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capacitors
capacitors

Capacitors store a bit of electrical energy and come in many types and varieties. Capacity is measured in terms of Farads named after the great scientist Michael Faraday. As farad is too large a value for most general applications, microfarads (mfd) and nanofarads (nf OR kpf) are normally used in hobby and consumer applications.

capacitors Capacitors store a bit of electrical energy and come in many types and varieties. Capacity

Ceramic, polyester, paper, mica, and electrolytic capacitors are some of the types. Each type has distinctive features and qualities and capacities. Capacitors are marked with voltages at the maximum voltage they can operate. It is a good practice to use a capacitor rated at twice the operating the voltage. Capacitors above the range of 1 mfd generally are electrolytics and are used such in these circuits. Electrolytic (Aluminum & Tantalum) capacitors are polarized and marked on the surface. They should be connected as per the polarity. Electrolytic capacitors of 25 V rating are used in most common hobby circuits. and digital circuits unless otherwise specified. Capacitors rated at higher voltages can be used in any of the circuits. Capacitors with higher capacity should not be used unless the implications are understood. Other capacitors normally rated at 30V/50V are used in the most real time applications as well as in digital circuits.

I. KIND OF CAPACITORS

1. ELECTROLYTIC

capacitors Capacitors store a bit of electrical energy and come in many types and varieties. Capacity

These capacitors include both aluminum and tantalum electrolytics. They are manufactured by an electrochemical formation of an oxide film onto a metal (aluminum or tantalum) surface. The metal on which the oxide film is formed serves as the anode or positive terminal, the oxide film acts as the dielectric, and a conducting liquid or gel acts as the cathode or negative terminal. Tantalum electrolytic capacitors have larger capacitance per volume ratios when compared with aluminum electrolytic. A majority of electrolytic capacitors are polarized. Electrolytic capacitors, when compared with non electrolytic capacitors, typically have greater capacitances but have poor tolerances (as large as +/- 100 percent for aluminum and about +/- 5 to +/-20 percent for tantalum), bad temperature stability, high leakage, and short lives. Capacitances range from about 1 uF to 1 F for aluminum and 0.001 to 1000 uF for tantalum, with maximum voltage ratings from 6 to 450 V.

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors are polarized, and may be used in DC circuits. Typical values range form 0.1uF to 68000uF. Standard Aluminum Electrolytic values change in multiples of 10, 22, 33, 47. Normal Temperature Coefficient [TC] for Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors is +20%.

Tantalum Capacitors are polarized, and may be used in DC circuits. Typical values range form 0.1uF to 470uF. Standard Tantalum values change in multiples of 10, 22, 33, 47. Normal Temperature Coefficient [TC] for Tantalum Capacitors is +5%.

  • 2. CERAMIC

These capacitors include both aluminum and tantalum electrolytics. They are manufactured by an electrochemical formation of

This type is very popular non polarized capacitor that is small and inexpensive but has poor temperature stability and poor accuracy. It contains a ceramic dielectric and a phenolic coating. It is often used for bypass and coupling applications. Tolerances range from +/-5 to +/-100 percent, while capacitances range from 1 pf to 2.2 uF, with maximum voltage rating from 3 V to 6 kV.

Ceramic Capacitors are Non polarized, and may be used in AC or DC circuits. Typical values range form 1pF to 0.22uF for ceramic disks, and up to 10uF for Multi-layer ceramic chips. Standard Ceramic Capacitor values change in multiples of 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, 27, 33, 39, 47, 56, 68, 82.

  • 3. MYLAR

These capacitors include both aluminum and tantalum electrolytics. They are manufactured by an electrochemical formation of

This type is a very popular non polarized capacitor that is reliable, inexpensive, and has low leakage current but poor temperature stability. Capacitances range from 0.001 to 10 uF, with voltage ratings from 50 to 600 V.

4.

MICA

4. MICA 5. FILM CAPACITORS This type is an extremely accurate device with very low leakage
  • 5. FILM CAPACITORS

This type is an extremely accurate device with very low leakage currents. It is constructed with alternate layers of metal foil and mica insulation, stacked and encapsulated. These capacitors have small capacitances and are often used in high frequency circuits (eg. : RF circuits). They are very stable under variable voltage and temperature conditions. Tolerances range from +/-0.25 to +/-5 percent. Capacitances range from 1 pf to 0.01 uF, with maximum voltage ratings from 100 V to 2.5 kV.

Film Capacitors are Non polarized, and may be used in AC or DC circuits. Typical values range form 1000pF to 1uF for Polyerster Film, and 0.01uF to 18uF for Metallized Film capacitors.

Standard Film Capacitor values change in multiples of 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, 27, 33, 39, 47, 56, 68,

82.

Normal Temperature Coefficient [TC] for Film Capacitors is +7%.

Other kinds of capacitors include paper, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyester, glass, and oil capacitors, their characteristics are covered in table below :

6. VARIABLE CAPACITORS Variable capacitors are devices that can be made to change capacitance values with

6. VARIABLE CAPACITORS

Variable capacitors are devices that can be made to change capacitance values with the twist of a knob. These devices come in either air variable or trimmer forms. Air variable capacitors consist of 2 sets of aluminum plates (stator and rotor) that mesh together but do not touch.

6. VARIABLE CAPACITORS Variable capacitors are devices that can be made to change capacitance values with

Rotating the rotor plates with respect to the stator varies the capacitor's effective plate surface

area, thus changing the capacitance. Air variable capacitors typically are mounted on panels and are used in frequently adjusted tuning applications (eg. : fine tuning fixed frequency communications receivers, crystal frequency adjustments, adjusting filter characteristics). Trimmers may use a mica, air, ceramic, or glass dielectric and may use either a pair of rotating plates or a compression like mechanism that forces the plates closer together.

