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us/g/search/Cold%20rolling/ Steel Rolling Mill Machinery An Important Equipment In Steel Industry


In early times when there were no computers in this world and all the works were performed with physical efforts of men has now turned this technology so advanced that rarely any kind of work is optimized without machines and computers. Different types of machines are used for different kinds of work. Business over this world is divided into so many sections serving for different purposes. So today well discuss about the steel rolling mill machinery of India. With the advancement in technology people are inventing new things that are making their task easier and easier. Machines are one of those things. It has been categorized on the basis of their sizes, work type and costs. They are used for making steel, metal sheets etc. Do you know what is metal and how it is made? Metal is an electropositive element which has shiny surface. It has good qualities and more efficiency. It is a good conductor of electricity and can be melted or fused in any shape by using high processed heating methods. We can make out of metal sheets by passing out them through the rollers en the machines are categorized under two categories. Hot rolling mill machinery & cold rolling mill machinery process carried out through steel rolling mill machinery. You may or may mot know that each and every metal has its own recrystallization temperature. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystalization temperature then it is termed under hot rolling mill machinery process and if the temperature of the metal is below the recrystalization temperature of the metal then the process is called as cold steel rolling mill machinery. With the help of these processes we are able to make sheets, plates and foils out of these. Sheets from the metal are used for construction, transport and aerospace. These sheets are used as well for airliner components. It is genuinely known that the plate form is more efficiently used than the sheet form as it is thinner than it but still both are used for same applications. Plate form of steels is commonly used for auto motive industry and foil form is thin so more flexible and used for packaging. It is also used for foil stamping. Besides this it has a wide use over the electronic sectors of industry for shielding. Moreover machinery of India has proved its worth over mechanical industry also. The unit that uses the steel rolling mill machinery is known as steel rolling mill plants. Some of the items like I-beams, hot strips, steel rods, plates and h-beams are generally used in steel rolling mill plants. If you an owner of steel rolling mill plant and are in need of this steel rolling mill machinery then buy it from a well named company or you can simply refer to the site named machinesindia.com this site will enable you to reach the dealer who deals in this machine. This site also offers various product categories such as hand tools, pharmaceuticals machinery, machine tools, roll forming machinery, plant and machinery, oil mill machinery and lots more. If you are looking for expanding your business then be a part of this website. Not only the outcomes of business

with the development of steel rolling plants rolling mill machinery, will you also find other mechanical equipments, and machinery. This site offers direct contacts with the manufacturers and spare part dealers. For more information you can log on to the website at http://www.machinesindia.com/manufacturer/STEEL-ROLLING-MILL-MACHINERY.html

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Understanding Yield Loss in Iron and Steelmaking


Introduction Yield performance is an important issue for any steel plant manager, since poor yield performance can adversely affect both steel plant output and production costs. In this article, the author discusses the topic of yield losses and elaborates on their importance. What are yield losses? A yield loss arises in any parts of the iron and steel making process, when for a particular step, the weight of the steel product made is less than the input of steel that is used. In a cold rolling mill for example, if the input - often called a charge weight - is 100 tonnes of hot rolled coil, and the output is 95 tonnes of cold-rolled steel, the yield performance equals 95%. Another way of expressing the yield factor is in terms of tonnes per tonne - in this case 100 divided by 95 or 1.053. Typical yield loss values are:
y y y

in hot rolled steel coil production (slab to hot rolled coil), 3.5% in rebar production (for billet to bar), 5% in seamless tube making (billet to green pipe), 8.5%.

Why do the yield losses arise? The yield losses arise for different reasons.
y

y y

For example, during the rolling process, there may be a break-out during which the steel bar comes out of its usual rolling trajectory, landing (often at speed) in an area adjacent to the rolling mill stands. This length of steel bar would not be further rolled; rather, it would be recycled as scrap so lowering the yield performance achieved on that particular rolling shift Scale will often be formed on a hot slab as it cools. This scale will later be removed from the surface as the slab is prepared for a subsequent process step When a steel coil is produced, the edge will often be trimmed on the final product, giving rise to a small yield loss

When billet or slab is cast, the end is often cut. Irregularities arising during the casting process are often also ground away.

Each of the examples above reduces the final weight of steel product made, compared to the original charge weight of the steel. Why are the yield losses important? Yield losses are important for several reasons.
y

First, it is important to understand yields in order to be able to predict the output of a mill. A mini mill making one million tonnes of crude steel may for example only be able to produce 850,000 tonnes of finished steel, if the cumulative yields from casting, hot rolling and cold rolling of the steel amount to 15% Second, yields are especially important also from the cost standpoint. This is because, whilst the scrap steel can generally be recycled, all the labour and energy costs associated with processing the wasted steel volumes are lost; and the value added (in terms of a final selling price) is not achieved. For some processes, the cost of the yield loss can actually exceed some of the other elements of conversion cost (such as the cost of consumables, electricity or other utilities). Management of yield performance therefore is an important aspect of overall steel mill cost control.

Understanding your own yield performance A common way of understanding the yield performance of a particular steel plant is to compare its recent yield performance against that of similar plants. Typically, such plants will belong to competitors and may often be located in different countries. Technical visits to mills are however quite common in the steel industry; and are undertaken specifically so that learning benefits the industry. Metals Consulting International offer clients professional consulting support with due diligence, feasibility studies, strategy, business planning and modernisation - and steel plant performance improvement. Visit our website for the latest steel news, steel prices and industry reports and information. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Andrzej_Kotas

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6365474 How exactly does a rolling mill work? How exactly does a rolling mill work? Does it apply pressure or does it oppose pressure? -Oh yes . . . there is a difference between applying and opposing ,-please let me explain: Let's say you have a sheet of metal originally 1/8" thick and wish to reduce the thickness to

1/16". By placing the sheet of metal on a flat surface and putting weight on top of it you would be applying pressure. By forcing the sheet metal between two rollers being 1/16" apart, the 1/8" thick sheet would try to force those rollers apart, but since the rollers refuse to move apart they are opposing this pressure simply by not moving. The result is of course the same as when applying pressure, but the basics in how a rolling mill actually works does matter if you wish to build a rolling mill. So, are rolling mills buildt with the intent of applying pressure to the rollers or simply by opposing the resultant pressure of an object inserted between them? 0 #2 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 11:03 AM Screwmachine Stainless Join Date: Mar 2001 Location: Switzerland Posts: 1,362

Opposing. You set the rollers to the spacing you want and roll the metal through. #3 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 11:15 AM johnoder Diamond Join Date: Jul 2004 Location: Houston, TX USA Posts: 15,697

The metal being squished does not give a tinker's damn about semantics. John Oder #4 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 11:23 AM emtor Plastic Join Date: Dec 2008 Location: Norway Posts: 23

Thanks, exactly as I thought it would be.

So the trick is to make the frame holding the rollers sturdy and strong enough to cope with the pressure generated by inserting the object between the rollers? I just wonder how strong the framework for a rolling mill for rolling red hot bronze would need to be. I saw a video from Turkey where they made cymbals, and the blanks were inserted red hot and re-heated between each pass through the rolling mill. Still, the mill was pretty hefty, standing about ten feet tall and must have weighed several tons. Perhaps the size of the mill was due to the difference between the thickness of the blanks and the gap between the rollers? The blanks seemed to be may times as large as the gap. If you started out with a gap just a little less than the thickness of the blanks and then stepped down the gap in small increments, heating the blank between every pass,-I take it that the size of things could be made smaller? #5 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 11:33 AM surplusjohn Diamond Join Date: Apr 2002 Location: Syracuse, NY USA Posts: 8,425

the rolls are both driven so that there is no differential between their motions. at least the ones I have seen big and little. #6 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 11:40 AM Robert Campbell Jr. Titanium Join Date: Aug 2006 Location: Hesperia, SoCal Posts: 3,330

Quote: Originally Posted by emtor How exactly does a rolling mill work? Does it apply pressure or does it oppose pressure? -Oh yes . . . there is a difference between applying and opposing ,-please let me explain: Let's say you have a sheet of metal originally 1/8" thick and wish to reduce the thickness to 1/16". By placing the sheet of metal on a flat surface and putting weight on top of it you would be applying pressure. By forcing the sheet metal between two rollers being 1/16" apart, the 1/8" thick sheet would try to force those rollers apart, but since the rollers refuse to move

apart they are opposing this pressure simply by not moving. The result is of course the same as when applying pressure, but the basics in how a rolling mill actually works does matter if you wish to build a rolling mill. So, are rolling mills buildt with the intent of applying pressure to the rollers or simply by opposing the resultant pressure of an object inserted between them? Your two descriptions of the movement of rollers has me confused. Setting a roller to a lesser space than the thickness of material and rolling the metal through, you describe as opposing and I guess that's OK but it is the only way a rolling mill can function. The other description you offered, applying, would be one of many types of presses, most closely matched for thickness reduction by a forging press. It repeatedly applies force to the work piece but using your rollers as the hammer and anvil, would generate ripples. Feeding very slowly would reduce the magnitude of the ripples and multiply the frequency. And why rollers for this use, the ability to roll would have no value in this process. ...or am I still just confused? Bob Edit;. gotta' stay out of gunfights, 3 entries while I was typing... #7 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 11:51 AM DaveE907 Stainless Join Date: Sep 2007 Location: Silicon Valley, CA and Sparks, NV Posts: 1,735

Yes, that's one part of the problem but it involves many other considerations to achieve the desired result of a rolled section to size with uniform dimension across the width of the rolls. A simple mill with only single upper and a lower rolls is often used for soft materials or hot rolling of harder materials where the material is quite plastic. The forces on the rolls can be huge and they deflect so it's common to profile them so they deflect to a shape that achieves the desired dimensions of the rolled section. To reduce the forces it's desirable to use a small diameter roll. This makes it relatively flexible so larger backup rolls are employed to support the smaller rolls in contact with the work. Since everything deforms elastically the rollers must be profiled such that when rolling the work the distortions result in a uniform part cross-section being produced. This is just the basic concept, successful designs aren't nearly as simple as the concept. Here's a link to a cold rolling mill photo which shows an example of this concept in use.

http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans...es/Image0.html Edit same here, 3 entries while I typed slooowly... #8 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 12:25 PM Mcgyver Hot Rolled Join Date: Aug 2005 Location: Toronto Posts: 990

I like John's answer, one roller has to be adjustable and withstand such and such a force. the metal pressing into the two rollers or the rollers pressing into the metal are equal forces. Quote: Originally Posted by emtor If you started out with a gap just a little less than the thickness of the blanks and then stepped down the gap in small increments, heating the blank between every pass,-I take it that the size of things could be made smaller? size of the mill is going to be a function of 1) the size of work the machine has to accept and 2) how big the structure/parts have to be to withstand the forces required to move the metal around. Becomes an engineering questions; as there are probably few around who design rolling mills for a living, certainly not me, there may not be any quick easy rules of thumb. time to get the calculator out i've seen rolling mills from those used to roll a 12" thick red hot piece of steel and turn it into 60,000 lb coil to what a jeweler uses on gold & silver...obviously a huge difference driven by the size of material they accept and how much force they must impart. I will say though that each looks very solidly built for the task at hand - rolling metal involves a lot of force #9 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 01:42 PM emtor Plastic Join Date: Dec 2008 Location: Norway Posts: 23

Quote:

Originally Posted by Robert Campbell Jr. Your two descriptions of the movement of rollers has me confused. Bob OK,-what I meant was this: Is the distance between the rollers fixed, so that the force is generated by inserting an object larger than the gap (the rollers opposing the efforts of the object trying to make the rollers move apart), or is an external force applied to one or both rollers as metal moves through the rollers? #10 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 01:55 PM mark thomas Titanium Join Date: Dec 2004 Location: SF Bay Area Posts: 2,218

Quote: Originally Posted by DaveE907 Here's a link to a cold rolling mill photo which shows an example of this concept in use. http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans...es/Image0.html Great pic! #11 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 02:09 PM Robert Campbell Jr. Titanium Join Date: Aug 2006 Location: Hesperia, SoCal Posts: 3,330

Wow, ditto on Dave's link to the SS rolling press. Ain't gonna' rush out to my shop to duplicate that anytime soon. Gives a better understanding of the pricing on stainless sheet! Bob

#12 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 02:35 PM Motomoron Hot Rolled Join Date: Jul 2005 Location: Bethesda, MD Posts: 857

Just keep watching "How's it's Made" or "How do they do that?" or "Factory Floor with Marshall Brain" and you'll see footage of some huge, fast rolling mills in action. Pretty awesome stuff when the material starts getting thin, and is about 600' long and going 60 miles an hour. #13 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 03:17 PM sstephanc Plastic Join Date: Jan 2009 Location: Chicago Posts: 5

Quote: Originally Posted by emtor OK,-what I meant was this: Is the distance between the rollers fixed, so that the force is generated by inserting an object larger than the gap (the rollers opposing the efforts of the object trying to make the rollers move apart), or is an external force applied to one or both rollers as metal moves through the rollers? The answer is yes. The rollers exert force on the work, and the work exerts force on the rollers. The rollers and the work-piece exert force on each other, and if either is absent, there is no force on either. The rollers exert force on the mill frame at their bearing points. There is no benefit to trying to make a distinction between who presses on who as it does not change what happens nor does it change the design of the rolling mill. What is important is that the rollers are doing work to the work-piece. The rollers are driven and the work-piece is dragged through by friction. In some sheet mills, the sheet is also being pulled through, but the rollers are still driven. The gap between the rollers is fixed only in the sense that the gap is smaller than the sheet thickness. Since everything is elastic, when the sheet enters the gap widens because the mill frame stretches and the rollers bend, making the center of the gap wider than the ends. This is why most rollers are ground to a profile with a thicker center so that when loaded, the gap is parallel. A mill is designed to work well within its elastic deformation stress range while the work-piece is in its plastic deformation stress range.

The yield stress of C12 bronze is 18,000 psi. The area undergoing deformation is most of the contact area between the rollers and the sheet multiplied by the width of the sheet. This is why smaller diameter rollers and smaller reductions give lower forces. Even still, rolling something wide enough for a cymbal very quickly goes to very high forces. Hot rolling has its own complications. Bottom line: If you are not doing this as a business, go buy some sheet bronze. If it is a business, hire a metallurgical engineer. Scott #14 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 03:35 PM DaveE907 Stainless Join Date: Sep 2007 Location: Silicon Valley, CA and Sparks, NV Posts: 1,735

There are some good videos online as well. A brief search will find some of long orange hot steel snakes shooting back and forth at high speed. Here's one that packs some information other than simply viewing the operation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6xnKm...eature=related Another: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6xnKm...eature=related #15 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 05:00 PM lbender Aluminum Roll Separation Force emtor, Rolling mills are rated first by maximum strip width and then by roll separtion force. Commercial strip mills generally have a RSF of several thousand tons. Small mills in general, and certainly hobbist mills, are static. The roll gap is set and then the strip is fed into the mill. Commercial mills will have screwdowns that exceed the rated RSF so that the gauge can be adjusted with the strip in the mill. If you really care, RSF can be calculated with fair accuracy. For hot rolling a material with a Join Date: Nov 2005 Location: St. Louis Posts: 74

compressive plain strain yield strength of YS and a strip width of W from an inital gauge of h0 to a gauge of hF on a mill with a roll radius of R: RSF = YS x W x Qp x squareroot [R x (h0 - hF)] The value of Qp increases with roll diameter and with increasing reduction, but is approximately 1 for normal hot rolling. #16 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 05:08 PM emtor Plastic Join Date: Dec 2008 Location: Norway Posts: 23

Quote: Originally Posted by sstephanc center so that when loaded, the gap is parallel. A mill is designed to work well within its elastic deformation stress range while the work-piece is in its plastic deformation stress range. The yield stress of C12 bronze is 18,000 psi. The area undergoing deformation is most of the contact area between the rollers and the sheet multiplied by the width of the sheet. This is why smaller diameter rollers and smaller reductions give lower forces. Scott I would need to roll rectangular sheet no more than about 3.5 " wide. I guess that would lower the forces compared with large cymbal sizes. #17 (permalink) 01-28-2009, 05:26 PM Ries Diamond Join Date: Mar 2004 Location: Edison Washington USA Posts: 5,948

Just dont heat your bronze up "red hot" when you roll it. Or you will get a pile of cookie crumb like ruined bronze on the floor. Bronze likes to be hot worked below red heat. Usually, in a well lit room, if you can see the red

color, its too hot. You can actually move bronze a LOT at dark brown to purple color, or as high as dull red in a dark room. I have hand forged a lot of bronze, and its tricky- there is a narrow range of working temperature, which varies depending on the bronze alloy- too cold, you get cracks and cold shuts, too hot and it crumbles or just melts away.