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# E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1

Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
5. Four point charges each C 20 are on x-y axis at m 4 . Find the force on a
C 100 point charge at ( )m 3 , 0 , 0 .
Sol.

Consider the force due to the charge at m y 4 =

[ ]
az ay
az ay
az ay
F
az ay
r
az ay y
R
4314 . 0 57 . 0
5
3 4
10 10 9 80
5
3 4
25
36
10
4
10 20 10 100
9 16
3 4
3 4
9 12
9
6 6
1
+ =
+
=
(

+

=
+
+
=
+ =

Due to the symmetry

az ax F
az ax F
az ay F
4314 . 0 57 . 0
4314 . 0 57 . 0
434 . 0 57 . 0
3
2
4
+ =
+ =
+ =

Net force
4 3 2 1
F F F F F + + + = =

azN
AZ
7256 . 1
44314 . 0 4
=
=

E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
Two particles each of mass m and having a charge q coulomb are suspended by a
string of length l from a common point. Show that each string makes, with the
vertical an angle given by

0
2
2
2
3
16 tan 1
tan

mgl
q
=
+

Sol.

The force of repulsion between the two particles is

( )
( ) 1
4
2
2
=
AB
q
F

From OAC
le

( )
( ) 1
sin 2
sin 90 cos
2 /
eqn From
l AB
l
AB

=
= =

( )
( ) 2
sin 16
sin 2 4
2 2
0
2
2
0
2
=
=

l
q
l
q
F

E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT

Applying Lemis theorem at point A

( ) ( ) +
=
+ 90 sin 90 90 sin
mg F

cos sin
mg F
=

Substituting F from eqn(2)

cos
sin
16
., .
cos sin 16
3
2
0
2
3 2
0
2
=
=
mg l
q
e i
mg
l
q

2
3
2
0
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
0
2
tan 1
tan
16
., .
sec
tan
cos
cos
sin
16
., .
+
=
=
=
mgl
q
e i
mgl
q
e i

9. It is required to hold three equal point charges +q each at equilibrium at the
corners of an equilateral triangle. Find the point charge which will do this is
placed at the centre of the triangle.

Sol.

E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT

Let the required charge at the centre be -q considering the forces acting on any
one charge say 1 due to all other charges, the resulting shold be zero for
equilibrium.

2
1
14
2
1
14
0
2
2
13
2
2
12
3
4
4
3
3 2 / 3
2 /
30 cos
2 /
4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
= = =
=
=
a
qq
F
a
qq
F
a a a
AE
a
q
F
a
q
F

At equilibrium
0 = + Y X
Resolving the forces along X and Y

[ ]
[ ] q q
a
q
q q q
a
q
a
q q
a
q
a
q
a
q q
a
q
a
q
X
=
+ =

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=
3
8
3
3 3 2
8
2
3
4
3
2
1
4 4
30 cos
3
4
60 cos
4 4
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
2

=
3 8
3
2
3
4 2
1
4
3
60 sin
4
30 sin
4
3
2
2
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
q
q
a
q
a
q
a
q q
a
q
a
q q
Y

E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT

0 = + Y X

[ ] 0
3 8
3
3
8
3
2 2
=
(

+
q
q
a
q
q q
a
q

i.e., 0
3
3 = +
q
q q q

[ ]
[ ]
3
3 1
3
1 3
3 1
3
1
1
q
q
q q
q q
=
+ =
(

+ =
(

+

3
q
q

=

10. It is required to hold four equal point charges +q at equilibrium at the corner of a square.
Find the point charge which will do this if placed at the centre of the square.

E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
Sol. Let the required charge be q placed at the centre of the square. Cosidering the forces
acting on any one charge say 1 due to all other charges the resultant must be zero for
equilibrium.

( )
( )
( )
(

=
(

+ =

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
=
2
1
4
2
2
1
8 4
45 sin
4
2
45 sin
8 4
2
1
4
2
2
1
8 4
45 cos
4
2
12 45 cos
8
1
4
1
4
2
2
4
2 4
1
4
1
4
2 2
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
15
2
2
13
2
2
14
2
2
12
a
q q
a
q
a
q
a
q q
a
q
a
q
Y
a
q q
a
q
a
q
a
q q
a
xq
a
q
x X
a
q q
a
q
F
a
q
F
y
a
q
F
x
a
q
F

At equilibrium
0 = + Y X
i.e., 0
2 2 2 8 4 2 2 2 8 4
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
=

+ +

a
q q
a
q
a
q
a
q q
a
q
a
q

[ ]
( )
q
q
q
q
q q q
q q q q q q
a
q
965 . 0
4
1 2 2
8
1 2 2 2
0 8 2 2 4
0 4 2 2 4 2 2
2 8
2
=
+
=
+
=
= +
= + +

C q q 956 . 0 =

E M Waves and Transmission Lines Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5

B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT