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Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research

REPORT 10

Ba Be National Park
Site Description and Conservation Evaluation

Frontier Vietnam 1997

Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research

Report 10

Ba Be National Park
Site Description and Conservation Evaluation

Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J.(eds)

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Forest Protection Department Frontier-Vietnam Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources Society for Environmental Exploration

Hanoi 1997

Ba Be National Park 1997

Technical report citation: Frontier Vietnam (1997) Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (eds) Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Section citations: Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Description of the Ba Be National Park In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 4-12. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Vegetation survey In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 13-22. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Insects (excluding Lepidoptera) In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 23-26. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Butterflies In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 27-30. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Birds In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 31-34. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Mammals In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 35-39. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Socio-economics In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 40-47. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi. Hill, M., Hallam, D. and Bradley, J. (1997) Tourism In Ba Be National Park: Site Description and Conservation Evaluation. pp. 48-53. Frontier Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10.. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Frontier Vietnam

ISSN 1479-117X

Frontier-Vietnam Environmental Research Report 10

Ba Be National Park 1997

Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) The Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) was founded by decision HDBT 65/CT of the Council of Ministers dated 5 March 1990. As part of the National Center for Natural Science and Technology, IEBRs objectives are to study the flora and fauna of Vietnam; to inventory and evaluate Vietnams biological resources; to research typical ecosystems in Vietnam; to develop technology for environmentally-sustainable development; and to train scientists in ecology and biology. IEBR is Frontier's principal partner in Vietnam, jointly co-ordinating the Frontier-Vietnam Forest Research Programme. In the field, IEBR scientists work in conjunction with Frontier, providing expertise to strengthen the research programme. The Society for Environmental Exploration (SEE) The Society is a non-profit making company limited by guarantee and was formed in 1989. The Societys objectives are to advance field research into environmental issues and implement practical projects contributing to the conservation of natural resources. Projects organised by The Society are joint initiatives developed in collaboration with national research agencies in co-operating countries. Frontier-Vietnam Frontier-Vietnam is a collaboration of the Society for Environmental Exploration (SEE), UK and Vietnamese institutions, that has been undertaking joint research and education projects within the protected areas network of Vietnam since 1993. The majority of projects concentrate on biodiversity and conservation evaluation and are conducted through the Frontier-Vietnam Forest Research Programme. The scope of Frontier-Vienam project activities have expanded from biodiversity surveys and conservation evaluation to encompass sustainable cultivation of medicinal plants, certified training and environmental education . Projects are developed in partnership with Government departments (most recently the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources and the Institute of Oceanography) and national research agencies. Partnerships are governed by memoranda of understanding and ratified by the National Centre for Natural Science and Technology.

FOR MORE INFORMATION


Forestry Protection Department Block A3, 2 Ngoc Ha, Hanoi, VIETNAM Tel: +84 (0) 4 733 5676 Fax: +84 (0) 4 7335685 E-mail: cites_vn@fpt.vn Frontier-Vietnam PO Box 242, GPO Hanoi, 75 Dinh Tien Hoang Street, Hanoi, Vietnam Tel: +84 (0) 4 868 3701 Fax: +84 (0) 4 869 1883 E-mail: frontier@netnam.vn Society for Environmental Exploration 50-52 Rivington Street, London, EC2A 3QP. U.K. Tel: +44 20 76 13 24 22 Fax: +44 20 76 13 29 92 E-mail: info@frontier.ac.uk Internet: www.frontier.ac.uk

Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam Tel: +84 (0) 4 786 2133 Fax: +84 (0) 4 736 1196 E-mail: Lxcanh@ncst.ac.vn

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures Executive Summary Acknowledgements 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Project aims 3.0 Description of the Ba Be National Park 3.1 General description 3.1.1 Location 3.1.2 History and status 3.1.3 Previous studies 3.2 Physical environment 3.2.1 Climate 3.2.2 Topography 3.2.3 Geology 3.2.4 Hydrology and catchment protection 4.0 Vegetation survey 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Methods 4.2.1 Vegetation mapping 4.2.2 Vegetation transects 4.2.3 Botanical collection 4.3 Results 4.3.1 Vegetation mapping 4.3.2 Vegetation transects 4.3.3 Species list 4.4 Description of forest transect sites 4.4.1 Forest Transect 4.4.2 Forest Transect 4.4.3 Forest Transect 4.4.4 Forest Transect 4.4.5 Forest Transect 4.5 Discussion 4.5.1 Forest types 4.5.2 Rare species 4.5.3 Threats to the forest flora 5.0 Insecrs (excluding lepidoptera) 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Methods 5.2.1 Sweep-netting 5.2.2 Pitfall trapping 5.3 Results 5.3.1 Sweep-netting 5.3.2 Pitfall trapping 5.4 Discussion 5.4.1 Insects of the herb layers 5.4.2 Ground-dwelling insects 6.0 Butterflies 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Methods 6.2.1 Butterfly transects 6.2.2 Opportunistic collection 6.2.3 Butterfly trapping 6.3 Results 6.3.1 Species-richness 6.3.2 Butterfly communities in different habitats 6.4 Discussion v vi viii 1 3 4 4 4 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29

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6.4.1 Species-richness 6.4.2 Species of interest 6.4.3 Butterfly communities in different habitats 7.0 Birds 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Methods 7.3 Results 7.4 Discussion 7.4.1 Range extensions 7.4.2 Altitude reductions 7.4.3 Rare species 8.0 Mammals 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Methods 8.2.1 Mammal trapping 8.2.2 Bat netting 8.2.3 Observation 8.3 Results 8.3.1 Mammal trapping 8.3.2 Bat netting 8.3.3 Observation 8.4 Discussion 8.4.1 Small mammals 8.4.2 Bats 8.4.3 Larger mammals and primates 9.0 Socio-economics 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Methods 9.3 Results 9.3.1 The people and place 9.3.2 Economic activities 9.3.3 Land tenure 9.3.4 Use of, and dependence upon, the forest 9.3.5 Forestry protection authorities (Kiem Lam) 9.4 Discussion 10.0 Tourism 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Methods 10.3 Results 10.3.1 Present facilities 10.3.2 Plans for development 10.3.3 Tourist profile 10.3.4 Interaction of tourists with environment, culture, economy 10.4 Discussion 11.0 Conclusions 12.0 References 13.0 Appendices Appendix 1: Plants Appendix 2: Vegetation transect data Appendix 3: Forest transect diagrams Appendix 4: Butterflies Appendix 5: Birds Appendix 6: Mammals Appendix 7: Medicinal plants used in Ba Be Appendix 8: Specimens

29 30 30

31 31 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 38 40 40 40 40 43 44 45 46 47 48 48 48 48 49 50 51 53 54 57

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Map showing geographic position of Ba Be National Park Ba Be National Park, showing boundaries Ba Be National Park Ba Be National Park, showing study sites Number of taxa in major biological groups identified in earlier surveys Climate data for Cho Ra Topography of Ba Be National Park Vegetation map of Ba Be National Park Summary data for vegetation plots Ground flora data for vegetation plots Ground flora species in ecological groups Summary of sweep-net data for five sites Summary of pitfall trap data for six sites Pitfall fauna in major invertebrate groups Distribution of butterfly species between families Summary statistics for butterfly transects Percentage of total number of butterfly individuals in each family Bird species outside their normal altitude range Results of small-mammal trapping Mark-release-recapture data for small mammals Population of Ba Be district Changing demography of Ba Be National Park Map showing villages, markets and subdistricts of the National Park Ethnic groups of Ba Be 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 15 16 17 17 24 24 25 28 29 29 33 36 37 41 41 42 43

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report describes a biodiversity survey of the Ba Be National Park, Cao Bang province, Vietnam, conducted as a part of the Society for Environmental Exploration (SEE) Vietnam Forest Research Programme in October-December 1996. The Ba Be National Park is 7,611ha in area, and is centred on Ba Be lake, Vietnams only significant mountain lake. Surrounding the lake, limestone hills support a mosaic of tropical forest vegetation types and cleared areas used by local people for grazing livestock. The SEE survey at Ba Be involved the study of forest ecosystems, and biodiversity of plants, butterflies, birds and mammals. In addition, the socio-economic conditions of the resident human populations were investigated, and the growing tourist industry of the area studied. Five forest plots were studied in detail, in various locations around the lake and at a variety of altitudes. Most of the sites showed some signs of human disturbance, and in places this was intense. The forests studied fell into two main types. Those on bare limestone slopes showed a low tree species diversity and were dominated by the trees Streblus tonkinensis and Burretiodendron hsienmu. The herb layer of these forests on limestone contained few herbaceous species. In localities where deeper layers of soil had built up, such as at the base of slopes and the top of ridges, the forest contained a greater diversity of trees, and a more developed field layer containing several herbaceous species. Of the plant species identified, nine are endangered within Vietnam (they are listed in the Red Data Book for Vietnam Volume 2, Plants; RDB, 1995). The endangered species are mainly valuable timber trees or herbs used in traditional medicine. The butterfly fauna of two secondary forest areas and grassland beside the River Nang were compared using transect methods. The highest diversity of butterflies was recorded in one of the transects located in woodland, although by far the greatest numbers of butterflies were recorded in the open site. Overall, 167 butterfly species were collected at Ba Be. The bird fauna of Ba Be was studied by observation. Overall, 189 species of bird were recorded. Thirteen of these species were observed well below their normal known altitude ranges. Two species recorded are endangered within Vietnam, and eight near-threatened internationally. Mammals were studied by observation, small-mammal trapping, and bat-netting. Overall a list of 22 mammal species was produced. Three of the species recorded (slow loris, Francois leaf monkey and Owstons palm civet) are vulnerable to extinction internationally. Socio-economic surveys were carried out by interview with the ethnic minority inhabitants of the area. Most of the local people belong to the Tay minority, and are

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heavily reliant on agriculture as a source of income. Hunting is common in the forest, and local people fish the lake using explosives. Both of these activities are banned in the National Park but still continue; dynamite fishing in particular is widespread and obvious. Ba Be National Park is developing as a tourist destination, both for domestic and overseas tourists. Visitors to the Park were interviewed to assess their impact on the local ecology and economy and to gather their views on the Park. The tourist industry currently has little effect on the lifestyles of local inhabitants, and the ecological effects of tourism have been slight, when compared with the impact that hunting, timber removal and agriculture have on the forest areas. Ba Be is a landscape of national importance within Vietnam, and its forests support populations of certain endangered species. Its designation as a National Park has reduced, but not eliminated, the major problems common to most Vietnamese protected areas; hunting, fishing, timber exploitation and clearance for agriculture. However, the natural beauty of the area and its relative accessibility from Hanoi has encouraged tourism at Ba Be. If the development of the tourism industry is managed effectively and sustainably, involving local people, then the National Park has the potential to generate income and reduce some of these problems.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report is the culmination of the advice, co-operation, hard work and expertise of many people. In particular acknowledgements are due to the following:

IEBR Botanist Mammalogist Botanist Socio-economist Ornithologist Parasitologist Parasitologist

Dr. Nguyen Kim Dao Dr. Pham Duc Tien Dr. Ha Van Tue Lai Phu Hoang Dr. Truong Van La Nguyen Anh Tung Pham Ngoc Doanh

SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPLORATION Managing Director: Ms. Eibleis Fanning Development Programme Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Humphreys Research Programme Manager: Ms. Leigh Stubblefield Operations Manager: Ms. Amy Banyard-Smith HANOI UNIVERSITY Entomologist FRONTIER-VIETNAM Project Co-ordinator: Research Co-ordinators: Assistant Research Co-ordinators: Research Assistants:

Pham Dinh Sac

Mr. M. Hill Mr. D. Hallam and Mr. J. Bradley Ms. Maysie Harrison Mr. Russell Adams, Ms. Paula Carvalho, Ms. Nicola Field, Mr. Kevin Gleave, Mr. Colin Godfrey, Mr. James Hopper, Mr. Richard Hourston, Ms. Ellie Kinross, Mr. Matthew Kneller, Mr. David Lee, Mr. James Miln, Ms. Robyn Mitz, Mr. Stuart Poole, Mr. Andre Raine, Ms. Jenny Twaddell and Ms. Stephanie Wates.

RUSSIA- VIETNAM TROPICAL CENTRE Entomologist Dr Alexander Monastyrskii

Editorial comment

Ms. L. Stubblefield, SEE.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Vietnam stretches from 23oN in the North to 8o30N in the South, supporting a wide range of habitats and biodiversity. The natural vegetation was once dominated by tropical forests, but these have undergone a rapid decline in the present century. In 1943, approximately 44% of the country's land area was forest. By 1983, this had declined to 24% (MacKinnon, 1990). The area covered by good-quality natural forests is only around 10% of the land area, and, of this, only around 1% could be described as pristine (Collins et al.,1991). The natural forest vegetation of lowland Vietnam is dominated by two main types (WWF & IUCN, 1995); tropical wet evergreen (and semi-evergreen) forest, and tropical moist deciduous forest (monsoon forests). Wet evergreen forest is found in areas with a regular, high rainfall (>1500mm per annum), and is largely restricted in Vietnam to the South and Central regions (WWF & IUCN, 1995). Monsoon forests experience a distinct dry season and are dominated by deciduous tree species (Whitmore, 1984). They dominate inland and Northern Vietnam, an area classified by Udvardy (1975) as 'Thailandian Monsoon Forest'. A third major forest formation, forest over limestone, is important in areas of limestone geology and supports a range of endemic herbs (WWF & IUCN, 1995). At higher altitudes (700m and above) lowland forest gives way to montane forest formations, which differ from lowland forests in their distinctive physical structure and floral composition (Whitmore, 1984; Collins et al., 1991). In addition to these terrestrial forest types, coastal areas of Vietnam support mangrove and (in the South) Melaleuca forests, and there are small areas of fresh-water swamp forest in low-lying areas of southern Vietnam (Government of SRV, 1994). Forests support the greatest part of Vietnam's biodiversity, which includes a high proportion of endemic plant species (Thai Van Trung, 1970) and birds (ICBP, 1992). Two Red Data Books have been prepared for Vietnam; Volume 1, Animals (RDB, 1992), lists 366 species under threat, and 350 plant species are included in Volume 2 (RDB, 1996). Several endangered species, including the Kouprey (Bos sauveli), Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Tiger (Panthera tigris), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) and Saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) are facing imminent extinction. Forest degradation and the loss of biodiversity have been caused by a number of factors. Two major wars since 1946, and more local border disputes, contributed to a loss of forest cover and increased levels of poaching. Between 1961 and 1971, 2.6 million ha of terrestrial forest in South Vietnam was subject to aerial herbicide bombardment at least once (Mai Dinh Yen & Cao Van Sung, 1995). Strategically situated lowland forests were cleared by American troops using 'Rome ploughs' (MacKinnon, 1990). Direct war damage was less extensive in the North of the country, although indirect forest loss, for example clearance to increase agricultural

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production, occurred throughout Vietnam (MacKinnon, 1990). Overall, around 14% of the Vietnam's forest cover was lost between 1943 and 1975 (MacKinnon, 1990). Since reunification in 1975, forest loss has continued. It has been promoted by several factors, most notably the pressure on land caused by the country's large and rapidly increasing population. In 1994, the population of Vietnam was approximately 72.5 million (General Statistical Office, SRV., 1995), with a growth rate of 2.1% per year. About 80% of the population live in rural areas (Government of SRV, 1994), where population growth may encourage clearance of forest land for agriculture, as well as increasing the exploitation of forest products. The decline in the quantity and quality of Vietnam's native forests was addressed by the publication in 1990 of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan for Vietnam (MacKinnon, 1990), which pointed out the lack of adequate management plans or inventories for many of the protected areas in Vietnam. Since this time, the protected areas system has been revised and extended. There are now 87 protected areas in Vietnam, covering 976,000ha (Cao Van Sung, 1995); this figure includes National Parks, Nature Reserves and Protected Forests. In some of these areas, biodiversity inventories have been carried out (by Vietnam's Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, FIPI, and foreign NGOs including Worldwide Fund for Nature, Flora and Fauna International, and Birdlife). Despite this, the BDAP of 1994 was still able to identify several reserve areas which lack basic biodiversity surveys and management plans (Government of SRV, 1994). The Society for Environmental Exploration's Vietnam Forest Research Project was established in 1993, in collaboration with the Ministry of Forestry. Working together with the Institute for Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi, and the University of Hanoi, it has conducted research in several protected areas and plans to develop a long-term research base in one important reserve.

