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: Grassmannian (......7.

5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 1 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:22:28 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad }\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 10 11 \end{center}
\section{: }
,(Issac Newton,
1642-1727)(Gottpied Leibniz, 1646-1716),
. ,
, , ,
17 , , .
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
. , .
,
1684 . ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
\section{}
.
,
, ,
, . , , , ,
,? ,
, $y=f(x) $ . ,
, .
.
, , ,

, . ,
. .
,, .
, , ,
, , .
, , . ,
. ,
, , .
, , . ,
. . ,
, ,
$s=a$,$s=x$, , $\int
_a^xf(x)dx$, ($f(x)$$a\rightarrow x$).
, ,
, $\int$(sum). $s=a$
, $x$, $x$,
$x$, , $A(x)$, ,
, , $x$, $x$.
$y=f(x)$ .
,
$A(x)=\int_a^xf(x)dx$, , ,
$s=x,x+\delta x$ .
$\delta x$, , $f(x)$.
$A (x)$$f(x)$,
$$\frac{d A(x)}{dx}=f(x).\eqno(1.1)$$
. $A(x)$,
, $f(x)$. , .
,
,
$$\int f(x)dx|^b_a=\int^b_af(x)dx \eqno(1.2)$$
. (indefinite integral), ,
$b$$a$, (definite
integral). , ,
,$f(x)$, .
. , ,
$f(x)$, , $f(x)$, .
.
\section{}
. , . ,
, , ,
, $x$$ y$,
,
$x$$y$. . (double
integral) 2 , . 2 ,

2 , $\Delta$, $\gamma$.
2 , $x$,
, . 2 ,
, ,
, . ,
, ,, 2
$$I=\int\int f(x,y)dxdy.\eqno(1.3)$$
2 , , ,
2 $x,y$, ,
,
, , ,
.
$$\left\{\matrix{ x=x(x',y')\cr y=y(x',y')\cr}\right.\eqno (1.4)$$
, $(x',y')$.
,,, $dx\wedge dy$,
, $dx\wedge dy$ .
$dx$.
$dx$, , ,
. $dx$.
$dx,dy$$\wedge$. $dx\wedge
dy$, $dx,dy$,
. ,
. $dx\wedge dy$,
$$dx\wedge dy=-dy\wedge dx.\eqno (1.5)$$
. , $dx\wedge
dx=0$. ,
$dx\wedge dx=-dx\wedge dx$, $dx\wedge dx=0$, ,

$dx\wedge dy$, , $dx^2=0$,

. . .

$$dx\wedge dy=\frac{\partial (x,y)}{\partial (x',y')}dx'\wedge dy'.\eqno (1.


6)$$ ,
$$dx=\frac{\partial x}{\partial x'}dx'+\frac{\partial x}{\partial y'}dy', dy
=\frac{\partial y}{\partial x'}dx'+\frac{\partial y}{\partial
y'}dy'.\eqno ( 1.7)$$ , $dx'\wedge dx'= dy'\wedge
dy'=0$. $dx'\wedge dy'$ ,
$x=x(x',y'),y=y(x',y')$ $\frac{\partial (x
,y)}{\partial (x',y')}$, ,
,
$$dx\wedge dy=\frac{\partial (x,y)}{\partial (x',y')}dx'\wedge dy'.\eqno (1.
8)$$
.,

. , Integral,
, , Integral ,
. 3 , 4 $n$ ,
Integral , .
, , ,
, , , .
, (Orietation),,
2 . , , ,
Integral ,
$dx,dy$, , ,
2 . , .,
, , , 0.
\section{}
, ,
, (Green's
Theorem). , ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
$$\int_{\gamma}Adx+bdy=(\frac{\partial B}{\partial x}-\frac{\partial A}
{\partial y})dxdy.\eqno (1.9)$$ ,
Integral, , Integral
, :
, $dx\wedge dy$ ,
, ,,
, ,
$$d(Adx+Bdy)=dA\wedge dx+dB\wedge dy=A_y dy\wedge dx+B_xdx\wedge dy.\eq
no (1
.10)$$ (Exterior differential calculus). ,
$Adx+Bdy$, , .
$A$$B$$x,y$, $A,B$ .
$A$$A_xdx+A_ydy$, $B$$B_xdx+B_ydy$,
$A_xdx\wedge d x=0$ $A_ydy\wedge dx$,
$B_xdx\wedge dy$. , $(B_x-A_y)$,
2 ,
, Integral .
, ,
$dx,dy$, , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
$k$,$k+1$.
,

. , ,
, , . ,
, $k$$k+1$,
, ,
, $k$$k+1$,
. Frobenius,
Dauboux Elie Cartan .
, Frobenius,
Dauboux . Elie C artan , ,
, ,
. , ,
, . , ,
(Analytical Mechanics), Frobenius,
Dauboux , Elie
Cartan , . :
0.
$$d^2=0,\eqno (1.11)$$
0. (1.11),
$k$, $k+1$,
$k+2$, 0. ,
, . $f$, $d$,
, 0, $d^2f=0$ .
$d^2=0$, $
d^2$, ,
, 0. ,
$dx$, $dx_i $, ,$n$,
$x_i$$x_1$$x_n$, , $f
$,$f$$x_1,\cdots, x_n$, , ,
0. , $a_i$ $f_i$
$x_i$, ,
$x_i$ $x_j$$a_i$, $a_i$ $f$$x_i$ ,
$f$$x_i$$x_j$:
$$d(a_idx_i)=\frac{\partial a_i}{\partial x_j}dx_j\wedge dx_i,\eqno (1.12)$$
$i,j$.
,
. $dx\wedge dy$, $dx\wedge dy$

, 0 . $d$ ,
, 0 ,
. , ,
, , .
, .
, , , 0.

