fve handbooks on Sal amanders, F rogs and Toads,
Tu rtl es, li zards and Snakes. Standard reference . vol umes.
LOGGERHEAD
found i n bays and t he open sea.
I t feeds on shel l fsh a n d other ma
ri ne l i fe. Lengt h : over 3 ft.
NH b M VV
GREEN TREE FROG is typi cal of
a l arge southern group of Hyl as.
I t i s 2 i n. l ong, bri ght green, wi th
a whi te stri pe down each si de;
toes end i n s uct i on di sks. Li ke
ot her tree frogs, i t is fou n d on
pl ants near water. Not easi l y
seen but often heard at ni ght.
GOPHER FROG l ives in pi ne
l ands and scrubl ands; often i n
burrows of Gopher Tu rtl es. I t i s 3
to 4 i n. l ong, pal e i n col or, wi th
dark brown spots. The Gopher
Frog i s bui l t l i ke the Bul l frog, but
does not l ive by the water.
1 00 AMPHI BI ANS
FLORI DA CHORUS FROG and
i t s cl ose rel ati ves are al l s mal l ,
rough-ski nned fr ogs wi t h s l ender
bodi es a nd poi nted snouts. This
speci es has three rows of dark,
uneven spots down i ts back; others
have dar k stri pes. Chor us F rogs
are about an i nch l ong.
EASTERN NARROW-MOUTHED
FROG i s an u n us ual fr og wi th
smooth ski n and a nar row, poi nted
head, wi th a fol d on ski n j ust
behi nd the eyes. I t i s a dark red
di sh- brown an d may have l i ght
stri ps on each si de. 1 i n. l ong.
ANOLE, or Ameri can Chamel eon,
is a common southern l i zard,
found on trees and around bui l d
i ngs. I t cl i mbs easi l y wi th sucti on
toe pads. Ski n has smal l scal es.
Col or changes from bri ght green
to brown and gray. Mal e can ex
pand red fol d of ski n on its t hroat.
SOUTHERN FENCE LI ZARD,
seen throughout the Southeast,
can be recogni zed by i ts rough
scal es. Mal es have bl ue patches
on thei r si des and on thei r th roats.
Fence Lizards prefer open woods,
but are often seen i n woodpi l es.
FI VE-LI NED SKI NKS (several
speci es of them) ar e abundant i n
woods and scrubl ands, al ong
fences, under rocks, and even i n
bui l di ngs. Adults usual l y have fve
l i ght stri pes. The bri l l i ant bl ue tai l
fades i n adul ts. Feed on i nsects
and other smal l i nvertebrates.
SI X-LI NED WHI PTAI L LI ZARD,
or Racer unner, i s a common,
fast and i nteresti ng species, with
several western rel atives. I t is
sl ender, wi th a tai l twi ce i ts body
l ength. Scal es are fne and smooth,
with si x narrow stripes.
SOFT -SHELLED TURTLES, com
mon i n the Sout h, are fou nd
t hr oughout the Mi ssi ssi ppi val l ey.
The s hel l l acks the horny scal es of
other t urtl es, and t he edge i s soft.
These vi ci ous tu rtl es snap and bi te.
The spi ny southern speci es i s often
seen cl ose to the water.
GOPHER TURTLE i s a cl umsy
cl u bfooted vegetari an whi ch l i ves
i n the l ong bur rows it di gs in the
sandy soi l . I t i s a t rue tortoi se
wi th a hi gh-backed s hel l , rel ated
to those of t he Southwest desert
and to t he gi ant tortoise of the
Gal apagos I s l ands. Grows 1 0 ta
1 2 i n. l ong.
SNAPPI NG TURTLES, most com
mon i n the South, are aquati c. The
rear of thei r rough shel l has a
toothed edge. The u ndershel l i s
s mal l . The Al l i gat or Snapper, a
l arger speci es, may wei gh over
1 00 l b. I t i s found on l y i n south
er n ri vers and pands.
SLI DERS a re t he tu rtl es found i n
pet shops. They a re fat-shel l ed
aquati c speci es of t he sout h and
cent r al states, often seen s unni ng
on l ogs. Mal es may be much dar k
er t han femal es an d often have
extra- l ong toenai l s on t hei r front
feet. Lengt h : 8 to 1 2 i n .
ALLI GATORS AND CROCODI LES are typi cal of t hi s
southern area. Al l i gators, once common, are wi despread,
t hough somewhat rare, and i t i s al most i mpossi bl e to fnd
one over 1 0 ft. l ong. Note the broad snout. Al l i gators
become dor mant when weather i s col d an
d
when i t i s
hot and dry. The femal e l ays 30 to 40 eggs i n a nest of
twi gs and decayi ng pl ants and guards it ti l l t he young are
hatched. Al l i gator hunti ng is now restri cted by l aw, and
young may not be sol d. The crocodi l e i s much rarer, bei ng
found onl y i n a few pl aces i n southern Fl ori da and the
Keys; i t has a n arrower snout, needs a warmer cl i mate,
and prefers sal t or bracki sh water. It is much more vi ci ous.
Al l i gators can be seen i n Evergl ades Nat. Park ( p. 1 24) ,
but the chances of seei ng a wi l d crocodi l e are s l i m.
1 4 REPTI LES
HAR ML E S S S NAK E S
PI NE SNAKE, a southeastern bul l
snake, prefers open pi ne woods;
feeds on gophers and other smal l
rodents. I t i s bl otched gray and
brown, darker toward t he tai l .
Length about 5 ft. Hi sses l oudl y.
SOUTHERN BLACK RACER, thi n,
graceful , active, i s bl ue- bl ack,
wi th white u nder the chi n; l ength
3 to 4 ft. Scal es smooth, tai l l ong.
Evergl ades Racer i s si mi l ar but
l i ghter, especial ly on the bel l y.
EASTERN COACHWHI P SNAKE
i s a l ong, thi n (5 to 6 ft. ) racer.
Dark-col ored at head, gradi ng to
tan or brown at tai l . Prefers open
cou ntry; feeds on mice, gophers
and smal l snakes.
YELLOW RAT SNAKE represents
a group of eastern snakes that ki l l
t hei r prey by constri ction. I t is 4
to 5 ft. l ong, yel low-tan wi th dark
stri pes. Evergl ades Rat Snake
i s si mi l ar, but bri ght orange.
CORN SNAKE bel ongs to the rat
snake group, but i s bri ghtl y
col ored, wi th bl ack-edged red
bl otches. Length 3 to 4 ft. Thi s and
other r at s nakes are someti mes
seen around bar ns and other
bui l di ngs h unti ng rats.
I NDIGO SNAKE is the l argest i n
t he South-up t o 8 ft. l ong; heavy,
thi ck-bodi ed, mi dni ght bl ue. Pre
fers open l and and hammocks;
feeds on odents. Tames easi l y
and can be kept as a
p
et.
RAI NBOW SNAKE and the Mud
Snake are two attractive ( but sel
dom seen) aquati c speci es. The
Rai nbow Snake i s dark above,
stri ped wi th red; bel l y red, wi th
rows of bl ack spots. Often bur
rows. length 3 to 4 ft.
MUD SNAKE-or Hor n Snake-is
dark above, wi th red marki ng on
the si des, mergi ng i nto the red of
the bel l y. length about 4 ft. ; tai l
short, endi ng i n a sharp spi ke or
"sti nger" whi ch i s not poi sonous.
SOUTHE RN RI NG- NE CKE D
SNAKE i s a s mal l ( 1 2 to 1 8 i n. ) ,
browni sh or bl ack snake wi th a
yel l ow or orange bel l y, and
mar ked by a yel l ow neck ri ng.
Wi del y distri buted. Feeds on i n
sects and t hei r ki n.
ROUGH GREEN SNAKE i s as;;
smal l (2 ft. ), attractive, i nsect-eat
i ng species found throughout the
South. Scal es strongl y keel ed; col
or i s bri ght green above, bel l y
whi ti sh. The onl y southern snake
so col ored.
REPTI LES 1 05
1 06 Kc Lb
P OI S ONOU S S NAKE S
EASTERN DI AMONDBACK, bi g
ratt l er of the South, grows to
over 7 ft. Scal es, keel ed even on
head; di amonds on back. Prefers
dry open l and
,
, pal metto thi ckets.
CANEBRAKE RATTLER i s a
smal l er (4 to 6 ft. ) , yel l owi sh,
bl otched rattl er of southern fat
l ands. Tai l grades i nto bl ack. The
Ti mber Rattl er, seen northward, i s
si mi l ar, but sti l l smal l er.
PI GMY RATTLER, al so cal l ed the
Ground Rattl er, is a smal l ,
bl otched snake ( 2 ft. ) , wi t h a
sharp snout. Has pl ates on head i n
contrast to Di amondback' s scal es.
Vi ci ous-i n spi t

of i ts si ze.
COTTONMOUTH, or Water Moc
casi n, i s a thi ck-bodi ed, fat-heed
ed poi sonous snake of swamps
and river ban ks. Pi ts between
n ostri l s and eyes-l i ke rattl ers' .
Marki ng i ndi sti nct when' mature .
. CORAL SNAKE is dangerous.
Red wi th bl ack ri ngs bordered by
yel l ow, and wi th a bl ack nose. A
secreti ve, bu rrowi ng speci es. Do
not confuse wi th harml ess Scarl et
Snake or Scarl et Ki ng Snake.
MOCKI NGBI RD-sl ender, gray,
with white wi ng and tai l patches
-is the sweet si nger of the South.
Seen around homes. 1 0 i n.
CARDI NAL i s t he crested, al l -red
bi rd of fencerows and open
woods. Femal e browni sh, but with
same thi ck red bi l l as mal e. 8 i n.
B I R DS
I n the south bright Carolina Parakeets were once seen
along streams, and Ivory-billed Woodpeckers guarded the
virgin forests. There are still many species to see-in this
region over 500 species have been identifed. During
winter, l ook for northern birds which have migrated south
ward. Other attractive species never leave the South. The
climate favors all-year bird-watchi ng. Several bird clubs
hold regular meetings, to which visitors are welcome. The
National Audubon . Society conducts guided . tours from
Miami into the Everglades and other places noted for their
bird life.
For more about Southern birds, read:
BI RDS, H. S. Zi m and I . N. Gabri el son. Gol den Press, 1 955.
A F I El D GU I D E TO T HE BI RDS , R. T. Peterson . Houghton Mi fi n, 1 947.
A GU I DE TO BI R D F I N D I N G EAST OF T HE MI S S I S S I PP I , 0. 5. Petti ngi l l . Oxford
Uni v. Press, Toronto, 1 951 .
Fl ORI DA BI R D LI FE, A. Sprunt. Coward-McCann, New York, 1 954.
GEORGI A BI R DS, T. D. Bur l ei gh. Uni v. of Okl a. Press, 1 958.
LOU I S I ANA BI RDS, G. H. Lowery. La. State Uni v. Press, Baton Rouge, 1 955.
BI RDS 1 07
LARGER HERONS - white s peci es and others - are
among the most dramati c southern bi rds.
Great Whi te Heron (54 i n. ), l argest and rarest, i s
al l white, wi th greeni sh-yel l ow l egs and a yel l ow bi l l . A
form of the Bl ue Heron, it is someti mes seen al ong the
south coast, more often i n the Fl ori da Keys.
Ameri can Egret (38 i n. ) i s s mal l er, al so pure white
and with a yel l ow bi l l , but with bl ack l egs and feet.
Found commonl y i n swamps and roadsi de di tches.
Snowy Egret (24 i n. ), sti l l smal l er and sti l l al l white;
al so wi th bl ack bi l l and bl ack l egs. However, the feet are
yel l ow. About the same size, and becomi ng i ncreasi ngl y
common, i s t he Cattl e Egret from Afri ca, wi th yel l ow l egs
and bi l l ; buf on head and back when breedi ng.
108 BI RDS
Great Bl ue Heron (48 i n. ) is bl ue- gray i n col or and
l arger than any other dark wadi ng bi rd except t he Sand
hi l l Crane ( p; 1 1 1 ). Wi del y di stri buted north to Canada,
but nests i n Fl ori da and al ong Gul f coast.
Loui si ana Heron (26 i n. ) i s fou nd al ong the coast
from Texas to the Carol i nas . Col or s l ate-gray, browner
on head, wi th whi te on bel l y and rump and under wi ngs.
Li ttl e Bl ue Heron ( 22 i n. ) i s easi l y confused wi th si mi
l ar speci es. Young bi rds whitei greeni sh l egs, dark bi l l .
Pl umage darkens wi th agei pur pl i sh head and neck. Si mi
l ar but l arger i s the Reddi s h Egret, i n two col or phases
whi te and normal . Legs bl uishi bi l l l i ght at base, dark at
t i p. The Green Heron ( 1 8 i n. ) has a reddi sh- brown neck,
green feathers and orange l egs.
BI RDS 1 09
OTHER LARGE MARSHLAND BI RDS i ncl ude a great
many of the most unusual and most attracti ve of al l
southern speci es.
Anhi nga, or Watr Turkey has a l ong tai l and l onger
neck. Note the si l very patches whi ch appear on forewi ngs.
Both femal es and young have brown i sh neck and breast.
Length, 34 i nches.
Whi te I bi s (25 i n. ) has whi te body, bl ack wi ngti ps,
red face and l egs. The Gl ossy I bi s (22 i n . ) , i s metal l i c
bronze. The Roseate Spoonbi l l ( p. 85) is a rel ati ve.
Wood I bi s (40 i n. ) i s a stork, not an i bi s. Note bl ack
on wi ngs. Head gray, naked; pi nk feet; bi l l curved down.
Fl i es wi t h neck and l egs outstretched.
1 1 BI RDS
Sandhi l l Crane (44 i n. ) , fl i es l i ke an i bi s, wi th head
and neck outstretched, but i s a gray bi rd wi th a naked
red patch on i ts head. Throat whi te, l egs bl ack; rear
feathers tufted. Seen i n open mead_ows; now uncommon.
Li mpki n i s a browni sh wader, marked wi th whi te s pots
and bl otches. legs dark, bi l l curved s l i ght l y downward
l i ke an i bi s' s. Seen l ocal l y i n Fl or i da. length, 26 i n.
Fl ami ngos, whi ch have become an avi an trademark
for Fl ori da, are bi rds whi ch have wandered from t he
Bahamas an d West I ndi es. They have never nested here.
The l arge bi rds ( 46 i n. ) are al l pi nk, wi th bl ack on wi ngs,
neck l ong, bi l l heavy and bent down s har pl y mi dway.
Several col oni es of capti ve bi rds may be seen.
BI RDS 1 1 1
BALD EAGLE is fai rl y common
al ong rivers, l akes and t he ocean,
nesti ng i n tal l or dead trees. Note
the eagl e' s whi te head and toi l .
Length, 30 i n . , 7 ft . wi ngs and
powerful , hooked beak. Feeds
mai nl y on fsh. Young hav
e
white
on wi ngs and breast onl y.
KITE (24
i n. ), has a deepl y forked tai l ;
head i s whi te; mai n l y white be
l ow. Feeds on i nsects and other
smal l ani mal s. Evergl ade Ki te, now
very rare (p. 1 0), feeds onl y on
snai l s, around Lake Okeechobee.
1 1Z BI RDS
FRI GATE BI RD (40 i n. ), al so
known as Man of War Bi rd, i s
among t he most graceful of al l
fyi ng bi rds. Thi s l arge bl ack bi rd
wi th l ong, t hi n wi ngs and forked
tai l ci rcl es hi gh over water, watch
i ng to rob a gul l or a pel i can.
The young have a white head.
OSPREY, or Fi sh Hawk (22 i n. ),
can be recogni zed i n fi ght by i ts
white u nderpqrts and the bl ock
patches at the bends of the wi ng.
Head mai nly whi te, wi th a broad
stri pe behi nd the eye. Hovers,
then pl unges feet frst to grasp
trash fsh, its pri nci pal food.
NIGHTHAWK, or Bul l bat (9 i n. ),
is most often seen at dusk, feed
i ng on fyi ng i nsects. I ts pi erci ng
cal l and errati c fi ght make it easy
to i dentify. Note its l ong wi ngs
and sl i ghtl y forked tai l . Especi al l y
common i n the South duri ng sum
mer, even about cities.
BLACK VULTURE (24 i n. ) i s seen
soari ng with wings ti pped sl i ghtl y
upward. Head bl ock and bare,
tai l short; l i ghter patches under
wi ngs near ti ps. The Turkey Vul
ture is l arger (30 i n. ) and has a
naked, red-ski nned head. Both
are scavengers, feed on carrion.
CARACARA, common i n Mexico,
is also found i n central Fl ori da.
Thi s 22-i n. rel ative of hawks and
vul tures has l ong l egs and a dark,
crested head with red ski n at the
base of its bi l l . Some white on
throat, breast and tai l . Nests i n
l ate wi nter or earl y spri ng.
RED-SHOULDERED HAWK ( 20
i n. ) , seen al l through the South
on pol es or fence posts, has broad
wi ngs and a dark-banded tai l . A
mottl ed reddi sh-brown, wi th red
di sh shoul ders. Pal er i n southern
Fl ori da and on the Keys.
BI RDS 1 1 d
BOAT-TAI LED GRACKLE is a
dark, i r i desce
n
t, l ong-tai l ed bi r d
fou nd al ong waterways and
shores. Lengt h, 1 6 i n. ; femal e
smal l er ( 1 3 i n. ) much browner and
wi t h a pal er t h roat. I t feeds on
i nsects and water an i mal s an d
nests i n mars hes d u ri ng s pr i ng.
RED-WI NGED BLACKBI RD i s a
wi despread, attracti ve swamp
bi rd, especi al l y common i n sout h
er n marshes, where i t nests on cat
tai l s an d s hr ubs . Note scar l et
s houl der patches of t he bl ack
mal e. Femal e s mal l er (7. 5 i n. ) ,
streaked gray- brown.
1 1 4 BI RDS
PALM WARBLER i s t he most
common of t he many war bl ers
fou n d i n wi nter i n t he Sout h. I t i s
l i ght brown, pal e bel ow, wi t h a
chestn ut crown and a yel l ow l i ne
over t he eye. Wags i ts t ai l con
stantl y. Sever al dozen other war
bl ers, some br i l l i ant l y col ored, can
be seen du ri ng mi grat i ons.
BOBWHITE, or Quai l , i s t he
sout her n gamebi r d. I t i s a ground
bi r d; s mal l , pl ump an d reddi sh
brown, l i ke a chi cken wi th short
wi ngs. The mal e has a wh i te
t h roat and eye stri pe. Fl or i da
Bobwhi tes are darker i n col or and
a bi t sma l l er ( 9 i n . ) . They feed on
seeds and i nsects.
RED-BELLI ED WOODPECKER i s
marked by a bl ack-and-whi te
stri ped back and by i ts red cap.
The femal e has red onl y on t he
neck, and young bi rds have brown
i nstead of red. Thi s woodpecker,
abundant i n the Sout h, feeds on
acorns, other frui ts, and i nsects.
PAI NTED BUNTI NG, or Nonpa
rei l , i s consi dered the most beauti
ful American bi rd. The bri ght mal e
(5. 5 i n. ) needs no descri pti on; the
femal e i s greeni sh above, yel l ow
i sh bel ow. A summer resi dent whi ch
nests i n t he S. E. coastal pl ai n. I n
di go Bunti ng (5 i n . ) is a n al l
bl ue rel ative.
GROUND DOVE i s a s mal l dove
common i n open a reas an d al ong
sout hern roads. I t i s s hort ( 7 i n. )
pl ump wi t h br i ght red- brown
wi ngs. Breeds from Febr uary to
October. Feeds on seeds. Mour n
i ng Dove i s l arger, wi t h ol i ve
brown back an d poi nted tai l .
t he central Fl or i da pr ai ri es, where
i t di gs a nesti ng hol e 4 to 8 ft.
l ong, at the end of whi ch eggs a re
l ai d i n t he s pri ng. Thi s smal l owl
(9 i n. ) has l ong l egs, l arge, white
spots on i ts back, whi te bel ow.
Someti mes found on t he Keys.
BI RDS 1 1 5
BROWN PELICAN 8 a large (50
n.), umber ng, dork brown brd
wfh whfO on fhO heod ond l ong
b . e coe fowater wfhhOod
pu ed bock. Pl unges hOod frst of-
fOr hh~f ony food.
LEAST TERN (9 n.) is thO mo -
Of ond mof de cofO o f k nd.
Whfe wlh b ock cop spri ng)
eef ond b ye ow, b ock fp
[du er n fo ). requenf y seOn
nOof hore, pl unging afer fsh
ROYAL TERN (20 in.}, is 8een al l
yOor on o soufhOrn coof. Mole
n ummOr l oronge-rOd I|| and
b ock cop. 1he fo 8 OOpy
forkOd. Lop on 1Orn is similar,
tai l Oss orkOd and b re0der.
LAUGHING GULL ( n on
obundonf pOrmonenf rOden1, is
medum-zed; morked by o dork
monf e ond dorkOr wi ng tps.
Heod b ock n spr ng. nl
u obundont n wnfer.
DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMOR
ANT (33 in 8Oen o one o r n
Orge focks o along thOu tand
Afonfc coo8f8, I 8 b ock o
b uegreen rdescent hOOn
hooked-b ond o ong nck.
RUDDY TURNSTONE (9 i n. ) is a
common red-l egged shore bi rd
with a reddi sh-brown back and
bl ack breast marki ngs i n spri ng.
I n wi nter, col ors are dul l er. Wi n
ters commonl y al ong S. E. coast.
WI LLET is a l arger shore bi rd ( 1 6
i n. ), gray and white wi th dark
l egs and a stout, strai ght bi l l .
Wi ngs darker wi th wi de whi te
stri pes; breast g ray. Seen al ong
al l southern coasts.
COOTS are seen in l akes and
ponds al l through the Sout h. They
are sl ate gray, pl ump, l ow and
duckl i ke, wi t h whi t e bi l l s. Expert
divers and swi mmers, Coots nest
in northern marshes.
LESSER SCAUP is, accordi ng to
experts, the commonest duck of
Fl or, da. It i s seen mai nl y over sal t
water. Note i ts bl ack head. and
tai l , gl ossed with purpl e, and the
short white wi ng stri pe.
BLACK-BELLI ED PLOVER can be
seen al l wi nter and duri ng the
mi grati ons. Note its stout form
and the short, heavy bi l l . Mottl ed
gray above, l i ghter bel ow i n wi n
ter. I n spri ng note t he bl ack bel l y.
WHI TE-TAI LED DEER, the onl y
speci es of t hi s regi on, is marked
by a l ong tai l , whi te u nderneath,
and l ong whi te-l i ned ears. Onl y
bucks have antl ers. A smal l er
form, the Key Deer , i s found onl y
on and near Bi g Pi ne Key. About
3 ft. hi gh; wei ght, 50 to 80 l bs.
MAMMAL S
Mammal s of the Southeast are not seen as often as other
wi l dl i fe, but bear, deer, wi l dcat, oposs um and raccoon
abound and there are scores of smal l er speci es. Most mam
mal s are s hy and nocturnal . Pati ence i s needed t o study
or even s pot t hem. They are more easi l y seen i n zoos t han
i n the wi l d, but t here i s not hi ng compared to t
h
e thri l l of
seei ng a bear or deer i n woods or hammocks. Thi s regi on
al so ofers mcy mari ne mammal s-from t he manatee to
dol phi ns, por poi ses -and even whal es.
For more about mammal s and thei r l i fe hi stori es read:
MAM MALS, H. S. Zi m and D. F. Hofmei ster. Gol den Press, New York,
1 955.
A FI ELD GU I DE TO THE MAMMALS, W. H. Burt and Grossenhei der. Hough
ton Mi fi n, Boston, 1 952.
MAMMALS OF NoRTH AMERI CA, V. H. Cahal ane, Macmi l l an, New York,
1 947.
LI VES OF GAME AN I MALS, E. T. Seton. Chas. T. Branford, Boston, 1 953
(6 vol umes).
1 1 8 MAMMALS
BLACK BEARS are sti l l found i n
t hi s regi on, but have di ed out i n
some areas to t he north, east and
west. They l ive i n woodl ands,
feedi ng on s mal l ani mal s and wi l d
fr ui t . I n Fl or i da t he Bl ack Bear i s
l arger t han el sewher e i n t he
South, wei ghi ng u p to 600 l bs.
GRAY FOX ( but not the Red) is
common in open woodl ands. I t
hu nts smal l mammal s and may
take pou l try. I t al so eats some
frui ts and berri es. I n Fl or i da i t i s
somewhat smal l er, wi th shorter
ears and tai l . lengt h, 36 i n. Young
( 4 t o 6) are bor n i n s pr i ng.
BOBCATS, once fou n d over t he
ent i re U. S. , are sti l l common i n
t he Southeast. I n Fl or i da t hey are
dar ker, wi t h more bl ack on t hei r
backs. The Cougar, or Mountai n
li on-l argest of t he cats-i s rare,
but does occ ur i n sout her n and
central Fl ori da.
RACCOONS l ive i n fel ds and
open woods, feedi ng on s mal l ani
mal s, corn an d frui t . I n s pr i ng 3
to 6 bl i nd you n g ar e born i n a
bu r row or hol l ow tree. There i s
much vari ati on i n col or and si ze.
Sout her n raccoons are yel l owi sh.
length, 35 i n .
MAMMALS 1 1 9
MUSKRAT, an i mportant sout h
ern fur mammal , i s absent from
Fl ori da, but i s common westward
al ong the Gul f. Feeds on cattai l
and other aquati c pl ants. Note
the l ong, compressed tai l .
NUTRI A, from South America,
are now common i n the Mi ssis!i ppi
del ta and are spreadi ng fast. Nu
tri a compete f or food wi t h Musk
rats, but have poorer fur. They
are l arge, wi th a rounded tai L
1 20 NPNNPLb
OPOSSUMS are our onl y mam
mal s wi th O pouch for protecti ng
t he undevel oped young. These
sl ow, rather l azy ani mal s feed at
ni ght on eggs, smal l ani mal s and
frui t. They seem more vi ci ous than
t hey real l y are.
ARMADI LLOS, from Mexi co, are
now establ i shed in the Southeast.
These armored mammal s feed
on i nsects. I n spri ng, four i denti
cal young ar e born. Thei r ski n
remai ns soft u nti l they mature.
FOX SQUI RRELS are handsome
tree dwel l ers wi th smal l ears and
l ong, bushy tai l s. Several forms
gray, buf and bl ack. Al l attrac
tive, especi al l y the Mangrove Fox
Squi rrel of the Evergl ades.
SPOTTED SKUNKS are s mal l er
than t he Stri ped Skunk, whi ch i s
al so found i n the Southeast. The
Fl ori da Spotted Skunk is the smal l
est ki nd, wi t h l arge, whi te tri pes
and a shorter tai l . Length, t i n.
MARSH RABBI T i s a s mal l er
southern r abbi t whi ch mi ght be
confused wi th the Cottontai l . The
Marsh Rabbi t, found i n wet areas,
i s darker brown; the tai l i s smal l
er, as are i t s feet and ears.
OTTERS are aquati c members of
the weasel fami l y, l i vi ng in
swamps and al ong streams, feed
i ng on fsh. The Fl ori da Otter i s
l arger and somewhat redder, wi th
a l onger tai l . Length, about 50 i n.
MANATEES are found i n
southern F l or i da bays an d
ri vers, feedi ng on aquati c
pl ants. These ungai nl y mam
mal s wei gh u p t o a ton . I t i s
har d to see how t hey gave
ri se to fabl es about mer
mai ds-but they di d. Per
haps mothers n ursi ng t hei r
si ngl e young suggested such
stori es. The young are abl e
t o s wi m at bi rt h. Manatees
(or Sea Cows) , adapted for
water, have a stout body
endi ng i n a fl attened hori
zontal tai l ; forel i mbs are
modi fi ed i nto fl i ppers. They
can stay under water sev
era l mi n utes, but must come
up for ai r .
BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHI N, wi th a beakl i ke s nout, i s
the common dol phi n of southern s hores-the star of mari ne
exhi bi ts. Fart her out at s ea, Harbor Porpoi ses may be seen
l eapi ng after fs h or pl ayi ng near boats. Both ani mal s are
rapi d swi mmers, and can l eap wel l out of t he water.
om y p cncon lhe beoch ol Ho ywood, or do.
WHAT T O S E E AND DO
I n thi s r i chl y endowed regi on there i s much to see and do.
Here i s a s ummary for the benefi t of t he vi si tor or new
comer. Such common and enj oyabl e acti vi ti es as s unni ng,
swi mmi ng, picn i cki ng, hi ki ng, bo_at i ng, campi ng and fi sh
i ng are poss i bl e i n so many pl aces t hat detai l ed l i sti ngs
f or s uch acti vi t i es are i mpossi bl e. They wi l l be noted under
Nati onal Parks and Forests, State Parks and other recre
ati onal areas. For c detai l ed l i sti ng of campsi tes, see
VACAJ| OM AM|GkCuND$, Southeaster n edi t i on, Hu l tqui st,
Box 265, Maryvi l l e, Ten n. , 1 956 (75c) .
Before your tri p, get road i nfor mat i on from t he tour
di vi si ons of t he l arge oi l compani es, ai r l i nes, rai l roads or
bus l i nes. Furt her i nfor mati on can be had from state an d
l ocal Chambers of Commerce and from:
ALABAMA: l nf. & Educ. Sec. , Dept.
of Conservati on, Mont gomery
FLOR I DA: Fl a. Devel . Comm. , Cal d
wel l Bl dg. , Tal l ahassee
Ge oRGI A: Fi sh & Game Comm. ,
4 1 2 State Capi tol , Atl anta
LoU S I ANA: Dept. of Comm. & I nd. ,
State Capi t ol , Baton Rouge
MI S S I S S I PP I : Agr. & I n d. Board,
State Ofce Bl dg. , Jackson
SouT H CAROL I NA: S. C. Chamber
of Commerce, Col u mbi a
ACTI VI TI ES 1 23
bvergodes Notono orkronger Qotrong n orboot.
F L ORI DA
EVERGLADES NATI ONAL PARK, coveri ng over a
mi l l i on and a hal f acres, is the onl y Nati onal Park i n t hi s
regi on. The great wi l derness area i s dedi cated t o pre
serve the nat ural evergl ades
e
nvi ronment-a sea of grass
and water wi th hammocks of tropi cal har dwood trees,
rare pl ants and a weal th of wi l dl i fe. I n t hi s, our onl y
tropi cal park, are some of t he gr eat rookeri es of egrets,
i bi s, herons and other wadi ng bi rds. There are al l i gators,
crocodi l es and ot her repti l es. Fi sh are pl enti ful , too, i n
Fl ori da Bay and i n the "l akes" and "ri vers. " Fi shi ng i s
permitted; i t i s excel l ent .
Enter the par k by US 27 from Homestead. An excel l ent
road l eads to t he Royal Pal m Stati on and on to Fl ami ngo
( museum, boats, restaurants) . Stop at the Anhi nga trai l
and at ot her m. areas. Rangers conduct wal ks, give
tal ks. Audubon tou , l ocal boat tri ps, campi ng and other
faci l i ti es are avai l abl e.
1 24 ACTI VI TI ES
Evergl ades Nati onal
Park i s a sanctuary. Do
not pi ck pl ants or di stur b
ani mal s. Ther e are won
derful opportuni ti es for
nature photography i f
you are pati ent and have
the equi pment. The park
can al so be entered by
boat from t he town of Ev
ergl ades and from the
F l ori da Keys. Use a gui de
or have a chart before try
ing unfami l i ar waterways.
Have another l ook at t he
evergl ades al ong the Tami ami Trai l ( US 41 ) where tri ps
by ai rboat or i n swampbuggi es can be arranged. These
can take you deep i nto the evergl ades but are banned
from the par k i tsel f. Al so a l ong the Tami ami Trai l a re a
number of I ndi an vi l l ages, where l ocal Semi nol es ofer
handi crafts and conduct ai rboat tri ps.
Pudubon wdfe lour n cvergodes.
HI STORI C SI TES, a score and more of t hem, ar e pre
served i n Fl ori da under the auspi ces of State and Federal
agenci es. The frst fve of these are under the care of the
Nati onal Park Servi ce. Vi si t them if possi bl e.
Casti llo de San Marcos, bui l t from 1 672 t o 1 696 by t he Spani ards
( p. 26) in St. Augusti ne (p. 1 28) hel ped protect the treasu re feet
homewar d bound from New Spai n. The massi ve fort fi gu red in wars
wi th t he French, Bri ti sh and I ndi ans. I t was l at er used as a mi l i tary
prison. Museum and gui de servi ce.
Fort Matanzas, 1 4 mi l es southward, on route A 1 A, protected the
"back door" to St. August i ne. Near by, at t he Anastasi a i nl et, the cap
tu red French were s l aughtered by the Spani s h. Hi stor i cal Museum and
pi c ni c grou nds.
Fort Caroli ne, on the St. Johns ri ver east of Jacksonvi l l e, was the
frst French settl ement ( 1 564) . The i l l -fated col ony was weakened by
fami ne an d muti ny when rei nforcements under Jean Ri baut were
wrecked by a h u rri cane and ki l l ed by the Spani sh, who took the fort
in 1 565. The memor i al a rea ofers a museu m a nd pi cni c grou nds.
De Soto Nat. Memori al commemorates the l andi ng of Her nando
De Soto and t he begi nni ng of i nl and expl orati on . Four mi l es west of
Bradenton; mon ument and pi cni c gr ou nds.
Fort Jeferson, on t he Dry Tortugas 70 mi l es west of Key West i s
accessi bl e on l y by boat. The great fort, begu n i n 1 846, became t he
pri son f or t he " Li ncol n conspi rators. " Rare bi rds and wonderfu l fs hi ng.
Fort Cli nch State Park, 30 mi l es N. E. of J acksonvi l l e at the t i p of
Amel i a I s l and, s u r rounds a bri ck fort begu n i n 1 850 an d never f ni shed.
orl Jeherson Nolono Nonumentry 1orlugos, or
@
o.
D
Fort Cl i nch State Park-Amel i a I sl and, Fl ori da.
Thi s and ot her forts of t hi s peri od were made obsol ete by the i nventi on
of t he ri fed cannon whi ch coul d pi erce t he wal l s wi t h hi gh expl osi ve
shel l s. Museum, campi ng, boati ng and swi mmi ng.
Fort Pi ckens State Park occupi es the wester n t i p of Santa Rosa
I s l and, opposi te Pensacol a. Fi shi ng, swi mmi ng, campi ng and boati ng.
For t Pi ckens once protected Pensacol a and was hel d by Un i on forces
al l du ri ng the Ci vi l War. Now a museum.
Battle of Natural Bri dge Monument. _mar ks the si t e where l ocal
defenders hel d of a Federal attack and kept Tal l ahassee from fal l i ng
i nto Uni on hands-the onl y Southern capi t al whi c h di d not do s o. East
of Woodvi l l e on US 98 and sout heast of Tal l ahassee.
Dade Memori al Park, on US 301 south of Bus hnel l , marks the
pl ace where Maj . Franci s Dade and hi s command were ambushed by the
Semi nol es i n 1 835. Onl y three men escaped, and for the next seven
years the second Semi nol e war was fercel y waged. Museum.
State Consti tuti on Conventi on Memori al ( wi t h museum) i s j ust
south of Port St. Joe. Here t he fi rst F l ori da state consti tut i on was
adopted i n 1 839. Two years l ater, Port St. Joe was wi ped out by yel l ow
fever. I n 1 844, Dr. J ohn Gerri e, attempt i ng to cool fever vi ct i ms, i n
vented the frst mechani cal i ce maki ng machi ne. I n the square i n
Apal achicol a ( about 20 mi l es east on US 98) i s a memor i al to Dr.
Gerri e, and a state museu m.
Olustee Battlefel d Hi stori cal Mem., east of Lake Ci ty on US 90,
marks the si te of t he l argest Ci vi l War battl e in Fl or i da at whi ch Uni on
forces were defeated. Vi s i t t he museum.
Other hi stori cal si tes i ncl ude Mari anna Memori al i n that town;
Gambl e Mansi on at El l enton; Addiston Bl ockhouse and several pl anta
ti on r ui ns-al l nort h of Daytona Beach.
ACTI VI TI ES 1 27
L dest housebt. ugustne, ordo.
SAI NT AUGUSTI NE i s a gem. Thi s ol dest ci ty in the
United States overfows with t hi ngs to see. Founded i n
1 5651 the town may be the pl ace where Juan Ponce de
le6n l anded i n 1 5 1 3. The monumental Casti l l o de San
Marcos ( p. 1 26) domi nates the ol d town. Across from the
pl aza i s the cathedral and around i t are narrow streets and
ol d bui l di ngs. Wal k/ or tour t he town by horse and buggy.
See t he ol d Spani s h treasury; Spani sh cemetery; zero
mi l estone; Pati o house; Ol dest House and the State Ar
senal . There are a l so a number of commerci al attracti ons.
Nearby are Anastasi a State Par k and several beaches.
I NDI ANS do not obj ect to touri sts, but if you vi si t them
at thei r reservati ons or al ong the Tami ami Trai l , remem
ber you are thei r guests. There are three Semi nol e reser
vati ons i n Fl ori da: ( 1 ) a smal l one at Dani a on US 441
north of Mi ami . Here at the Semi nol e Arts and Crafts Gui l d
are excel l ent exampl es of sewi ng and ot her crafts; ( 2)
Bri ghton reservati on on the northwest si de of lake Okee
chobee; (3) the Bi g Cypress reservati on, of Rte 29 south of
I mmokal ee, is l east access i bl e and most i nterest i ng. There
are several vi l l ages al ong the Tami ami Trai l al so. For more
about the Semi nol es, see pp. 30 to 31 . The Semi nol es are
the onl y I ndi ans l i vi ng i n Fl ori da today. Mounds made by
ear l i er I ndi ans ( p. 28) are preserved i n state parks. These
are: Bi ckel Mound at Terra Cei a; Turt l e Mound on Rte A 1 A,
south of New Smyrna Beach; Green Mound, 7 mi . south
of Daytona Beach on A 1 A. There i s a ceremoni al mound
at Ft. Wal ton, and others near lake Okeechobee and i n
Evergl ades Nat . Park.
bemno escorvng mode conoeono, or do.
!D
FLORI DA STATE PARKS total about two dozen, pl us
an equal n umber of hi stori cal si tes ( pp. 1 26 and 1 27) .
Some are undevel oped or onl y parti al l y devel oped, but i n
total they form one of t he best State Park systems i n the
South, preservi ng scen i c and natural areas an d provi di ng
recreati onal faci l i ti es. These vary from par k t o park, but
i ncl ude pi cn icki ng, campi ng, boati ng, fs hi ng and swi m
mi ng. Because State Park campi ng is so popul ar, the
reservati on of a campsi te may be necessary. Get further
i nformati on from the Fl ori da Board of Parks and Memo
ri al s, Tal l ahassee. Parks are l i sted from north to south.
F l ori da Caverns is the on l y devel oped cave i n Fl ori da. ( Gui ded
tour, 75c. ) Near by are i nteresti ng geol ogi cal formati ons, wi l dl i fe an d
pl ants. Museum, gol f course and campi ng. Th ree mi l es north of Mari
anna; west from Tal l ahassee on US 90.
Santa Rosa Park, j ust east of Pensacol a, has fne groves of l ive
oak, and beaches on the Gul f and Sound. Mai nl y undevel oped.
Torreya State Park, on the Apal achi col a Ri ver, northeast of Bri stol
(west of Tal l ahassee on Rte 20) preserves two rare trees i n thei r natural
envi ronment-Torreya and Fl ori da Yew. Nat ure t rai l s and campi ng.
The ol d Gregory mansi on and Confederate guns stand on t he bl uf.
Ki l l earn Gardens ar e beauti ful l y pl anted for mal an d i nfor mal gar
dens, once a l arge estate. North of Tal l ahassee on US 3 1 9.
Li ttl e Tal bot I sl and, northeast of Jacksonvi l l e on route A 1 A, has a
fne ocean beach, a pi cni c area and pl aygrou nd.
Suwannee Ri ver State Park, on the hi gh bl ufs between Madi son
an d Live Oak on US 90. Many spri ngs; remai ns of Confederate earth
wor ks; fshi ng and pi cni cki ng.
Gol d Head Branch, of Rt e 21 S. W. of Jacksonvi l l e, provi des fsh
i ng, swi mmi ng and boat i ng on streams and l akes. Gol d Head Branch
forms a wi l d ravi ne i n whi ch a nat u re t rai l has been bui l t.
St. Andrews Park near Panama Ci ty wi l l serve as both a wi l dl i fe
area and as a bathi ng and waterfront beach. St i l l u ndevel oped. '
O'Leno State Park, i n wh i ch the Santa Fe Ri ver goes u nderground,
is north of Hi gh Spr i ngs on US 4 1 . located on the Ol d Spani sh Trai l , i t
now ofers swi mmi ng, boati ng and campi ng.
Manatee Spri ngs, fowi ng 66,000 gal l ons a mi nute, empti es i nto
the nearby Suwan n ee Ri ver. The par k ofers swi mmi ng, boat i ng and
fsh i ng. Located of US 1 9, 7 mi l es west of Chi efand.
Anastasi a State Park, on Rte A 1 A south of St . Augusti ne, has
a beauti fu l stretch of coast l i ne. Here were the ol d Spani sh coqui na
quarri es.
1 30 ACTI VI TI ES
Pelli cer Creek, Sout h of St. Augusti ne on US 1 , is part of O fne
hardwood hammock-an undi sturbed wi l dl i fe area.
Tomoka State Park ofers pi cni cki ng, boati ng and fs hi ng. I t i n
cl udes t he Bul ow Sugar Mi l l and Pl antati on Museum. J ust nort h of
Daytona Beach on US 1 .
Lake Gri fn, nort h of Leesburg, i s a n u ndevel oped wi l dl i fe area of
sandy ri dges and marshl and.
Hi llsborough Ri ver Park si ts astri de t he ri ver r api ds i n wi l d
count ry wi t h many speci es of bi rds an d pl ants. Nat u re t r ai l , swi mmi ng,
fshi ng, boati ng and campi ng. On Rte 201 , N. E. of Tampa.
Hi ghland Hammock i s one of t he best exampl es of hammock
growth and a famous park. Here are ol d h ardwoods, cypress swamps
and s ubtropi cal pl ants. Mi l es of t rai l s, campi ng and pi cni cki ng. 6 mi l es
west of Sebri ng, of US 27.
Myakka Ri ver Park, S. E. of Sarasota on Rte 72, i s O wi l dl i fe
refuge famous for i ts bi rds. Campi ng and fs hi ng. Museum an d t rai l s ..
Largest of Fl or i da' s parks.
Col l i er-Semi nol e Park, of US 4 1 east of Napl es, i ncl udes ever- .
gl ades l and and tropi cal vegetati on al ong t he coast. Excel l ent fshi ng
waters. Devel opment i s u nder way.
ACTI VI TI ES 1 31
NATI ONAL AND STATE FORESTS i n F l or i da total over
a mi l l i on and a quarter acres, but the total forested l and
i s many ti mes thi s. These forests demonstrate forest man
agement and conserve forest resources. They are nat ural
areas, ofer i ng man y opport uni ti es to see pl ant and ani mal
l i fe. Hunt i ng and fi shi ng ar e permi tted and there are
good possi bi l i ti es for pr i mi ti ve campi ng. Some have excel
l ent recreat i on areas. The nati onal and state forests ( mai n
ly i n northern Fl or i da) are:
Ocala Nati onal Forest, west of Daytona Beach, has t wo excel l ent
recreati on areas (J u ni per and Al exander Spr i ngs) for campi ng, swi m
mi ng and boati ng; l akes, spri ngs and a l arge uni que "scr ub" area of
sand pi ne. Thi s i s t he most southerl y nati onal forest of the a rea.