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2.0 PROJECT AIMS


The overall aims of the survey work carried out by the SEE Vietnam Forest Research Programme include; To conduct baseline biodiversity surveys in protected areas in the North of Vietnam; To investigate the socio-economic conditions of the human inhabitants of these protected areas, in order to evaluate the benefits derived from forest reserves, and threats posed by human exploitation; To provide information on the biological values and threats to forest reserves, to assist in the development and execution of management plans in those areas.

The aims of each survey period carried out include; To map the extent of major vegetation types within the study area, and carry out detailed vegetation sampling on forest plots (40x40m) and transects (60x10m); To make a quantitative comparison of butterfly diversity in different habitats, and make a collection of all species; To collect specimens of small terrestrial mammals (rodents and insectivores) and bats for identification, in order to compile as complete as possible a species list of these groups for the site; To record birds and large mammals present, through extensive observation of the habitats represented at the site; To collect data on the lifestyles of local people, by interview and questionnaire, with particular emphasis on their utilisation of forests, and to interview local government and forestry protection officials, in order to determine their views on the future development of the reserve; To collect data on the tourist industry in the National Park.

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3.0 DESCRIPTION OF BA BE NATIONAL PARK 3.1 General description


3.1.1 Location Ba Be National Park is located in Nam Mau commune, Cao Bang Province, northern Vietnam, co-ordinates 22o24'N by 105o37'E (see Figure 1). It is 254km from Hanoi, and 18km South-West of the town of Cho Ra. In the centre of the National Park is Ba Be lake, the only significant mountain lake in Vietnam (Scott, 1989). The total area of the National Park is 7,611ha, of which 3,226ha make up a strictly protected zone, and 4,083ha the "tourist subzone" (Cao Van Sung, 1995); the lake surface accounts for 301ha of the park's area (see Figure 2). The Park falls within biogeographical subunit 6a (South China) of the biogeographical classification of the IndoMalayan realm developed by MacKinnon and MacKinnon (1986). 3.1.2 History and status Ba Be was recognised as a 'cultural - historical and environmental reserve', to protect its landscape and historical relics, in 1977. In 1992, it was established as a National Park (Cao Van Sung, 1995). A management plan for the National Park was produced in 1991 (Government of SRV, 1994). Vietnam's Tropical Forest Action Plan (MacKinnon, 1990) proposed that the National Park be extended from its current 7,611ha to around 44,000ha. The Biodiversity Action Plan for Vietnam (Government of SRV, 1994) has proposed that the management of the Ba Be National Park and the Na Hang Nature Reserve, 30km away in Tuyen Quang province, be integrated. Under this plan, which has yet to be implemented, the reserves would be extended and 'forest corridors' between the two areas protected. The National Park will now be extended in 1997 to a total of 49,000ha, taking in land to the South of the existing protected area (see Figure 2).

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Figure 1. Map showing the geographic position of Ba Be National Park.

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Figure 2. Map showing the boundaries of Ba Be National Park.

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Figure 3. Ba Be National Park.

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Figure 4. Ba Be National Park, showing study sites.

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3.1.3 Previous studies of the National Park Previous studies of the biodiversity of the Ba Be National Park have included a survey by Vietnamese scientists in 1990 (FIPI, unpublished), which formed the basis for the National Park management plan. A later study by the Society for Environmental Exploration (Kemp et al., 1994) involved surveys of vegetation, birds, mammals and butterflies (which were not collected in the course of the earlier FIPI study). Numbers of species identified for the National Park are listed in Figure 5. Figure 5. Number of species identified in previous biodiversity surveys of Ba Be
Plants Mammals (including bats) Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish Butterflies FIPI (1991) 38 (2) 111 18 6 49 Kemp et al. (1994) 411 31 (11) 111 52

The mammal list obtained in the 1994 Frontier study (Kemp et al., 1994) included species only identified by interview with local people, and some of the mammals listed may no longer exist in the Park. For example, the highly threatened Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Pygathrix avunculus) was recorded. Although Ba Be is part of the historic range of this species, it seems highly unlikely that any survive there today (Cox, 1994), and the species was not recorded in the present survey. In 1989, Ba Be National Park was visited as part of a survey of threatened primates in Northern Vietnam (Ratajszczak, 1990), in which the population of Francois' leaf monkey Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi was studied.

3.2 Physical environment


3.2.1 Climate Ba Be National Park has a mild tropical climate, dominated by the summer monsoon. Winters are cool and relatively dry, summers hot and wet. The majority of annual rainfall occurs between the months of June and September (Kemp et al., 1994), when the rainfall increases to 7-12 times the monthly average (SCEMMA, 1992). Mean climatic data collected at the Cho Ra meteorological station (2.2km from Ba Be), over the period 1961-1985 are shown in Figure 6.

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Figure 6. Average annual meteorological statistics for Cho Ra (from SCEMMA, 1992). Average air temperature Max. air temperature Min. air temperature Average annual rainfall Average humidity 3.2.2 Topography Ba Be lake is 170m above sea level, and is surrounded by limestone peaks which slope steeply, reaching 893m asl (Scott, 1989). Further from the lake, there are higher peaks including Pia Booc (1,520m, 4.5km from the lake), Hoa Son (1,517m, 11.5km from the lake), and Pu Sam Sao (1,175m, 11km from the lake) (SCEMMA, 1992). The topography and geological features of Ba Be National Park are shown in Figure 3. The majority of the land area of the National Park is made up of steep limestone slopes and cliffs, and the only flat land occurs beside the River Nang and in some places beside the lake. All of this land has been converted to agricultural uses. The lake contains numerous small islands, with a combined surface area of 1.4ha. (SCEMMA, 1992). 3.2.3 Geology The underlying geology of the National Park area is limestone, which has been influenced by denudation and karstic processes. A number of caves have formed, the largest being the Puong Grotto, 300m long and 30-60m high (Cao Van Sung, 1995). Karst basins (dry depressions surrounded by peaks and ridges) have also been formed in the limestone. Throughout the reserve, limestone is exposed as cliffs or karst. Due to the steep topography, soil accumulation is patchy, with pockets of soil occurring between rock outcrops. Where soils have built up, they are alkaline and clay-rich (Kemp et al., 1994). 22oC 39oC 0.6oC 1378mm 83%

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Figure

7.

Topography

of

Ba

Be

National

Park

and

extension

zone.

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3.2.4 Hydrology and catchment protection The lake is 7.5km long, and 200m-800m wide (mean width 500m) (Cao Van Sung, 1995). At its deepest point, it is 29m deep (Kemp et al., 1994). The lake is fed by the Tho Leo River, which enters the lake at its southern end. Two other small rivers (Nam Ban Tao and Bo Lu River) flow into the lake from the West. Water drains from the lake into the Nang River to the North. During the rainy season, water flow into the lake can cause lake levels to rise as much as 2.8m (Kemp et al., 1994), but water never flows from the Nang River into the lake, even at times of heavy rain (SCEMMA, 1992). The lake plays an important role in the regulation of flooding on the Nang River as, when the Nang is flooded the flow from the lake into the Nang ceases and lake levels rise. The lake can retain up to 8.4 million m3 in this way (SCEMMA, 1992).

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4.0 VEGETATION SURVEY 4.1 Introduction


Vietnam's flora is composed of at least 8,000 vascular plant species, 10% of which are endemic (IUCN, 1986). The geographical position of the country, together with the wide range of environmental conditions allow a variety of floral elements to survive here. In the evergreen rain forests of the South, the family Dipterocarpaceae are dominant, along with other elements of the Malesian (southern) flora (Nguyen Nghia Thin, 1995). In the Hoang Lien Son mountain range of the North, there is a mixture of subtropical and temperate species characteristic of the flora of southern China and the Himalayas (Nguyen Nghia Thin & Harder, 1996). Areas of particularly high botanical biodiversity in Vietnam were mapped by Schmid (1993). The forests of Vietnam have particular significance for the conservation of biodiversity of both plants and animals. The physical and biological characteristics of forest in any site are influenced by local climate, geology, altitude and topography (Whitmore, 1984), as well as biotic, human and historical factors. The nature of the forest in turn influences the fauna, an effect that is most visible where animals have a particular foodplant or niche requirement without which they cannot survive (host-plant specificity is shown, for example, by the Lepidoptera; Holloway, 1984). The absence or loss of one species is likely to have higher order effects, influencing species higher in food chains (Turner, 1996). In reality, one protected area is likely to contain a patchwork of forest types influenced by the environmental gradients in operation in the area, and the patchiness of human exploitation. The aims of the vegetation work carried out during the survey were to describe the dominant vegetation types of the survey area, and produce a species list for plants of the protected area.

4.2 Methods
4.2.1 Vegetation mapping The distribution of major vegetation types (primary and secondary forest, scrub, grassland and arable land) in the study area was mapped by observation from several high viewpoints. 4.2.2 Vegetation Transects 4.2.2.1 Site selection Vegetation transect studies were carried out at five sites. Sites were selected to represent the altitudinal range found in the National Park, and were spread around the lake (see Figure 4), in order to include the main forest types in the area. At each of the sites FT1-FT5, data were gathered on the trees and ground flora.

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4.2.2.2 Forest trees At each site, a 40m x 40m plot was marked using barrier tape. Within this plot, every tree (woody plants > 4.5m in height) was identified to species level, and the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH, 1.3m above ground level) recorded. In addition, a 60m x 10m transect was laid out at each of the five sites, to gather data for the construction of forest profile diagrams. For each tree in the transect, trunk coordinates, DBH, canopy extent, and tree heights were recorded, and the tree identified to species level. Every tree was also sketched in the field. 4.2.2.3 Ground flora Ground flora was studied in 20 2m x 2m quadrats placed diagonally through the 40m x 40m plot (covering 5% of the ground area of the plot). Within each quadrat, all tree seedlings and shrubs (woody plants < 4.5m in height), herbs, lianas and palms were identified. For each of these species, the number of individuals and percentage cover of the quadrat were recorded. In addition, the total percentage cover (and percentage bare ground) of the ground layers was recorded. From this data, diversity was calculating using Fisher's . This measure of diversity takes account both the number of species (here, Recognisible Taxonomic Units or RTUs were used, as many of the taxa such as tree seedlings could not be identified to species level) and individuals in a sample (Fisher et al, 1943). Fisher's is relatively free of bias when describing samples of differing size (see Magurran, 1988). 4.2.3 Botanical collection Botanical specimens were collected throughout the study area in a variety of different habitats. Identification in the field was achieved using Vietnam Forest Trees (FIPI, 1996) and Cayco Viet Nam (Pham Hoang Ho, 1993). For species which could not be identified in the field, herbarium specimens were collected for later identification.

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Figure 8. Vegetation types of Ba Be National Park.

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4.3 Results
4.3.1 Vegetation mapping A vegetation map for the study area is shown in Figure 8. The vegetation of Ba Be National Park and its surrounding buffer zones is largely made up of forest, although there are extensive areas of clearance for cultivation and grazing within the reserve. The majority of the forest is secondary in nature, having been extensively utilised by local populations in the past (and at present in some areas). 4.3.2 Vegetation transects 4.3.2.1 Sites chosen The five sites chosen can be classified as described by Whitmore (1984); FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5 Lowland forest over limestone, 710m above sea level. Lowland forest over limestone, 175m asl. Lowland tropical moist forest, 300m asl. Lowland tropical moist forest, 750m asl. Lowland forest over limestone, 475m asl.

4.3.2.2 Forest trees A summary of the data on forest trees from the plots FT1-FT5 is shown in Figure 9. For each of the sites, the basal area of wood was calculated for each tree species in the plot, in order that the relative importance of each plant family represented could be ascertained. These data are shown in Appendix 2.
Figure 9. Summary of tree data for forest sites Site Altitude (m asl) 710 175 300 750 475 Number families per plot 5 10 17 24 9 of Number of individuals per plot 104 90 143 184 118 Number of stems per plot 106 95 163 184 118 Number of stems per ha. 663 594 1019 1150 737 Total Basal Area of wood (m2ha-1) 40.44 24.99 23.64 47.99 32.19

FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5

Transect diagrams for the forest sites studied are shown in Appendix 3.