, ,
.
0,; 0,
. , ,
. $\partial$, 0,
$\partial^2=0$. . ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
.
,
, .
, Stokes .
Stokes , , ,
$\Delta^k$$k$, $
\partial \Delta^k$. $\alpha$, $k-1$(${\rm
deg}\alpha=k-1$), : $\alpha$
$d\alpha$ $\Delta^k$,
$$\int_{\partial \Delta^k}\alpha=\int_{\Delta^k}d\alpha.\eqno (1.13)$$
, Stokes . Stokes ,
Stokes . Stokes
, ,
, .
,
$$(\partial \Delta, \alpha)=(\Delta,d\alpha). \eqno (1.14)$$
(Vector Space), ,
,.
, ``''(pair),
,
, St
okes paring $\Delta$$\partial$
$d$ (adjoint), ``'',
Stokes . ,
., .
. $k=1$,
,
$a$ $b$, $\Delta$, , $b$$a$.
$\alpha$ , $d\alpha$,
. $\Delta$,
$b-a$, $\alpha$ $f$, $d\alpha$$df$,
$$(b-a,f)=(\Delta,df)\Longrightarrow f(b)-f(a)=\int_a^bdf.\eqno (1.15) $$
$b$$a$$df$,
. $a$$b$$df$,
$f(b)-f(a) $, ,

Stokes .
, , .
,
$\alpha$$\beta$, ,
$$d(\alpha\wedge\beta)=d\alpha\wedge \beta+(-1)^{{\rm deg}\alpha}
\alpha\wedge d\beta, \eqno (1.16)$$ ,
$\alpha$$\beta$.
$\alpha$$\beta$. ,
$dx_1,\cdots, dx_k,\cdots,dx_n$,
.
. , ,
, 0, ,
, (quotient). ,
(homology). ,
0, quotien t, , quotient ?
$d\alpha=0$$\alpha$, $d\beta$,
$$\{\alpha|d\alpha=0\}/{d\beta}.\eqno (1.17)$$
$\alpha=d\beta$, $d^2=0$, $d\alpha=0$.
(close form),
$d$,
homology. $k$,
($d$ 0), $d\beta$, ,
homology. $d$, .
, , , ,
$\partial$ homology (cohomology).
, , cohomology. ,
, , cohomology form ,
Betti (Bett i Number).
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
, , , ,
, quotient, quotient ,
, , .
, , Betti
, , , , Bet ti ,
Betti , , Betti
, .
\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
--

Single is Simple
Couple is Trouble
: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 2 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:23:42 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad }\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 10 19 \end{center}
\section{} ,
. 8 ,
, . 8 ,
80 . ,
. .
, ,
, ,
. .
. ,
. .
, Gauss. Gauss ,
, Euler, Monge . ,
Gauss 19 . ,
. , 19
. , Gauss, Gauss .
Gauss Riemann. Gauss Riemann,
, .
.
Einstein , .
, Einstein ,
$(x,y)$ .
, .
, Einstein , , ,
, , ,
. .
Euclid ,

. ,
. .
, . ,
. ,
. , , ,
$x^2+1=0$ . , ,
, .
, , ,
. . ,
, , . ,
. ,
19 ,
. ,
.
, , .
. ,
, . ,
,
.
\section{ Stokes }
,
$$\int^b_af(x)dx=\int f(x)|^b_a\rightarrow L(\int f(x)dx)=f(x),\eqno (2.1)$$
. , ,
, , . ,
, . ,
, , , (2.1) .
(2.1). ,
, , ,
, , , $f(x)$.
, , .
. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
. $n$,
$n$. ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
, $dx, dy$ .
, . , $dx$
, $(dx)^2=0$. $dx$,
,.

. $dx$,
. $dx$, ,
, ,
. (pair), ,
, , , ,
. ,
, Stokes . St
okes . ,
$n$ , $k$,
. $k$,
, , ,
. ,
,
(homology).
.
$k$$\Delta$, $\partial \Delta$.
$ (k-1)$, $k-1$, $k$.
Stokes , $\omega$$k-1$,
$d\omega$ $\Delta$
$\omega$$\Delta$,
$$\int_\Delta d\omega =\int_{\partial\Delta}\omega, \omega\; {\rm \mbox{
}}.\eqno (2.2)$$ Stokes .
. ,
.
.
1 , 1 , ,
, .
$\omega$($\omega$)
$b$$a$,
$\omega$, ,
$a$$b$. , Stokes
(1 ).
2 2 Green :
$$\int(P_x-Q_y)dxdy=\int Pdx+Qdy\eqno (2.3)$$
2 , 2 , .
(2.3) Green , , .
Stokes Green .
Stokes , .
Stokes . :
, , ,
CI Storkes
$$\int(P_x+Q_y+R_z)dxdydz=\int Pdydz+Qdxdz+Rdxdy.\eqno (2.4)$$
,
()

. Stokes .
. , $d$
0. $\omega$,
$$d(d(\omega))=0.\eqno (2.5)$$
. $\omega$, ,
$\omega$,
$d^2$ 0. ,
$d$. , $d$,
0 . : $n$,
$(x_1, \cdots, x_n )$. $f$ $x_i$,
$d$, , $\frac{\partial f}{\partial
x_i}dx_i$. , , $dx_j\wedge dx_i$.
$f_{ij}$, .
, $dx_i,dx_j$,
0 ,
$$d(df)=d(f_idx_i)=f_{ij}dx_j\wedge dx_i=0.\eqno (2.6)$$
, $i$$j$, $df_{ij}-df_{ji}$,
$f$ , 0 .
$d^2=0$, .
Stokes ,
$d$ adj oint, ,
. , ,
, .
$d$ , , ,
, .
, . Stokes ,
. .
Euclid , $x$ .
, , $k$
.
$k$$k$$k$,
$k$(vector
space), . $d=0$,
0 . ,
(close). ,
close .
$$\Gamma^k=\{ \omega|\omega \; {\rm \mbox{}} k\;{\rm \mbox{}}\},
\; C^k=\{ \omega|\omega \in \Gamma^k,d\omega=0\}.\eqno (2.7)$$
$\omega$, $\omega$.
$C^k$, ,
$k-1$$d$.
$d^2=0$, close .
$k$$C^k$ ,

