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TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

01. Ans :

Draw the block diagram of computer and explain.

Block diagram of a computer is as shown. Input Units : Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. o The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, Scanners, Joystick, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions. Accept the data and instructions from the outside world / user. Convert it to a form that the computer can understand (i.e. Binary Language / low level language). Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing.

Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed. o It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories : Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

The primary memory is temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the computer is switched off (i.e. volatile in nature). In order to store the data permanently, the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. E.g. RAM Secondary Storage: It stores several programs, documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc., Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world. o Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU / Monitor) are the commonly used output devices. Arithmetic Logical Unit: All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. o It also does comparison and takes decision. o The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc and does logic operations viz, >, <, =, etc. o Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done, the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results. Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer. o The control unit instructs the input unit, where to store the data after receiving it from the user. o It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU. o It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit. o The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

Central Processing Unit: The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). o The CPU is like brain performs the following functions: It performs all calculations. It takes all decisions. It controls all units of the computer.

02. Ans :

Give applications of Computer.

Mathematical Calculations : Business : E.g. in Banks for online transactions and producing other financial reports Telecommunications : Internet, Fax, Email, Video Conferencing etc. Entertainment : Watching movies, Playing Games Medical Field : For different Cardiac and Xray application Education : E-learning process, and information sharing on the internet. Space Technology : Word Processing and Data Processing

NOTE : Explain all the point yourselves with appropriate examples.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

03.

Give characteristics of Computer

Ans : Speed : A computer is a very fast and accurate device. It can process thousands of instructions within a few seconds for which a human being can take several days or months. Accuracy o Degree of accuracy of the computer is very high. o Errors can occur in computerized system also but most of them occur due to human mistakes rather than technical problems in the computer. Versatility o We can perform many different tasks on the computer at a time. o One moment it might be busy in calculating the statistical data of a business organization for annual performance evaluation and at next moment it is capable of working on inventory control. Automation o A machine is no sooner than done to be automatic if it, works by itself without human intervention. o Computers are automatic machines, because one started on a job, they carry on, until the job is finished, without any human assistance. o However, computer being machines can not start them selves. They cannot go out find their own problems and solutions. o They have to be instructed. Diligence o A computer is free from dullness and lack of concentration. o It can continuously work for hours without creating any error human beings in doing regular types of jobs, which requires great accuracy. o Computer can perform the number of calculation with exactly the same accuracy and speed as the first one. No. I.Q.(Intelligence Quotient) o A computer is not a magical device. It is no intelligence of its own. o User can determine what tasks the computer will perform. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. o A computer can not take it own decision in this regard. Large Storage : o Computer is free from problems like exhaustion, lack of concentration, confusion, etc., unlike human beings. o o

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

04.

Explain following giving examples : a. Input Devices Ans : An input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). It is a Hardware Device. The most common input devices are the mouse and keyboard. However, joysticks, touch screens, webcams, and microphones are considered input devices as well. Types of Input Devices : o Mice and other Pointing devices : Other than the keyboard, mice are the most common type of input device. Nearly every computer has one, and they make navigating the screen much easier than trying to use just a keyboard. Mice usually use a ball, light, or a laser to track movement. Similar peripherals, such as a touch screen or laptop's touchpad, trackballs, graphics tablets, and even joysticks are pointing input devices. Touch screens are becoming an increasingly popular pointing device, and someday may replace mice altogether. o Keyboards : The keyboard is the most common input device. It is almost unheard of for a computer to be without some form of keyboard, be it a full QWERTY keyboard or a smaller number pad. It is possible to interact with most computers solely through the keyboard, without even a mouse, because they are usually the default input device. Touch screens may eventually overcome the keyboard as well, by providing an onscreen keyboard to save space. o Audio/Video Input. Webcams and digital cameras can also be considered input devices. They provide visual data to the computer in the form of images and video. Some webcams can even be used as pointing devices by tracking the location of a person's hands or face.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

Microphones and digital musical instruments, such as midi keyboards, are audio input devices that provide the computer with audio data.

b. Output Devices Ans : Output devices are pieces of computer hardware that allow a computer system to communicate information to a user or another system. This information can be in any form, and includes sound, images, and even tactile experiences. Output devices can usually only be used to send data from the computer; items called input devices allow users and other systems to send data to the computer. Some of the most common output devices allow computers to present information visually. E.G. Monitors, Printers, Plotters, Video projectors, Computer Speakers etc. Text, pictures, and other images are displayed on the monitor, allowing users to interact with computer programs and receive data. They function in a way similar to monitors, but display images over a much larger area. Printers allow the computer to produce documents, pictures, and images on paper through the use of inks and other dyes. c. Operating Systems Ans : An operating system, or OS, is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without a computer operating system, a computer would be useless. An OS takes care for all input and output in a computer system. It manages users, processes, memory management, printing, telecommunication, networking etc. The operating system provides a layer of abstraction between the user and the bare machine. Users and applications do not see the hardware directly, but view it through the operating system. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. For PCs, the most popular operating systems are DOS, OS/2, and Windows, but others are available, such as Linux. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. Operating systems can be classified as follows: o multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. o multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU. o multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. o multithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently. o real time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time. An operating system performs these services for applications: o In a multitasking operating system where multiple programs can be running at the same time, the operating system determines which applications should run in what order and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving another application a turn. o It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications. o It handles input and output to and from attached hardware devices, such as hard disks, printers, and dial-up ports. o It sends messages to each application or interactive user (or to a system operator) about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred. o It can offload the management of what are called batch jobs (for example, printing) so that the initiating application is freed from this work. o On computers that can provide parallel processing, an operating system can manage how to divide the program so that it runs on more than one processor at a time.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