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4.3.2.3 Ground flora and tree seedling survey Figure 10 shows a summary of the data for the sites, and Figure11 shows the total numbers of plants in each ecological class in each location. Figure 10. Summary of the ground flora data for five forest sites.
Site FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5 Mean cover (% of quadrat) 56.60 36.90 52.55 53.00 33.80 Mean number species per quadrat 4.15 5.65 10.30 10.25 4.00 of Mean number -2 species m 1.04 1.41 2.57 2.56 1.00 of Fisher's diversity index 3.560 7.466 13.015 17.211 2.107

Figure 11. Numbers of plants in each ecological group identified, for five forest sites. NI = Number of individual plants NS = Number of species
Site FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5 HERBS NI 6 2 59 109 6 NS 4 2 8 3 2 CLIMBERS NI NS 24 10 12 7 55 12 14 6 10 3 PALMS NI 0 0 0 51 0 NS 0 0 0 2 0 SHRUBS NI NS 18 5 8 4 5 2 30 8 4 2 TREES NI 6948 1782 621 448 2564 NS 8 28 32 44 8

4.3.3 Species list The list of plant species found in this survey is shown in Appendix 1. A total of 551 species, belonging to 136 plant families, were identified during the study period. This compares to a total of 411 species, from 106 families, identified by Le Mong Chan in the Ba Be National Park in 1994 (Kemp et al, 1994). Together, the lists from the two recent surveys of the park's vegetation comprise 603 plant species in 137 families.

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4.4 Description of forest transect sites


4.4.1 Forest Transect 1 FT1 was located on the western side of the lake, close to the Hmong village of Nam Giai at an altitude of 710m asl. The forest studied grew on a steep (around 30o), North-East facing limestone slope covered with a scree of limestone boulders. The proximity of the village meant that this area was easily exploited for wood and timber. As a result of human and physical disturbance on the site, the diversity of woody taxa was extremely low, and highly valued timber species such as Markhamia spp. (family Bignoniaceae) and Chukrasia tabularis (Meliaceae) were rare. The forest showed three distinct layers, the upper canopy (to 45m), mid-canopy (520m) and shrub and sapling layer (below 4.5m). The upper canopy was incomplete (perhaps as a result of logging, or due to natural disturbance on the steep slope), and was dominated by the tree Burretiodendron hsienmu (Tiliaceae). The lower canopy was almost completely composed of Streblus (Teonongia) tonkinensis (Moraceae), a tree which has been found in single-species stands in previously clear-felled areas of forest at the nearby Na Hang Nature Reserve (Hill & Hallam, 1997). Perhaps due to the dense shade caused by the mid-canopy of Streblus tonkinensis, the shrub and ground layers of vegetation contained very few species adapted to permanent existence on the forest floor; only four herb and five shrub species, and no palms, were found. Tree seedlings were the dominant forms in this layer, particularly Streblus and Burretiodendron. 4.4.2 Forest Transect 2 FT2` was only a little above the level of Ba Be lakes, at around 175m asl., close to the 'Fairy Pool', on a North-West facing slope. Although at a lower elevation than FT1, the forest showed superficial similarities to that at the previous site. It was located on a steep slope of limestone boulders (the mean slope over the 60m transect studied was 36o), and was again dominated by the two species Streblus tonkinensis and Burretiodendron hsienmu. S. tonkinensis made up 82% of the individual trees in the plot, and 29% of the basal area of wood, whereas B. hsienmu were 3% of the individuals but 33% of the total basal area of wood. The woody plant diversity at FT2 was, however, slightly higher than that at FT1; 10 plant families were represented. The upper canopy included Diospyros sp. (Ebenaceae) in addition to B. hsienmu. The lower canopy included, in addition to S. tonkinensis, Streblus macrophyllus (Moraceae), Albizia kalkora (Fabaceae), Deutzianthus tonkinensis (Euphorbiaceae), and Ailanthus triphysa (Simaroubaceae). The shrub- and ground flora layers (below 4.5m) were again dominated by seedlings of the canopy trees Streblus tonkinensis and Burretiodendron hsienmu. In addition, Streblus macrophyllus was common. A larger range of tree seedlings was present in

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the ground flora than at FT1, reflecting the greater diversity of forest trees at this site. The only herbs represented were a fern and Laportea sp. (Urticaceae). Climbers included Stephania rotunda (Menispermaceae), Entada phaseoloides (Fabaceae), and Pothos sp. (Araceae). 4.4.3 Forest Transect 3 FT3 was situated in the buffer zone of Ba Be National Park, to the North of the lake and on a hillside near the Tay village of Ban Cam. The elevation of the site was 300m asl and the site was South-facing. The gradient of this site was again steep (30o), but, unlike the earlier locations FT1 and FT2, a more complete soil layer existed at this site. Exposed limestone boulders were present, but they did not form a continous scree slope as at FT1 and FT2. The diversity of woody species present was much higher here than in the other transects studied. Seventeen plant families were represented in the tree flora. In contrast to the earlier sites, the trees of the upper canopy layer were relatively small, with few reaching over 20m in height. However, as at the earlier sites, Burretiodendron hsienmu (Tiliaceae) was again the dominant species of the upper canopy (since the trees present were smaller, this species only made up 16% of the total basal area of wood at FT3). Other species present in the emergent layer included Adenanthera pavonina (Fabaceae), Stereospermum sp. (Bignoniaceae), Diospyros sp. (Ebenaceae), and Amoora gigantea (Meliaceae). The lower canopy (10-20m) differed greatly from that at FT1 and FT2. Streblus tonkinensis, dominant in the two earlier plots, was rare. However, the Moraceae was again the main plant family, represented by Streblus macrophyllus and Ficus spp. in addition to S. tonkinensis. The species diversity in the ground layers was relatively high. Tree seedlings were present in small numbers, although a wide range of species were represented, reflecting the diversity of the canopy layers. The most abundant tree seedlings were the Moraceae (Streblus macrophyllus, S. tonkinensis, and Broussonetia papyrifera), and Rutaceae (Evodia meliaefolia and Clausena lansium). The Ebenaceae (Diospyros spp.) and Tiliaceae (Burretiodendron hsienmu) were also relatively abundant. Climbing plants included Entada phaseoloides (Fabaceae), Zehneria maysorensis (Cucurbitaceae), Fissistigma thorelli (Annonaceae), and Dioscorea sp. (Dioscoreaceae). Common herbs included the ferns Pteris aff. ensiformis and Adiantum spp. (2 species), and, in more open areas, Mosla sp. (Lamiaceae).

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4.4.4 Forest Transect 4 FT4 was situated approximately 500m from the main path from the lakeside to Nam Giai village, at 750m asl. In parts of the transect, a relatively deep layer of soil had built up. Probably because of the soil conditions in this location, FT4 showed a well-developed upper canopy of very tall trees (30-40m). Among the more important families represented in this layer were Fabaceae (Ormosia sp.), Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae (Litsea cubeba) and Tiliaceae (Burretiodendron hsienmu), although no single species was dominant. The middle canopy was also highly diverse, and Streblus tonkinensis virtually absent. Important families in this layer included the Myrsinaceae (Ardisea sp.), and Rubiaceae (Wendlandia spp. and Randia sp.). This plot showed the greatest number of woody plant families, and the highest basal area of wood per hectare (due to the presence of many large trees). The ground flora at FT4 was diverse, with a large number of tree species present as seedlings and saplings. Two species of palm (Arecaceae) were present, one of them (Calamus sp.) being particularly abundant. The commonest herb species was Ophiopogon reptans (Convallariaceae). 4.4.5 Forest Transect 5 FT5 was located on the rocky slope of a limestone basin, above Ba Be village (South of the lake), at an altitude of 475m. The floor of the basin had recently been selectively logged, with most of the large trees being removed. The forest on the surrounding slopes was less disturbed. The transect included around 10m of the basin floor, which was dominated by young trees of the family Ulmaceae, and 50m of limestone slope, where Streblus tonkinensis was the most abundant tree. Burretiodendron hsienmu was an important element in the upper canopy. The ground flora of this site was sparse and made up of few species, showing the lowest diversity of any of the sites. As at FT1 and FT2, the ground layer was dominated by regenerating seedlings of the dominant tree species.

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4.5 Discussion
4.5.1 Forest types The forests studied can be classified into two main types; Streblus/Burretiodendron forest on limestone slopes (FT1, FT2, FT5); Mixed lowland rainforest on deeper soils (FT3, FT4). The former type occurs over a greater area in the National Park than the latter. Streblus/Burretiodendron forest is generally characterised by a low species diversity, and, particularly, little ground flora. The ground flora is heavily dominated by regenerating seedlings of the dominant tree species, and there are few permanent members of the ground flora (forest herbs). This forest type occurs on steep, rocky limestone slopes, where natural disturbance is common, or in areas which have been disturbed by logging. Where deeper soils have accumulated, a more mixed forest is favoured with a greater diversity of forest trees. Although the Moraceae may still be an important plant family in these forests, the family is represented by a greater range of taxa including Streblus spp., Ficus spp., and Broussonetia papyrifera. These forests are characterised by a diverse ground flora, including forest herbs and (sometimes) palms. 4.5.2 Rare species Ten of the species found at Ba Be are listed in the Red Data Book of Vietnam (RDB, 1994), which describes species threatened with extinction nationally (see Appendix 1). Two of these (the fern Cibotium barometz and Acanthopanax gracilistylis, Araliaceae) are classified as 'Insufficiently Known'; that is, there is insufficient data on their distribution to draw conclusions on their status. Of the remaining seven species, five are classed as 'Rare', and two are placed in the higher threat category 'Vulnerable'. Two major threats to individual plant species are the over-exploitation of high-value timber species, and the collection of plants for use in traditional medicine. Species exploited for timber include Markhamia stipulata (Bignoniaceae) and Chukrasia tabularis (Meliaceae) (FIPI, 1996). Those that are gathered for use in traditional medicines include Stephania brachyandra (Menispermaceae) and Smilax glabra (Smilacaceae) (RDB, 1994). Others are threatened by forest loss, in combination with collection as ornamental plants (in the case of, for example, Cycas balansae; Nguyen Kim Dao, pers. comm.).

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4.5.3 Threats to the forest flora of Ba Be National Park Much of the forest in the park is secondary in nature, and has been heavily exploited by man in the past. There are few areas which display the characteristics of primary forest. Unfortunately, logging appears to be continuing even within the National Park; the remains of small logging camps were found throughout the forest, and felling was observed near the village of Nam Giai. The area has a relatively high human population and, although the best forest areas are some distance from settlements, the lake at the centre of the park allows access to remote forests. Timber extraction occurs on a relatively small scale, but clearance and degradation of previously forested areas for agricultural purposes is extensive. Although the forests bordering the lake appear to be intact, behind a forested strip of shoreline there are extensive clearings for the cultivation of maize and rice. Even where families have been resettled in villages some distance from their land (for example, below Nam Giai village), they return to cultivate rice and other crops. On the western side of the lake, agriculture has had a particularly disruptive influence on forest cover; much of the flatter land has been cleared for arable cultivation, steeper slopes are clothed with poor secondary forest and bamboo thickets, where cattle are free to graze, ensuring further degradation of this natural and semi-natural vegetation. Ba Be is unusual among Vietnamese protected areas in that its buffer zones include land which is still under forest cover. For example, FT3 was carried out in the buffer zone to the North of the park. In many Vietnamese protected areas, land designated as buffer zones has been completely denuded and has little or no biological value (Government of SRV, 1994). It is possible that the buffer zones at Ba Be could be used to promote sustainable forest use, alleviating pressure on the forests in the main body of the National Park.

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5.0 INSECTS (excluding Lepidoptera) 5.1 Introduction


The insects form the most diverse group of living organisms, and the centre of their biodiversity is in tropical forests (Stork, 1988). Insects dominate the food webs of tropical forests, and are important pollinators of forest plants (Greenwood, 1987). However, despite (or, perhaps, because of) this diversity, forest insects are littlestudied, with the exception of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), which are considered in a separate chapter of this report. The huge diversity of tropical forest insects makes detailed taxonomic work difficult, and it is often necessary to work on morphospecies or Recognisible Taxonomic Units (RTUs). Unfortunately, the use of RTUs limits the ecological information can be derived from invertebrate assemblage data (Biological Survey of Canada, 1994).

5.2 Methods
Two methods were used to quantitatively sample insects, sweep netting and pitfall trapping. Both are commonly used collection techniques, discussed by Southwood (1978), Biological Survey of Canada (1994), and other authors. 5.2.1 Sweep-netting Sweep-netting was carried out in all the Forest Transect sites (FT1-FT5), between 21st-24th November 1996. In each case, 500 sweeps were made through the vegetation of the field and shrub layers of the forest plot. Invertebrates were collected from the net using a pooter and preserved in 70% ethanol. Later, they were sorted into Recognisible Taxonomic Units (RTUs) or morphospecies. 5.2.2 Pitfall Trapping Pitfall trapping was carried out at one site on the floodplain near camp (see Figure 4), and all the Forest Transect sites FT1-FT5. In each locality, pitfall traps were laid out in an array of four traps, with metal vanes running between them. A dilute (10%) formalin solution was used as the preservative (salt solution is recommended by the Biological Survey of Canada, 1994; but this does not always prevent the decay of invertebrate specimens in tropical conditions, requiring frequent checking of the traps). Trapping was carried out for six nights in each location. At the end of each trapping period, invertebrate specimens were placed in 70% ethanol for preservation, and sorted to RTUs as for the sweep-net assemblages. Two measures were calculated in order to describe the insect assemblages caught; Fisher's diversity index (Fisher et al., 1943), and the dominance measure d (Berger and Parker, 1970), the proportion of the total number of individuals in a sample which belong to the most abundant species. Methods follow Magurran (1988).