$d$$k-1$. ,
(quotient). de Rham
group:
$$H^k=C^k/{d\Gamma^k}.\eqno (2.8)$$
, , ,
close , $d\beta$,
, .
, Betti
number, .
.
\section{} .
, , ,
, ,
. . ,
, . ,
, , .
(exponential
function)(logarithm fun ction). ?
, .
$x^{n+1}$$(n+1)x^n$,
$x^n$$\frac{1}{n+1}x^{n +1}$, $n+1\ne 0$,

$$\frac{d}{dx}x^{n+1}=(n+1)x^n\rightarrow \int x^ndx=\frac{1}{n+1}x^{n+1},\;


n+1\ne 0.\eqno (2.9)$$ $n$$-1$,
. ,
$n=-1$, . . ,
, ,
$n=-1$, . , $n=-1$,
$dx/x$. $x=0$, $1$
$x$, , . , $\log
x$:
$$\int_1^x\frac{dx}{x}=\log x,\eqno (2.10)$$
. .
$x$$a$, $ \log ax$ .
$log$$1/x$, $\log ax$$1/x$,
C:
$$\frac{d}{dx}\log (ax)=\frac{1}{ax}a=\frac{1}{x}\Longrightarrow
\log ax=\log x+C.\eqno (2.11)$$ $x=1$ (2.11), $\log 1=0$,
$1$$x$, $ 1$$1$ 0.
$C$$\log a$, $\log$
:$\log$$ax$$\log x+\log a$:
$$\log (ax)=\log a+\log x.\eqno (2.12)$$
, ,
. ,

. log ,
(2.12). ,
. $y=\log x$, ,
$x=e^y$,
$$y=\log x\leftrightarrow x=e^y.\eqno (2.13)$$
. $e^y$, $\log
x$ : $\log x$,
. , ,
, :
$$e^{x+y}=e^xe^y.\eqno (2.14)$$
:
$$e^{x+y}=e^{\log u+\log v}=e^{\log uv}=uv,\;u=e^x,v=e^y.\eqno (2.15)$$
. ,
$e^y$$y$ $e^y$.
$$dy=\frac{dx}{x}\Rightarrow \frac{\exp y}{dy}=\frac{dx}{dy}=x=\exp y,\eqno
(2.16)$$ $\exp y$, $e^y$.
, log . ,
, . ,
, $\log $$x$$x=0
$, .
(increasing funct ion),
. , .

(graph)..
, ,
, . , ,
, . Talyor .
Taylor
$$f(b)=f(a)+\frac{f'(a)}{1!}(b-a)+\frac{f''(a)}{2!}(b-a)^2+\cdots+R_n,\eqno
(2.17)$$
$$R_n=\int_a^bf^{(n)}(t)\frac{(b-t)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}dt.\eqno (2.18)$$
.
Taylor , $a$ ,
$b$, $(b-a)$, ,
(2.18).
Taylor Mean
Value Theorem. Taylor . Taylor ,

, ,
, ,
$$e^x=1+x+\frac{1}{2!}x^2+\cdots+\frac{1}{n!}x^n+\cdots, \eqno (2.19)$$
, ,
, , ,
, , $\sin

x$$\cos x$:
$$\sin x=x-\frac{1}{3!}x^3+\frac{1}{5!}x^5-\cdots;\eqno (2.20)$$
$$\cos x=1-\frac{1}{2!}x^2+\frac{1}{4!}x^4-\cdots.\eqno (2.21)$$
, $e^x$, $x$$ix$, $i^2=-1$.
$e^{ix}$:
$$e^{ix}=\cos x+i\sin x,\eqno (2.22)$$
(2.19)-(2.21). ,
,
, $x=\pi$, $e^{i\pi}=-1$. .
. . $\pi$,

$e$. $e$ Euler. Euler 18 ,


, . ,
. ,
Euler . ,
, Euler .
. Euler ,
. . ,
, , .
, .
, . , .
, ,
Euler .
, . ,

, .
Gauss 19 , .
, , ,
, Gauss .
Gauss , .
, . ,
, .
, , .
Euler . , . $e,
i,\pi$ : $e^{i\pi}=-1$. .
, . ,
${\rm arctg} x$. ${\rm arctg} x$
$\frac{1}{1+x^2}$. ${\rm arctg}$,
,.
$\pi$, $\pi$
$$\frac{\pi}{4}=1-\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{5}-\frac{1}{7}+\cdots \eqno (2.23)$$
. 1,3,5,7,9 ,

$\pi/4$ ,
Selberg, ,
, .
, 80 , .
\section{} ,
. . ,
.

Gauss ,
$$ds^2=dx^2+dy^2+dz^2=Edu^2+2Fdudv+Gdv^2,\;x=x(u,v),y=y(u,v),z=z(u,v)\eqno
(
2.23)$$ , $(x,y,z)$,
,
$x,y,z$$u,v$(par
ameter).$ds^2$ $dx^2+dy^2+dz^2$.
$x,y,z$ $u,v$$ds^2$ ,
, $E,F ,G$.
Euclid Euclid
,

. , .
, Euclid .
.
. ,
,
, .

, , ,
, . (2.23),
Gauss , ,
. Euclid $du^2+dv^2$,
. .
$E,F,G$, ,
. , ,
,
, Euclid Euclid
. ,
. ,
. , ,

\end{CJK*}
\end{document}

-: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science


: S.S.Chern 3 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:24:27 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad }\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 10 26 \end{center}
\section{}
. .
, , .
${\bf x}(t)=(x_1(t),x_2(t))$,
. , .
. , ,
1, . $x$
$s$, $x$ $s$
$\frac{dx}{ ds}$,
$$e_1=(\frac{dx_1}{ds},\frac{dx_2}{ds}),(e_1,e_1)=1,s\;{\rm \mbox{}}.
\eqno (3.1)$$ ,
, ,
, ,
. , $e_1$, $e_2$ .
,
$e_1$$s$. ,
. $e_1$, $(e_1,e_1)=1$.
, $\frac{de_1}{ds}$ $e_1$,
. , $\frac{de_1}{ds}$
$e_2$. ,
$k(s)$.
$$\frac{de_1}{ds}=ke_2,e_2\;{\rm \mbox{}},(e_1,e_2)=0.\eqno (3.2
)$$ $k$,
, .
{\bf :}

, $k$ . ($k$
)
\section{}
.
${\bf
x}(t)=(x_1(t),x_2(t),x_3(t))$. 3 ,
$x,y$ $t$ . ,
. ${\bf x}(t)$ ,
, $t$ . ,
3 $x_i(t) (i=1,2,3)$. ${\bf x}(t)$, $
t$, 3 $t$ ,
. ,
,
. , , , $t$

. , , $e_1$,
, $e_1$$s$ ,
$s$ . $e_1$ ,
$e_1$ . ,
, .
,
$\frac{de_1}{ds}$, . ,
$e_2$, $ke_2$,
$$\frac{de_1}{ds}=ke_2.\eqno (3.3)$$
$e_2$, (principal normal),
$k$ , . ,
.
, binormal.
, , .
. 1 , 1 ,
2 , . $e_3=e_1\times e_2$ ,
$e_1\times e_2$ . ,
,
$e_1,e_2,e_3$. ,
, . ,
$e_3$
$$(e_i,e_j)=\delta_{ij}.\eqno (3.4)$$
,
.
.
.
.

.
,
, .
.
, .
, .
, , ,
. $e_i$$t$ ,
$\frac{de_i}{dt}$. $\frac{de_i}{dt}$.
$(e_1,e_2,e_3)$,
$e_1,e_2,e_3$ 3 .
, $de_i$$e_j$:
$$de_i=\omega_{ij}e_k. \eqno (3.5)$$
, ,
,
$\omega_{ij}$,
.
$e_i$ , $e_i+de_i$, $de_i$ $e_i$

, . $\omega_{ij}$
, , $i,j$ 1 3, 3
, $\omega_{ij}$ 9 : $i,j$ 1
3, 9 . 9 , .

$$\omega_{ij}+\omega_{ji}=0.\eqno (3.6)$$
$\omega_{ij}$ $3\times 3$ ,
. $e_i,e_j$
$\delta_{ij}$: ((3.4)),
. $(\omega_{ij})$ $ 3 \times 3$
, ,
, , 0. , ,
$\omega_{12}= -\omega_{21}$, .
, ,
$e_3=e_1\times e_2$().
, ( ),
$e_1,e_2,e_3$ .
$de_1=ke_2$.
, 0,
$\omega_{13}=0$. $e_3$,
$e_1,e_2$ , $\omega_{13}$ 0 .
$\omega_{31}$ 0. ,
3 :
\begin{eqnarray*}
\frac{de_1}{ds}&=& ke_2\\

\frac{de_2}{ds}&=& -ke_1+\omega e_3\hspace{10cm} (3.7)\\


\frac{de_3}{ds}&=& -\omega e_2
\end{eqnarray*}
. Frenet
, Fren et . .
, . ,
. ,
$\omega$. $\omega$ (torison),
, .
,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
0 , . $k=0$ ,
. , $k=0$,
$de_1=0$. $e_1$, 0.
$e_1=C$$e_1=\frac{dx}{ds}$,
$x$$s$
$$x=Cs.\eqno (3.8)$$
. ,
$k$ 0 . $k=0$ ,
. , $k\ne 0$. $k=0$
, $\frac{de_ 1}{ds} =0$, .
. ,
,
, . $k\ne
0$. 0 ,
.
. Frenet .
$\omega=0$
$e_3$. $e_3$ , $e_3$
,
$e_3$ $\frac{dx}{ds}$
0 . $e_3$,
$$(e_3,\frac{dx}{ds})=0\eqno (3.9)$$
. $e_3$$e_3$ $x$
. ,
$\omega=0$. ,
0. .
$k$$\omega$ 0, .
, .
.
DNA. DNA ,
, . ,

. , ,
DNA ,
. , ,
DNA , . ,
,
DNA ,
. ,
, White . White ,
. ,
. .
\section{Feuchll ,
Crofton Fary-Milnor } ,
. ,
.
,
$k,\omega$, , .
. ,
. .
, . , ,
, Feuchll
$$\int_ckds\geq 2\pi,\eqno (3.10)$$
, $2\pi$.
, ,
. , ,
. , ,
, $2\pi$.
Feuchll . .
?
, .
(Gau ss map). ,
,
$e_1(s)$, 1 .
, .
, $e_1(s)$ ,
,
$e_1(s)$. ,
. $e_1(s)$
, , $e_1(s)$, $x(s)$.
$e_1(s)$ :
$$\frac{d\sigma^2}{ds^2}=(\frac{de_1}{ds},\frac{de_1}{ds})=k^2,
\sigma{\rm\mbox{}} e_1(s){\rm\mbox{}}.\eqno (3.11)$$
, , $y$.
, , $y$ .

, ,
$y(x)$, .
,
. , ,
. , , .
, . , ,
, $y$,
.
$(y,dx)$ 0, $y$$e_1(s)$.

. $y$,
,
$y$, $y$ .
$\gamma$, $y$,
, .
$\gamma$, ,
().
$2\pi$ , .
$\gamma $$e_1(s)$, . $e_1(s)$
, ,
$\gamma$, . ,
, , . $2\pi$
, Crofton
$$\int\int=4L.\eqno (3.12)$$
Crofton , .
(Encyclopaedi a) , .
() . ,
, , .
, , , .
, , , , .
,
. ,
. .
, . ,
, ,
. .
, (3.12) Crofton , ,
. , .
, . ,
, Crofton , 4 .
Feuchll Crofton .
Crofton 4 ,
Feuchll .
.

. ,
(measure).,
: ,
, .
.
Crofton .
, , .
, $\gamma$ ,
. ,
$e_1(s)$ , $y$,
$y$. ,
2 , .
$s$ . ,
,
, $y$.
$y$$e_1$,
$y$ $e_2,e_3$ , $e_2,e_3$$e_1$ .