Apalachi cola Nat. Forest, S. W. of Tal l ahassee, has l arge areas
of Sl ash and Longl eaf Pi ne wi th cypress swamps. Bottoml ands al ong the
Apal achi col a Ri ver a re fl l ed wi th Appal achi an hardwoods.
Osceol a Nat. Forest, N. E. of Lake Ci ty, i s a l so an area of pi ne
h i ghl ands a nd swampy l owl ands, wi th l arge stands of t he cypress.
Swi mmi ng and fs hi ng in Ocean Pond, but no pu bl i c faci l i ti es.
State Forests i ncl ude Pi ne Log, near Panama Ci ty, and Cary, near
Bal dwi n-both smal l ; al so Bl ackwater Ri ver, north of Mi l t on on US 90.
1 32 ACTI VI TI ES
BI RDS AND WI LDLI FE are a great natural attracti on
of F l ori da wi th i ts shores, l akes and swamps . Nat i onal
and state parks and forests are wi l dl ife areas. Vi si tors are
wel come at the nati onal wi l d l ife refuges l i sted bel ow. Ex
pl ore the s mal l er parks, canal s, banks and shores of l akes
and ponds. Dress appropri atel y and use care i n the wood
s.
Try the Nati onal Audubon Soci ety tou rs to Corkscrew
Swamp, Duck Rock and the Evergl ades-detai l s at Mi ami
ofce. See the pl ace l i st i ng i n Qu| D T O b| kD | | MD | MG EAT
OF TH E N| SS. by 0. S. Petti ngi l l ( p. 1 07) .
Nati onal Wi l dl i fe Refuges
St . Marks N. W. R.
Ceda r Keys N. W. R.
Pel i can I s l and N. W. R.
Ancl ote N. W. R.
Nat . Key Deer Refuge
On Apal achee Bay, S. of Tal l ahassee
Of Cedar Key, end of Rte 24
North of Vera Beach
Nort heast of Tarpon Spr i ngs
Bi g Pi ne Key
Some Other Good Pl aces for Bi rd Watchi ng
St . J oh ns Ri ver: marshes at head an d i sl ands near mout h; L ake Okee
chobee, esp. N. and W. s i des; Tami ami Trai l ; Ti tusvi l l e Beach; Ki ssi mmee
pr ai ri e; I n l and Waterway, N. of Daytona Beach and el sewhere; al l
Fl ori da Keys; B i g Cypress Swamp, on and n e ar Rte 29.
Koseole sQoonbs-neor 1overner, ordo.
D

Shel l i ng-Sani bel I sl and.
SHELLS AND SHELL
I NG are popul ar al l
al ong the Fl ori da coasts
- especi al l y al ong the
Gul f, where the wi nd
and currents wash a
shore many speci mens
on the open beaches.
Col l ecti ng on the shel l
beaches (some l i sted be
l ow) is a favori te pas
ti me. After hi gh ti des
and storms t here i s a
bettr opportunity for
rare s hel l s. More seri ous
students of s hore l ife col -
l ect l i vi ng ani mal s. These l ive i n sand or mud. Some can
be col l ected by di ggi ng
, others by dredgi ng. See books
l i sted on p. 86 for more detai l s on i denti fi cati on and for
more hel p i n the art of col l ecti ng.
Some Shel l Beaches and Col l ecti ng Areas i n F l ori da
Sani bel I sl and, west of Ft. Myers by ferry from Punta Rassa. Most
famous of the west-coast shel l beaches. Al so in t hi s i mmedi ate
vi ci nity: Capti va I sl and, j ust north; i nl and to Char l otte Harbor and
Punta Gorda. Al s o Ft. Myers Beach and Estero I s l and t o t he south.
Cape Sabl e beaches north of East Cape, accessi bl e onl y by boat.
Marco Island at end of Rte 92, of Tami ami Tr ai l ; al so Cape Romano
to t he sout h, accessi bl e by boat.
Naples and adj acent beaches, north and south.
Boni ta Spri ngs Beaches west of Boni t a Spri ngs.
Sarasota and vi ci ni ty: beaches to t he west, i ncl udi ng Anna Mari a
I sl and and long Key.
St. Petersburg and vi ci ni ty: Pass-a-Gri l l e Beach, Cl earwater, Tar-
pon Spr i ngs and i ntermedi ate poi nts.
Cedar Key and vi ci ni ty: end of Rte 24, west from US 1 9.
Flori da Keys to Key West-many coral and some sand beaches.
Al so many commerci al s hel l exhi bi ts and sal esrooms al ong US 41 .
1 34 ACTI VI TI ES
SPECI AL PLACES TO
SEE PLANTS mi ght not
seem worth poi nt i ng out
i n Fl ori da-wi th such an
abundance of nati ve
and exoti c speci es
about. But the pl ant l ife
in northern Fl ori da is
very di ferent from t hat
i n the sout h. Fi el d i den
ti fcati on of trees, shrubs
and s mal l er pl ants i s not
easy, and so botani c
gardens an d other
pl aces where l abel ed
l i vi ng speci mens can be
seen are a great hel p. You can study pl ants i n al l nat i onal
and state parks. Some of t he gardens l i sted on pages
1 53- 1 56 have u nus ual col l ecti ons. Bel ow are pl aces i n
southern F l ori da where exoti c pl ants are best seen.
Ci ti es wi th i nteresti ng street and par k pl anti ng-St.
Petersburg,
Bradenton, Sarasota, Fort Myers, Key West, Coconut Grove, Cor al
Gabl es, Fort Lauderdal e, Ver o Beach, West Pal m Beach, Pal m Beach,
Avon Park, Lake Worth; al so Mobi l e, Al a. ( azal eas) .
Nurseri es wi th rare and unusual pl ants: Arvi da, Mi ami ; Cutl er,
Mi ami ; Dade Co. Park, S. Mi ami ; Di etel ' s, Fort Lauder dal e; Evergl ades,
Ft. Myers; Fantasti c Gardens, S. Mi ami ; Men ni nger, Stuart; Newcomb,
Homestead; Pal m Lodge Grove, Homestead; Reasoner Tropi cal , Braden
ton and Oneco; Royal Pal m, Oneco; Smi th' s, Fort Lauder dal e; Stur
rock Tropi cal , W. Pal m Beach.
Botani cal Gardens and Experi ment Stations : U. S. D. A. Pl ant l ntro.
Stati on, Ol d Cut l er Rd. , Mi ami ; Gi ford Arboretum, Univ. of Mi ami ,
Coral Gabl es; Su btropi c Exp. Stati on, Univ. of Fl a. , Wal di n Dr . , Home
stead; Fai rchi l d Tropi cal Garden, Ol d Cutl er Road, Mi ami ; Mead Bo
t
.
Garden, Or l ando; Wi l mott Mem
.
Garden, Gai nesvi l l e.
Others: Woodl awn Par k and Mi ami ci ty cemetery bot h have fne
pl anti ngs of trees; pl ans avai l abl e i n super i ntendent' s ofce. Mi ami
ci ty parks ( Bayfront, Si mpson and Crandon) . Tampa, Lowry Park.
ACTI VI TI ES 1 35
blole coQlo budngoohossee, ordo.
D
TALLAHASSEE l i es in an area of rol l i ng hi l l s-some
forested, mor e i n t ung and pecan orchards. Mi dwesterners
wi l l fi nd it on the most di rect route south. As capital of
Fl ori da, it ofers vi sitors a di gnifi ed capi tol center; al l
bui l di ngs open to the publ i c. The capi tol i tsel f was begun
i n 1 845 and enl arged si nce. At t he State Uni versi ty are
an art gal l ery and two museums-one features I ndi an
exhi bits, t he other i s t he geol ogi cal museum, wi th a fne
col l ecti on of Fl ori da fossi l s. To t he north of Tal l ahassee is
Ki l l earn Gardens State Park and Lake Jackson . Thi s and
several ot her l arge l akes are wi t hi n easy reach. To the
south i s the Nat ural Bri dge Hi stori c Si te and farther south
is Wakul l a Spri ngs and the St. Marks Nat. Wi l dl i fe Refuge,
famous for its bi rds and wi l dl i fe. Apal achi col a Nat. Forest
to the west ofers camping, hunti ng and swi mmi ng.
1 d ACTI VI TI ES
TAMPA and ST. PETERS
BURG are the twi n capi tal s
of the west coast. Tampa,
the ol der ci ty, itsel f i ncl udes
Ybor Ci ty, the Cuban and
lati n center and hub of
c i gar - mak i n g; f ac t or i es
open to vi sitors. Try Cuban
cooki ng. Al so see Tampa
Muni ci pal Museum and
lowry Park wi th its fne
pl ants. St . Petersburg' s Mi r
ror lake Park has mam
moth recreati onal faci l i ti es.
Gaspari l l a Festi val -Tampa, Flori da.
leadi ng sout h from the ci ty
is the famed Suns hi ne Skyway across Tampa Bay. Fi shi ng
and swi mmi ng al ong the route
.
Farther sout h, i s the Bra
denton-Sarasota area, wi th fne beaches, museums and
attracti ons ( pp. 1 54 and 1 56) . To t he west l i e Cl earwater,
Boca Ci ega, Pass-a-Gri l l e and ot her famed beaches. Ex
cel l ent fi shi ng i n Tampa Bay and i n the Gul f. To the north
is Tarpon Spri ngs, wi th its sponge feet and Greek di vers.
Sponge feet-Tarpon Spri ngs, Fl ori da.
^D ( bo t h ph o to.raph s )
GAI NESVI LLE at the north and Sebri ng at the south
mark the central Fl ori da l akes area-a regi on some 200
mi l es l ong and 60 mi l es wi de. Here, t housands of l akes
and ponds ofer al l ki nds of recreat i on and natural hi story
poss i bi l iti es. The enti re l akes area i s made more attracti ve
by l ow, rol l i ng hi l l s and extensi ve ci trus orchards. Pack
i ng and canni ng pl ants are open to vi si tors ( don't pi ck
frui t al ong the road! ) . Excel l ent bass and other fresh-water
fshi ng i n the l akes and streams.
Gai nesvi l l e has the Uni versi ty of F l ori da, where au
thori ti es on agri cul ture, geol ogy and wi l dl i fe can be
consul ted. The Fl ori da State Museum i s one of the best
in the sout h. Ocal a i s the center of many commercial
attract i ons ( p. 1 56) and gateway to the Ocal a Nat i onal
Forest, wi t h i t s fne recreati on areas ( p. 1 32) . At Wi nter
Haven, center of the ci trus i ndustry, i s a ci trus museum.
An annual ci trus exposi ti on i s hel d i n February. Nearby
are Cypress Gardens and other commerci al attracti ons,
south, near Sebr i ng, is Hi ghl and Hammock State Pk.
Orange grove-central Fl ori da.
FNB
Matheson Hammock Park-Mi ami , Fl ori da.
D
MI AMI i s more than a pl ayground. It i s a growi ng
metropol i s, wi t h homes and i ndustri es and many s ub
stanti a | attracti ons f or vi si tors. Ther e are handsome ci ty
parks-Bayfront (fne trees, band concerts, Mi ami Li
brary) , L ummus ( ol d Ft. Dal l as) and Cran don on Key
Bi scayne ( beaches, recreati on areas and a good zoo).
Farther south i s Matheson Hammock ( a county park),
whi ch tapers from an outstandi ng hardwood hammock
wi th trai l s and pi cni c gr ounds to an i deal sandy beach.
Nearl y 200 speci es of bi rds have been seen here. Nearby
i s Fai rchi l d Garden and the U. S. Pl ant l ntro. Stati on. At
Hi al eah Park racetrack are superb pl ant i ngs and the
l argest fock of fami ngos. The Un i versity of Mi ami campus
i s an attracti on i tsel f. See t he exhi bi ts at Lowe Gal l eri es.
No l ess i nterest i ng are the Vi zcaya Museum an d the resi
denti al areas of Cora l Gabl es, Mi ami and Mi ami Beach.
Fi shi ng fr om t he many br i dges and i n Bi scayne Bay;
sai l i ng and boati ng al so. Swi mmi ng i n muni ci pa l pool s
and at several publ i c beaches. A score of tri ps, tours and
commer ci al attracti ons ( p. 1 55) ar e ofered.
ACTI VI TI ES 1 39
oho Hondo orkordo Keys.
THE FLORI DA KEYS are a chai n of i sl ands, mai nl y parts
of an ol d coral reef, extendi ng from Bi scayne Bay south
and west to the Dry Tortugas, a di stance of over 200
mi l es. They come cl ose to the tropi cs and thei r cl i mate i s
essent ial l y tropi cal -a dry and a rai ny (Ju l y to Nov. )
season, wi th frosts very rare i n t he northern keys and
compl etel y absent i n the southern. The Overseas Hi ghway
goes to Key West over coral and rock i sl ands connected
by l ong bri dges-the l ongest: 7 mi l es. Vegetati on i s trop
ical (p. 79) and some pl ant and ani mal l ife can be seen
nowhere el se. Most of the keys i n shal l ow Fl ori da Bay
are part of Evergl ades Nat. Park ( pp. 1 24 and 1 25).
Excel l ent bi rd watchi ng and fshi ng-notabl y for snap
per, snook and tarpon. The ocean si de of the keys i s
protected by a reef, beyond whi ch i s the Gul f Stream.
Fi shi ng i s excel l ent for sai l fsh, mar l i n, ki ngfsh and sundry
bottom speci es. Unexcel l ed mari ne l ife can be studi ed
on or of shore.
Key Largo sti l l has fne hardwood hammocks. Local
eforts are bei ng made to protect them. Audubon tours .
( p. 1 33) l eave from Taverni er. Ampl e accommodati ons
and several roadsi de parks are found on the keys.
1 40 ACTI VI TI ES
I n Key West, most southern ci ty i n U. S. , see the mu
ni ci pal aquari um, the Martel l o Towers ( remai ns of two
forts) and the l i ghthouse. Al ong the streets are many
tropi cal trees-often l abel ed. See some of the ol der
houses wi th thei r attracti ve gardens . Tr y l ocal "Conch"
di shes or Cuban cooki ng. Excel l ent fi s hi ng from pi ers and
charter boats; fne publ i c beach. Vi si t t he s hr i mp docks
and the turtl e crawl s (admi ssi on charge) . An auto ferry
and ai rl i ne connect wi th Cuba.
L ghlhouseKey Wesl, or do.
D
L OU I S I ANA
The coastal pl ai n i ncl udes al l of loui si ana, t hough t hi s
book touches on l y the sout hern t hi r d. But i n t hi s t hi rd, t he
nat ural and hi stori c features of t he state are at t hei r best.
At the hub of thi s area i s famed New Or l eans (p. 1 44) .
Other pl aces to see and thi ngs to do are l i sted bel ow:
CI TI ES AND TOWNS
Baton Rouge, state capi t al and center of s ugar, chemi cal and petro
l eum i n dustri es. Sugar refneri es and other i ndustri es have publ i c tou rs.
See the ol d an d new state capi tol s, the l atter a mar bl e s kyscraper. At
lou i si ana State Uni versi ty ar e museums of zool ogy an d of I ndi an l i fe.
Lake Charles, on US 90, i s a deep-water port and center for s ul fu r
and petrol eum. To t he south and east are extensi ve ri ce pl anti ngs.
New I beri a, 1 50 mi l es W. of New Orl eans on US 90, i s i n the center
of the "Acadi an coun try" and of sugar pl antat i ons. J eferson I s. and
Avery I s. both have huge sal t mi nes. The l atter al so has a t abasco
pl antati on, bi rd sanct uary and commer ci al gar dens (p. 1 53) .
St. Marti nvi lle, near New I beri a, borders t he longfel l ow- Evange-

l i ne Mem. Par k (see bel ow) . See the museu m an d si tes associ ated wi th
t he Acadi an (Caj u n) F rench sett l ers, dri ven from Nova Scoti a i n 1 755.
Thi bodaux ( Rte 1 , west of New Or l eans) , wi t h many ol d pl anta
t i ons i s i n t he heart of t he sugar cou nt ry.
STATE AND NATI ONAL PARKS
Chalmette Nat. Hi st. Park, j ust south of N. 0. on Rte 39, mar ks
t he si te of the Batt l e of New Or l eans. Andrew J ackson, i n 1 8 1 5, defeat
ed a l arge Br i ti sh force two weeks after a peace treaty had been
si gned at Ghent. Histori cal mar kers show the Amer i can battl e l i nes.
Audubon Mem. Park, of US 61 near St. F r anci svi l l e, i nc l udes t he
pl antati on wher e Au du bon wor ked and pai nted. The house i s now a
museu m. There is a pi cni c area.
Chi cot State Park, wi th boati ng, campi ng, fi s hi ng and pi cni cki ng, is
north of Vi l l e Pl atte on US 1 67.
Fontai nebleau State Park, near t he north end of t he lake Pont
chartrai n causeway, is part of an ol d pl ant at i on
.
Swi mmi ng and other
water sports on t he l ake; al so campi ng.
Longfellow-Evangel i ne Mem. Park, near St. Marti nvi l l e, i n
c l udes an ol d Acad i an house, n ow a museu m. Gu i ded tou rs.
Sam Houston State Park ofers fshi ng, boat i ng and pi cni cki ng i n
woodl ands north o f lake Charl es, of US 90.
Other State Parks are found i n the nort hern part of t he state; al so
a n u mber of s mal l er par ks and recreati onal areas i n t he sout h.
1 42 ACTI VI TI ES
WI LDLI FE REFUGES
Sabi ne N.W. R., of Rt e 27, has 1 43,000 acres for waterfowl , wad
i ng bi r ds and a l l i gators. Accessi bl e by road.
Lacassi ne N. W .R., s out h of Rt e 1 4 a nd east of Rt e 27; a l so a
refu ge for waterfowl an d waders.
Del ta N.W. R. , near Veni ce at end of Rte 23, south of New Or l eans;
a refu ge for ducks, geese an d shor ebi rds. Bi rd watch i n g excel l ent.
Several other Nat. Wi l dl i fe Refuges a re l ess accessi bl e. loui si ana
has a n u mber of state wi l dl i fe refuges and game preserves . The Nat.
Audubon Soc. al so operates a refuge near Abbevi l l e.
OTHER THI NGS TO SEE
Ki satchi e Nat. For. : pi ne seedl i ng n u rsery; W. of Al exand r i a.
Li vestock Experi mental Farm of t he U. S. Dept. of Agri c ul t ure,
east of New I ber i a.
Shri mp and oyster feets at Morgan Ci ty.
Ol d pl antati ons ar ound St. Fr anci svi l l e ( admi ssi on fee) .
Caj un vi l l ages of fi sher men an d far mers, S. an d E. of New Or l eans.
TE XAS
The Southeast area gradual l y merges wi th t he west i n t he Texas
coastal pl ai n. On l y t he area ar ound Beaumont i s properl y i n thi s
gu i de. Beau mont i s a pet rol eum an d chemi cal cen ter. I ts refi neri es ar e
among t he l argest. Al so a shi ppi ng cent er for l u mber and ri ce, whi ch
i s grown to t he sout h. Port Arthu r, on Sabi ne lake, i s a s i mi l ar i ndus
t r i al ci ty. J ust nort h, on Rte 87, is t he hi ghest hi ghway br i dge i n the
south. Across the l ake i s t he Sabi ne Nat i onal Wi l dl i fe Refuge.
ACTI VI TI ES 1 43
NEW ORLEANS, founded
i n 1 71 8, has had an exci t
i ng hi story. I t sti l l retai ns
i t s hi stori c char m ami d its
new i ndustri a l and com
merci al growt h. The ci ty,
wi t h its 25 mi l es of water
front docks, i s about 1 00
mi l es from the mouth of the
Mi ssi ssi ppi . The ol d ci ty,
whi ch began on t he ri ver,
has spread to Lake Pont
chartrai n, across whi ch a
fne causeway has recentl y
been bui l t. Probabl y the
most European of al l Amer
i can citi es, New Or l eans
has a di st i nct favor and boasts scores of hi stori c si tes.
The famed Mardi Gras, j ust before Lent, i nvol ves two
weeks of festi val s and a spectacul ar parade. Make reser
vati ons ear l y if you want to go. Ot her t hi ngs for the
vi si tor to see i ncl ude:
The Vi eux Carre, t he Fr ench Quarter, i s mar ked by narrow streets,
par ks, ol d houses with del i cate i ron gr i l l work, and hi dden pati os. Thi s
area, extendi ng about ten bl ocks back from the ri ver and from Canal
street, i s t he ol dest part of town. Try t he famous restau rants, noted for
thei r Creol e and French cooki ng. See t he Cabi l do, now t he state
museu m, once used by t he Spani sh and French gover n ments. Adj oi ni ng
i s St . Loui s Cat hedr al and t he Presbytere, now a Museum al so.
Ci ty Park, hous i ng t he Del gado Art Museum wi th i ts famous col l ec
ti ons, has an u n usual l y l arge foral cl ock.
Audubon Park, on the Mi ssi ssi ppi Ri ver, has an excel l ent zoo ( wi th
t he onl y pai r of breedi ng whoopi ng cranes i n capti vi ty) , an aquar i um,
swi mmi ng pool , gol f cou rse and pl aygrou nds.
Lake Pontchartrai n has beaches and amusement parks, boati ng
and fshi ng. Dri ve across the 24-mi l e causeway, l ongest ever bui l t.
Drive down Rte 1 to Gr and I sl e, headquarters of pi rate Jean Lafte,
or down Rte 23 to Veni ce, near the Mi ssi ssi ppi ' s mout h.
1 44 PL1 V 1 bb
bhr mp bools nOor oscogou o, N ss ss pp .
OZ
MI SSI SSI PPI , l i ke loui siana, is compl etel y wit hi n t he
coastal pl ain . And here al so, i t is the sout her n quarter
of the state t hat i s the ol dest and has t he most attracti ons
for vi si t ors. Fi rst expl ored by De Soto i n 1 542, t his area
has been under Span i sh, French and Bri t i sh control . Agri
cul t ure was for mer l y centered on cotton . Recent l y, re
forestat i on and soi l conservat i on have started a comeback,
and agricu l ture has been di versi fed. I n the south, more
catt l e is r ai sed, and t here are new pl ant i ngs of t ung trees
for oi l , and such crops as peanuts, soybeans, sugar cane
and strawberri es. I n an attempt t o ba l ance agricu l t ure and
industry, texti l e mi l l s, l umber mi l l s and s hi pyards have
been bui l t.
The coastal secti on itsel f i s an area of sandy soi l s,
where t he sea an d t he cl i mate make fs hi ng and servi ces
to visitors the pr i nc i pa l occupat i ons. Movi ng i nl and, the
coastal area merges wi th t he " pi ney woods"-once ri ch
forests, now cutover l ands, s ome regrown wi th
p
i ne, some
i n s mal l farms. Thi ngs to see and do in Mi ssi ssi ppi are
l i sted on t he next page.
PL1 V 1 bb 1 45
CI TI ES AND TOWNS
Pi cayune, on US 1 1 at the center of an area of t ung oi l pl antati ons
( p. 58) , has the wor l d' s l argest tung mi l l .
Bay St. loui s i s t he fi rst of a seri es of resort towns beaded al ong
US 90. Sal t water fi shi n g i n t he Gul f an d Bay. Here a naval ski r mi sh
was fought (Dec. 1 8 1 4) -t he begi nni ng of t he battl e of New Or l eans.
Bi l oxi , best known resort on t he Mi ssi ssi ppi gu l f, cl ai ms to be t he fi rst
per manent whi te sett l ement i n the Mi ssi ssi ppi val l ey ( 1 699) . I t i s on a
peni ns ul a between the Gu l f and the Bay, where a l ar ge s hr i mp and
oyster feet makes i t s headquarters. Swi mmi ng al ong mi l es of excel l ent
beach; boati ng and fshi ng. See the ol d l i ghthouse, shr i mp docks and
packi ng pl ants, ol d houses, and Ft. Massachusetts. The l atter i s on
Shi p I s l and, a pu bl i c recreati on area, reached by boat . Beauvoi r, t he
home of J eferson Davi s, i s 5 mi l es west on US 90.
Ocean Spri ngs, across t he Bay f. rom Bi l oxi , was t he act ual s i t e of
the fi rst sett l ement . I t has ol d estates and the Gul f Coast Research Lab.
Pascagoul a, fi nal coastal town as one moves east al ong US 90, was
once an i mportant l u mber port. Now i ts i ndustri es i nc l ude s hi pbui l d
i ng, s hi ppi ng of pecans, fi shi ng and s hri mpi ng. Good sport fs hi ng. An
ol d Spani sh fort ( 1 7 1 8) can be seen.
Hatti esburg is the l argest ci ty i n sout her n Mi ssi ssi ppi . I t began i ts
career as a l u mber town and managed to mai ntai n i tsel f after the
t i mber was gone. I t i s a ci ty of di versi fed i nd ustry i nc l udi ng texti l e
mi l l s, an oi l refnery and t wo smal l col l eges.
NATURAL AREAS WORTH VI SI TI NG
Mi ssi ssi ppi has a nu mber of nati onal and state areas s et as i de for
recreati onal an d conservati onal use. I n t he sout hern part of t he state,
the vi si tor may fnd the fol l owi ng worth seei ng.
De Soto Nat. Forest, north of Bi l oxi , i ncl udes t hree recr
9
ati onal
ar eas : As he Lake, 2 mi . S. of Brookl yn of US 49; swi mmi ng,
b
oati ng,
campi ng. Bi g Bi l oxi area, 1 2 mi . N. of Gul fport on US 49, a si mi l ar
area. Thompson Creek, 24 mi . S. of Lau rel on Rt e 1 5.
Homochi tto Nat. Forest i n southwest Mi ssi ssi ppi i ncl udes Cl ear
Spr i ng Lake Rec. Area of US 84. Swi mmi ng, boati ng and campi ng.
Percy Qui nn State Park, near McComb on Rt e 24, has a l ake wi th
swi mmi ng, boati ng, fi shi ng. Campi ng, cabi ns and pi cni c areas.
Shel by State Park, 1 2 mi . S. of Hatti es bur g of US 49; boati ng,
fshi ng and swi mmi ng.
Pet i t Boi s Nat. Wi l dl i fe Refuge for pel i ca ns an d shorebi rds; on
an i sl an d a t t he Mi ss. -Ai abama border. Accessi bl e by boat onl y, as i s
nearby Hor I s l and, a new Wi l dl i fe Refuge j ust of Bi l oxi .
Several gardens and ol d homes nea r t he coast ci t i es are operated
as commerci al attracti ons. Make l ocal i n qu i ri es for hours and fees.
1 46 ACTI VI TI ES
zo eosbe ngrol h ordens, neor Nob e, obomo.
ALABAMA di fers fr om the t wo states to the west i n
that onl y a smal l part of i t l i es i n t he coastal pl ai n, an d
that part must compete i n pr oducti vi ty and i nterest wi th
ot her attracti ve a reas. Al ong t he Gu l f, Al abama i s onl y
60 mi l es wi de; t hi s tongue i s domi nated by Mobi l e at
the del tas of the
i ntermi xed Mobi l e an d Tensaw ri vers,
whi ch become t he Al abama and the Tombi gbee ri vers to
the nort h. The l arge navi gabl e streams have recreat i ona l
as wel l as i ndustr i al potent i al s. The sout her n extensi on
of Al abama i s s i mi l ar to wester n F l or i da. The remai nder
of t he state i n t he coastal pl ai n i s predomi nant l y f ar m
i ng and forested pi ne country, fat or gent l y rol l i ng wi t h
l ow r i dges. Here t he soi l s ar
e
poor and san dy i n contrast
to the ri ch, fert i l e " bl ack bel t" to t he nor t h. Cotton, to
bacco, pean uts, watermel on, sugar cane an d wi nter veg
etabl es are maj or crops. Hogs, catt l e and pou l try are
i mportant, too. Al abama' s i ndustry is mai nl y to the north
of thi s regi on, t hough Mobi l e i s a great port and s hi ppi ng
center. For detai l s on what t o s ee and do i n t hi s area,
see the next page.
PL1 V 1 bb 1 47
CI TI ES AND TOWNS
Mobi l e, fou n ded i n 1 7 1 1 , i s an ol der ci ty t han New Or l eans, but
wi th l ess of a conti nent al favor. Some traces of F re nch, Span i sh and
Br i t i sh occu pat i on r emai n, but, on t he whol e, Mobi l e i s a moder n
i nd ust r i al and commerci al ci ty, taki ng fu l l advant age of bei ng Al a
bama' s onl y seaport. I t has l arge shi pyards, docks and a score of
di versi fi ed i ndustri es. Du ri ng t he Ci vi l War, Admi r al Far r agut ' s feet
fought the battl e of Mobi l e Bay near t he city in 1 864. The Confeder
ate shi ps were s unk and, soon after, t he two forts g uar di ng the bay
(see bel ow) fel l to the Un i on forces, t hus seal i ng of a nother Southern
port. Vi si tors i n ear l y spri ng shoul d fol l ow the "Azal ea Trai l " through
the best pl anted resi dent i al streets and roads. A Mardi Gras takes over
the city before Lent. See such pl aces as Bi envi l l e Square, the Federal
Museum i n t he l i brary bui l di ng, the state and oyster dock, and many
ol d bui l di ngs and monuments.
Fai rhope on US 98 i s i nternati onal l y known as a town bui l t on ad
vanced soci al and educati onal i deal s. I t began as a si ngl e-tax col ony
i n 1 893. See i t s attracti ve publ i c waterfront.
Dothan, i n S. E. Al abama was a rough l umber i ng town whi ch grew
up i nto a ri ch agr i cul t u ral center. Peanuts are t he maj or l ocal crop.
Enterpri se, east of Dot han on US 84, gave up when the bol l weevi l
took over t he cotton. The a rea t ur ned to peanuts and prospered. I n
grati tude, a monu ment t o the bol l weevi l g races t h e s quare.
NATURAL AREAS WORTH SEE I NG
Conecuh Nat . Forest, east of Brewton, i ncl udes an experi ment al
forest and a recreati onal area (campi ng, swi mmi ng and boati ng) at
Open Pond, about 1 7 mi l es sout h of Andal usi a.
Li ttl e Ri ver State Forest of US 1 1 north of Atmore, ofers camp
i ng, swi mmi ng and fi shi ng. Ther e are several I ndi an vi l l age si tes.
Gul f State Park, of Rte 3, S. E. of Mobi l e, i s a recreati onal area on
t he Gul f whi ch al so has t hree fresh- water l akes. Cabi ns, di ni ng room,
beach; boati ng and fi shi ng.
Other state l ands i ncl ude Mecher State Pk. , Chattahoochee State
Pk. i n the very S. E. ti p of the state, and Geneva State Forest.
HI STORI C SI TES
Ft. Morgan State Park, on the east si de of t he ent ra nce to Mobi l e
Bay, s ur rounds a bri ck fort bu i l t i n 1 833 and t aken by Uni on forces
(with Ft. Gai nes) d u ri ng the Ci vi l War. Cottages an d resta u rant.
Ft. Gai nes on Dauphi n
l
sl dnd, at t he end of Rte 1 63, guarded the
west si de of t he entrance to Mobi l e Bay. The fort was enl arged du ri ng
the Spani sh-Ameri can War. Now open t o vi si tors.
Fort Mi mms no l onger exi sts
. At the si te, 4 mi l es W. of Tensaw on Rte
59, i s a monu ment to 500 sett l ers ki l l ed t here i n 1 8 1 3 by Creek I n di ans.
1 48 PL1 V 1 bb
GEORGI A' S coastal pl ai n i s sandy, wi th swamps and
l ow ri dges. I n t he southeast i s t he famed Okefenokee
Swamp, cover i ng near l y 700 sq. mi l es . Other swamps
fol l ow t he i nl ets an d l i e al ong the ri vers. The Georgi a
shore i s bounded by a group of famous sea i s l ands. The
coastal pl ai n of Georgi a i s agr i cu l t ural . Cotton was the
pri me crop for a century. Now the hi gher i nl and area
i s famous for i ts peaches. Pecans, pean uts, t obacco and
grai ns s uppl ement cotton, and poul try rai si ng has be
come i mportant. Forests are sti l l produci ng l umber, pul p
and chemi cal s .
CI TI ES AND TOWNS
Savannah ( p. 1 5) i s a typi c al sout her n ci ty; l arge and moder n, and
at t he s ame t i me, ol d and beauti fu l . I t was the scene of batti es d u ri ng
both t he Revol ut i on ary and Ci vi l wars. I nteresti ng ol d streets, t he ci ty
par ks ( Forsyth, Col oni al , Dafn) and the ol d homes and chur ches. Tel
fai r Academy i s a hi stor i cal museum. A l ar ge paper mi l l ( Un i on Bag
and Paper ) , north of the ci ty, has dai l y tou rs. Vi si tors are al so wel come
at the U. S. D. A. Exper i mental Far m ( Bamboo far m) 1 2 mi . S. of the
ci ty on US 1 7.
Al bany ( Rtes 1 9, 82 and 50) on the Fl i nt Ri ver is t he l ar gest pecan
s hi ppi ng center. To t he S. is Radi u m Spr i ng, l ar gest spr i n g i n t he state.
bond dune ond p nesJeky s ond blole or k, eor g o.
HSZ
CI TI ES AND TOWNS ( cont i nued)
Brunswi ck, t he second Georgi a seaport, i s a l u mber an d shr i mpi ng
por t . From here a causeway {tol l ) l eads out to sever al s ea i s l ands .
"Marshes of Gl ynn" are t o t he north of t he ci ty.
Thomasvi l l e ( Rtes 3, 35 and US 84) i s a resi denti al town wi th at
tracti ve homes an d a venerabl e oak, 22 ft. i n ci r cu mfer ence.
Waycross ( on Rtes 1 , 50 and US 84) is a tobacco an d cotton town;
i t i s bet t er known as t he gateway to t he Okefen

kee Swamp ( see bel ow) .


NATURAL AREAS WORTH VI SI TI NG
Kol omoki Mounds State Park has campi ng an d recreati onal
faci l i ti es i n addi ti on t o I ndi an mounds and an exhi bi t of t hei r content.
North of Bl akey on Rte 27.
Chehaw State Park, near Al bany of US 1 9, commemorates a
group of Creek I ndi ans. The wooded area is used mai n l y for pi cni cs.
Georgi a Vet. Mem. State Park, on Lake Bl ackshear ( Fl i nt Ri ver)
N. E. of Al bany, has campi ng and recreati onal faci l i t i es on a l ake.
Li ttl e Ocmul gee State Park, j ust outsi de of McRae ( Rtes 27 and
280) , has a l ake; fshi ng, campi ng and a pi cni c a rea.
Magnol i a Spri ng State Park, N. of Statesboro on US 25, has a
spri ng fowi ng si x mi l l i on gal l ons a day. Mai nl y a pi cni c a rea, wi th two
smal l l akes for fshi n g and swi mmi ng.
Jekyl l I s. State Park, near Bru nswi ck, ofers rare swi mmi ng and
recreati on faci l i ti es. Large estates are now guest houses and a museum.
Crooked Ri ver State Park, S. of Br unswi ck of Rte 40, ofers sal t
water fs hi ng, swi mmi ng and bi rdi ng.
Laura S. Wal ker State Park, S. E. of Waycross, i s mai nl y for
group campi ng. I t has a l ake for fshi ng, boati ng and swi mmi ng.
Nati onal Wi l dl i fe Refuges-fou r of t he fve i n Georgi a are i n thi s
coastal reg i on. Three ( Bi ackbeard I s. , Savannah, Tybee and Wol f I s . )
are on i sl ands between Savannah an d Brunswi ck. Okefenokee Nat.
Wi l d. Ref. covers the mai n part of Okefenokee Swamp. Gui des are
needed.
Other natural areas i ncl ude the st ate forests and t he sea i sl ands.
Of t he l atter, Jekyl l I s. and St . Si mons are accessi bl e from Br unswi ck.
HI STORI C SI TES
Ft. Pul aski Nat. Mon. at the mout h of the Savannah Ri ver on Cock
s pur I s . , is a g reat fort, 20 yea rs a- bui l di ng. I t protected Savannah
earl y i n t he Ci vi l Wa r, but was t aken i n 1 862, t hus cutti ng of the ci ty.
Ft. Frederi ca Nat. Mon. on St. Si mons I s. preserves an Engl i sh fort
and town begu n by Gen. Ogl ethorpe i n 1 736. I n 1 742 the Engl i sh de
feated the Spani sh her e i n t he ' ' War of J en ki ns' Ear . "
Jeferson Davi s Mem. State Park, N. E. of Ti fton, marks t he spot
where the Confederate presi dent was capt ur ed. A museum.
1 50 PL1 V 1 cb
Lhor eslon Nuseu mo desl n l he U. b.
HSZ
SOUTH CAROLI NA rounds out the area covered by thi s
book, t hough the coastal pl ai n extends nort heast ti l l i t
peters out at Cape Cod. Near l y hal f of South Carol i na i s
i n t he pl ai n, wh i ch i s l ow and swampy a l ong the coast,
and wh i ch ri ses i nto rol l i ng sand hi l l s i nl and. The soi l i s
poor. Pi ne forests predomi nate, wi th a good yi el d of t i m
ber, and agri cu l t ure i s i mportant. Cotton i s sti l l ki ng, but
corn an d ot her grai ns are grown-al so tobacco, sweet
potatoes, pean uts, peaches, pecans an d earl y vegetabl es.
The val ue of l i vestock and pou l try i s i ncreas i ng. The sal t
water fi sheri es center on oysters, but a l so i ncl ude s hri mp
and several k i n ds of fs h . I n dustry i ncl udes texti l e mi l l s,
dams for el ectri c power, tobacco an d wood products.
The " up country" i n South Carol i na i s resort area, not
the "l ow country" of t h
e
coastal pl ai ns . However, t here i s
an abun dance of trees ( pi ne and hardwoods) and of wi l d
l i fe here. The s hore area is especi al l y attracti ve because
i t i s not as wel l devel oped as areas to t he sout h. I t has
an enti ci ng "back country" aspect, an d a fu l l s hare of h i s
tori c an d nat ural s i tes worth seei ng.
PL1 V 1 bb 1 5 1
CI TI ES AND TOWNS
Beaufort, on US 2 1 , i s a n ol d port on one of t he S. Car ol i na sea
i s l ands . Bui l di ngs go back to 1 690. Nearby i s the Mar i nes' t rai n i n g base
at Par r i s I s l and. Boat i ng, fs hi ng and swi mmi ng i n t he s hel ter ed ha r bor .
Charl eston i s oft en consi der ed t he s out her n ci ty-ol d ( fou nded
1 670) , hi stor i c and beaut i fu l . Wal k t he downtown streets ( fr om Ki ng St.
east) to fl avor t he ci ty an d see i ts bui l di ngs . Do not mi ss the museum
ol dest i n t hi s cou ntry and t he Gi bbes Art Gal l ery. Ch u rches an d publ i c
bui l di ngs a re admi ss i onfree. Ot her attracti ons have a char ge of one
dol l ar o r l ess. Near Ch arl eston a re sever al ol d ga rden estates whi ch
have been devel oped as commer ci al at t r act i ons .
Summervi l l e, 1 4 mi . N. W. of Ch ar l est on, has mu n i ci pal azal ea gar
dens bl oomi ng i n ear l y s pr i ng. Nearby is For t Dor chester, bui l t i n 1 750.
Orangeburg, sti l l far t her west on US 1 78, s upports t he Edi sto Gar
dens wi t h camel l i as, azal eas an d a fne rose col l ect i on. F ree.
Georgetown, north of Char l eston, has a fi ne h ar bor and excel l ent
fi s hi ng. The t own houses one of the l argest paper mi l l s .
Myrt l e Beach is a s ummer resort wi t h a wi de, s andy beach. Th ree
mi l es s out h is a state par k (see bel ow) an d about 1 5 mi l es far t her is
Br ookgreen Gar dens , wi t h exhi bi ts of nati ve pl a nt s an d a n i ma l s. F ree.
HI STORI C SI TES
Charl eston i s t he mos t hi stor i c s i te i n t he a rea, al ong wi t h Fort
Sumter Nat. Monument, mar ki ng t he fort at whi ch t he Ci vi l War
ofci al l y began . F ort Su mt er can be reached by boat fr om downt own
Ch ar l eston. Ther e are ot her forti fcat i ons on Su l l i va ns and J a mes I s.
Ri vers Bri dge Conf. Mem. Park, S. of E h r h ardt o n t he Bi g Sal ke
hat chi e Ri ver, has a museu m-al so pi cni cki ng an d swi mmi n g.
NATURAL AREAS WORTH SE E I NG
Three Nati onal Wi l dl i fe Refuges i n thi s area mai nl y protect
ducks, geese an d other waterfowl . Sava n nah N. W. R. is j ust across t he
ri ver from Savan nah, Ga.
ft. Mari on Nat. Forest, N. of Charl eston, has mai nl y l arge stands
of yel l ow pi ne, s ome cypress and hardwoods. No recreati on al faci l i ti es.
Barnwel l State Park, S. of Bl ackvi l l e, forest l and wi th l ake, swi m-
mi ng, boati n g and campi ng.
Edi sto Beach State Pk. , on Rt e 1 7 4, on beaut i f ul Edi sto I s l and.
Gi vhan' s Ferry St. Pk. , on Edi sto ri ver of Rt e 61 ; cabi ns, swi mmi ng.
Hunti ng I s. State Pk. , end of US 2 1 ; a wi l d forest area on t he
coast; wel l worth vi si ti ng. Cabi ns, campi ng, pi cni cki ng.
Myrtl e Beach State Pk. , S. of Myrtl e Beach; swi mmi ng, fs hi ng and
campi ng. Wooded dunes an d beach.
Santee State Pk., on Lake Mari on; one of t he l arge twi n arti fci al
l akes N. of Charl eston. Al l water sports; cabi ns.
1 2 PL1 V 1 bb
COMME RC I AL
ATT RAC T I ONS
Wi thi n t hi s area a re over
a hun dred museums, exhi b
i ts, gardens, pl antati ons
and ot her attracti ons t hat
charge admi ssi on . Thi s does
not i ncl ude state parks or
publ i c i nsti tuti ons chargi ng
a nomi na l f ee. A few
commerci al attract i ons are
owned by t he state or a
muni ci pal i ty. Most are r un
pri vatel y. Some operators
eed ng QorQose ( oQh n]
Nor ne bludos, or do.
have gone to great l engt hs to make t hei r exhi bi ts educa
ti onal and t o pr omote research. Many-per haps most-of
these commerci a l attract i ons are wort h seei ng. On t he
fol l owi ng pages are some of t he better known ones . Cost
l i sted is for an adu l t. Chi l dren are usu al l y l ess, an d fees
may vary wi th the season . Make l ocal i nqui r i es, an d check
pl aces maki ng exaggerated and i mprobabl e cl ai ms.
LOUI SI ANA
Avery I s l and J u ngl e Gar dens i n c l u de a fne, p ri vate wi l dl i fe s anct u
ary. lar ge areas of nat i ve and exot i c pl ant s. Admi ssi on $ 1 .
St. Franci svi l l e Near by are sever al pl antati on ma ns i ons where t he
home and grounds a re open. look u p Afton Vi l l a an d Cottage Pl an
tati on; admi ssi on $ 1 . an d . 85.
MI SSI SSI PPI
Bay St . Loui s Hol l y Bl uf an d De rwood, two gardens l ocated on the
J ordan r i ver , west and nort h of here. Both have pl ant i ngs of azal ea,
camel l i as, and a nt i q ue col l ecti ons. Bot h $ 1 .
Bi l oxi Fi ve mi l es west o n US 90 i s Beauvoi r , t he home of J efer son
Davi s, kept as a museu m and s h r i ne. Ad mi s s i on, $ 1 .
PL1 V 1 bb 1
MI SSI SSI PPI ( conti nued)
Natchez, j ust pas t the edge of ou r regi on, i s t he cen ter of ante
bel l u m gardens, houses, an d pl antati ons. Most a re open al l t he year, at
admissi on of 60 cent s and up. I n March t he gar den c l ubs sponor a "pi l
gri mage" to outstandi ng houses and gardens, some of wh i ch cannot be
vi si ted at ot her ti mes.
Pascagoul a Not far of US 90 i s an ol d Spani sh fort bui l t i n 1 7 1 8,
now a h i stori cal mus eum. Admi ssi on, 50 cents.
ALABAMA
Mobi l e To the west and south of Rte 90 i s Bel l i ngrath Gardens, bui l t
i n 1 936. The house cont ai ns a col l ecti on of Eu ropea n anti q ues. The
gar dens i ncl ude l ar ge pl ant i ngs of azal eas, camel l i as and dogwoods.
At t hei r best i n earl y spri ng. Admissi on, $2 and $4. 50.
GEORGI A
Waycross Okefenokee Swamp Par k i s i n t hi s great swamp and wi l
der ness area. Ani mal exh i bi ts, t r ai l s and gui ded tou r. Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 25.
SOUTH CAROLI NA
Charl eston Northwest of the ci ty is a gr oup of gardens and pl an
tati ons featu r i ng azal eas and camel l i as, and h ouses of h i stori c i nterest.
Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 25; $2 du r i ng spri ng season.
Cypress Gardens, of Rte 52, about 25 mi l es nor t h.
Magnol i a Gardens, of Rt e 6 1 , about 1 0 mi l es northwest.
Mi ddl eton Ga rdens, of Rte 6 1 , about 1 2 mi l es nort hwest.
Pi erates Cruze Ga r dens, of US 1 7, 6 mi l es northeast.
McCl el l anvi l l e Hampton Pl antati on, wi th a fi ne Georgi an house
and wel l -pl anted gardens i s 7 mi . north, of US 1 7. Adm. , $ 1 . 50.
FLORI DA
Boca Raton Afri ca, U. S. A. , has many speci es of Afri ca n ani mal s on
a l arge, open t ract vi si ted by motor trai n. Al s o pl a nti ngs of tropi cal
pl ants and a boat cr ui se. Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 75.
Boni ta Spri ngs Ever gl ades Wonder Gardens is a fne zoo, speci al
i zi ng i n l ocal ani mal s, wi t h a l arge col l ecti on of al l i gat ors and croco
di l es. Label ed exoti c trees, and g u i de service. Admi ssi on, $ 1 .
Bradenton Sout h F l ori da Museu m, smal l an d compact, i s f l l ed wi th
a wi de range of exhi bi ts, i nc l udi ng a l i vi ng manatee
. Adm. , . 50.
Daytona Beach Cru i ses on the Hal i fax Ri ver l eave the mu ni ci pal
docks mor ni ng and after noon. $ 1 . 65. Sout h on U. S. 1 is t he Sea Zoo
wi th a vari ety of fshes and other ani mal s. Ad mi ssi on, $ 1 . 50.
Dunnel l on Rai n bow Spr i ngs, about 5 mi l es north of Rte 4 1 , i s one
of the l arger Fl ori da spri ngs. "Submari ne" boats. Tri p, $2.
1 54 PL1 V 1 bb
Evergl ades F rom here boat tri ps i nto the wi l der parts of the Ever
g l ades Nati onal Park ( p. 1 24) are avai l abl e. Cost, $3. 30.
Fort Lauderdal e Two "j ungl e crui ses" cover the Bahi a-Mar beach
area, the I n l and Waterway, and t he New Ri ver. Cost, $2 and $2. 50.
Fort Myers Edison Wi nter Home and Laboratory i ncl udes work
shops and a botani cal garden (Adm. $1 ) . Al so several crui ses in the ri ver
and bay from Yacht Basi n Park ($1 . 75 and $2) .
Fort Wal ton Beach The Fl ori da Gul far i um, east on US 98, has a
l arge col l ecti on of fshes. Trai ned porpoi ses, too. Admi ssi on, $1 . 50.
Homestead To the north, on Newton Rd. , i s the Orchi d J u ngl e,
wi th g reenhouses and natural i zed pl anti ngs. Admi ssi on, $ 1 .
Homosassa Spri ngs Natu re' s Gi ant Fi sh Bowl , a group of spr i ngs
connected to the Gul f, i s r i ch i n mari ne l i fe. Adm. , $ 1 . 24.
Hypol uxo, on US 1 near Lake Worth; the J ames Mel ton Autorama,
a col l ecti on of anti que cars, toys and a cycl orama. Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 50.
I sl amorada J ust north, Theater of the Sea wi th n umerous pool s of
ocean fshes; gui ded tou r and trai ned porpoi se show. Adm. , $ 1 . 50.
Key West East Martel l o Tower i s the remai ns of a bri ck Ci vi l War
fort n ow housi ng art and hi stori cal exhi bits. Worth seei ng. Adm. , . 50.
Marathon S. E. Mus. of N. Amer. I ndi an. Excel l ent col l ecti on of
i mpl ements, or naments, and many aspects of I ndi an l i fe. Adm. , $ 1 .
Mari nel and, 1 7 mi l es south of St. Augusti ne on route Al A, has the
famed Mari ne Studi os, frst and best known of the l arge aquari um
exhi bi ts. One of t he best of its ki nd. Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 1 0.
Mi ami has a score of commerci al attracti ons. Get a l ocal map for
l ocati ons. Some of unus ual educati onal val ue are:
Monkey J u n gl e-l argest col l ecti on of monkeys and apes. Adm. , $ 1 . 40.
Parrot J ungl e-many parrots, fami ngos and other bi rds. Adm. , $2. 20.
PL1 V 1 bb 1
FLORI DA ( conti nued)
Seaquar i um-a new, l a rge, att racti ve aquar i um exhi bi t. Adm. , $2. 20.
Ser pent ar i um-un us ual exhi bi ts of r ar e s nakes. Adm. , $ 1 . 30.
Vi zcaya-a pretent i ous est at e, now an u ni que mus eum. Adm. , $ 1 .75.
Napl es Ca r i bbean Gar dens featu r e exoti c bi r ds and t r opi cal
pl ants i n an attracti ve nat ur al setti ng. Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 1 5.
Ocal a To t he s outh, Bi r ds of Prey, an outstandi ng educati onal ex
hi bi t of tethered bi r ds, with demonst rat i ons of fal con ry. Adm. , $ 1 . 1 3.
St. Augusti ne abounds in commerci al att racti ons. Out si de of town
are t he St. August i ne Al l i gat or Farm (Adm. , . 90) an d Cas per ' s Al l i gat or
J u ngl e ( $1 . 25) . Cl oser i n, vi si tors may t ake t hei r choi ce of: Ol d Spa ni sh
Treasury ( . 50) , School House ( . 50) , Ol dest Hous e ( . 50), Fou nt ai n-of
Yout h Par k ( . 80) , Li ght ner Museum of Hobbi es ( $1 ), Bel i eve- I t-or - Not
Mus eum ( $1 ) , Potter ' s Wax Mus eum ( $1 . 25) .
St. Petersburg has commerci al attract i ons, al l on or near N. 4th St.
Fl or i da Wi l d Ani mal Ranch-exhi bi ts an d an an i mal show, $ 1 .
Su n ke n Gar dens -pl a nt i ngs an d bota ni cal di spl ays, Adm. , $ 1 .
Weddi ng' s Gar dens -pl ant i ngs of t r opi cal speci es, Adm. , $ 1 .
Sarasota has t h ree state-owned Ri ngl i ng mu seu ms, i nc l udi ng t he
famous Ri ngl i ng Mus eum of Art ( $ 1 ), t he Ri ngl i ng Mans i on wi t h i ts fne
gardens ( $1 ) , an d t he Museu m of t he Ci rcus ( . 50) . Al so not e:
Ci rcus Hal l of Fame-exhi bi ts and ci r cus act s. Adm. , $ 1 . 25.
Ci rcus Wi nte r Quarters-a ni mal exhi bi t s and t rai ni ng acts. Adm. , $ 1 .
Hor n' s Cars o f Yesterday-ant i que car s and musi c boxes. Adm. , $ 1 .
Sa rasota Repti l e Farm an d Zoo-l arge ani mal exhi bi ts. Adm. , $ 1 .
Suns hi ne Gar dens -pl ant i ngs an d water-ski i ng exhi bi ts. Adm. , $ 1 .
Si l ver Spri ngs i nc l udes t he famous s pr i ngs t hemsel ves (tou r, $2. 20)
and al so the Ross Al l en Repti l e I nsti tute wi th exhi bi ts and demonstra
t i ons of "mi l ki ng" rattl er s. ( Adm. , $ 1 . 1 5) . The Ca r r i age Caval cade ex
hi bi ts anti q ue cars ( $ 1 . 1 3) , and deer of many ki nds are seen at Bart
l ett' s Deer Ranch (Adm. , 71 cent s) .
Tarpon Spri ngs Sponge-di vi ng exhi bi ts and demonstrati ons. ( $ 1 )
Taverni er McKee' s Su n ken Treas ure Fortress exhi bi t s r el i cs from
an ci ent wrecks fou n d al ong t he Fl or i da Keys ( $ 1 . 1 5) .
Vero Beach McKee J ungl e Gar dens has u n us ual pl ant i ngs of na
ti ve and exoti c speci es, al so exhi bi
t
s of bi rds an d mammal s ( $ 1 . 85) .
Wakul l a Wak u l l a Spr i ngs to t he west i s one of t he l a rgest spr i ngs
i n t he state ( p. 43) . Gl ass-bottomed boat tou rs; al so si ghtseei ng cr ui ses
for pl ants and bi rds ($ 1 . 65) .
Weeki Wachee Spri ngs featu res u nderwater shows, si ghtseei ng
t r i ps, and a vi ew of anot her l ar ge s pr i ng. Admi Ssi on, $ 1 . 7 5.
Wi nter Haven Cypress Gardens ofer s col or f ul pl ant i ngs qnd l and
scapi ng i n addi t i on t o i ts famous shows . Sever al r i des an d tou rs ar e
avai l abl e. Admi ssi on, $ 1 . 50.
Wi nter Park The ci ty-owned Mead Bota ni cal Gar dens, wi th orchi d
greenhous e and open pl a nt i ngs. Many tropi cal species. Adm. , 50 cents.
1 56 PL1 V 1 bb
Mc
Asteri sks ( * ) denote pages on whi ch the subj ects are i l l ustrated.
Acal ypha, *83
Agri cu l ture, *23, 42, 54
Air Pl ants, *72-74
Al abama, 1 47- 1 48, 1 54
Al bany, 1 7, 1 49
Al l amanda, *79
Al l i gator, * 1 03, 1 24
Al mond, Tropi cal , *83
Al oes, *84
Amel i a I s l and, *8, * 1 27
Amphi bi ans, 99- 1 0,
* 1 01 - 1 02
Anastasi a State Pk. ,
1 28, 1 30
Andote Refuge, 1 33
Angel fsh, *98
Angel Wi ngs, *86
Anhi nga, * 1 1 0
Ani mal li fe, 1 0, *85- 1 22
Anol e, * 1 01
Apal achi col a N. F. , 1 32,
1 36
Armadi l l o, * 1 20
Audubon Mem. Pk. , 1 42
Audubon Tours, 1 07,
* 1 25, 1 33
Austral i an Pi ne, *58
Avery I s l and, 1 53
Avocado, *56
Azal eas, *70, * 1 47
Bahamas, *20
Bahi a Honda Park, * 1 40
Bal l Moss, *73
Bamboo Vi ne, *67
Bananas, *53
Banyan, *B3
Barnwel l State Pk. , 1 52
Barracuda, 94- *95
Bass, *94, *97
Baton Rouge, 1 8, 1 42
Battl e of Nat. Bri dge
Mon. , 1 27
Bayberry, *66
Bay St. Loui s, 1 46, 1 5
Bay, Sweet, *52
Bear , Bl ack, * 1 1 9
Beaufort, 1 52
Beaumont, 1 8
Be
a
uvoi r, 1 46
Bel l i ngrath Gardens,
1 54
Bi g Cypress Resn. , 1 29
Bi l oxi , 1 8, 1 46, 1 53
Bi rch, Ri ver, *50
Bi rd of Paradi se, *78
Bi rds, * 1 07- 1 1 7, 1 33
Bi rd watchi ng, 1 33
Bl ackbi rd, * 1 1 4
Bl eedi ng Tooth, *90
Bl uegi l l , *93
Bobcat, * 1 1 9
Bobwhi te, * 1 1 4
Boca Raton, 1 54
Boni ta Spri ngs, 1 34, 1 54
Bougai nvi l l ea, *68
Bradenton, 1 .