II. CAPACITORS LABELS

area, thus changing the capacitance. Air variable capacitors typically are mounted on panels and are used

Reading capacitors labels is tricky business. Each family of capacitors uses its own unique labeling system. Some system are easy to understand, whereas others make use

of misleading letters and symbols. The best way to configure out what a capacitors label means is to first figure out what family the capacitor belongs to. After that, try seeing if the capacitor label follows one of the convention shown in the figure above.

Capacitors with small capacitances (less than 0.01 uF) do not pose much danger to humans. However, when the capacitances start exceeding 0.1 uF, touching capacitor leads can be a shocking experience. For example, large electrolytic capacitors found in television sets and photoflashes can store a lethal charge. As a rule, never touch the leads of large capacitors. If in question, discharge the capacitor by shorting the leads together with a screwdriver tip before handling it.

Standard Value Table :

SYMBOL
SYMBOL
VALUE (uF)
VALUE (uF)

102

0.001

122

0.0012

152

0.0015

222

0.0022

272

0.0027

332

0.0033

392

0.0039

472

0.0047

682

0.0068

103

0.010

123

0.012

153

0.015

223

0.022

SYMBOL
SYMBOL
VALUE (uF)
VALUE (uF)

273

0.027

333

0.033

393

0.039

473

0.047

563

0.056

683

0.068

104

0.100

124

0.120

154

0.150

184

0.180

224

0.220

334

0.330

474

0.470

For Philips Film Capacitor :

Specifications :

  • 1. Range Value = 0.001 to 6.8 uF

  • 2. Tolerance = 10 % to 20 %

  • 3. Capacitance range = E - 12

  • 4. Voltage Range = 100 V to 630 V

  • 5. V R (ac) at 50~60 Hz = 63 V to 220 V

  • 6. Test Voltage = 1.6 times V R

  • 7. Temperature Range = -40 o C to +100 o C

  • 8. Dissipation Factor at 10 kHz = less than 150 x 10 - 4

  • 9. Isolation Resistance at 20 o C, C = 0.033 uF, R = 30000 MOhm (*), C = 0.33 uF, RC (MOhm x uF) = 10000 s, (*) Acception for 100 V version = R = 15000 MOhm, RC = 5000 s 10.Standard Value Table :

COLOR White Grey Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Brown Black VALUE 9 8 7 6
COLOR
White
Grey
Violet
Blue
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Brown
Black
VALUE
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MULTIPLIER
MULTIPLIER
TOLERANCE
TOLERANCE
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE

1

  • 20 %

 

10

 
  • 100 V

100

 
  • 250 V

1000

   

10000

 
  • 400 V

100000

   
   
  • 630 V

     
     
 
  • 10 %

 

IV. OTHER INFO FOR MK TYPE CAPACITORS

Plastic metal alloy capacitors (like MK capacitors) can self recovery after breakdown. Very thin metal layer coat to plastic foil about 0.02 to 0.05 um. The arc with rise at breakdown will evaporate metal layer at the point without

damage the dielectric. This happened for less then 10 usec. Capacitance lost can be disparage. Metal layer constructed to cylinder type or flat or arranged to stack. Metal syringe method that used to connect the wires guaranted all the roll are connected. That was made the MK capacitors had low inductance and low losses characteristic.

DIN Code :

M = Metal layer ---------- M K = Plastic -----------------------|

K

|

S

* Third is the dielectric types : -----| S = Polystyrene (MKS = MKY) P = Polyprophylene (MKP) C = Polycarbonate (MKC = MKM)

T = Polythereftalate (MKT = MKH) U = Cellulose Acetate (MKU = MKL)

SURFACE MOUNT CAPACITORS

Common Types of Capacitors and Trade-offs As described in the previous sections, the materials and structure of a capacitor will dictate its attributes, like parasitics, temperature stability, maximum voltage, linearity, cost and size. A summary of the most popular capacitors available in surface mount packages is given in Table 2.

SURFACE MOUNT CAPACITORS Common Types of Capacitors and Trade-offs As described in the previous sections, thecapacitor will dictate its attributes, like parasitics, temperature stability, maximum voltage, linearity, cost and size. A summary of the most popular capacitors available in surface mount packages is given in Table 2 . Table 2: Common capacitor specifications and trade-offs (Click to Enlarge Image) Ceramic capacitors are the most common capacitor type since they are inexpensive, offer a wide range of values, and provide solid performance. Tantalum, Oscon, and Aluminum Electrolytic capacitors are all polarized, specifically to be used as a bypass capacitor. Tantalum found its niche in low-voltage systems. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are a common choice for low-to-medium frequency systems, but not switching circuits (they hold their charge too well, which doesn't suit them for the rapid cycling of production testing). " id="pdf-obj-10-11" src="pdf-obj-10-11.jpg">

Table 2: Common capacitor specifications and trade-offs (Click to Enlarge Image)

Ceramic capacitors are the most common capacitor type since they are inexpensive, offer a wide range of values, and provide solid performance. Tantalum, Oscon, and Aluminum Electrolytic capacitors are all polarized, specifically to be used as a bypass capacitor. Tantalum found its niche in low-voltage systems. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are a common choice for low-to-medium frequency systems, but not switching circuits (they hold their charge too well, which doesn't suit them for the rapid cycling of production testing).