$y$$e_2,e_3$, $y$
$$y=\cos\theta e_2(s)+\sin\theta e_3(s),\eqno (3.13)$$
, $y$$e_2,e_3$ . ,
. $y$,
$s,\theta$. $y$ (element
area), $y$ . .
$y$ , $dy$. $y$,
$dy$. $dy$$y$ ,
$y$ . .
$e_1,e_2,e_3$, ,
$s$. :
\begin{eqnarray*}
\frac{de_1}{ds}&=& a_2e_2+a_3e_3\\
\frac{de_2}{ds}&=& -a_2e_1+a_1 e_3\hspace{10cm} (3.14)\\
\frac{de_3}{ds}&=& -a_3e_1-a_1e_2
\end{eqnarray*}
, . ,
, $dy$,$dy$:
$$dy=(-\sin \theta e_2+\cos\theta e_3)(d\theta+a_3ds)-e_1(a_1\cos\theta+a_3\
sin\theta)ds.\eqno (3.15)$$
$${\rm\mbox{} }=(a_2\cos\theta+a_3\sin\theta)d\theta\wedge ds.\eqno
(3.16)$$
$$a_2=\cos\tau,a_3=\sin \tau,\eqno (3.17)$$

$${\rm\mbox{} }=\cos(\tau-\theta)d\theta\wedge ds.\eqno(3.18)$$


$\cos(\tau-\theta)d\theta\wedge ds$ .

, ,
. , ,
. $s$ $\theta$,
. $s$, $\cos$
. ,
$|\cos|$$\cos$ 4 .
$\cos$ 0 $\pi$ 1 -1, 4 1, 4.
, .
, . ,
$\theta$. . Cr
ofton . , , .
Crofton $\gamma$.
, .
Feuchll . :
, 2 , .
, .
?
(complete).
.
Fray-Milnor $C$,
$$\int_C kds\geq 4\pi.\eqno(3.19)$$
Milnor .
, . , .
. ,
, . Fray
-Milnor ,
4. 4. ,
4 , ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. , .
4 , .
, $\geq 4$.
Fray-Milnor . .
, , ,
link , link .
, , . ,
Fary-Milnor ,
.
,
, .
,

0. .
Harris , .
. ,
, , ,
.
\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 4 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:25:41 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad ()}\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 11 2 \end{center}
\section{} .
.
, ,
,
. , ,
3 , , ,
. ,
. ,
.
, ,
. ?
, ,
$u,v$. $u,v$(parameter),
$u,v$ , 2 ${\bf
x}(u,v)=(x^1(u,v),x^2(u,v),x^3(u,v) )$. $u,v$,
, . $v$
, $u$ , , $u$. ,
$u$, $v$. , ,
$v$ , $u$. ,
. $x$,
. , , , $x_u,x_v$

, (), $x_u,x_v$$x$
$u,v$. , $x_u\times x_v\ne
0$. , ,
.
$x$, .
, .
, , ,
. $x_u,x_v$
, . ,
$e_3$, $e_3$ ,
$e_3$
$$(e_3,e_3)=1\; ({\rm \mbox{}}),\;e_3=\frac{x_u\times x_v}
{|x_u\times x_v|^2}.\eqno (4.1)$$ ,
$(x_u,x_v,e_3)$. , $\det(x_u,x_v
,e_3)$, $\det (x_u,x_v,e_3)>0$, . ,
. $u,v$
, .
: $x_u$ $x_v$ ,
Euclid ,
, ,
. $e_1,e_2$ ,
. $e_1,e_2,e_3$,
, , .
, $\pm 1$,
1. 1 ,
, 1,
$$e_1,e_2,e_3\; ({\rm \mbox{}}):\;(e_i,e_j)=\delta_{ij},\;(e_1,e_2
,e_3)=1,\;1\leq i,j,k\leq 3.\eqno (4.2)$$
\section{} ?
, (family),
().
.
. ,
$u,v$, ,
, .
${\bf x}$, $e_i$, $dx$,
$d$$de_i$. . $e_1,e_2,e_3$
, , 3 ,
$e_1,e_2,e_ 3$ .
$de_i$
$$de_i=\omega_{ij}e_j.\eqno (4.3)$$
Einstein : .
3 , $i,j,k$ 1 3, $\omega_{ij}e_j$
$j$ . 3 , $j=1,2,3$, 3 . Einstein

. Einstein : ,
, , $x_i$, $i$ .
Einstein , , ,
. , , . ,
(4.3). (4.3),
, $de_i$ $e _i$ .
$\omega_{ij}$? . $de_i$
, , ,
3 , $de_i$,
$\omega_{ij}$. $i,j$ 1 3,
9 . $\omega_{ij}$ , ,
. ,
$\omega_{ij}$$i,j$ ,
$$\omega_{ij}+\omega_{ji}=0.\eqno (4.4)$$
? $e_i,e_j$ $(e_i ,e_j)=\delta_{ij}$,
, $\ delta_{ij}$ ,
0:
$$(de_i,e_j)+(e_i,de_j)=0.\eqno (4.5)$$
$de_i=\omega_{ik}e_k$, $e_i,e_k$,
$\omega_{ij}+\omega_{ji}=0$, (4.4).
$i,j$ 1 3, $\omega_{ij }$,
$(\omega_{ij})$ $3\times 3$.
, 9 , , 3 , ,
() 0, .
$$(\omega_{ij})=\left(\matrix{ 0 & \omega_{12} &\omega_{13}\cr -\omega_{12}
& 0 &\omega_{23}\cr -\omega_{13} &-\omega_{23} &0\cr}\right).\eqno
(4.6)$$ 3 ,
$\omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$, 3 .
3 ,
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
. Darboux ,
. , .
, , .
, .
, , .
. ,
. ,
. , ,
, . , ,

, . ,
, ,

$x$$e_1$, ,
. $x+e_1$, ,
$x$, $e _1$,
$x$ 2 . $x$ 1 .
, , .
3 , 3 $E$:
$$E=\{ xe_1|x\in M\}({\rm \mbox{}});\;\dim E=3.\eqno (4.7)$$
3 3 , .
, .
, ,
. , .
, $E$$M$($M$,
). $e_1$, $e_2$.
$e_2$ ,
. $e_1,e_2$, $e_3$.
$xe_ 1$.
, ,
$e_1$.
3 $e _1,e_2,e_3$ .
(4.7). $E$ 3 , $E$ ,
$M$: , $x$,
$xe_1$ $x$, $E$ $M$.
, , $E$.
$E$ , .
$E$, $E$ 3 , ,
$E$. $e_1,e_2,e_3$
, $x$, .
$x$ $u, v$, $dx$ $u,v$ ,
$e_1,e_2,e_3$ . ,
$e_1,e_2$ , $e_3$ ,
, $e_1,e_2$, $dx$$e_1,e_2$

, $\omega_1,\omega_2$, :
$$dx=\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2.\eqno (4.8)$$
5 : $\omega_1,\omega_2,
\omega_{13},\omega_{23},\omega_{12}$. ,
.
.
( 4.8).
(4.3),(4.4). ,
, 0, $dx$, $d(dx)=0$ .
0, ,
, . 0.
, (homology).

, , .
(4.8)$dx$ $d$ 0,
$d(\omega_1e_1) +d(\omega_2e_2)$,
$$d(\omega_1e_1)+d(\omega_2e_2)=0,\eqno (4.9)$$
, . ,
. ,
$e_1,e_2,e_3$,
. 0 ,
0. $e_1,e_2$ 0 ,
:
$$d\omega_1=-\omega_2\wedge \omega_{12};d\omega_2=\omega_1\wedge \omega
_{12}
.\eqno (4.10)$$ , , .
. ,
, ,
, . (4.10).
$e_3$ 0, :
$$0=d\omega_3=\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}+\omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqn
o (4
.11)$$ .
Levi-Civita . ,
(connection). , ,
, . , Levi-C
ivita $\omega_{12}$. $\omega_{12}$
$E$ , ,
. ?
$\omega_{12}$(4.10).
$\omega'_{12}$ , ,
$$d\omega_1=-\omega_2\wedge \omega'_{12};\;\;\;d\omega_2=\omega_1\wedge
\omega'_{12}.\eqno (4.12)$$ $\omega_{12}=\omega'_{12}$,
, $\omega_{12} $ (4.10).
, $\omega'_{12}$(4.10),
,
$$\omega_1\wedge (\omega'_{12}-\omega_{12})=0;\;\;\omega_2\wedge (\omega'_{1
2}-\omega_{12})=0.\eqno (4.13)$$
0 , 0,
, .
. $\omega_1,\omega_2$ 0 ,
0, . ,
$\omega'_{12}-\omega_{12}$ $\omega_1$,
$\omega_2$. $\omega_1,\omega_2$ ,
0. $\omega'_{12}$,
$\omega_{12}$. .
Levi-Civita .

$de_1=\omega_{12}e_2+\omega_{13}e_3$.
$e_3$, ? ,
$e_3$, $e_3$,
. ,
, . $D$,
:
$$De_1=\omega_{12}e_2,\;De_2=-\omega_{12}e_1.\eqno (4.14)$$
,
$\omega_{12}$. $De_1=0$,
Levi-Civita ,
. , . Euclid ,
, ,
$De_1=0$ Levi-Civita . , ,
. $De_1=0$, .
, ,
. ,
$t$. , .
, Levi-Civita .
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. , Euclid
, ,
. $x$ $d$ 0. ,
$e_i$$d$ , $d(de_i)=0$. $d(de_i)=0$,
:
$$d\omega_{ij}=\omega_{ik}\wedge \omega_{kj}.\eqno (4.15)$$
, , $de_i=\omega_{ij}e_j$ .
$\omega_{ij}$ , ,
$\omega_{ij}\wedge de_j$,
$$d(de_i)=d\omega_{ij}e_j-\omega_{ij}\wedge de_j=0.\eqno (4.16)$$
$de_j=\omega_{jk}e_k$,
$d\omega_{ij}e_j$$d\omega_{ik}e_k$
, $j,k$, $j$, $k$, 1 3,

. (4.15). , ,
. 3 , . ,
3 , 3 $j$ . $\omega$
, $\omega_{ik},i\ne k$,
$\omega_{13}$. $d\omega_{13}$
$\omega_{1j}\omega_{j3}$, , $j$ 2,
$j=1$$\omega_{11}=0$, $j=3$ $\omega_{33}=0$.
, ,

$$d\omega_{13}=\omega_{12}\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqno (4.17)$$

$$d\omega_{23}=-\omega_{12}\wedge \omega_{13}.\eqno (4.18)$$


Weingarten , .
. Weingarten ,
$\omega_{1},\omega_2$,
, (4.10) .
, Betti Transform ation,
.
Weingarten $d\omega_i$
. \section{}
$De_1$ Levi-Civita .
$e_3$, $\omega_1\wedge
\omega_{13}+\omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}=0$, (4.1 1). ,
$\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$$\omega_1,\omega_2$ ,

$
$\omega_{13}=a\omega_1+b\omega_2,\;\omega_{23}=b\omega_1+c\omega_2.\eqno
(4
.19)$$ .
? .
. , ,
:
$${\rm \mbox{}}\;\;{\rm I}=ds^2=(dx,dx)=\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2;\eq
no (4.20)$$
$${\rm \mbox{
}}\;\;{\rm II}=(

dx,de_3)=a\omega^2+2b\omega_1\omega_
2+c\omega_2^2.\eqno (4.21)$$ ,
(I).$ds^2=(dx,dx)$. $dx=\omega_1e_1+\
omega_2e_2$, $e_1,e_2$,
$\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2$.
$\omega$ 5 . $\omega_1,\omega_2$
. 3 , ,
? Riemann , 2 .
2 , $ \omega_1^2+\omega_2^2$. ,
$e_3$$-(de_3,dx)$. ,
$a\omega^2+2b\omega_1\omega_2+c\omega_2^2$,
2 . .
, , .
$a+ c$, $ac-b^2$. ,
$H=\frac{a+c}{2}$, $K=a c-b^2$
Gauss . , Gauss .

5 .

Gauss . ,
Gauss , , Gauss ,
, . ,
. .
,
,
. ,
Gauss . 0, .
,
, 0.
, , .
Gauss , Gauss $\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}$.
Gauss . ,
1 ,
. , $0$
, .
, .
, , (imag
e) Gauss .
. Gauss . ,
. , Gauss .
Gauss , .
, Gauss ,
.
, 2 , ,
Gauss , Gauss .
. .
$d\omega_{ik}=\omega_{ij}\wedge\omega_{jk}$,
$\omega_{12},i,k=1,2$,
$d\omega_{12}=\omega_{13}\wedge\omega_{32}$.
$\omega$,
$\omega_{32}=-\omega_{23}$. $\omega_{13}\wedge\omega_{23}$
$ac-b ^2$, Gauss .
$$d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2,\eqno (4.22)$$
, $K$ Gauss . Gauss .
Gauss Theorem Egregious, Egregious ,
. ?
Gauss Riemann ,
. ,
$\omega_{12}$ Riemann .
$\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$, $ds^2$
,
Riemann . Gauss
,

Riemann . , (deform),

Riemann , Gauss .
Gauss . Gauss ,
, . ,
, ,
. , Gauss-Bonnet .
Gauss-Bonnet $180^o$,
. Gauss-Bonnet .
, . :

(complex line). , ,
1 , . .
( symplectic geometry).
(symplectic structure),
, ,
. 2 , ,
4 , 4 , 4
. Gauss .
2 ,
$d$ 0, Maxwell .

. ,
Gauss-Bonnet Maxwell , ,
. , , .
Gauss-Bonnet ,
. 50 , ,
, Gauss-Bonnet .
. Gauss-Bonnet , ,
,
Euler , Gauss-Bonnet .
. Gauss-Bonnet ,
$d \omega_{12}$ Gauss-Bonnet .
, Princeton , ,
, . ,
. Gauss-Bonnet
. .
\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
-: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 5 (zz)

: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:26:43 2002)


\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad ()} \end{center}
\begin{center}{\Large \bf Gauss-Bonnet }\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 11 23 \end{center}
\section{} .
, ,
. ,
Gauss-Bonnet . ,
, ,
. ,
.
3 2 . ,
3 , ,
. , Monge. Monge
, ,
, .
, , ,
. ,
(Ploytechnique). ,
. ,
,
, Poincare Ploytechnique .
Monge ,
, . ,
. Monge ,
, , .
,
Darboux.
Darboux , ,
. ,
. . ,
. ,
, ,
. Darboux , . 1941

, , , . ,
Darboux , Darboux ,
, . ,
. Darboux , ,
, , ,
. , .
, , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, . Darboux .
, . , ,
, ? , ,
. . 2 ,
, $u,v$, $u$,
$v$, , .
, .
Darboux . Darboux,
Frobenius, ,
, , . ,
, , . ,
1941 , , ,
? Darboux ,
. ,
. \section{}
?, 2 ,
2 , ,
. , $u,v$.
2 ,
. , .
, .
. , ,
. ,
2 , , .
. Euclid ,
. , 1
, , .
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,
2 , : ,
, . ,
, . ,
. ,

. , .
. ,
. Mobius .
, Mobius ,
. : ,
, Mobius , .
. .
, ?$e_3$,
$e_3$ 3 , ,
, ,
$e_1$. ,
. ,
$e_2=e_3\times e_1$.
. ,
. ?
,
.
.
, ,
, .
, ,
. , 3 ,
, , , . ,
, . , .
. , ,
, ? $e_1$,
, . $e_1$? $e_1
$, ?
, 2 ,
3 . ,
2 , , ,
, , 3 . 3 .
,
,
, . 3 ,
, , , bundle.
, , .
, . , ,
, , .
, .
$x $, $dx$ ,
. $x$ $u,v$ ,
$u,v$, $dx$: $x$ ,
$dx$ $e_1$ $e_2$, ,

. $dx$,
$e_1$ $e_2$ , ,
$dx$
$$dx=\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2.\eqno (5.1)$$
$(dx,dx)$ .
$e_1,e_2$,
$$\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2=ds^2\eqno (5.2)$$
. , .
, $g_{ij}dx_idx_j$,
Ca rtesian ,
, . $dx$ $\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2$,
, , 0.
, ,
. $d$$dx$, 0.
, $d(\omega_1e_1)+d(\omega_2 e_2)$,
, .
,
$$d\omega_1=-\omega_2\wedge \omega_{12};d\omega_2=\omega_1\wedge \omega
_{12}
.\eqno (5.3)$$
$$0=d\omega_3=\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}+\omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqn
o (5
.4)$$ $\omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$.
, $(xe_1e_2,e_3)$
$e_1,e_2,e_3$.
$de_i$$\omega_{ij}e_j$. :

, , $i,j,k$ 1 3. $de_i$
$\omega_{ij}e_ j$, $\omega_{ij}$:
, , ,
, $\omega_{ij}$.
.
$$de_i=\omega_{ij}e_j.\eqno (5.5)$$
, . ,
, ,
, , $t$.
, , 3.
, ,
3, $E$ 3 . ,
. $de_i$ (5.5).
$\omega_{ij}$$i,j$, ,
$(e_i,e_j)=\delta_{ij}$, .
$\omega_{ij}$: $(\omega_{ij})$,
. , $\omega$ 0,

, 3 :
$\omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$.
$\omega_{12}$$d\omega_1,d\omega_2$(5.3),
, Levi-Civita .
(5.5). $d(de_i)=0$, ,
$d\omega_ {ij}$,
$$d\omega_{ij}=\omega_{ik}\wedge \omega_{kj}.\eqno (5.6)$$
$\omega$, .
?$d\omega_{ij}=\omega_{ik}\wedge \omega_{kj}$,
$i,j$. , $\omega_{ii}$ 0,
$\omega$, $i\ne j$. $k$$i$,
$\omega_{ii}=0$; $k$$j$, $\omega_{jj}=0$. $k$ $i$,
$j$. 3 , $k$.
, , ,

$$d\omega_{12}=\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{32}.\eqno (5.7)$$


$$d\omega_{13}=\omega_{12}\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqno (5.8)$$
$$d\omega_{23}=\omega_{21}\wedge \omega_{13}.\eqno (5.9)$$
$d\omega_{12}=\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{32}$.
$\omega$ ,
$$d\omega_{12}=-\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqno (5.10)$$
$\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$$\omega_1,\omega_2$:
$
$\omega_{13}=a\omega_1+b\omega_2,\;\omega_{23}=b\omega_1+c\omega_2.\eqno
(5
.11)$$ :
$$d\omega_{12}=-\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}=K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2.\eqno
(5.12)$$
$K$ Gauss , Gauss $K=ac-b^2$. .
Gauss , .
Theorem Egregium, , , .
, . $E$,
$M$ : , ,
.
, ,
, : $E$$M$.
, $M$, $E$,
. ,
. 3 ,
. , :
$\omega_1,\omega _2$,
$\omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$, 5 ,
$

\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$$\omega_1,\omega_2$((5.11)),
.
$${\rm \mbox{}}\;\;{\rm I}=ds^2=(dx,dx)=\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2;\eq
no (5.13)$$
$${\rm \mbox{}}\;\;{\rm II}=(-dx,de_3)=\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}
+
\omega_2\wedge
\omega_{23}=a\omega^2+2b\omega_1\omega_2+c\omega_2^2.\eqno (5
.14)$$ $\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}$ $\omega_2\wedge
\omega_{23}$ .
$\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2$,
$\omega_1,\omega_2$.
,
$H=\frac{a+c}{2}$, Gauss ,
Gauss $ac-b^2$.
$d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$.
, $\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$ ,
, ,
. , $\omega_{12}$
Levi-Civita , ,
,
Gauss . Gauss .
\section{Gauss-Bonnet }
$d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$
Gauss .
, Gauss-Bonnet . ,
,
, Gauss ,

: (Gauss ),
?,
Gauss-Bonnet : $M$ ,
$$\int\int KdA=\frac{1}{2\pi}\chi (M).\eqno (5.15)$$
, $\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$ ,
$dA$, $KdA$. :
, , $d$,
, ,
Stokes .
Gauss 0 . ,
Gauss 0, 2 ,
Gauss 1, 0.
. .
$d\omega_{12}=-KdA$, .
, ,

? .
, ,
2 ,
, , ? ,
, , ,
. , .
,
100 .
Mathematische Annalen,
. Mathematische Annalen
. , Einstein Mathematische
Annalen . .
,
, ,
, Gauss .
Gauss ,
2 2 ,
, , Mapping Degree,

. , , ,
,
? Mapping Degree().
, 2 . ,
, ,
Gauss , Gauss ,
,
, Degree. Degree
, Euler $\frac{1}{2\pi}$.
, . .
.
$d\omega_{12}=-KdA$.
$E$, , .
,
, .
. , , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
.
, ,
. , ,
complex(). ,
complex, , , , . ,


, . ,
, .
: , ,
, ,
. . ,
, ,
, ,
,
, .
. :
, . ,
, , , ,
, . ,
, .
,
.

$$I(s)=\lim \frac{1}{2\pi}\int \omega_1.\eqno (5.16)$$


, , ,
, ,
. ,
Euclid , , ,
? .
, ,
$E$, ,
. , ,
. Euler ,
, , Euler .
. ,
. , , ,
. . ,
. , ,
. , Euler , .
Gauss , .
\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
-: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 6 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:27:38 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad ()} \end{center}
\begin{center}{\Large \bf Gauss-Bonnet ()}\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 11 30 \end{center}
\section{}
. : ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
. , , ,
: .
, ,
, . , $x^2+1=0$,
$\sqrt{-1 }$, $\sqrt{-1}$.
, , , , ,
. .
, ,
. : ,
. ,
. , Euler, ,
. Gauss ,
, ,
. ;,
Picard , ,
, ,
, , . ,
, , ,
.
, Gauss-Bonnet .
, .
, . \section{}
, , .
, . ,
, , ,
, . ,
, . , ,
. , ,

. , ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
. \section{Gauss-Bonnet }
, Gauss-Bonnet , .
Gauss-Bo nnet : ,
, ,
, , Gauss $K$
, ,
2 , ,
($2\pi$) Euler .
$$\int\int KdA=2\pi\chi (M)\eqno (6.1)$$
Euler , ,
, $-$$+$,
3 Euler . ,
Euler $=2$, , Euler 0.
, . ,
. , ,
Euler :
(genus), .
, , ,
, ,
. , . ,
, . Gauss-Bonnet ,

$$d\omega_{12}=-\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}=K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2.\eqno
(6.2)$$
. , .
, 3 ,
, ,
. , , ,
. ,
, , . ,
, ( ), .
, (one
parameter family), . 2 ,
, 3 .
3 $x$, , ,

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mbox{}}\}\eqno (6.3)$$ $e_3$.
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. ,
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$i=1,j=2$, $k=3$. $k$ 1,
$\omega_{11}=0$, $ k$ 2, $\omega_{22}=0$.
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,
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$$d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge \omega_2. \eqno (6.8)$$


, $K$ Gauss ,
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. Gauss
Riemann , Riemann $\omega_{12}$.
Riemann , Gauss
, Guass .
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\section{Gauss-Bonnet }
Gauss-Bonnet . ,
Gauss-Bonnet ++(geodesic
curvature), Gauss . Gauss-Bonnet
$$\sum (\pi-\alpha)\;({\rm\mbox{}})+\sum \int k_g(s)ds\; ({\rm\mbox{}})
+\sum\int\int KdA\;({\rm \mbox{}})=2\pi\chi(M)\eqno(6.9)$$
, ,
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0. $\sum(\pi-\alpha)$ $2\pi$.
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, 2 ,
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2 4 . 2 ,
, 4 $4\times 4$:
$$(F_{\alpha\beta}=\left(\matrix
{0 & E_1 & E_2&E_3\cr -E_1& 0 &-B_0 &B_2\cr -E_2 &B_0&0 &-B_1 \cr
-E_3 & -B_2 &B_1 &0\cr}\right).\eqno (6.10)$$
$E_1,E_2,E_3$ Electric Potential, $B_0,B_1,B_2$ Magnetic Po
tential, , .
2 , $d$ 0,
Maxwell
$$d(F_{\alpha\beta}dx^{\alpha}\wedge dx^{\beta})=0.\eqno (6.11)$$
Gauss-Bonnet .
Gauss, Bonnet.
Gauss , .
Bonnet . Bonnet ,
Gauss-B onnet .
Bonnet , .
, .
Maxwell , .
, GaussBonnet Maxwell , .
\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
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