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5.3 Results
5.3.1 Sweep-netting Members of three arachnid orders, nine insect orders, and two other invertebrate groups (Mollusa and Isopoda) were captured in the sweep-net samples. A summary of the sweep-net data is given in Figure 12. Figure 12. Summary of sweep-net data for five forest sites.
Site FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5 No. RTUs 43 41 46 56 47 No. of Individuals 121 78 95 106 96 23.83 34.96 35.13 48.09 36.39 d 0.488 0.115 0.189 0.075 0.073

Sweep-net samples were small, with few individuals taken. Perhaps as a result of this, values for Fisher's diversity index were relatively large. Values for the BergerParker index of dominance varied greatly, but, as is generally the case, those samples which showed the highest degree of dominance by one species (particularly FT1) also had the lowest diversity. 5.3.2 Pitfall trapping Members of four arachnid orders, thirteen insect orders, and five other invertebrate groups (Isopoda, Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Oligochaetes, Mollusca) were taken in pitfall samples. Figure 13 shows a summary of the data from pitfall trapping at the six sites. Figure 13. Summary of pitfall data for one floodplain, and five forest sites.
Site Floodplain FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5 No. RTUs 80 88 88 95 109 75 No. of Individuals 485 655 368 493 649 274 55.24 27.36 36.64 35.01 37.49 34.06 d 0.329 0.357 0.215 0.215 0.236 0.157

Pitfall trap assemblages at most sites were relatively large, although not reaching 1000 individuals, which Magurran (1988), recommends as a level beyond which is unaffected by a change in sample size. Values for the indices calculated are more reliable for the pitfall than the sweep-net data. These reveal a higher level of diversity on the floodplain site (open grassland and scrub) than at any of the forest areas. However, there appear to be no consistent differences in levels of diversity between primary and secondary forest sites. Most sites show a fairly high level of dominance

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by a single taxa; this is particularly striking in the case of the floodplain site, as this also has a high diversity. The composition of the assemblage collected in pitfall traps varied greatly between sites. Figure 14 shows the proportion of the total number of individuals in each assemblage which each major invertebrate group contributed. Figure 14. Percentage of the total number of individuals at each site in major invertebrate groups.
site1 FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 Hemiptera FT5 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Hymenoptera Coleoptera others Aranae Collembola Thysanura Diptera Orthoptera

5.4 Discussion
5.4.1 Insects of the herb layers Diversity values (as measured by ) of samples taken by sweep-net were highest in the primary forest locations. Although it is often suggested that forests should show a greater diversity of invertebrate fauna than open sites (Janzen, 1973), previous sweepnet studies (for example, Janzen, 1973; Hill & Kemp, 1996) have often shown that disturbed forests have a greater diversity than do primary forests. The deep shade of primary forest areas tends to restrict the development of ground vegetation, the stratum sampled by sweeping. At Ba Be National Park in 1994 (Kemp et al., 1994), the highest values of were recorded in secondary bamboo forest. The 'primary' forest sites sampled in the current survey were not entirely undisturbed, and had a more developed ground vegetation than the more disturbed sites (see Chapter 4). Plant and insect diversity tends to be positively correlated (Spitzer et al., 1987), and sites with a more diverse ground vegetation would be expected to have a greater diversity of insect life. However, all of the samples were small; much larger insect assemblages need to be sampled before such conclusions could be made.

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5.4.1 Ground-dwelling insects The terrestrial invertebrates sampled by pitfall trapping might be expected to be less strongly influenced by the plant diversity of the study site than those invertebrate samples taken by sweep-netting, where the vegetation is directly sampled. Therefore, although the flora of the grassland site was dominated by a few herbaceous species (mostly Poaceae), it showed the highest diversity of ground insects, as sampled by pitfall trapping. One factor influencing the apparent diversity at the open floodplain site could be the pattern of insect movement over open ground. Highly mobile terrestrial invertebrates (such as the ground beetles, Carabidae) tend to move more rapidly over bare ground than in sheltered situations (Greenslade, 1964); therefore, they are more likely to be intercepted in pitfall traps. It is likely that the shade and shelter offered by forest (secondary or primary) influences invertebrate movement to a great extent, so that values of diversity indices from the open site and forested sites cannot be directly compared. The fauna of the open site was dominated by the Collembola (springtails); the Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets) also made up a significant part of the assemblage at this site. Spitzer et al. (1993), working on butterflies, found that the species of ruderal, open habitats tended to have a greater range (and, therefore, were more common) than the species characteristic of forests, and it is probable that the most abundant invertebrate species at the open floodplain site are widely distributed and common. In the forest sites, Collembola made up a smaller proportion of the fauna sampled. Orthoptera were always a minor component of these assemblages. In contrast, the Coleoptera (beetles) and Hymenoptera (particularly the ants) were a major part of these samples. The Aranae (spiders) never made up a large part of the assemblage, in terms of the number of individuals present; however, this group was highly diverse in all the samples, represented by few individuals of many taxa. Differences between the faunas of varying forest types do not appear to follow a predictable pattern, but the limited ecological information which can be conveyed using RTUs may in part be responsible for this finding. A far larger number of samples from different forest types would be necessary before any underlying trends could be observed, especially since the results of such studies are complicated by the mobility of invertebrate species.

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6.0 BUTTERFLIES (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) 6.1 Introduction


Butterflies are often considered important indicators of overall biodiversity (Government of SRV, 1994). In biodiversity surveys of less well-studied tropical environments (such as Vietnam's forests), work on most insect groups is hampered by the sheer diversity of insect life, and the lack of reference works for their identification (Spitzer et al., 1993). However, there are a number of identification works for the butterflies of South-East Asia (for example, Corbet & Pendlebury, 1956; Pinratana, 1977-88; Lekagul et al., 1977). While butterfly diversity can be high, it is usually possible to make a representative collection in a survey area over a period of weeks, although some species are short-lived and seasonal as adults, and a full collection will probably regular collection over at least one year (A. Monastyrskii, pers. comm.). Because the Lepidoptera of Vietnam have received little scientific attention in the past, all data gathered on butterfly distribution and ecology is valuable. Several new species have recently been described from specimens collected by SEE in North Vietnam (Devyatkin, 1996).

6.2 Methods
Three methods were used in order to establish a species list for Ba Be, and investigate habitat preferences and change in butterfly populations over the study period: 1) Butterfly transects 2) Opportunistic collection 3) Butterfly trapping 6.2.1 Butterfly transects Transect methods, adapted from those developed in the UK by Pollard (1975, 1977), were used to investigate characteristics of the butterfly communities in different habitats, and changes over time. Three transects were established, each one kilometer long. Each of the transects was walked once a week, at 1000hrs. On each occasion, one observer recorded all the butterflies entering a 10m x 10m x 10m area while walking at a slow, constant pace along the 1km transect path. Unknown or new species were collected by hand net, for later identification. 6.2.2 Opportunistic collection Butterflies were collected throughout the study area, in as wide a variety of habitats as possible, throughout the study period.

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6.2.3 Butterfly trapping Butterfly traps, as described by Austin & Riley (1995) were set up near the base camp, in trees close to the Ba Be lake. Ripe banana was used as bait. The traps were checked regularly and unwanted insects released.

6.3 Results
6.3.1 Species-richness Overall, a total of 167 species of butterfly were collected at Ba Be (see Appendix 4). Eleven butterfly families were represented in the collection. Figure 15 shows the distribution of butterfly species between families. Figure 15. Pie chart showing distribution of butterfly species between families
Hesperiidae Papilionidae Pieridae Lycaenidae Danaiidae Libytheidae Amathusiidae

Satyridae Nymphalidae Riodinidae Acraeidae

6.3.2 Butterfly communities in different habitats The three butterfly transects carried out were in the following habitats and locations; 1) Butterfly Transect 1. Open grassland, beside River Nang. 175m asl. 2) Butterfly Transect 2. Secondary forest (dominated by Streblus tonkinensis) on limestone outcrop beside the R. Nang. 180m asl. 3) Butterfly Transect 3. Less disturbed secondary forest, near Nam Giai village (remote from the river or lakeside). Dominated by Streblus tonkinensis. 750m asl. Each transect was carried out seven times over the survey period. Species present in each transect site are marked with an asterisk in Appendix 4. Summary statistics for each transect are shown in Figure 16.

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Figure 16. Summary statistics for butterfly transects.


Total Individuals 1135 870 125 no. No. Species 62 72 41 14.076 18.630 21.264 d 0.242 0.286 0.080

BT1 BT2 BT3

The composition of the butterfly community at each site varied greatly. Figure 17 shows the proportion of the total numbers of individuals at each site, in the main butterfly families. The families Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae are excluded, as these are the most difficult to recognise on sight (Spitzer et al., 1993), and were probably under-recorded. Figure 17. Proportion of the total number of individuals in each family (excluding Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae).
Papilionidae BT1 Pieridae BT2 Danaiidae Amathusiidae BT3 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Satyridae Riodinidae Nymphalidae

6.4 Discussion
6.4.1 Species-richness The butterfly fauna of Ba Be is extremely species-rich in comparison to other forest reserves in northern Vietnam; at Na Hang Nature Reserve, Tuyen Quang province, a total of 142 species were recorded in the course of six months survey work (Hill & Hallam, 1997); at Tam Dao National Park, 117 species (excluding Hesperiidae and Lycaenidae) were taken by Spitzer et al. (1993), over two months. This speciesrichness may be explained by the diversity of habitats at Ba Be, which range from relatively undisturbed forest to anthropogenic habitats around the lake itself.

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6.4.2 Species of interest Several of the species collected are endemic or rarely collected in North Vietnam. Mandarina regalis (Satyridae), is endemic to North Indochina and the eastern Himalayas. At Tam Dao National Park it is confined to undisturbed montane forest (Leps & Spitzer, 1990). The satyrids Zipoetis unipupillata and Ypthima similis were recorded for the first time in Vietnam in Na Hang Nature Reserve in 1996 (Hill & Hallam, 1997). 6.4.3 Butterfly communities in different habitats Butterfly diversity (as measured by Fisher's ) was highest in the forest site, FT3. In previous studies (Spitzer et al., 1993; Hill & Hallam, 1997), open and ruderal habitats display a greater diversity of butterfly species than forest sites. However, at Ba Be the diversity index was low for BT1 (grassland), because the butterfly community at this site was heavily dominated by a few very abundant species. The greatest number of species was observed at BT2, probably because this transect had elements of both the open-ground fauna of BT1 (the adjacent river acted as a flypath for open-ground species, and occasional breaks in the canopy allowed herbaceous plants to flourish, providing a nectar source), in addition to the forest fauna. As at BT1, the dominance of a small number of species meant that the diversity calculated was relatively low. This result contrasts with the findings of Spitzer et al. (1993) at Tam Dao National Park, where forest communities of butterflies were more likely than ruderal communities to be dominated by a single abundant species. This result may be influenced by the period of study; many forest species appear to be strongly seasonal in occurrence, with adults flying in the summer wet season (Spitzer et al., 1993). The butterfly community of the open site (BT1) was dominated by the families Pieridae (especially Appias spp. and Eurema spp.) and Nymphalidae (especially Junonia spp.)(see Figure 16). At the forest site BT2, the Amathusiidae, a family of large forest butterflies, was represented by five species (although no amathusiids were present at BT3). At BT3, the Satyridae formed an important part of the fauna (especially Melanitis phedima and Mycalesis spp.), although no individual species was dominant as in transects BT1 and BT2.

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7.0 BIRDS 7.1 Introduction


Vietnam has a diverse avian fauna, including a high proportion of endemic taxa. The most recent and extensive catalogue of the birds, Checklist of the birds of Vietnam (Vo Quy & Nguyen Cu, 1995) includes 828 species, and there are certainly species present in Vietnam which are not included in this list. Three 'Endemic Bird Areas', of particular importance to the conservation of endemic bird species, have been identified (ICBP, 1992); all are in central and southern Vietnam. However, the Hoang Lien Son mountain range (in northern Vietnam) supports an important range of endemic subspecies. Although the birds of Vietnam have been studied since the early part of this century (Delacour & Jabouille, 1931), and are amongst the most well-documented elements of the fauna, knowledge of bird distribution and ecology are incomplete, and new taxa are still being described (Eames et al., 1994). The SEE-Vietnam programme aims to increase this knowledge of the bird fauna by producing inventories of species (with a measure of relative abundance) for each site studied, providing information on seasonal variation and habitat preferences of birds. The specific objectives of this survey were: To create an inventory of all bird species identified; To ascertain relative abundances of each bird species present; To determine seasonal differences between this and the previous survey at Ba Be National Park (due to the appearance of winter migrants); To collect additional information on bird ecology and habitats.

7.2 Methods
The bird survey was conducted throughout the study period, at all times of day (with an emphasis on time periods soon after dawn and before dusk) and in all weather conditions. Observers used binoculars, and recorded field notes were using a portable tape recorder or notebooks. Data were recorded on date, time, habitat and numerical abundance, as well as any other interesting characteristics (i.e. winter and juvenile plumages, and behaviour). Identification was carried out using the field guides Guide to the Birds of Thailand (Lekagul & Round 1991), Birds of S.E. Asia (King et al. 1975), and Birds of Hong Kong and South China (Viney et al. 1994). Bird species positively identified were listed in accordance with An annotated checklist of the birds of the Oriental region (Inskipp et al., 1996).

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7.3 Results
Approximately 600 hours were spent in bird observation, in addition to observations whilst in the field carrying out other research. Although an effort was made to carry out survey work in all habitats represented in the reserve, observation effort was inevitably concentrated in the area to the North of the lake and in waterside habitats, which were the most frequently visited. The number of different species sighted was 189. The complete list is shown in Appendix 5, which also gives data on typical habitat, frequency of occurence, and notes of interest for each species. In 1994, a list of 111 species was produced for Ba Be National Park (Kemp et al., 1994). The earlier list includes 25 species not recorded in the current study (Appendix 5c), increasing the list for Ba Be to 214 species. Some of the interesting records are discussed below.

7.4 Discussion
The total list of 214 bird species for Ba Be is comparable to other highly diverse sites in Vietnam, such as Sa Pa, Lao Cai province (where 208 species have been identified; Kemp et al., 1995), and the Na Hang Nature Reserve, Tuyen Quang province. In the latter reserve, approximately 30km from Ba Be, 221 species were observed in two survey periods (Hill & Hallam, 1997). However, the bird fauna at Ba Be and Na Hang differs, because a range of aquatic habitats unrepresented at Na Hang are important at Ba Be. While only three kingfishers were observed at Na Hang, seven were present at Ba Be. Na Hang had only one member of the family Charadriidae (Plovers), Ba Be six. It is possible that one of the species recorded in the earlier survey at Ba Be (Kemp et al., 1995), the Limestone Wren Babbler (Napothera crispifrons), was erroneously identified. While it was not seen during the 1996 study, the similar large N VietnamNE Laos race (King et al., 1975) of the Streaked Wren Babbler (Napothera brevicaudata) was seen. The latter species was also recorded at Na Hang Nature Reserve in 1996 (Hill & Kemp, 1996; Hill & Hallam, 1997). The Limestone Wren Babbler has been recorded at Cuc Phuong National Park, North Annam (Robson et al., 1989), and its range in Vietnam is given as 'N Annam and W Tonkin' by King et al. (1975). The two species are easily confused and generally differentiated by their calls (J. Eames, pers. comm.).

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7.4.1 Range extensions Three of the species identified at Ba Be were outside their known ranges in Vietnam, as described in Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam (Vo Quy & Nguyen Cu, 1995). However, although not previously recorded in North-East Vietnam, all are known form the adjacent North-West region. 7.4.2 Altitude reductions Thirteen of the species recorded were outside the typical altitude ranges given in Birds of South-East Asia (King et al., 1975). These are shown in Figure 18. Figure 18. Bird species observed outside their usual altitude range.
English name Scientific name Altitudes given King et al., 1975 610-2,133m 914-2,133m > 914m # > 914m > 914m 1,067-2,133m > 1,524m > 1,220m > 1,067m > 914m > 914m 610-1,830m > 914m in Altitude Ba Be 350m 750m 620m 180m 700m 750m 180m 750m 180m 750m 175m 180m 750m in

Maroon Oriole Short-billed Minivet Small Niltava Fujian Niltava White-tailed Flycatcher White-tailed Robin Pallas' Leaf Warbler Grey-cheeked Warbler Pygmy Wren Babbler Golden Babbler Silver-eared Mesia Striated Yuhina Streaked Spiderhunter

Oriolus traillii Pericrocotus brevirostris Niltava macgrigoriae Niltava davidi Cyornis concreta Myiomela leucura Phylloscopus proregulus Seicercus poliogenys Pnoepyga pusilla Stachyris chrysea Leiothrix argentauris Yuhina castaniceps Arachnothera magna

# = sometimes lower in winter.

Several of the species were significantly below their expected altitude ranges. Five species; Small Niltava, Fujian Niltava, White-tailed Flycatcher, Silver-eared Mesia, and Streaked Spiderhunter have been recorded previously at low altitudes at Na Hang Nature Reserve, North Vietnam (Hill & Kemp, 1996; Hill & Hallam, 1997), where surveys were carried out in the late winter and summer (rainy season). The repeated discovery of these species outside their expected altitude range suggests that they might be normally resident at low altitudes in Vietnam.

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7.4.3 Rare species Two of the bird species recorded (the Crested Kingfisher and Long-tailed Broadbill) are listed as threatened species in the Vietnam Red Data Book (RDB, 1992). A total of eight other species (see Appendix 5) are regarded as 'Near-Threatened' on an international scale; that is, they are close to the threatened categories used by IUCN to classify species in danger of extinction (Collar et al., 1994). Neither the Crested Kingfisher nor the Long-tailed Broadbill is regarded as near-threatened or threatened at the world level.

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8.0 MAMMALS 8.1 Introduction


The mammals are one of the better-known faunal groups of Vietnam. A total of 223 species were listed in a checklist and atlas of Vietnamese mammals published in 1994 (Dang Huy Huynh et al., 1994), although the distribution data given is incomplete and often outdated; several of the species listed (including Tapirus indicus, Dicerorrhinus sumatrensis, and Cervus eldi) have probably already become extinct in Vietnam (Government of SRV, 1994). The distribution and status of small terrestrial mammals and bats are particularly poorly known. The aim of the mammal survey work carried out by SEE is to produce an inventory of species for each site visited, to supplement data on forest reserves that is often inaccurate and outdated.

8.2 Methods
Three methods were used in the mammal survey; Mammal trapping (for small mammals, especially Muridae); Bat-netting at cave roosts and at feeding grounds; General observation of large mammals, their tracks and signs. Detailed methodologies are given below. 8.2.1 Mammal trapping Mammal trapping was carried out in a variety of vegetation types throughout the National Park. At each site, a trapline of 10 Vietnamese live traps was set out for four nights. The traps were spaced at intervals of 7-10m and baited with ripe fruit. Trap-lines were checked every day, and for all trapped animals, the following details were noted; species, sex, age, weight, and measurements (Head/body, Tail, Hindfoot and Ear). Specimens were marked by toe-clipping and released. Some specimens were killed as reference material for later taxonomic confirmation. 8.2.2 Bat netting Bat netting was carried out at cave roosting sites, and feeding grounds within the forest and on open ground beside water bodies. In each location, up to five mist nets were used, placed within caves or spanning aerial pathways used by bats. The nets were checked regularly throughout the period of netting, and bats removed. Measurements were taken of forearm, fingers, ear, thumb, foot and body lengths. One specimen of each species caught was killed using ether, and preserved for reference.

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Bats were identified using Mammals of Thailand (Lekagul & McNeeley, 1971) and Mammals of the IndoMalayan region (Corbet & Hill, 1992). 8.2.3 Mammal observation Mammal observation was carried out throughout the period of study, usually in conjunction with bird observation. Methods used were similar to those for the bird survey, with observation conducted while moving quietly through the forest or from a stationary hide. In addition, mammal tracks and signs, and remains (bones) were identified where possible. Mammals were identified using Mammals of Thailand (Lekagul & McNeeley, 1971), Preliminary identification manual for the mammals of South Vietnam (Van Peenen, 1969), and Mammals of the Indomalayan Region (Corbet & Hill, 1992).

8.3 Results
8.3.1 Mammal trapping Mammal trapping was carried out at seven sites within the park; four of the five vegetation transects (except FT3), and, in addition, two sites to the North of the camp near FT3, and another close to FT2, all in secondary forest (see map, Figure 4). At two sites (both of the sites to the North of the camp), the trapping process was repeated after 20 and 30 days, in order to study the movement of the mammals by recapture. In total, 547 trap/nights were carried out. During this time, 72 specimens of six species (three rodents, three insectivores) were collected (Figure 19). Figure 19. Results of small-mammal trapping
Locality Forest Transect Niviventer bukit Rattus rattus Rattus sp. indet. Hylomys suillus shrew species Tupaia glis Ban Cam FT3* 11 14 0 2 0 0 FT3* 16 1 0 0 0 0 Nam Giai FT1 0 1 0 0 0 0 FT4 3 0 0 0 1 0 Ao Tien FT2 5 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 60 FT2* 4 0 7 0 0 0 2 11 60 Bo Lu FT5 5 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 60

No. of species 3 2 1 2 No. of individuals 27 17 1 4 No. of trap/nights 124 120 63 60 * Trap sites not within, but close to, vegetation transect site.

In and around FT2, a rat species similar to the bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica), but differing in dentition, was captured; this species is awaiting identification on DNA and physiological evidence (Pham Duc Tien, pers. comm.).

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The dominant rat species (Niviventer bukit, Rattus rattus and Rattus sp.) showed an approximate 50:50 sex ratio. Many of the mature females showed black traces on the uterus, indicating previous litters; rats tend to produce many young in the autumn (around harvest time), and then fecundity decreases (Pham Duc Tien, pers. comm.). Mark-release-recapture was possible in the two locations close to camp (near Ban Cam village), as two periods of trapping were carried out in each of these locations. Figures for recaptures are given in Figure 20. Figure 20. Mark-release-recapture data
Trapline 1 R. rattus 5 3 4 60m N. bukit 1 1 2 20m Trapline 4 N. bukit 7 5 4 30m

No. of marked individuals No. of recaptured individuals No. of times recaptured Approx. distance of activity

8.3.2 Bat netting The locations at which bat netting was carried out are shown in Figure 4. A total of four nights bat netting was carried out at 2 cave sites (Dong Puong Grotto, and a large cave to the South of the Lake). Five nights bat netting were carried out away from cave roosts; three nights on the floodplain beside the River Nang, one night in forest near Nam Giai, and one night near FT2 (Fairy Pool). However, in some of these locations netting was only carried out in the early evening. A total of 30 specimens were captured, of six different species (see Appendix 6). 8.3.3 Mammal observation In addition to observation carried out during the course of bird surveys, a period of five days extended observation was conducted from a hide in primary forest near Nam Giai, to watch primates. Ten species of mammal were observed during the study. Three of these are listed in the Red Data Book for Vietnam (RDB, 1992), and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, 1996). Details of some of the more interesting records are given in section 8.4.3, below.

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8.4 Discussion
8.4.1 Small mammals Small mammal abundance and diversity was highest in secondary forest (near Ban Cam), and low in the primary forest near Nam Giai. However, considerably more trap/nights were carried out at Ban Cam than the other sites studied. Rattus rattus was the dominant species in secondary forest near Ban Cam at lower elevation; in similar forests located at higher elevations and further from human habitation and fields, Niviventer bukit dominated. From data on individuals caught more than once (Figure 20), it appears that R. rattus move over greater distances than N. bukit. Using mark-release-recapture techniques, absolute abundances can be calculated for each species in the area of trapping: however, these figures are too low for such measurements to be accurately made. 8.4.2 Bats Over the period of the study, relatively few bat species were caught. The Dong Puong cave only yielded 4 species. This result contrasts greatly with that of the summer 1994 Frontier survey of Ba Be, in which 33 species of bat were recorded, a large number of them from Dong Puong (Kemp et al., 1994). Although large numbers of Rousettus leschenaulti remain in the grotto, exploration of smaller side tunnels appeared to suggest that bat diversity in this cave has declined greatly between the two surveys. The majority of the bats caught in Dong Puong in the current study were Megaderma lyra, a false vampire bat that feeds on other bat species (in addition to other vertebrate and invertebrate prey). This bat roosts in groups of 3-30, often as the sole species occupying a cave roost (Nowak, 1991). The lack of other species may be a seasonal effect (the 1994 survey was conducted in July-September). 8.4.3 Larger mammals and primates Records of particular interest include; Nycticebus coucang (slow loris); A fresh skull of this species, probably remains left by a predator, was found in forest near the Fairy Pool. Hemigalus owstonii (Owston's banded palm civet); a single individual of this species had been confiscated from hunters by Kiem Lam (Forestry Protection) officials in October. Unfortunately, it had been injured and died. Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque). Groups of macaques were observed in four different locations within the National Park, in both disturbed secondary forest, and primary forest. Since these places were widely separated, it appears that this

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represents at least three troops of monkeys. This primate is common and widespread, and often raids crops. Semnopithecus francoisi francoisi (Francois' leaf monkey); a group of 4-5 individuals was seen on two occasions in primary and disturbed forest near Nam Giai. This species was studied at Ba Be by Ratajszczak et al. (1989). However, the monkey was not observed in any of the localities mentioned in Ratajszczak 's report. The report mentions uncontrolled hunting of this species, and it is possible that the population has declined considerably in recent years. However, the presence of the monkeys relatively close to the Hmong village of Nam Giai is encouraging, as it suggests that hunting pressure may have eased more recently.

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9.0 SOCIO-ECONOMICS 9.1 Introduction


Vietnam contains 54 ethnic groups and had a population of approximately 72.5 million in 1994 (General Statistical Office SRV, 1995). The ethnic minorities (that is, those people resident in Vietnam but not sharing Kinh identity, language or other cultural characteristics) account for 13.1% of the total population of Vietnam (VIE/96/010). The population relies heavily on agriculture as a source of income. Agriculture in Vietnam accounts for 72.2% of the labour population (Mekong River Commission Secretariat, 1995). In addition to agriculture, highland people exploit the forest resource to supplement their income. Ethnic minorities and forests are closely related and "the former are the authentic owners of the latter; the latter are the direct object of the former's exploitation" (Nguyen Van Thang, in Rambo et al, 1995).

9.2 Methods
The methods adopted in the survey were based on the techniques of Participatory Rural Appraisal (Grandstaff et al., 1995). Semi-structured and informal interviews were used to gather information from Kiem Lam (Forestry Protection Department) officials, local government officials, village leaders and family heads. Kiem Lam rangers introduced the interview team to the village leader and then left. The village leader was present during the majority of the interviews with family heads. Interviews were conducted in Vietnamese and then translated to English by an IEBR student.

9.3 Results
Villages representing the different minorities in the primary forest zone and the buffer zone (see Figure 2 and Figure 23) were chosen for interview. Six villages were studied, and 104 families interviewed. A cross section of families (based on wealth) were chosen, due to time constraints. 9.3.1 The people and place The Park comes under the juristiction of Ba Be district of Cao Bang Province, which contains six subdistricts; their demographics are shown in Figure 21. Of the total population, 4,227 people (59.5%) are classed as direct agricultural labour. Population growth and population density, as estimated by the National Park authorities, are 2.7% and 304 people km-2 respectively. This compares with a countrywide ethnic minority population growth of 2.4% (SCEMMA, 1995) and an

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upper value of 300 people km-2 for the north-eastern highlands (Chu Huu Quy in Rambo et al., 1995). Figure 21. Population of the subdistricts of Ba Be district. Subdistrict Nam Mau Cao Thuong Cao Tri Quang Khe Dong Phuc Hoang Tri Villages 11 6 2 7 10 5 Population 2,109 2,396 120 1,252 1,025 1,229 8 131 Families 329 375 20 142 119 190 1 175

TOTAL 41 Source: Ba Be Kiem Lam, 1995

Demographic figures of the villages studied in both the 1994 Frontier survey and this survey are shown in Figure 22. The location of the villages is shown in Figure 23. Figure 22. Changing demography of Ba Be National Park
Village Population 1994 359 250 160 67 >100 >200 Population 1996 364 267 370 64 210 320 % Population Increase 1.4 6.8 131.3 -4.5 N/A N/A No. Families 1994 58 43 36 11 32 43 No. Families 1996 60 47 46 13 32 46 % Increase in Families 3.4 9.3 27.8 18.2 0 7.0

Pac Ngoi Ban Cam Ha Ta Ken Nam Giai Na Ca Ban Cam Troung TOTAL

>1,136

1,595

N/A

223

244

9.4

Since the 1994 Frontier survey (Kemp et al., 1994), the village of Khau Tang has been flooded, and the majority of the families were moved into Ta Ken. Five ethnic groups live in Ba Be National Park. The proportion of the total human population of each ethnicity is shown in Figure 24.

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Figure 23. Map showing villages, markets and subdistricts of Ba Be National Park.

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Figure 24. Ethnic groups of Ba Be National Park (Kiem Lam, unpublished data).

Dao Kinh

Nung

Hmong

Tay

The Tay group belong to the Tay-Thai language group and have a total population of 1,040,000 distributed over the northern provinces of Vietnam. They settle in fertile valleys, river basins and beside streams (Dang Nghiem Van et al., 1993). The Tay villages of Pac Ngoi, Ban Cam Ha and Ta Ken are long-established. The Hmong minority belong to the Meo-Dao language group and have a total population of approximately 558,000. They settle on mountain slopes in the northern highlands (Dang Nghiem Van et al, 1993). They originate from China and began to migrate in the seventeenth century (Institute of Ethnology, 1978). The Hmong minority village Nam Giai migrated to the area in 1990 from another region of Cao Bang province. The Dao also belong to the Meo-Dao language group with a population of around 474,000 who inhabit the northern highlands (Dang Nghiem Van et al., 1993). Migrations from China began in the thirteenth century (Institute of Ethnology, 1978). Ban Cam Troung was established in 1960; Na Ca in 1972 after the government relocated them. Settlements cover 40.7% of the total area of the Park (Kiem Lam, unpublished data). Five markets are used by the local people. 7.3.2 Economic activity Levels of poverty are much higher among the mountain minority people than among the Kinh ethnic group (Van Cong, Nhan Dan Newspaper, 30/1/92). The majority of the population rely on advanced subsistence farming based on semi-intensive paddy rice production using draft animals for ploughing, fertilisers and pesticides. This is supplemented by maize, cassava and cotton production on slopes surrounding the villages and sugar cane, fruit trees and taro grown in gardens.

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The majority of families can only grow one season of rice and maize per year, the limiting factor being water. Several strains of rice and maize are used; native strains are still very popular. Average yields of rice for the villages and families interviewed range from 2,227 to 8,540 kg ha-1; and village averages from 158-362 kg per person (compared to an average of 252.5 kg per person for the 'North Mountains and Midlands' region; Mekong River Commission Secretariat, 1995). Village maize yields are from 1,665 to 5,753 kg ha-1; and 171 to 469kg per person. Many of the families use fertiliser and/or pesticide. Animal manure is used by a few of the families, but most graze their animals away from their arable fields making its collection difficult and time consuming. Livestock include buffalo, cows, horses, pigs, goats, chickens, and ducks. The village's average ranges from 0.89 to 2.81 buffalo per family. Cows are a relatively recent addition and many are purchased using formal agricultural credit from the the Agricultural Development Bank. Fishing is an important source of food for the Tay families living around the lake. Shrimps and fish are caught using nets and traps. Of the families who fished, Ban Cam Ha families consumed an average 0.7kg day-1; Pac Ngoi 0.55kg day-1; and Ta Ken 0.4kg day-1. Dynamite fishing is practised on the lake and Nang River. Dynamite can be purchased at Cho Ra market for US$1.2 per stick.

Fourteen families in Ban Cam Ha and the village leader in Ban Cam Troung have taken out formal agricultural credit with the Agricultural Development Bank. Usually a loan of US$181.8 or US$272.7 is made to families over a 2 or 3 year period; they are granted for specific management plans which, in the case of Ban Cam Ha, includes buying cows. A three year loan of US$181.8 charged at 43% interest. Most families expressed a desire to borrow more money but loans are restricted. Some families produce rice wine, process rice, basket weaving, run small shops selling confectionary and/or food or ferry services.These are managed on a family level alongside farming. No families in Nam Giai are involved in any enterprises. 7.3.3 Land Tenure According to the 'Law on Land' (1993) "Land is the property of the people and is subject to the exclusive administration by the state." (UNDP/FAO, 1992-93). Under Decree of the Council of Ministers No. 327, 1992; Master guidelines and policies to utilize unoccupied land, bare hilly areas, forests, denuded land and beaches and waterfront (Smith, 1993), Ban Cam Ha has been given the responsibility of protecting areas of forest. Each family interviewed has an average 6.4ha of forested

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land which has been assigned to them by Kiem Lam, and for which they receive annual payments. The families are also given permission to use their area of forest as a source of firewood and small quantities of other forest products but regulations concerning hunting and clearance are still valid. Leaders from other villages expressed a desire to be responsible for forest tracts but Kiem Lam designated Ban Cam Ha because the area is on the edge of the Park where patrolling is difficult. Permission for residents to create new fields in forested areas must be sought from Kiem Lam. However, Kiem Lam reported that this regulation was not always followed, particularly by the Hmong, and that extension of existing fields was difficult to monitor. 9.3.4 Use of, and dependence on, the forest Forestry can be defined as "the production and harvesting of forest products generally and not just the exploitation of of timber" (MacKinnon et al., 1986). Unauthorised forestry is illegal within the sector, although small scale domestic use is tolerated by Kiem Lam. 9.3.4.1 Hunting and fishing Local residents were unwilling to discuss hunting as the activity is illegal. However, the following observations were made and act as a measure of the minimum amount of hunting occuring. Hunting with gunsv was heard regularly, particularly at night, in the area of forest around Nam Giai. A Hmong villager was seen catching Black-throated Laughingthrushes (Garrulax chinensis), which he said were for sale. Kiem Lam also confiscated (on separate occasions) a live specimen of Owston's banded palm civet Hemigalus owstowni and the skin of the flying squirrel Petaurista petaurista which had also been caught for sale. Both of these species are classified as Rare in Vietnam (RDB, 1992). It is not known what action was taken against the offending parties. Ratajszczak (1990) reported that hunting in the National Park was completely uncontrolled, and a serious threat to the reserve's remaining population of Francois' leaf monkey. As noted in section 9.3.2, fishing is carried regularly on the lake and rivers.

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9.3.4.2 Medicinal plants Medicinal plants are still used by local people although the majority expressed a preference for modern pharmacueticals believing they were more effective in treatment. Traditional medicines are used for minor ailments such as diarrhoea and inflammations, and snake bites. A list of plants used by villagers in Pac Ngoi is given in Appendix 7. 9.3.4.3 Other Timber for houses and boats, fuel wood, and rattans are collected. Fruits, mushrooms and bamboo shoots are harvested, particularly by those villages that suffer from periods of food shortage. In addition, people from Cho Ra and Ban Cam Troung were seen collecting fuelwood and snails respectively along the Nang River, for domestic use. Cows and buffalo are left to graze unattended. There are cleared areas of forest for grazing both in the primary forest and on the flood plains. Many of the animals have paths into the forest where they graze on the understorey. 9.3.5 Kiem Lam The Park is managed and protected by Kiem Lam, a branch of the Forestry Department. The following information was provided by the Ba Be office. The office was established in 1977 when the lake and surrounding forest were designated an Area of Conservation. In 1992 the status was changed to National Park. Kiem Lam aim to protect the biodiversity and culture of the ethnic groups living in the Park and to disseminate and enforce Park regulations. To achieve these aims, Kiem Lam is allocated an annual budget by Cao Bang Province, the equivalent of US$2,273 in 1996. This has fallen from the US$118,182 allocated in 1995, due to changes in policy to Decree No. 327. Twenty-four rangers in five stations operate in the Park, and 4 technical staff and 2 service staff are based at the headquarters. The collecting of forest resources, including hunting and fishing is illegal. However, in practice residents are permitted to use the forest and fish using nets and traps for small-scale domestic purposes. Dynamite fishing and the use of the forest resource by non-residents is illegal and the rangers attempt to control the situation. However, in the case of dynamite fishing, this is difficult as the evidence is usually thrown overboard into the lake upon the approach of Kiem Lam rangers. Enforcement involves the use of verbal warnings in the first instance followed by the confiscation of equipment and 'catch' or products, and legal action if futher incidents occur. Two prosecutions were made in 1995 for instances of burning forest.

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9.4 Discussion
The human population of the Park is already large and rapidly increasing. The local population already has a visible damaging effect to the biodiversity of the National Park, through the exploitation of forest and lake resources. The most dramatic examples of this are the percentage of the Park covered by settlements, and the widespread use of explosives in fishing. The Kiem Lam regulate certain activities (such as the illegal wildlife trade) more effectively than others (the small-scale extraction of timber and illegal fishing activities). Its implementation of Decree 327 appeared popular, although the project's success in forest protection is only likely to be visible in the long-term. If the human population of the National Park continues to increase at the present level and to exploit natural resources, the future state and survival of the forest and its biodiversity are cause for concern.

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10.0 TOURISM 10.1 Introduction


Tourism is rapidly becoming a very lucrative source of income in North Vietnam. In addition to affecting the local economy, tourism can have equally strong impacts on the environment and socio-culture of an area, impacts which can be negative. However, it can provide secondary supplemental income to rural farmers (Moulin, 1980). Ecotourism must respond to changes in culture, environment, society and economics (Horwich and Lyon, in press).

10.2 Methods
The aims of this survey of tourism in Ba Be National Park were: to assess the present facilities and level of tourism; to assess the characteristics of tourists visiting the park; to assess the effects of tourism on the environment, socio-culture, and economy. These aims were achieved through observations, and questionnaires and interviews with tourists and those involved with, or affected by, tourism. A Vietnamese translator from IEBR was used during the interviews with Vietnamese tourists, Kiem Lam officials and local people.

10.3 Results
The villages of Pac Ngoi, Ta Ken, Coc Toc, Ban Cam Troung, and Nam Dai were included in the surveys taking into account the views of 88 heads of family. 42 tourists (55% of them foreign) completed a questionnaire. In 1995, approximately 600 tourists visited the Park. In 1996, approximately 400 tourists had already visited Ba Be National Park by the autumn, traditionally the most popular season. However, Kiem Lam reported that visitor numbers were lower in 1996 than in 1995. Exogenous factors aside, growth is likely to continue. 10.3.1 Present facilities Ba Be National Park is situated 240km to the north of Hanoi, a journey which takes eight hours by road. Access by public transport is possible, but difficult.

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For the tourist, the park offers minority villages, tropical rainforest and precipitous limestone hills and cliffs. Around the lake, waterfalls and caves can also be found. A total of 21 sites of interest can be visited. Vegetation, insects and birds can be seen and sightings of large mammals are possible (though unlikely for the casual visitor). Boats are available for daily or hourly hire and the boat drivers act as guides. The number and quality of tourist paths into the forest is low, although there is a road running through the Park. Kiem Lam guides can be hired. Only one has a good understanding of English; the remainder have a very basic understanding. An English-speaking Kiem Lam officer is based at the park headquarters. Tourists have a choice of accommodation. There is a hotel in Cho Ra which has eight twin rooms. Inside the park boundary, tourists can stay at either the park headquarters or in a traditional style Tay minority house in the village of Pac Ngoi. The park headquarters have 30 rooms with two price levels, 250,000 VND (US$22.7) and 150,000 VND (US$13.6). To stay at the minority village costs 200,000 VND (US$18.2). Food is extra. Facilities are basic but adequate and are of a lower standard in the minority village than at the headquarters or hotel. Tourists can also camp (for 50,000 VND; US$4.5) although there are no official campsites or facilities. The prices quoted above are for foreign tourists; Vietnamese tourists pay 50% less. Based on 1995 visitor figures, and assuming that all tourists stayed at the park headquarters and not in the minority village, the bed space occupancy rate is only 5.5%. Tourists were previously allowed to stay overnight in the Tay village of Ta Ken. However, a tourist had their shoe taken by a small child in 1995 and Kiem Lam revoked this permission. 10.3.2 Plans for development The Park authorities appreciate the tourist potential of the area, and plan to maximise the amount of income generated from tourism in the future. To do this they intend to encourage the development of the infrastructure and provide more facilities and activities for the tourist in the following ways; Electricity will be supplied to Ba Be National Park next year; The headquarters is to be moved to a new two storey office, and the present headquarters building is to be used as a visitor/service centre. There are no plans to develop any areas around the lake edge or in the forest; A pamphlet giving information about access paths, the environment, and the minority cultures in the Park will be given to the tourist;

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The number and quality of paths into the forest is to be increased, the majority of which will start at the headquarters; Access to the caves, and safety within them, is to be improved. Similarly, boat safety will be improved, and the Park plans to invest in an electrically-powered boat. The National Park authorities expressed a desire to involve more local people into the tourism industry in Ba Be. They estimate that 70% of foreign tourists wish to see the minorities and that the local people could provide 'entertainment' and souvenirs. Park officials understood that this entertainment, in the form of festivals and dances, "may have the effect of enhancing or revitalising the culture, or, alternatively, degrading or debasing it" (Craik, 1995). They believe, however, that by incorporating local communities into the activities of the Park and giving communities a social and economic interest in the Park, they could decrease or eliminate conflict between conservation and human survival (Lindberg,1991). Developments at the private level are limited to providing private rooms and toilets for tourists in Pac Ngoi. 10.3.3 Tourist profile The following is a summary of the questionnaires completed by both foreign and Vietnamese tourists. Vietnamese tourists were more reluctant to complete the questionnaire than their foreign counterparts and often missed out whole sets of questions altogether. Ninety-four percent of the foreign tourists were from Europe, the remainder American. Only 9% could speak basic Vietnamese. The majority of Vietnamese tourists came from Cao Bang Province although some had come as far as Ho Chi Minh City. The 'average foreign tourist' was 32 years old and stayed in Ba Be for 2.3 days with a daily budget of US$25. They were in a group of 2.4 people; and 48% had arranged the visit with a cafe in Hanoi, usually as part of a larger tour of North Vietnam. The 'average Vietnamese tourist' was 33 years old and stayed for only 1 day in a large group of 22 people; each with a daily budget of US$23. 63% had arranged the tour with a cafe. All the tourists had come mainly to experience the natural beauty, the wildlife and the tranquility offered by the Park. Whilst in Ba Be, nearly 40% of the foreign tourists had spoken to the local people. When asked how to best describe them the tourists felt that although friendly (74% response), the local people were shy (39% response) or indifferent to their visit (21%

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response). None felt they were offensive, greedy, or unfriendly. The Vietnamese tourists also found the local people friendly and welcoming but not shy or indifferent. Tourists had often given the children presents such as sweets, pens and toothpaste and 21% said they had been asked for these. None of the foreign tourists had bought souvenirs whilst in Ba Be although these are available at the reception area. The Vietnamese tourists were more likely to give the children presents but only 11% had been asked to give presents. The majority of tourists expressed a preference for accommodation at the headquarters or in a traditional minority house. No foreign tourists would want to stay in a modern hotel whereas 21% of Vietnamese tourists would. The great majority (82%) of tourists felt there wasn't enough information about Ba Be National Park, and only 21% of foreign tourists said they had been given any guidance on the cultural differences of the minority villages. Foreign tourists believed the Park should keep its tourist developments at a low level and that tourist numbers should be limited. Some tourists were not happy about the cost and level of service provided (e.g. the price of guides). In contrast, the Vietnamese tourists wanted Ba Be National Park to develop into a world famous attraction with many developments, although some concern was expressed about conservation and potential damage caused by tourists. 10.3.4 The interaction of tourists with the environment, culture and economy The presence of tourists in Ba Be National Park undoubtably has an impact on the environment, culture and the local economy. These impacts are bound to be of both a positive and negative nature (see, for example, Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996). The following are particularly relevant to Ba Be National Park. 10.3.4.1 Environment Access for tourists into primary forest is restricted to certain paths. The presence of tourists on forest paths is likely to cause disturbance to ecosystems, but it is difficult to determine or measure the level of distubance. There are no signs that the present number of tourists are having any major adverse affects on the environment, although some paths have been widened and pathside tree roots have been exposed by pedestrian traffic. It is unclear whether this was due to tourists or local people. The amount of litter in the Park is low but there are currently no measures for waste disposal. Vietnamese tourists appear to have a lax attitude towards litter, tending not to dispose of it responsibly. There are very few litter bins in the park. The amount of litter is bound to increase dramatically with tourism, local population growth and improvements in the standard of living, as more packaged goods are consumed. Litter is both an environmental hazard and an eyesore.

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Tourism may have a positive affect on the environment. The presence of tourists in the forest appears to increase the appreciation local communities have for the forest, which may prolong its survival. However, the local people will only begin to fully appreciate the value of the forest if they actually receive the tangible benefits of tourism. This would provide a real incentive for them to conserve the National Park. 10.3.4.2 Culture The majority (70%) of the local families interviewed said they were 'pleased' that tourists come to their village; the remainder 'indifferent'. They did not think that the tourists affected their children's aspirations, or caused them any 'harm' by giving them presents. Indeed, the tourists were said to have a positive affect on the children by providing experience with different cultures and by teaching them English. This positive attitude towards tourists is also reflected in the villagers' welcoming and friendly manner. The majority (88%) of families interviewed expressed a desire to see more tourists in the village, although were generally unable to formulate any reasons for this attitude. Some members of the Tay and Dao villages would like to provide fruit or other foods and tea for tourists in the future. The villagers did not feel they were being exploited or that their daily lives were being disrupted or invaded by the presence of tourists. 10.3.4.3 Local economy The average daily budget of tourists in Ba Be National Park is US$24. A significant proportion of this will be used for accommodation, with the remainder going directly into the local economy. The tourist income received by the Kiem Lam is for its own use. Some of it filters into the local economy through wages, and the purchase of supplies for tourists from the markets. Local builders are currently being employed by the headquarters to build tourist accommodation and a new office block. The amount of tourist income received by the local communities appears small. For example, a family from Pac Ngoi who accommodate tourists and have a boat estimate that less than 10% of their income comes from tourism through boat trips and guides, accommodation, and sales of food and confectionary. These opportunities are generally restricted to a few Tay families living on the margins of the lake.

10.4 Discussion
Ba Be National Park is already established as a tourist destination, either for day trips or as part of a larger North Vietnam tour. The Park has many attractions and has the facilities to accommodate the present number of tourists.

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There is the potential to attract and accomodate larger numbers of tourists, and Kiem Lam is keen to do so, seeing the income generated from tourism as a great addition to its present income. Developments to encourage tourism are to occur at all levels, from the province providing electricity to Ba Be to local people building outside toilets for tourists. Ba Be generally attracts nature tourists who wish to visit and experience natural beauty, wildlife and tranquility. These features of the Park are intrinsic to the area and it is these, not extrinsic facilities or activities, which tourists come to visit. Foreign tourists have a high disposable income but only stay for a few days, during which time most of their daily budget is spent on accommodation. If the tourists could be encouraged to stay for longer, more money would be spent in other areas of the community. Price increases can also help to to prevent overexploitation and to raise revenues as demonstrated by Lindberg (1991). By recognising ecotourism's real monetary value, the arguements for conservation of the area will be strengthened. Special-interest groups may fit this criteria of high income. They could include ornithological and botanical groups or cavers. As with all forms of tourism, these groups would have to be monitored and controlled to ensure minimum impact. Tourists currently have a low level of impact on the environment, culture and local economy of Ba Be National Park. The environment does not appear to be detiorating because of the number of tourists. Traditional lifestyles are not being displayed as in a museum; and there appears to be a continuity of culture which is under the control of local people rather than the tourist industry. Traditional occupations are not being significantly displaced by tourism. This is particularly important at Ba Be were tourism and tourist revenue is highly seasonal. At present, tourism makes only a small contribution to the income of local populations. Efforts should be made for more services and goods to be supplied and promoted by local people.

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11.0 CONCLUSIONS
Ba Be Lake is noted for its scenic beauty within Vietnam. The designation of the area as a National Park has helped to ensure the preservation of that scenic beauty, and has also ensured that an area of forest of conservation importance has come under some measure of protection. The forests at Ba Be are similar to those found in the nearby Na Hang Nature Reserve (Hill & Kemp, 1996; Hill & Hallam, 1997). Both of these protected areas are dominated by forests on limestone, with more diverse lowland tropical rain forests wherever deeper soils have built up. The tree species Streblus tonkinensis and Burretiodendron hsienmu are important components of the forest; both of these species have relatively restricted ranges in northern Vietnam and South China (FIPI, 1996), and Burretiodendron hsienmu is classified as a vulnerable species in Vietnam (RDB, 1996). Like Na Hang, Ba Be supports a population of an internationally threatened primate species with a restricted range (at Na Hang, the Tonkin snub-nosed monkey; at Ba Be, Francois leaf monkey). Proposals to link the two reserves with forested corridors (Government of SRV, 1994) could give additional protection to these species, allowing a greater degree of population movement and possibly protecting small relict populations of the animals that might persist outside the currently designated protected areas. However, at present the pressures imposed on the forests of Ba Be by local human populations are intense, and include hunting, removal of timber and other forest products, and clearance of forest for agriculture. The extent of hunting pressure is demonstrated in the lack of sightings of common prey mammals such as serow, common barking deer, and wild pig. All of these species were recorded in an earlier survey of Ba Be (Kemp et al., 1994), but they were not recorded in the present survey, despite the presence of suitable habitat. If hunting, and other pressures cannot be reduced and more effective management implemented, there is little point in extending the boundaries of the reserve. In addition to the mammals, Ba Be supports a high diversity of birds and butterflies in a variety of habitats. Although they were not studied in the current survey, a total of 17 native fish species are also known from the lake (Scott, 1989), ten of which are rare or valuable (Cao Van Sung, 1995). This high natural biodiversity is threatened by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction. The regulations of the National Park are enforced by the Forestry Protection department, Kiem Lam. This body is also responsible for the implementation of the national governments Decree 327, which aims to protect and restore forest areas by giving limited ownership of forest to local people. Although this programme appears to have been popular where it has been applied, in Ba Be it has only been carried out on a limited basis in one community on the edge of the park, and it is unlikely to be extended to other parts of the protected area in the near future. The local population (mainly people of the Tay minority) rely on agriculture and fishing, supplemented by the exploitation of forest resources. Despite the

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development of Ba Be as a tourist destination for both Vietnamese and foreign visitors, the villagers at present receive little economic gain from the tourist industry. However, they appear content to see the tourist numbers at Ba Be increase, perhaps anticipating future development and tourist revenues. Undoubtedly, the Ba Be National Park has the potential to attract considerably greater numbers of tourists than currently visit. Tourism is an industry that can show spectacular growth (MacKinnon et al., 1986). The expansion of the tourist traffic to Ba Be would present opportunities (and challenges) to the Kiem Lam and local people, even if that expansion were gradual. For forest protection officials, the challenges are to use the income generated in the sustainable development of the protected area, while taking the needs of local people into consideration and minimising the negative environmental effects often associated with tourism (MacKinnon et al., 1986). For the villagers of Ba Be, this might involve changes to their traditional lifestyles and attitudes in order to conserve the area in which they live.

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12.0 References
Austin, G. T. & Riley, T. J. 1995. Portable bait traps for the study of butterflies. Tropical Lepidoptera 6(1): 5-9. Berger, W. H. & Parker, F. L. 1970. Diversity of planktonic Foraminifera in deep sea sediments. Science 168: 1345-7. Biological Survey of Canada. 1994. Terrestrial arthropod biodiversity: planning a study and recommended sampling techniques. Supplement to Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Canada 26(1). Entomological Society of Canada. Butler, R.W. 1980. The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implication for management of resources. Le Geographic Canadien 24: 5-12. Cao Van Sung. 1995. The System of Protected Areas in Vietnam. pp 57-128 In: Cao Van Sung (Ed.) Environment and Bioresources of Vietnam; present situation and solutions. The Gioi Publishers, Hanoi. Ceballos-Lascurian, H. 1995. Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Collar, N. J., Crosby, M. J. & Stattersfield, A. J. 1994. Birds to watch 2. The world list of threatened birds. Birdlife Conservation Series 4, Birdlife International, Cambridge. Collins, N. M., Sayer, J. A. & Whitmore, T. C. 1991. The conservation atlas of tropical forests; Asia and the Pacific. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Corbet, A. S. & Pendlebury, H. H. 1978. The butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpar. Corbet, G. B. & Hill, J. E. 1992. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A systematic review. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Craik, J. 1995. Are there cultural limits to tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 3: 87-97 Dang Huy Huynh, Pham Trong Anh, Bui Kinh, Cao Van Sung, Truong Van La, Do Ngoc Quang, & Nguyen Van Sang. 1974. Bao cao ket qua dieu tra ve khu he dong vat co xuong song tren can o mien bac Viet nam [Report of the results of a field survey for vertebrate land mammals in North Vietnam: in Vietnamese]. State Committee for Science and Technology Research Department (Animal Research Section). Hanoi. Dang Nghiem Van, Chu Thai Son & Luu Hung. 1993. Ethnic minorities in Vietnam. The Gioi Publishers, Hanoi.

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Delacour, J. & Jabouille, P. 1931. Les Oiseaux de lIndochine Francaise. 3 Volumes. Exposition Coloniale Internationale. Paris. Devyatkin, A. L. 1996. New Hesperiidae from North Vietnam, with the description of a new genus. Atalanta 27 (3/4): 595-604, colour plate X. Eames, J. C., Robson, C. R. & Nguyen Cu. 1994. A new subspecies of Spectacled Fulvetta Alcippe ruficapilla from Vietnam. Forktail 10: 141-158. FIPI. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi. Fisher, R. A, Corbet, A. S. & Williams, C. B. 1943. The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J. Anim. Ecol. 12, 42-58. General Statistical Office SRV. 1995. Nien giam thong ke [Statistical Yearbook 1994]. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi. Government of SRV. 1994. Biodiversity Action Plan for Vietnam. Global Environment Facility Report VIE/91/G31, Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Hanoi. Grandstaff, T.B. & Messerschmidt, D.A. 1995. A manager's guide to the use of Rapid Rural Appraisal. FARM Programme, FAO/UNDP, Bangkok, Thailand. Greenslade, P. J. M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method of studying populations of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 33: 301-310. Greenwood, R. 1987. The role of insects in tropical forest foodwebs. Ambio 16: 267271. Hill, M. & Hallam, D. 1997. Biological survey of Na Hang Nature Reserve, Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam. Part 2: Tat Ke Sector. SEE-Vietnam Scientific Report 2. Society for Environmental Exploration, London. Hill, M. & Kemp, N. 1996. Biological survey of Na Hang Nature Reserve, Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam. Part 1: Ban Bung Sector. SEE-Vietnam Scientific Report 1. Society for Environmental Exploration, London. Holloway, J. D. 1984. The larger moths of the Gunung Mulu National Park; a preliminary assessment of their distribution, ecology, and potential as environmental indicators. Sarawak Museum Journal Vol.XXX No. 51: 149-191. Horwich, R.H. & Lyon, J. In Press. Rural ecotourism as a conservation tool. In: Development of tourism in critical environments. T.V. Singh (Ed.) Centre for Tourism Research and Development, Lucknow, India.

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ICBP. 1992. Putting biodiversity on the map: priority areas for global conservation. International Council for Bird Preservation. Cambridge. Inskipp, T., Linsey, N. & Duckworth, W. 1996. An annotated checklist of the birds of the Oriental region. Oriental Bird Club. Institute of Ethnology. 1978. Cac dan toc it nguoi o Viet Nam (cac tinh Phia Bac) [The ethnic minorities of Vietnam (in the northern provinces)]. Social Sciences Publishing House. Hanoi. IUCN. 1986. Plants in Danger: What do we know? IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. IUCN. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland. Janzen, D. H. 1973. Sweep samples of tropical foliage insects: effects of seasons, vegetation types, elevation, time of day, and insularity. Ecology 54: 687-701. Kemp, N., Le Mong Chan & Dilger, M. 1994. Site description and conservation evaluation: Ba Be National Park, Cao Bang Province, Vietnam. Frontier Vietnam Scientific Report 4. Society for Environmental Exploration, London. King, B., Woodcock, M. & Dickinson, E.C. 1975. Birds of South-East Asia. Collins, London. Lekagul, B., Askins, K., Nabhitabhata, J. & Samruadkit, A. 1977. Field Guide to the Butterflies of Thailand. Association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bankok. Lekagul, B. and Round, P. D. 1991. A Guide to the Birds of Thailand. Saha Karn Bhaet Co.Ltd., Bangkok. Lekagul, B. & McNeeley, J. A. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. Saha Karn Bhaet Co. Ltd., Bangkok. Leps, J. & Spitzer, K. 1990. Ecological determinants of butterfly communities (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) in the Tam Dao Mountains, Vietnam. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovakia 87: 182-94. Lindberg, K. 1991. Policies for maximising nature tourism's ecological and economic benefits. International Conservation Financing Project Working Paper. World Resources Institute, Washington DC. MacKinnon, J. 1990. Review of Vietnam's Nature Conservation System, National Parks and Protected Areas. Forestry Sector Review consultancy report. Vietnam

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Tropical Forestry Action FAO/UNDP/MoF, Hanoi.

Plan.

Technical

Report

No.

3,

VIE/88/037.

MacKinnon, J. & MacKinnon, K. 1986. Review of the protected areas system in the Indomalayan Realm. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. MacKinnon, J, MacKinnon, K., Child, G., & Thorsell, J. (Eds.). 1986. Managing protected areas in the tropics. IUCN, Gland. Magurran, A. E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Chapman and Hall, London. Mai Dinh Yen & Cao Van Sung. 1995. Biological resources of Vietnam: Vietnams ecosystems. pp 7-22 In: Cao Van Sung (Ed.) Environment and Bioresources of Vietnam; present situation and solutions. The Gioi Publishers, Hanoi. Mekong River Commission Secratariat. 1995. Agriculture of Vietnam - a state of the art review. The Mekong River Commission Secretariat, Bangkok. Nguyen Nghia Thin. 1995. Vietnamese flora and its relationship with Malesian flora. Proceedings of the National Centre for Science & Technology of Vietnam 7, 65-73. Nguyen Nghia Thin & Harder, D. K. 1996. Diversity of the flora of Fan Si Pan, the highest mountain in Vietnam. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 83: 404-8. Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walkers Bats of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Pham Hoang Ho. 1993. Cay co Vietnam. Vols I-III. Montreal. Pinratana, A. 1977-88. Butterflies of Thailand, Volumes 1-6. Viratham Press, Bangkok. Pollard, E., Elias, D. O., Skelton, M. J. & Thomas, J. A. 1975. A method of assessing the abundance of butterflies in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve in 1973. Entomologists Gazette 26: 79-88. Pollard, E. 1977. A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biological Conservation 12: 116-134. Rambo, A. T., Reed, R. R., Le Trong Cuc & DiGregorio, M. R. (Eds.). 1995. The challenges of highland development in Vietnam. East-West Centre, Honolulu. Ratajszczak, R., Cox, C. R. & Ha Dinh Duc. 1990. Report of a preliminary survey of primates in North Vietnam (July-October 1989). World Wildlife Fund/IUCN, Hanoi.

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RDB. 1992. Red Data Book of Vietnam; Vol. 1. Animals. (In Vietnamese). Science and Technics Publishing House, Hanoi. RDB. 1996. Red Data Book of Vietnam; Vol. 2. Plants. (In Vietnamese). Science and Technics Publishing House, Hanoi. SCEMMA. 1992. Natural and social conditions of Ba Be National Park. State Committee for Ethnic Minorities and Mountainous Areas, Government of Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Hanoi. SCEMMA. 1995. UNDP framework for external assistance to ethnic minority development. State Committee for Ethnic Minorities and Mountainous Areas, Government of Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Hanoi. Schmid, M. 1993. Vietnam, Kampuchea & Laos. In: Campbell, D. J. & H. D. Hammond (Eds.). Floristic inventory of tropical countries. New York Botanic Garden & WWF. New York. Pp. 85-9. Scott, D. A. (Ed.) A directory of Asian wetlands. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Smith, G.A. 1993. Livestock and barren land development. Working paper No. 1, Vietnam Environment Program and Policy Priorities. Consultants report. The World Bank. Southwood, T. R. E. 1978. Ecological methods, with particular reference to the study of insect populations. Chapman and Hall, London. Spitzer, K., Leps, J. & Soldan, T. 1987. Butterfly communities and habitat of seminatural savannah in southern Vietnam. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovakia 34: 200-8. Spitzer, K., Novotny, V., Tonner, M. & Leps, J. 1993. Habitat preferences, distribution and seasonality of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) in a montane tropical rain forest, Vietnam. Journal of Biogeography 20: 109-121. Stork, N. 1988. Insect diversity: facts, fiction and speculation. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 35: 321-337. Thai Van Trung. 1970. The forest vegetation of Vietnam. Inst. Inventaire et Management Forets, Hanoi. Turner, I. M. 1996. Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forest; a review of the evidence. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 200-9. Udvardy, M. D. F. 1975. A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. IUCN Occasional Paper No. 18. Gland, Switzerland.

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UNDP/FAO. 1992-1993. Vietnam. Watershed management and ethnic minorities. Main report. Report No. VIE/92/TO3. Technical Support Services at Programme Level. UNDP/FAO Work programme. Hanoi. Van Peenen, P. F. D. 1969. Preliminary identification manual for mammals of South Vietnam. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. VIE/96/010. 1996. Strengthening Capacity in Policy Formulation and Management of Ethnic Minority Development in Vietnam. Government of Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Hanoi. Viney, C., Phillipps, K. & Lam Chiu Ying. 1994. Birds of Hong Kong and South China. Government Information Services, Hong Kong. Vo Quy & Nguyen Cu. 1995. Danh Luc Chim Viet nam [Checklist of the birds of Vietnam]. Nha Xuap Ban Nong Nghiep (Agricultural Publishing House), Hanoi. Whitmore, T. C. 1984. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Oxford University Press, Oxford. WWF & IUCN. 1995. Centres of plant diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol. 2: Asia, Australasia & the Pacific. IUCN Publications, Cambridge.

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Appendix 1. Plants
Habitat: pf = primary forest; sf = secondary forest; gr = grassland; ar = arable; aq = aquatic. Uses: t = timber; m = medicinal plant; e = edible; f = fodder; o = ornamental; d = dyeplant; k = fibre; w = fuel; l = latex; p = poison; c = cordage, rattan; b = building materials. () = Recorded in the Red Data Book for Vietnam (RDB, 1996). (level of threat); V = Vulnerable R = Rare K = Insufficiently Known Habitat Uses Status

Status:

Species LYCOPODIOPHYTA LYCOPODIACEAE 1. Huperzia sp. SELAGINELLACEAE 2. Selaginella willdenowii (Desv.) Baker. 3. Selaginella sp. EQUISETOPHYTA EQUISETACEAE 4. Equisetum diffusum D. Don. POLYPODIOPHYTA ADIANTACEAE 5. Adiantum caudatum L. 6. Adiantum flabellatum L. 7. Antrophyum callifolium Blume 8. Antrophyum vittaroides Bak. 9. Pityogramma calomelanos (L.) Link ANGIOPTERIDACEAE 10. Angiopteris sp. ASPLENIACEAE 11. Asplenium nidus L. 12. Asplenium unilaterale Lamk. 13. Diplazium subsinuatum (Hook. & Grev.) Tag. AZOLLACEAE 14. Azolla pinnata BR. BLECHNACEAE 15. Blechnum orientale L. CYATHEACEAE 16. Cyathea sp. DAVALLIACEAE 17. Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) Presl. DENNSTAEDTIACEAE 18. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn GLEICHENIACEAE 19. Dicranopteris linearis (Burm) Underw. HYMENOPHYLLACEAE 20. Hymenophyllum sp.

pf, sf sf

aq, ar

sf sf pf pf, sf sf pf, sf pf, sf pf pf, sf ar sf sf sf gr sf sf m f

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Appendix 2. Forest transect diagrams

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Appendix 3. Forest plot data


NSt = No. of stems per hectare BA = Basal Area of wood
FT1
NSt
(m2 ha-1)

FT2
% total BA NSt
(m2 ha-1)

FT3
% total BA NSt 43.75 50.00
(m2 ha-1)

BA

BA

BA

Anacardiaceae Annonaceae Araliaceae Bignoniaceae Burseraceae Clusiaceae Ebenaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Flacourtiaceae Lauraceae Meliaceae Menispermaceae Moraceae Rubiaceae Rutaceae Simaroubaceae Sterculiaceae Theaceae Tiliaceae Verbenaceae TOTAL

2.681 0.400 0.588 0.937 0.438 0.625 0.706 0.125 1.463 0.687 7.131 0.013 1.894 1.556 0.006 3.419 0.975 23.641

% total BA 12.40 1.85 2.72 0.43 2.02 0.29 3.27 0.58 6.76 0.32 32.99 0.06 8.76 7.20 0.03 15.81 4.51

6.25

0.125

0.31 12.50 6.25 6.25 12.50 25.00 2.013 0.469 0.625 2.531 8.24 1.92 0.26 10.37 6.25 43.75 12.50 18.75 6.25 12.50 6.25 506.25 6.25 181.25 50.00 6.25 37.50 18.75 1018.75

12.50 56.25

0.719 8.500

1.78 20.52

531.25

9.506

23.51

6.25 6.25 475.00

0.825 0.025 7.013

3.38 0.10 28.71

6.25

0.219

0.89

56.25

21.590

53.38

18.75 31.25 593.75

8.044 3.225 24.989

32.93 13.20

662.50

40.44

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Appendix 4. Butterflies
BT1 BT2 BT3

Papilionidae 1. Atrophaneura sp. (cf. alcinous)


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Pieridae 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Graphium sarpedon (L.) Graphium agamemnon L. Graphium eurypylus L. Pathysa antiphates Cram. Papilio protenor Cram. Papilio helenus L. Papilio nephelus Bsd. Papilio memnon L. Papilio castor West. Papilio paris L. Papilio bianor Cram. Lamproptera meges Zinken * * *

* * *

* *

Ixias pyrene L. Hebomoia glaucippe ssp. glaucippe L. Delias pasithoe ssp. tonkiana Fruhst. Delias hyparete L. Appias lycida ssp. eleonora Boisduval Appias albina ssp. drada Feld. Appias nero ssp. galba Wallace Appias paulina ssp. adamsoni (Moore) Cepora nandina (Lucas) Pieris canidia ssp. canidia Sparrman Pieris napi ssp. mandarina Leech Dercas verhuelli (van der Hoeven) Eurema andersoni (Moore) ssp. novo. Eurema hecabe ssp. hecabe L. Eurema blanda ssp. silhetana Wallace Gandaca harina ssp. distanti Moore Catopsilia pyranthe L.

* * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * *

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Appendix 5. Birds
5a. Formulation used for assessment of bird abundance at Ba Be. The relative abundance of each species within the reserve was calculated from the number of occasions the species was identified and the average flock size of each species. The table below shows the format used for assessing abundance. This formulation was developed for use in the SEE-Vietnam surveys at Na Hang, Tuyen Quang, in 1996 (Hill & Kemp, 1996). The abundance rating is weighted more heavily towards the number of occasions each species was recorded, as flock size was more difficult to recorded accurately, especially whilst observing large or mixed flocks.
Average Flock Size 1-2 3-8 >9 1 Rare Rare Occasional 2 Rare Occasional Frequent No. of Occasions Sighted 3-4 5-8 9-16 Occasional Frequent Common Frequent Common Abundant Common Abundant Abundant >16 Abundant Abundant Abundant

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Appendix 6. Mammals
(Nomenclature as in Corbet & Hill, 1992) Key; A S C O T R Specimen taken Specimen caught in mammal traps Observation Tracks or traces present Specimen reported (by Kiem Lam)

RDB[*] Species listed in Sach Do Viet Nam [Red Data Book for Vietnam](RDB, 1992) as under threat. [Level of Threat]; E V R T Endangered Vulnerable Rare Threatened

IUCN[*]

Species listed in 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, 1996) as under threat. [Level of threat]; C Critical E Endangered V Vulnerable A

Insectivora Soricidae: Shrews 1. Hylomys suillus 2. Shrew species Tupaiidae: Treeshrews 3. Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew) Chiroptera Megachiroptera Pteropodidae; Old World Fruit Bats 4. Rousettus leschenaulti 5. Cynopterus sphinx (Short-nosed Fruit Bat) Microchiroptera Emballonuridae; Sheath-tailed Bats 6. Taphozous sp. (Tomb Bat) Megadermatidae; False Vampire Bats 7. Megaderma lyra (Greater False Vampire Bat) Rhinolophidae; Horseshoe Bats 8. Rhinolophus ?affinis Hipposideridae; Old World Leaf-nosed Bats 9. Hipposideros armiger (Himalayan Leaf-nosed Bat)

S S O, C

S S

S S S S

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Appendix 7. Medicinal plants


Scientific Name Vietnamese Name Nguu Tat Day Xuyen tam lien Don buot Sau dau cut chuot Bot ech Day tiet de Ba Dau To hong Hoai son Arthritis Inflammation Throat infections, inflamed lungs Dysentery, throat infections, snake bites Dysentery Post-natal illness Gallstones Inflamed lungs Impotence Tonic Ailment Part Used

Achyranthes bidentata Bl. (Amaranthaceae) Alocasia odora Roxb. (Araceae) Andrographis paniculata Ness (Acanthaceae) Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) Brucca javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae) Callicarpa cana L. (Verbenaceae) Cissampelos pareira Willd. (Menispermaceae) Croton tiglium L. (Euphorbiaceae) Curcubita sinensis Lamk. (Curcubitaceae) Dioscorea persimilis Prain et
Burk.

Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem Leaf Leaf, stem, flower Fruit Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem, root, tuber Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem, fruit Tuber

(Dioscoreaceae) Elephantopus scaber L. (Asteraceae) Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) Euphorbia hypericifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Gouania leptostachya DC. (Rhamnaceae) Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae) Homalomena armatica Roxb. (Araceae) Justica gendarussa Burm.f. (Acanthaceae) Micromelum minutum Oliv. (Rutaceae) Oldenlandia capitelata Kuntze (Rubiaceae)

Cuc chi tien Co sua long Co sua la nho Day don ganh Voi voi Thien nien kien Thuoc trac Kim xoung Da cam

Vomiting blood Dysentery Dysentery Bruising Swelling Strengthening tendons & bones Rheumatism Myasthemia Stomach ache

Leaf, stem, fruit Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem Stem Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem, root Leaf, stem

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Appendix 8. Destinations of specimens collected October-December 1996


PLANTS IEBR Herbarium, Duong Nghia Do, Tu Liem, Hanoi..

INVERTEBRATES (excluding Butterflies) Dr Nicolaj Scharff Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

BUTTERFLIES (except family Hesperiidae) Dr Alexander Monastryskii, Vietnam-Russia Tropical Centre, Hanoi.

BUTTERFLIES (family Hesperiidae) Dr Alexey Devyatkin, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

MAMMALS (Bats) Dr Paula Jenkins, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, England.

MAMMALS (Rodents) Dr Pham Tien, IEBR, Duong Nghia Do, Tu Liem, Hanoi.

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