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CHEE 484- Bioremediation

Assignment 1: Remediation Technologies Jenna Schellen

Excavation & Incineration


Challenges associated with effectively remediating contaminated sites within a reasonable time frame have led industry to solutions such as excavation and incineration. These short duration treatments, resulting in the complete removal of contaminants from the site, have become a cost effective way to remediate sites. However, increasing landfill costs may have contributed to a decrease in the application of this method since 1993. Excavation Excavation or dig and haul involves removing contaminated soil from site and disposing of it in landfills. This process consists of dust mitigation and soil excavation followed by site restoration and groundwater monitoring. This method is applied to sites with small quantities of soil not characterized as hazardous waste and those with difficult to treat contaminants.

Harbottle, M.J et al (2008)

Incineration
Incineration eliminates pollutants by burning the soil in a kiln at temperatures ranging from 650-1200C. The ash is then fed into a cooling screw conveyor and sprayed with water to further reduce its temperature before being transferred into dumpsters which are later removed and deposited off site. A secondary combustion chamber (SCC) operating at a higher temperature further reduces any residual contaminants in the gas. A quench chamber is used to cool gases leaving the SCC through water evaporation. Optional scrubbers can be used to remove and acid gas that may have been produced during combustion by neutralizing with sodium hydroxide.

Figure 1: Schematic of a mobile incinerator (Acharya, P., Pfrommer, C. (1998))

CHEE 484- Bioremediation


Assignment 1: Remediation Technologies Jenna Schellen

Pros and Cons

Dig and Dump


Pros Applicable to wide range of contaminants (often used with heavy metals) Cost-effective Immediate results: site considered remediated once excavated soil is removed Effectively removes all contamination (high "efficiency") Cons No actual remediation occurring, just relocation Unsustainable: limited landfill space Applicable to sites with contaminated matter in topsoil (small volumes) Potentially create other negative effects (groundwater contamination, soil structure and habitat degradation)

Incineration
Pros Short treatment duration Removes range of organics and combustible compounds (PCBs etc) Permanently destroys hazardous and organic contaminants Flexible application to wide range of materials and soil types Cons Efficiency dependent on soil characteristics Can be costly Limited applicable area: excavation soil deeper than topsoil impractical Concern over air emissions and restrictions put in place by regulatory bodies limit use

Resources
(1) Page, C.A., Diamond, M.L., Campbell, M. &McKenna, S.. (Aug 1998) Take a life-cycle view of site remediation. Chemical Engineering Progress. New York. Vol. 94, Iss. 8; pg. 63, 8 pgs (2) Hockman, B. (1992) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 32, 129-136 (3) Harbottle, M.J., Al-Tabbaa, A., Evans, C.W. (April 2008). Sustainability of land remediation. Part 1: overall analysis. Geotechnical Engineering. Issue GE2 pg 75-92 (4) Perdek, J.M. (1997). Decision Analysis of Incineration Costs in Superfund Site Remediation. Environmental Engineering Science. Vol 14, 1 (5) Valenti, M. (1994). Cleaning soil without incineration. Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 116, Issue 5 (6) Acharya, P., Pfrommer, C.. (1998). Twenty years of site remediation via incineration in the United States. Environmental Progress. Vol. 17, iss. 1, pg 31-37 (7) Leuser, R.M, Velazquez, L.A, Cohen, A. & Janssen, J. (1990). Remediation of PCB Soil Contamination by On-Site Incineration. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 25 pg375-385 (8) Simon, J. (2007). Editors Perspective- Surverys Reveal Trends in Remedy Selection. Remediation, Winter pg 1-5