Bri ghton Resn. , 1 29
Br unswi ck, 1 5
Bufal ofsh, *97
Bunch Moss, *73
Bunti ng, Pai nted, * 1 1 5
Butterfy Fi sh, *98
Cal amondi n, *55
Col usa, 28
Camel l i a, *69
Cape Sabl e, 1 34
Caracora, * 1 1 3
Cardi nal , * 1 07
Cari bbean Gardens,
1 5
Casti l l o d e San Marcos,
*32, 1 26, 1 28
Cedar Keys, 1 33, 1 34
Cedars, *47
Century Pl ant, *83
Ceri man, *79
Ceri th, Fl ori da, *90
Chal mette N. H. Pk. , 1 42
Char l eston, 1 5, 1 52
Charl eston Mus. , * 1 51 ,
1 52
Chehaw State Pk. , 1 50
Cherokee R
o
se, *71
Chi cot State Pk. , 1 42
Chi naberry, *58
Chi tons, *89
Choctaw, 29
Ci trus Fruits, * 54-55,
* 1 38
Cl i mate, 4, 8-9
Cockl e, *89
Coconut, * 59
Col l i er-Semi nol e Pk. ,
1 3 1
Conchs, *87
Cone, Al phabet, *90
Conecuh N. F. , 1 48
Coot, * 1 1 7
Coqui na, * 89
Coral , *39, *92
Coral Bean, *67
Coral Snake, * 1 06
Coral Vi ne, *78
Corkscrew Swamp,
* 1 32, 1 33
Cormorant, * 1 1 6
Cottonmouth, * 1 06
Cougar, 1 1 9
Crabs, *91
Crane, Sandhi l l , * 1 1 1
Crape Myrtl e, *68
Crappi e, Bl ack, *97
Creeks, 30, 33
Creval l e Jack, 94- *95
Crocodi l e, * 1 03
Crooked Ri ver St. Pk. ,
1 50
Croton, *84
Cuba, * 21
Cycads, *64
Cypress, *45
Cypress Gardens, 1 56
Dade Mem. Pk. , 1 27
Dani a, * 1 29
Daytona Beach, 1 5, 1 54
Deer, * 1 1 8
Del ta Refuge, 1 43
De Soto, 24, 25
De Soto N. F. , 1 46
De Soto N. Mem. , 1 26
Di amondback, * 1 06
Dol phi n, 94-*95
Dol phi n, Bott l e-nosed,
* 1 22, * 1 53
Dothan, 1 48
Dove, Ground, * 1 1 5
I NDEX 1 57
Drake, Franci s, 26
Dry Tortugas, * 1 26
Dunnel l on, 1 54
Eagl e, Bal d, * 1 1 2
Egrets, * 1 08, * 1 25
Edi sto Beach State Pk. ,
1 52
Enterpri se, 1 48
Events, Cal endar of, 1 4
Evergl ades Nat. Pk. ,
* 1 24- 1 25, map, *79
Evergl ades Wonder
Gardens, 1 54
Fai rchi l d Garden, * 1 35
Fai rhope, 1 48
Fi g, Fl a. Strangl er, *80
Fi shes, *93-98
Fi shi ng, commerci al ,
*23
Fi shi ng, Sport, 93,
1 39- 1 40, 1 41
Fl ags, *26- *27
Fl ame Vi ne, *84
Fl ami ngo, * 1 1 1
Fl ori da, 22, 1 24- 1 41 ,
1 54- 1 56
Fl ori da Caverns State
Pk. , 1 30, * 1 3 1
Fl ori da State Museum,
*29, 1 38
Fl ounder, Southern, *96
Fl owers, *71 -78
Fontai nebl eau State
Pk. , 1 42
Forests, Nat. and State,
1 32, 1 4, 1 48, 1 52
Ft. Carol i ne, 1 26
Ft. Cl i nch State Pk. ,
1 26- * 1 27
Ft. Frederi ca N. M. , 1 50
Ft. Gai nes, 1 4
Ft. Jeferson N. M. , * 1 26
Ft. Lauderdal e, 1 6, 1 55
Ft. Mari on N. F. , 1 52
Ft. Matanzas, 1 26
Ft. Mi mms, 1 48
Ft. Morgan State Pk. ,
1 48
Ft. Myers, 1 9, 1 55
Ft. Pi ckens State Pk. ,
1 27
Ft Pul aski N. M. , 1 50
Ft. Sumter N. M. , 1 52
1 d l Mb
F t . Wal ton Beach, 1 55
Fossi l s, *40
Fox, Gray, * 1 1 9
Fri gate Bi rd, * 1 1 2
Fr i ngtree, *51
Frogs, * 1 00
Gai nesvi l l e, 1 7, 1 38
Gar, Longnose, *96
Gardeni a, *69
Genti an, Rose, *77
Geol ogy, 6-7, *36-39
Georgi a, 1 49- 1 50, 1 54
Georgi a Veterans Mem.
State Pk. , 1 50
Gi vhan' s Ferry State
Pk. , 1 52
Gol d Head Bralch, 1 30
Grack l e, Boat-tai l ed,
* 1 1 4
Grapefrui t, *54
Grapes, *67
Greenbri er, *67
Grouper, Red, 94- *95
Guava, *57
Gul f State Pk. , 1 48
Gul l , Laughi ng, * 1 1 6
Gumbo Li mbo, *80
Gum, Bl ack, *51
Gum, Sweet, *51
Hatti esburg, 1 46
Havana, 21
Hawk, Red- shoul dered,
* 1 1 3
Hawk Wi ng, *87
Herons, * 1 08- 1 09
Hi bi s cus, *68
Hi ghl and Hammock,
1 3 1
Hi l l sborough Ri ver Pk. ,
1 3 1
Hi stor y, 24-34
Hol l y, Bl ack, *65
Homestead, 1 55
Homochi tto N. F . , 1 46
Homosassa Spr i ngs , 1 55
Hunt i ng I s. State Pk. ,
1 52
Hyaci nths, Water, *75
Hypol uxo, 1 55
I bi ses, * 1 1 0
I ndi ans, 24-25, 28-31 ,
* 1 29
I ndustry, *22-23
I nformati on Agenci es,
1 23
I s l amorada, 1 55
J acksonvi l l e, 1 5, *22
J asmi ne, * 69
J eferson Davi s Mem.
State Pk. , 1 50
J ekyl l I s . State Pk. , 1 .
J i ngl e Shel l s,
* 88
Key Largo, 1 40
Keys, Fl ori da, 39, 1 25,
1 34, * 1 40- 1 41
Key West, 1 9, 1 40- * 1 41 ,
1 55
Ki l l earn Gardens, 1 30
Ki satchi e N. F. , 1 43
Ki te, Evergl ade, * 1 0
Ki te, Swal l ow-Tai l ed,
* 1 1 2
Kol omoki Mounds State
Pk. , 1 .
Kumquats, *55
Lacassi ne Refuge
,
1 43
Lake Char l es, 1 8, 1 42
Lake Gr i fn, 1 3 1
Lake Pontchartrai n, 1 44
La Sal l e, 33
Laura S. Wal ker State
Pk. , 1 5
Li fe Pl ant, *78
L i l i es, Spi der, *44
Li mes, *54
Li mestone, 39, 41 , 43
Li mpki n, * 1 1 1
L i ttl e Ocmul gee State
Pk. , 1 50
Li ttl e Ri ver State Forest,
1 48
Li ttl e Tal bot I s . , 1 30
Li vestock, *23
Li zards, * 1 01
Lobster, Spi ny, *91
Longfel l ow- Evangel i ne
Mem. Pk. , 1 42
Loquat, * 56
Loui si ana, 1 42- 1 43, 1 44,
1 53
Loui siana Purchase, 24,
34
Lumber, *23 Ocal a N. F. , 1 32 Pl um, Coco, *80
Ocean Spri ngs, 1 46 Poi nci ana, Royol , *82
Magnol i as, *52 Okeechobee, La
k
e, * 1 0, Poi nsett i a, *68
Magnol i a Springs State 43 Poi sonwood, *80
Pk. , 1 50 Okefenokee Swamp, Pompano, *93
Mahogany, W. l . , *81 1 7, 1 49
, 1 54 Ponce de leon, 24-25
Mammal s, * 1 1 8- 1 22 Ol eander, *65 Ponderous Ark, *88
Manatee, * 1 22 O' leno State Pk. , 1 30 Porpoi se, 1 22
Manatee Spri ngs, 1 30 Ol ustee Batt l efel d Hi s!. Port Arthur, 1 43
Mango, *57 Mon. , 1 27 Portuguese
Mangrove, Red, *81 Opossum, * 1 20 Man- of- war, *92
Mapl e, Red, * 50 Orangeburg, 1 52 Prehi stori c obj ects
,
*28
Maps : 4-5, 6, 7, 24-25, Oranges, *54-55 Pummel o, *55
33, 34, 36-37, 42, Orchi ds, *74
75, 79, 85 Or chi d Tree, *82
Quai l , * 1 1 4
Marco I s l and, 1 34 Orl ando, 1 7
Mar i nel and
,
1 55 Osceol a, *30
Rabbi t, Marsh, * 1 2 1
Mar l i n, Bl ue, *96 Osceol a N. F. , 1 32
Matheson Hammock Osprey, * 1 1 2
Raccoon, * 1 1 9
Pk. , * 1 39 Otter, * 1 21
Racer, Bl ack, * 1 04
McCl el l anvi l l e, 1 54 Overseas Hi ghway, 1 40
Racerunner, * 1 01
Meadow-beauty, *76 Owl
,
Burrowi ng, * 1 1 5
Rai l road Vi ne, *76
Mi ami , * 1 5, * 1 6, * 1 39,
Rai nfal l , 8, 9; map, 6
1 55 Pal mettos, *60-61
Rattl ers, * 1 06
Mi l kwort, *77 Pal ms, *59-63
Repti l es, *99, * 1 0 1 - 1 06
Mi mosa, *58 Panama Ci ty, 1 9
Ri vers Bri dge Conf.
Mi neral s, *23, *41 Pandanus, *84
Mem. Pk. , 1 52
Mi ssi ssi ppi , 1 45- 1 46, Papaya, *56
Rose, Cherokee
,
*71
1 54 Parks, 1 30- 1 3 1 , 1 42,
Mobi l e, 1 8, * 1 47
,
1 48, 1 46, 1 48, 1 50, 1 52
Sago Pal m, *64
1 54 Parrotfsh, *98
Sai l fsh, *96
Mocki ngbi rd, * 1 07 Pascagoula, 1 4, 1 54
St. Andrews Pk. , 1 30
Mounds, I ndi an, 28, 1 29
Pecan, *51
St. August i ne, *32,
Mu l l et, *96 Pel i can, Brown, * 1 1 6
* 1 28, 1 56
Muskrat, * 1 20 Pel i can I s . Refuge, 1 33
St. Franci svi l l e, 1 53
Myakka Ri ver State Pk. , Pel l i cer Creek, 1 3 1
St. Marks Refuge, 1 33
* 1 1 ' 1 3 1
Pen Shel l , Sti f, *89
St. Marti nvi l l e, 1 42
Myrtl e Beach, 1 52 Pensacol a, 1 8 - 1 9
St. Petersburg, * 1 9,
Myrt l e Dahoon, *66 Percy Qui nn State Pk. ,
1 34, 1 37
1 4
Sam Houston State Pk. ,
Napl es, 1 34, 1 56
Persi mmon, *50
1 42
Narvaez, Panfl o de, Peti t Boi s Refuge, 1 46
Sani bel I s. , * 1 34
24-25
Pi cayune, 1 46
Santa Rosa Pk. , 1 30
Natchez, 1 54 Pi ckerel , Eastern, *97
Santee State Pk. , 1 52
Nat. Key Deer Refuge, Pi ckerel weed, *77
Sapodi l l a,
*57
1 33 Pi neappl e, Wi l d, *73
Sarasota, 1 9, 1 34, * 1 55,
New I beri a, 1 42 Pi nes, *46-47
1 56
New Orl eans, * 1 8, Pi nk, Grass, *74
Savannah, 1 5, 1 49
* 1 43, * 1 44 Pi pewort, *77
Scal l op, Cal i co, *89
Ni ghthawk, * 1 1 3 Pi tcher Pl ant, *76
Scaup, lesser, * 1 1 7
Nutri a, * 1 20 Pl ant li fe, 1 0, *44-84,
Screw Pi ne, *84
1 35
Sea Fan, *92
Oaks, *48-49 Pl over, Bl ack- Bel l i ed,
Sea Grape, * 81
Oca
i
a, 1 7, 1 38, 1 56 * 1 1 7
Sea Urchi n, *92
Mc 1 59
Semi no l es, 29, 30-3 1 , Tal l ahassee, * 1 7, * 1 36 Uni v. of Fl ori da, 1 38
* 1 29 Tamari nd, Wi l d, *81 Uni v. of Mi ami , 1 39
Shark, Nurse, 94- *95 Tami ami Trai l , 1 25
Shel by State Pk. , 1 46 Tampa, 1 9, * 1 37 Verbena, Moss, *76
Shel l i ng, *86-90, * 1 34 Tangeri nes, *55 Vero Beach, 1 56
Shore L ife, *86-92 Tarpon, 94-*95 Vi zcaya Mus. , 1 39, 1 56
Shrubs, *65-69 Tarpon Spri ngs, * 1 37, Vul ture, Bl ack, * 1 1 3
m Si l ver Spri ngs, *43, 1 56 1 56
Si ren, *99 Taverni er, 1 40, 1 56 Wakul l a Spri ngs, 1 56
Sk i nk, Fi ve- li ned, * 1 01 Tekesta, 29 War bl er, Pal m, * 1 1 4
Skunk, SpoHed, * 1 2 1 Tel l i n, Sunri se, *88 Water Moccasi n, *1 06
Sl i ders, * 1 02 Terns, * 1 1 6 Waxmyrtl e, *66
Snake Pl ant, *78 Texas, 1 4 Waycross, 1 7, 1 50, 1 54
Snakes, * 1 04- 1 06 Thi bodaux, 1 42 Weather, 8-9
Snapper, Red, 94-*95 Thomasvi l l e, 1 5 Weeki Wachee Spri ngs,
N
Snook, *96 Ti l l andsi a, *73 1 56
Soi l , 6, *42 Ti ti , Whi te, *66 West Pal m Beach, 1 6
South Carol i na, Tomoka State Pk. , 1 3 1 Whel k, Pear, *90
1 51 - 1 52, 1 54 Torreya State Pk. , 1 30 Wi l dl i fe Refuges, *85,
Spani sh Moss, *72 Touri sm, 23 1 33, 1 43, 1 46, 1 50,
Spark l eberry, *66 Tours, 1 2- * 1 3 1 52
z
Spoonbi l l , *85, * 1 33 Travel er' s Tree, *82 Wi l l et, * 1 1 7
u
Squi rrel , Fox, * 1 2 1 Trees, *45-64 Wi nter Haven, 1 7, 1 56

,
State Constituti on Con- Tri ggerfsh, *98 Wi nter Park, 1 56
0
venti on Mem. , 1 27 Tropi cal P l ants, *79-84 Woman' s Tongue, *82

Sti ngray, *94 . Tu l i p Shel l , *90 Woodpecker,


Summervi l l e, 1 52 Tu l i ptree, *5 Red- bel l i ed, * 1 1 5
2
Sunray Venus, *88 Tung, *58

Suppl e Jack, *67 Turkey Wings, *88 Yel l owtai l , 84-*85

Suwannee Ri ver State Turnstone


,
Ruddy, * 1 1 7

l Pk. , 1 30 Turtl es, *99, * 1 02 Zami a, *64
0
z

n

;
1 60 MbA
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