05. Differentiate between Hardware and Software giving examples Ans : Types: Hardware Motherboard, CPU, RAM, BIOS, power supply, video display controller, computer bus, CD-ROM drive, floppy disk, zip drive. CD-ROM, monitor, printer, video card, scanners, label makers, routers, and modems. Hardware starts functioning once software is loaded. Devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. Software System software, Programming software, and Application software. Adobe Acrobat, Internet Explorer , Microsoft Word , Microsoft Excel To deliver its set of instructions, Software is installed on hardware. Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer. Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). To perform the specific task you need to complete. Software is generally not needed to for the hardware to perform its basic level tasks such as turning on and responding to input. Software faults are not. Software does not wear out over time. Software failure is systematic. Software does not have an increasing failure rate. Software needs constant testing after upgrades.

Examples:

Inter dependency:

Definition:

Function:

Fault: Lifetime: Failure:

Hardware serve as the delivery system for software solutions. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, incomparison with software and data, which are soft in the sense that they are readily created, modified, or erased on the computer Hardware faults are physical. Hardware wears out over time. Hardware failure is random. Hardware does have increasing failure at the last stage. Hardware stays at steady reliability level in useful life.

Reliability:

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

06. a. b. c. d.

Explain Algorithms and Flowcharts by providing Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Examples

06.A. Algorithms : An Algorithm is just a detailed sequence of simple steps that are needed to solve a problem. An algorithm is a sequence of instructions, which are followed in order to complete a task. An algorithm can be presented or written in words, in a program (structured code) for a computer or as a flowchart. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous (having only one meaning ) instructions for solving a problem, i.e., for obtaining a required output for any legitimate input in a finite amount of time. Characteristics of Algorithm: 01. 02. 03. 04. valid 05. Finiteness : terminates after a finite number of steps Definiteness : rigorously and unambiguously specified Input : valid inputs are clearly specified Output : can be proved to produce the correct output given a input Effectiveness : steps are sufficiently simple and basic.

Example of Algorithm: finding the average of two numbers Algorithm: Input: two numbers x and y Output: the average of x and y Steps: 1. input x 2. input y 3. sum = x + y 4. average = sum /2 5. output average

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

06.B. Flowchart : A flowchart is a graphical representation of an algorithm. These flowcharts play a vital role in the programming of a problem and are quite helpful in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. Once the flowchart is drawn, it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language. Often we see how flowcharts are helpful in explaining the program to others. Hence, it is correct to say that a flowchart is a must for the better documentation of a complex program. Flowcharts are usually drawn using some standard symbols; however,

The following are some guidelines in flowcharting: o In drawing a proper flowchart, all necessary requirements should be listed out in logical order. o The flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow. There should not be any room for ambiguity in understanding the flowchart. o The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top to bottom. o Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol.

or

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two or three flow lines, one for each possible answer, should leave the decision symbol.

Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol.

o o o

If the flowchart becomes complex, it is better to use connector symbols to reduce the number of flow lines. Avoid the intersection of flow lines if you want to make it more effective and better way of communication. Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start and finish. It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data. Example of a simple Flowchart showing if a student is Pass or fail based on marks.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

Start

Read num

num >=60

grade = "Fail"

grade = "pass"

Print grade

End

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

Characteristics of Flowchart Vertical Linear Design The overall design of most flowcharts is a vertical pictorial of various elements that flow downward until the user reaches a decision or solution. Certain parts of the chart move to the left or right horizontally to accommodate additional decision making elements, but overall the direction is vertical. Inputs The inputs of the flowchart are the questions asked of the user. The answers will allow the user to move through the chart to the ideal solution. Outputs The output of the flow chart is either the solution or the next tier of a pattern of questions that will eventually lead to a final output. Directional Arrows The arrows in a flow chart are key to its movement---they represent the choices the user has in the flow between the inputs and outputs. The arrows are commonly labeled with a simple "yes" or "no" but can also have more specific answers. The head of the one-way arrow shows the direction of movement for the flow chart and helps the user move on to the next step of the decision making process. Start and End Boxes A flowchart has a well-defined start and end. The start box is usually either the first input question or the title of the problem. Even if the user cannot reach a solution by answering the questions, there is a box that represents the termination of the flow of inputs and outputs. The box may be clearly labeled "End" or simply be a note stating that a solution is impossible.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM

TUTORIAL : 01 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

The Advantages of flowcharts are as follows: 1. Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned. 2. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart, problem can be analyzed in more effective way. 3. Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation, which is needed for various purposes. 4. Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase. 5. Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process. 6. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part Disadvantages of Flowcharts: 1. Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. In that case, flowchart becomes complex and clumsy. 2. Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely. 3. Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem. 4. The essentials of what is done can easily be lost in the technical details of how it is done.

PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. PROFESSOR, DJMIT, MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM