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Translation Paper

Number Ten
October 2002

Biodiversity and Smart Growth:


Sprawl Threatens Our Natural Heritage
This paper was written in collaboration with the Funders’ Network by Gloria
Ohland, a former journalist who has worked on smart growth and transporta-
tion issues for the Surface Transportation Policy Project and now the Great
American Station Foundation*, and by Hank Dittmar, president of the Great
American Station Foundation, a member of the Funders’ Network for Smart
Growth and Livable Communities. This is the tenth in the series of translation
papers published by the Funders’ Network to translate the impact of suburban
sprawl and disinvestment on issues of importance to America’s communities
and to suggest opportunities for progress that would be created by smarter
growth policies and practices. Other issues addressed in the series of transla-
tion papers include social equity, workforce development, parks and open
space, civic engagement, agriculture, transportation, aging, education, chil-
dren and families, health, arts and energy.

Abstract
In this country there has always both more development and more
seemed to be enough space for both habitat protection by charting out
development and for nature, but there where growth should and should not
*The Funders' Network for is a growing awareness that roads and occur. This work needs to happen
the sprawling development they pro- quickly, however, as development pres-
Smart Growth and Livable mote have begun to fragment and sures continue to mount, and once
Communities works to inform degrade habitat in even the wildest critical habitats and linkages between
places. Concerns about habitat loss them are lost they cannot be
and strengthen philanthropic and the rate at which plant and animal regained.
funders' individual and collec- species are disappearing are forcing
some wildlife and wilderness organiza- There is obvious potential in funding
tive abilities to support and tions and even land trusts to refocus collaborations between smart growth
connect organizations working their efforts and get involved in trans- and wildlife and wilderness activists.
portation and land use planning. The fact that all parties – advocates,
to advance social equity, create developers, property owners, and gov-
better economies, build livable The greatest threats to biodiversity ernment agencies eager to avoid cost-
are habitat loss and degradation and ly mitigation and lawsuits – want cer-
communities, and protect and invasive species, all of which are tainty about which lands can be devel-
preserve natural resources. strongly correlated with sprawling oped and which cannot affords
growth. Smart growth alone will not tremendous opportunity for broad-
For more information, visit provide the solution. But it is believed based collaborations. The availability
www.fundersnetwork.org. that smart growth combined with of good science and new technology
"smart conservation" can provide for makes comprehensive planning efforts
© Copyright 2002 by the Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities
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possible. This paper discusses the promising strategies and explicit


relationship between biodiversity collaborations for consideration by
conservation and smart growth, the philanthropic and public funders and
work that is being done, and suggests other key actors.

Introduction: Where the Buffalo Roamed


America has always seemed to be a total amount developed since this
vast country with an abundance of country was founded.7 It’s a sign of
wild, open spaces. But less than 10 the times that a leading indicator of
percent of the land surface remains in sprawl in Florida is the number of pan-
a mostly unchanged state, while only thers that are hit by cars. In
4 percent has been set aside in natu- Washington it is encounters between
ral reserves.1 And development is con- cougars and schoolchildren. All across
suming land at an accelerating pace – the country it’s the daily battle that
the rate doubled from 1992 to 1997 suburban gardeners wage against
compared to the previous ten years.2 shrubbery-eating deer.

Moreover, the nature of development This is a fight the animals always


A recent survey of has dramatically changed. In the last lose. Development causes the frag-
50 years the amount of urban land mentation and degradation of habitat
Nature Conservancy has quadrupled, and sprawling auto- and water resources, interrupts natu-
scientists and land oriented development has consumed ral processes such as floods and
managers found that a third of our most productive farm- fires, and ushers in an invasion of
land, more than half of all wetlands non-native species. Ninety-five percent
roads and utility cor- (91 percent in California), and is of species listed under the federal
ridors posed a critical bumping up against the boundaries of Endangered Species Act are endan-
national parks, forests and other pro- gered by habitat loss, fragmentation or
threat to biodiversity tected lands.3 other alteration.8 Exotic plants readily
health in 55 of 89 invade disturbed habitat, the second
conservation areas.6 Growth has begun to impact even the most pernicious cause of
wildest of wild places. Rural counties endangerment.9
with federally designated wilderness
areas grew six times faster than coun- Part of the problem is that animals
ties without wilderness areas in recent and plants thrive in the same places
years.4 A 1994 survey of national that humans do. Places that are rich
parks found 85 percent were experi- in biological diversity – Florida,
encing threats from outside their Southern California, the Pacific
boundaries.5 A recent survey of Nature Northwest, and coastlines, riparian
Conservancy scientists and land man- corridors, valley bottoms and foothills
agers found that roads and utility cor- everywhere – are also those regions
ridors posed a critical threat to biodi- that are developing most rapidly or are
versity health in 55 of 89 conserva- already developed. Sprawl is the num-
tion areas.6 ber one cause of habitat loss and
fragmentation in California, the
If growth continues at the current nation’s most populous state, where it
pace, the amount of land developed in is threatening 188 of 286 imperiled or
just the next 25 years will equal the endangered species.10
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The Sixth Great Extinction


Historically, the extinction of both the extinction curve" believe that used
plant and animal species closely fol- together, smart growth and "smart "We need both smart
lowed the spread of humans from conservation" can work toward land- growth and smart
Africa and Eurasia. But the rate of scape-scale solutions, delineating
extinctions is increasing so rapidly where growth should occur and where conservation -- an
that conservation biologists now pre- habitat must be protected. approach that is
dict the loss of a third of the world’s
plant and animal species within the "It’s clear we need to begin planning proactive instead of
next 50 years, a phenomenon of such way upstream -- before species reactive, and that
apocalyptic magnitude they call it "the become endangered," says Jessica works at a large
sixth great extinction."11 Conservation Wilkinson of the Environmental Law
biology – the protection, maintenance Institute in Washington D.C. "It’s not enough scale that we
and restoration of life on this planet – just about smart growth because we can save entire
is a relatively young science that need to know first where the biodiver-
emerged in the ‘70s partly in sity hotspots are -- so that we can ecosystems.”
response to this crisis. make sure smart growth is happening
in the right places."
Extinction is a natural process that
has shaped the world since the begin- Adds Ed McMahon of the
ning of time, but what alarms conser- Conservation Fund in Washington
vation biologists is the speed at which D.C., "We need both smart growth and
this one is occurring. Previous mass smart conservation -- an approach
extinctions were driven by geological that is proactive instead of reactive,
and astronomical processes over mil- and that works at a large enough
lions of years; this one is taking scale that we can save entire ecosys-
decades. And it’s the first to be tems. Successful land conservation
caused, directly and indirectly, by a needs to overcome both land fragmen-
single species – humans. tation and land consumption. That
work can’t happen in isolation. Wildlife
Smart growth is not the panacea. and wilderness advocates must work
Neither is simply spending more in concert with smart growth activists.
money on land conservation. But con- And they must be ruthlessly strategic."
servationists working to "get ahead of
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No Place for Nature


As bulldozers advance toward wild- of Portland and also a board member
lands, the arenas in which smart of 1000 Friends of Oregon. "We’ll lose
growth advocates and wildlife and support for smart growth if we don’t
wilderness advocates wage their very provide the green to go along with the
separate battles are literally converg- higher densities. Furthermore, if natu-
ing. Meantime, the limitations of the ral areas are not accessible to urban-
smart growth toolbox are becoming ites they’ll lose contact with nature.
apparent -- even in the Pacific As Robert Michael Pyle writes in his
Northwest where smart growth has book, The Thunder Tree, ‘What is the
been most successful. extinction of the condor to a child who
has never known a wren?’"
Oregon has the most comprehensive
"Perhaps it’s not that land-use planning program in the coun- Meanwhile, outside Seattle’s urban
try, and it has slowed urban sprawl: growth boundary, wildlife and wilder-
we will save the While the population of Portland grew ness advocates have become alarmed
salmon ... but rather by 31 percent between 1980 and at how many 20-acre ranchettes now
that the salmon will 2000, the amount of developed land dot the 45-mile-wide buffer zone pro-
increased only 3 percent.12 Contrast tecting pristine U.S. Forest Service
save us." that with other large coastal metropoli- lands east of rapidly developing King
tan areas, which are consuming land and Pierce counties. And they worry
ten times as fast as they’re adding about land in between Seattle and
new residents.13 Portland, where timber companies are
cutting logging roads in the shape of
But while Oregon’s land use program cul de sacs to prepare them for even-
has succeeded in protecting forests tual development.
and farmland – the purpose for which
it was written – it has not protected And inside Seattle’s urban growth
habitat and species, which have con- boundary, King County officials have
tinued to slide toward extinction, a been forced into the unusual position
fact documented by the Oregon of having to figure out how to accom-
Biodiversity Project, a state-of-the-art modate an endangered species in the
assessment of habitats and species.14 heart of a bustling metropolis. The
This disconnect between land use Chinook or King salmon, once the
planning and habitat conservation was mighty symbol of the Pacific
further emphasized in a recent Northwest, has been listed as endan-
Defenders of Wildlife report, the con- gered, putting a very different spin on
clusion summed up in the title -- "No conversations about the proposed
Place for Nature."15 $7.8 billion expansion of the I-405
freeway, which traverses the city and
At the same time, critics from within crosses dozens of salmon-bearing
the smart growth movement are say- streams.
ing Portland’s urban growth boundary
is being held too tight and is adverse- "Perhaps it’s not that we will save the
ly affecting the flora and fauna inside. salmon," says King County Executive
"We no longer have the luxury of writ- Ron Sims, sounding a hopeful note,
ing off the urban environment," warns "but rather that the salmon will save
Michael Houck of the Audubon Society us."
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The Balkanized Non-profit World


The non-profit world is as balkanized with the turnout at a subsequent GYC
as government, and it wasn’t so long wilderness conference. "But," he
ago that even wildlife and wilderness adds, "it was a totally different audi-
advocates worked separately. Now ence."
they work together, mostly on public
lands and with the agencies that man- GYC’s investigation into the status of
age them. But increasingly they have planning efforts in the 20 counties
to deal with private lands and a very found that while every county had a
different set of players – changing cir- plan, there wasn’t much in the way of
cumstances that are ushering them implementation. "That’s the point at
into the smart growth movement. which we began to get involved in the
Growth Management Leadership
The evolution of the work of the Alliance," says Glick, "and to ratchet
Greater Yellowstone Coalition exempli- up our involvement in land use and
fies this trend. Founded in 1983 to transportation planning." Glick said he
deal with conservation issues affect- understands why his growth manage-
ing the seven national forests and two ment colleagues don’t want the public
national parks within the Greater to perceive smart growth as an envi-
Yellowstone area, GYC now spends ronmental issue, and agrees it’s prob-
half its budget dealing with issues ably more effective to talk in terms of
affecting the private lands surrounding growth’s economic, social justice, com-
these public lands. munity development, land use or
transportation impacts.
"We’ve developed what we call an‘
ecosystem approach’ that blends wild- "But if smart growth campaigns could
land protection with sustainable devel- also find a way to quantify the bene-
opment," says Dennis Glick, who was fits of growth management in terms of
with the Greater Yellowstone Coalition biodiversity conservation – that
during the writing of this paper but they’ve met conservation goals or
who now works for the Sonoran saved important habitat, for example -
Institute. "Because we found that - they could open up a new universe of
growth was occurring in critical habitat funding from foundations and citizens
– the lower elevations through which interested in conservation," says
elk, deer and grizzly bears travel from Glick.
one patch of habitat to another. We
realized we could be successful on Tim Davis of the Montana Smart
public lands but still fail if we didn’t Growth Coalition, a GYC partner, is
manage growth on private lands -- the less sanguine about the prospect of
weak link in any big picture conserva- integrating the worlds of biodiversity
tion strategy." conservation and smart growth.
Biodiversity conservation is based in
But most of GYC’s 125 member organ- the natural sciences, and favors com-
izations are focused on public land pensatory strategies like land acquisi-
conservation issues, leaving GYC to tion, he points out, while smart growth
head up the coalition’s growth man- work is based in the social sciences
agement efforts in 20 rapidly develop- and is much more advocacy oriented.
ing counties across Montana, Idaho Then there is the problem of scale.
and Wyoming. Glick says he was Conservationists are
pleased that to see 400 people show looking to save large
up at a statewide smart growth confer- landscapes that cross
ence last year, and equally pleased political boundaries, whereas
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smart growth advocates work within fishing groups, and others who might
traditional jurisdictions, such as muni- otherwise be opposed to growth
cipalities, counties, regions or states. control."

But it has been easy to bring all kinds These two coalitions are together over-
of people together over concerns laying maps of growth patterns, the
about wildlife, he adds, and the road network, public lands, core habi-
Montana Smart Growth Coalition is a tats and the corridors animals use to
broad one, including wildlife and move between them in order to deter-
wilderness advocates as well as local mine the most imminent threats to
businesses, the Montana Farmers habitat connectivity. The Montana
Union, and several local smart growth Smart Growth Coalition is polling resi-
efforts. "Concern about wildlife is an dents to determine how best to talk
issue that plays across all political about growth control and which growth
boundaries in Montana," says Davis. management tools would be most
It doesn’t matter if you’re to the left or acceptable. The intent is to boost
right, a Democrat or a Republican. It planning efforts to designate growth
Road kills are the allows us to sit down at the table with areas and then direct infrastructure
property rights advocates, hunting and spending into them.
leading cause of
death for animals;
researchers estimate
at least a million are From Rocks and Ice to Rewilding
killed each day on Current thinking about conservation tioning populations of large carnivores
U.S. highways.17 has evolved away from a focus on pro- like grizzlies, wolves and lynx. Without
tecting "rocks and ice" and single at- these large predators, say rewilding
risk species, and toward conserving proponents, ecosystems undergo dra-
entire ecosystems that are a mix of matic changes leading to "biotic sim-
public and private lands. It has also plification" and species loss.
moved toward a more collaborative
approach that seeks to involve private But maintaining viable populations of
landowners in voluntary and incentive- large carnivores requires healthy gene
based conservation action in addition pools, and that requires a very large
to the more traditional tools of govern- landscape extending from west-central
ment regulation, land acquisition and Wyoming to mid-British Columbia and
adversarial action. Alberta. But here wildlife and wilder-
ness advocates again come up
There is increasing interest in protect- against transportation and land use:
ing not just species and spectacular In order for large carnivores to use
scenery but also the natural process- this Yellowstone to Yukon landscape,
es – floods, fires, disease, nutrient they must cross at least four highways
cycling – that keep ecosystems func- in Wyoming, 17 highways in Idaho, 23
tioning and provide important services in Montana, and 17 in British
like water purification and flood con- Columbia and Alberta.16
trol. This new, more comprehensive,
"big picture" approach necessitates a With each crossing an animal risks
lot of collaboration. collision. Road kills are the leading
cause of death for animals;
The most recent current in the conser- researchers estimate at least a mil-
vation movement, "rewilding," con- lion are killed each day on U.S.
tends we need to conserve "big highways.17
wilderness" to provide for fully func-
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The North Rockies is the "last of the wilderness activists involved in trans-
last" intact mountain ecosystems on portation planning.
this continent, and still contains
almost all the large mammal species Sophisticated mapping and modeling
that existed before Europeans arrived. efforts using satellite imagery and GIS
databases to identify and overlay
But the patches of habitat are becom- maps of important habitat and move-
ing islands in a sea of development ment corridors with growth projections
and must be reconnected, a mission and road networks have aided these
that has inspired a coalition of 270 efforts. This has enabled these organi-
conservation organizations called the zations to work with land trusts on pri-
Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation oritizing conservation purchases, to
Initiative (Y2Y), which includes GYC work with real estate agents to find
and also American Wildlands, which is conservation buyers, and to determine
taking the lead in getting wildlife and where transportation and land use
advocacy is most critical.

The Metropolitan Wild


Meantime, efforts similar to Y2Y are These site visits have proven a power-
taking place on a much smaller geo- ful advocacy tool, offering a profound "We need to shed the
graphic scale in Portland, Chicago, lesson in the Great Swamp’s ecosys-
and even in the wilds of New York tem, where 90 percent of the land is bi-polar vision of
City’s metropolitan region, less than a privately owned and the pressures to wild versus degraded
hundred miles from Central Park. There develop are escalating. Not only have
on the suburban-rural frontier, biologist local decision-makers come to appre- habitats, and realize
Michael Klemens of the Metropolitan ciate the Great Swamp’s value, but there is a wide spec-
Conservation Alliance enjoys taking they have begun to argue that it must trum of choices
planners and politicians into the Great be protected by buffer zones, and that
Swamp of the rapidly urbanizing adjacent development must be down- between these
Harlem Valley, to help him count bog sized and clustered. extremes."
turtles, salamanders and snakes as
part of his biological survey work. Like Michael Houck in Portland,
Klemens argues we can’t only protect
Recent research has demonstrated pristine wilderness. While the tropics
that even small, wetland-dependent are often said to be the hottest biolog-
species like these migrate between ical hotspot, he likes to point out, only
habitats – just like the big carnivores -- the Mekong and Irrawaddy river catch-
and require extensive portions of adja- ment basins in Southeast Asia boast
cent forested upland for portions of as many species of turtles as the
their life cycles. These species move lower Hudson Valley.
between wetlands, traversing forests
and fields, and in more developed "We need to shed the bi-polar vision
areas crossing roads with frequently of wild versus degraded habitats, and
fatal results. As increasing develop- realize there is a wide spectrum of
ment fragments their habitat, these choices between these extremes," he
species are no longer able to maintain says. "Obviously we can’t return the
their migration regimes and are region to pre-Columbian wilderness,
becoming extinct – a third of North but we can improve the potential of
America’s 86 species of frogs and these ecosystems to support a higher
toads are extinct or endangered. diversity of native species." The prob-
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lem, he says, is a critical lack of infor- division or land use decision may not
mation on many species and ecosys- be in and of itself harmful, says
tems – the information we have col- Klemens, "the cumulative impacts of
lected is mostly about rare and endan- 268 decision-making bodies operating
gered species. without a regional framework are
degrading the environment. And by
Moreover, the ten-county metropolitan focusing on the rare instead of the
region in which Klemens is working is ordinary we are missing widespread,
made up of 268 local land-use juris- dramatic, landscape-scale changes
dictions, resulting in what one local that are converting the ordinary to
official has called a "tyranny of small rare."
decisions." Whereas a particular sub-

The Effect of Roads on Habitat


Many researchers have documented nation’s first land trust and the first to
"There simply isn’t the effects of roads on habitat and make biodiversity conservation a prior-
enough money to buy biodiversity, but none with the acid ity, has begun working with state trans-
tone of conservation biologist Reed portation officials in both California
everything that’s bio- Noss, who describes roads as "a clas- and in Colorado on advance mitigation
logically important. sic death-trap phenomenon."18 Animals for all transportation projects listed in
are often attracted to them – to travel long-range transportation plans.
But if we can get along them, bask in the sun, browse
these lands identified roadside vegetation or lick de-icing There’s a confluence of interest: The
and protected in the salts – and then are killed by them. Nature Conservancy worries the
postage-size conservation areas
general planning Roads usher in an invasion of exotic resulting from project-by-project mitiga-
process we can get a weeds, pests and pathogens, and pol- tion efforts don’t address the cumula-
lute habitat with noise as well as tive impacts of transportation proj-
lot more bang for the heavy metals, carbon monoxide and ects, and contribute little to the viabili-
buck than if we dioxide, and pesticides – which typical- ty of individual species and the habi-
attempt to buy these ly end up in nearby aquatic systems. tats and ecosystems on which they
They increase the penetration of sun depend. Departments of Transpor-
lands outright or to and wind, make slopes vulnerable to tation worry about project delivery
purchase conserva- erosion, and increase impervious sur- delays – now averaging five-and-a-half
faces, which concentrate and alter years -- resulting from the project-by-
tion easements." water flows. project approval process.

But most importantly: Many large The Nature Conservancy is increasing-


mammals avoid roads entirely, while ly becoming involved in both trans-
smaller species are afraid to cross portation and land use planning
them, which means that roads frag- efforts, says Emily Tibbott of the con-
ment habitat into smaller and smaller servancy’s San Francisco office,
patches, seriously constraining breed- because "There simply isn’t enough
ing populations and thereby posing a money to buy everything that’s biologi-
major threat to biodiversity. cally important. But if we can get
these lands identified and protected in
This is why wildlife and wilderness the general planning process we can
advocates are increasingly turning get a lot more bang for the buck than
their attention to the transportation if we attempt to buy these lands out-
and land use planning process. Even right or to purchase conservation
the venerable Nature Conservancy, the easements."
Page 9

Road-Building and the Climate for Conservation


Concerns about road-building are also that could be used to address press-
prompting wildlife and wilderness ing urban transportation problems on Studies show that
advocates to join smart growth advo- building roads that open up new land
cates in asking why it is that the fed- for development, fragment habitat and when more than 10
eral government is providing so much endanger species?" asks James percent of a water-
funding for sprawl-inducing infrastruc- Corless of the Surface Transportation shed is covered by
ture – not only roads, but also sewers Policy Project. Corless says that about
and water lines, and even flood insur- 90 percent of gas tax revenues go to impervious surfaces -
ance -- in the first place. state highway departments and are - like roads, rooftops
used mostly for construction and
"Each year federal and state agencies maintenance of state and federal high- and parking lots --
provide billions of dollars for infra- ways, even though these highways aquatic ecosystems
structure in rural areas," states a new comprise just 11 percent of all roads. become degraded.
report on Coastal Sprawl for the Pew
Oceans Commission. "These projects And wildlife and wilderness are joining
are frequently not reviewed in light of campaigns for more environmentally
regional growth plans, yet they have friendly transportation modes, includ-
great potential to undermine growth ing intercity and high-speed rail –
management goals and needs." which have the potential to concen-
trate growth around stations.
Coastal Sprawl was written by Dana Transportation advocates point out
Beach of the South Carolina Coastal that travel patterns have changed
Conservation League, who concludes, since September 11, as longer waits
"land use reform must be at the fore- at airports have made rail competitive
front of the coastal protection agen- with air for shorter distance travel.
da." Runaway land consumption and Now is the time, they argue, to begin
exponential growth in automobile use integrating our very separate modes of
have the greatest impact along the transportation into seamless systems
coasts," Beach writes, because like in Europe – where travelers can
coastal zones comprise 13 percent of easily transfer from plane to train to
total U.S. acreage but are home to bus to car and back again -- reducing
more than half the U.S. population. auto-dependency and the sprawl-induc-
Studies show that when more than 10 ing effects of airport expansion.
percent of a watershed is covered by
impervious surfaces -- like roads, Roads further confound conservation
rooftops and parking lots -- aquatic efforts by driving up the cost of land,
ecosystems become degraded. and making landowners resistant to
planning and zoning efforts that could
Advocates are also joining local offi- make their land less valuable. "Once
cials in questioning why it is that while you plan and build transportation links
the majority of gas taxes are paid for out into the hinterlands you create a
by urban drivers, most of the revenues new interface that ripens land for
are used to pay for state and federal development," points out Alan Front of
highway systems between cities -- the Trust for Public Land.
thereby facilitating sprawl and habitat
fragmentation – instead of the local The Trust for Public Land is research-
roads on which they drive. ing the effect of transportation plan-
ning and spending on conservation in
"This is an equity issue for local gov- order to bolster efforts to better inte-
ernments, but it also provokes the grate open space mitigation into trans-
question why are we spending money portation planning, and to require
Page 10

more rigorous economic and environ- projects – on federal aid highway


mental analysis – similar to that projects.
required for Army Corps of Engineers

The "Retail Use" Of Science


Virtually all biodiversity conservation The computer user can simply click on
begins with good science and comes a map to bring up a table of informa-
down to land use, which is why smart tion on historic and current vegetation
growth and biodiversity are, as and species, hydrology, landforms,
Klemens says, "inherently excellent land use, land ownership, roads, land
for each other." The trick has been management, population, demography,
integrating biodiversity concerns and and even political attitudes. This has
data into the land use decision-making made it possible to identify which
process. It’s even trickier convincing habitat and species aren’t represent-
decision-makers to use the information. ed on lands currently held in conserva-
tion, information that can be used to
In order to get his concerns taken prioritize future conservation land pur-
"Scientists need to seriously Klemens got himself elected chases and to identify which lands
as chair of the local planning board. can be developed with minimum
become the inter- Klemens is a biologist -- "Everyone impact.
preters and help thinks of scientists as impractical, but
move this conversa- being a planning commissioner has Now the Nature Conservancy is work-
opened doors for me" -- and he ing to provide planners everywhere
tion along ... to raise believes that other scientists have to with a similarly sophisticated planning
the awareness that dare to come down from their ivory tool. The conservancy began inventory-
towers in academia and get their ing biota back in 1974, completing
there’s a looming hands dirty applying science to day-to- databases for all 50 states and
biodiversity crisis.” day decisions. Canada by 1989. Called the Natural
Heritage Network, the national data-
"Scientists need to become the inter- base contains information on 50,000
preters and help move this conversa- species and ecological communities,
tion along," Klemens says. "Scientists is maintained by state agencies and is
need to be willing to extrapolate, to widely used in the environmental
prognosticate, to raise the awareness review process. It is also widely used
that there’s a looming biodiversity cri- in the conservation planning process
sis. They think all they have to do is by developers, consultants, land trusts
get published to create change, but and advocates.
that’s not how it works. They have to
be willing to use science in a retail But it has not been used in the land
way." use planning process, prompting the
Nature Conservancy to try to make the
The need to deliver good science and data more usable. The new service,
translate it into policy prompted NatureServe, is a collection of desk-
Defenders of Wildlife, the Nature top and web-enabled tools and infor-
Conservancy, and the Oregon Natural mation resources, including mapping,
Heritage Program to create a $1 mil- animation and visualization software
lion highly sophisticated database with that analyzes and presents complex
120 layers of electronically linked scientific information in a format that
information for the Oregon Biodiversity can be used for routine land and
Project. water decisions.
Page 11

In order to ensure applicability for real or information about road and sewer in-
life planning, NatureServe’s advisory frastructure," says NatureServe senior
board includes a former president of scientist Bruce Stein. "We consider this
the National Association of Counties, to be a smart growth tool that will allow
a city manager and several planning planners to determine which areas
commissioners. The software is to be under their jurisdiction will present the
ready in 2004. most regulatory problems and lawsuits
and require costly mitigation, and which
"We want to get biodiversity data onto are most suitable for development."
the same playing field as census data

Habitat Conservation Plans


To date, habitat conservation plans, "Clearly public agencies need to be a
required under the Endangered lot less passive in developing land-
Species Act if development plans scape-scale biodiversity strategies,
result in the "taking" of an endan- and these strategies need to be the
gered species, have been one of the driver for land use and transportation
primary means of integrating biodiver- plans," says Greg Thomas of the
sity concerns into land use planning. Natural Heritage Institute in San
Conservationists support the idea of Francisco, which is developing a "sci-
HCPs, but say there are serious flaws. ence-delivery mechanism" to enable
independent scientists to intervene
Planning is initiated and paid for by directly in negotiations over HCPs.
the landowner and approved without
independent scientific review or public "Whereas other areas of environmen-
input, no provisions for ongoing moni- tal protection require those who cause
toring, or for adaptive management the problem to pay for the solution,
should the conservation plan fail. The the burden of protecting biodiversity
single species focus, they say, does falls on the owners of the remaining
little to promote functioning ecosys- undeveloped habitat – even though
tems, and while there’s a trend toward the species became endangered due
multiple species habitat conservation to consumption decisions made by
planning across jurisdictional bound- society as a whole. Landscape-scale
aries, critics say the increased com- planning provides a mechanism for
plexity only exacerbates the problems. the public to shoulder some of the
conservation burden."
Page 12

Smart Conservation
Though it’s not keeping pace with the sewers."20 Green infrastructure is
development threat, the land trust composed of "hubs," or large conser-
movement is burgeoning. In just the vation areas, connected by "links,"
last four to five years state, county that can also be large conservation
and local governments have passed areas, or conservation corridors, ripari-
$20 billion dollars for open space an corridors, greenbelts, trails, and
acquisition through legislation and ref- even utility corridors.
erendums. The number of land trusts
has almost doubled since 1990, and Conservation Fund Greenways
the amount of acreage set aside has Program Director Ed McMahon has
increased 226 percent – for a total of been working with a large measure of
more than 6.2 million acres, an area success on statewide greenways pro-
twice the size of Connecticut.19 grams in both Florida and Maryland,
two states where government has
Andrew Zepp of the Land Trust actively supported aggressive land
Alliance says the 1,200 land trusts conservation programs.
exercise a full range of philosophies
when determining which lands to con- McMahon says his smart conserva-
“There’s a natural serve – whether it is preservation of tion philosophy was shaped by his
historic land uses, or scenic protec- experience as vice chair of Maryland’s
nexus between con- tion, or biodiversity conservation. But Greenways Commission, where he
servation and smart Zepp says an increasing number, like watched the state spend millions of
growth, because every the Nature Conservancy and the Trust dollars on conservation easements to
for Public Land, are beginning to work preserve Maryland’s farms. Hundreds
single urban redevel- in communities on habitat conserva- of farms now dot the landscape, sur-
opment, brownfield tion planning efforts and smart growth rounded by subdivisions. A recent
campaigns. story in the Washington Post docu-
and infill project mented the state’s last livestock auc-
saves another green- "We used to work in a very reactive tion, sounding the death knell for
field." mode at the behest of activists or gov- farming in Maryland. "That wasn’t
ernment agencies or landowners," smart conservation," says McMahon.
says Alan Front of the Trust for Public "The state wasn’t coordinating its
Land. "But there just isn’t enough efforts with local decisions about
money or enough of us to respond to planning and zoning."
all the ‘Oh-my-Gods,’ so we began
looking for more proactive and strate- In response, the Conservation Fund
gic ways to conserve land. There’s a helped create Maryland’s Rural Legacy
natural nexus between conservation Program, which seeks to maintain
and smart growth, because every sin- landscapes and direct growth by pre-
gle urban redevelopment, brownfield serving large, contiguous blocks of
and infill project saves another green- countryside and nature preserves, cre-
field." ating greenbelts around small towns
to constrain sprawl, and creating
The Conservation Fund has also greenways to link conservation lands.
sought to promote what it calls
"smart conservation" by heavily pro- The Conservation Fund also encour-
moting the idea that government ages the purchase of lands that pro-
needs to plan for and invest in "green tect important ecological services like
infrastructure" as systematically as flood control and water purification,
"gray infrastructure" like roads and meanwhile serving to conserve impor-
Page 13

tant habitat. New York City, for exam- Mountains for $1.5 billion, and avoid-
ple, made the decision to purchase ed spending $8 billion on a filtration
watershed lands in the Catskill and treatment plant.

A Community-based Movement
Smart growth and conservation are to do a local socio-economic profile, a
explicitly linked in a community-based build-out analysis and a cost-of servic- "We’re wildlife advo-
movement that’s growing in the West es study, and about public financing
and the Southwest, where even the campaigns to fund the purchase of
cates, but we don’t
most conservative property-rights development rights. start out talking
advocates are concerned about the about grizzly bear
rate at which condos are replacing The Sonoran Institute then helps staff
cows. Leaders of this movement are these county planning efforts for up to migration corridors,"
helping communities find a way to bal- three years, because much of the Rasker says. "We talk
ance nature with commerce, and to problem is that rural counties don’t
maintain community character despite have fulltime planners to deal with the
about the fiscal effects
the influx of new residents. demands of rapid growth. It’s a bril- of growth on the
liant tactic. "We figured why deal with county budget, and
The Sonoran Institute takes the this from around the edges?" asks
approach that conservation only works Ray Rasker in the Sonoran Institute’s the conversion of
when it enhances economic well being Montana office. "Who makes the deci- ranchland into sub-
and reflects a community’s common sions that are most important when it
values – which are typically tied to the comes to growth? The planning com-
divisions, and that
land.21 The Sonoran Institute provides missioners. But they’re unprepared to gets us in the door.
technical advice to dirt-rich-cash-poor deal with sprawl, and they’re looking But still the commis-
ranchers and farmers about how they for help.
can maintain working landscapes, con- sioners sometimes sit
serve habitat and generate income "We’re wildlife advocates, but we don’t in the back of the
and/or reduce taxes all at the same start out talking about grizzly bear
time – through conservation ease- migration corridors," Rasker says. "We
room with their arms
ments, estate planning, limited devel- talk about the fiscal effects of growth crossed. It’s only
opment, voluntary zoning districts, and on the county budget, and the conver- when they start to
collaborative planning. sion of ranchland into subdivisions,
and that gets us in the door. But still believe this is really
In partnership with the National the commissioners sometimes sit in going to be about
Association of Counties, the Sonoran the back of the room with their arms
Institute also trains county planning crossed. It’s only when they start to
their values that they
commissions and their staff about the believe this is really going to be about begin to take us seri-
connections between transportation, their values that they begin to take us ously. Because they
land use and sprawl. Planners learn seriously. Because they hate sprawl
zoning and regulatory techniques, how as much as we do." hate sprawl as much
as we do."
Page 14

Tremendous Challenge And Tremendous Opportunity


Harvey Locke of the Kendall 300,000 in 1960 to more than 15
Foundation, a founding member of the million in 1990, prompted by the cli-
“People who want Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation mate, the absence of a state income
improved quality of Initiative, is among those who see tax, and the development of the
tremendous opportunity in this conflu- Space Coast and then Disney World.
life cause sprawl. ence of growth, economic and conser-
They’re not thought- vation issues -- if only because it’s Florida developed the first-ever
bringing people together to work col- statewide biodiversity assessment
less people. They don’t laboratively on the problems. and plan in 1994 and backed it up
want to ruin the very with an aggressive conservation pro-
thing they came here "It all comes down to quality of life," gram – half of the priority conservation
he says. "Which is why people are lands identified in a recent study by
for.” moving out toward wilderness areas the University of Florida have already
and national parks in the first place. been set aside.
People who want improved quality of
life cause sprawl. They’re not thought- Unfortunately, the pressures to devel-
less people. They don’t want to ruin op are intense, and the plight of the
the very thing they came here for. Florida panther has made it the
"poster child" of the conservation
"It’s going to bring about a paradigm movement: Panther habitat has dimin-
shift," he continues. "Intrinsically peo- ished so rapidly there are less than
ple understand that everything is con- 80 adults left, and the big cats are
nected. A lot of synergy will happen killed with alarming frequency along a
around this confluence of smart stretch of road so notorious it’s called
growth, transportation, wildlife and "Slaughter Alley."22
wilderness issues. This is where peo-
ple will have to put it all together. And But in the southwestern part of the
I have faith that they will." state where development pressures
are most overwhelming and threaten
Locke points to Florida as a place the integrity of the Everglades and Big
where there has been tremendous col- Cypress Swamp, developers them-
laboration in the face of tremendous selves have begun initiating broad-
challenge, though because of politics based smart growth visioning efforts.
Florida’s success has waxed and "They’re just tired of butting heads
waned over the past 10 years. Florida over every single development per-
had to think about growth and conser- mit," says Mike Bauer of the Audubon
vation early. Population grew from Society.
Page 15

Ways That Funders Can Make A Difference


1) Create incentives for smart on these issues. The Environmental
growth advocates and conservation- Law Institute’s Jessica Wilkinson says
ists to work together, and fund col- some splashy success stories are
laborations that can help communi- needed to help inspire a
ties decide where and where not to biodiversity/smart growth movement.
build. Document work that has ELI is part of the Consortium on
already been done and fund communi- Biodiversity Conservation and Land
cations efforts about the benefits of Use Planning (along with Defenders of
"biodiversity friendly communities" Wildlife, Nature Serve and Island
that protect ecological resources by Press), which is researching the barri-
pursuing smart growth strategies. ers to integrating biodiversity data into
the land use planning process with
Smart growth and conservation fun- the intent of publishing a best prac-
ders should fund explicit collaborations tices manual that also profiles com-
between decision-makers, land trusts, munities where this is being success-
advocates, scientists, planners and fully done. A group of funders might
developers. Impressively broad-based also commission papers for a confer-
efforts have begun to integrate biodi- ence on smart growth and biodiversity,
versity concerns into the land use use the conference to bring the
planning process across the U.S. -- in authors together with advocates, and
states and in cities, in the pristine wild then edit the papers and conference
and the metropolitan wild. Collabora- proceedings into a book.
tive campaigns should tap into the
considerable expertise that is develop- 2) Support analysis and education to
ing to deliver good science into the help decision-makers and the public
decision-making process, and should better understand the benefits of
utilize the policy analysis that’s been smart growth and biodiversity conser-
done by organizations like the Environ- vation and, conversely, the costs of
mental Law Institute, Natural Heritage unplanned growth. This work can
Institute and Defenders of Wildlife. also foster collaborations by translat-
ing the benefits of smart growth into
Tim Davis of the Montana Smart biodiversity conservation terms.
Growth Coalition emphasizes that con-
cerns about wildlife and wilderness – There are several excellent sources of
or, in more urban areas, concerns biodiversity information, but the data
about open space -- can bring every- still isn’t used in the land use plan-
one to the table to talk about growth ning process because planners don’t
management, even property rights know the resources exists, don’t know
advocates. Alan Front of the Trust for how to use them, and have little incen-
Public Land and Emily Tibbott of the tive to do so. Funders can help make
Nature Conservancy point out that pro- this information more usable, and to
tecting lands by working through the foster collaborations between conser-
transportation and land use planning vation and smart growth advocates,
process – through advance mitigation who can demand that biodiversity is
for transportation projects and in gen- considered.
eral plans – is much cheaper than out-
right acquisition. Dana Beach, in Coastal Sprawl, writes
about how important it is for munici-
There is tremendous hunger among palities and regions to understand
advocates for information about how their growth patterns and to assess
other advocates are working together alternatives to conventional sprawl.
Page 16

GIS technology makes it possible to ning effort being mounted in Portland,


Not only does the tra- overlay maps of growth projections Oregon to design a biodiversity-sensi-
ditional project-by- with maps of road networks, and to tive expansion of the urban growth
integrate information about air and boundary that actually improves habi-
project [transporta- water quality, terrestrial and aquatic tat and especially salmon-bearing
tion] approval process habitats and other regional resources. streams. Another effort to watch is
This kind of visual analysis of different the ambitious attempt to integrate a
slow down project growth scenarios and their impacts – general plan update, long-range trans-
delivery, it also results and the kind of planning and zoning portation plan and a multiple-species
in a piecemeal changes necessary to create them -- habitat conservation plan in Riverside
is invaluable for communities faced County, California.
approach to environ- with important land-use decisions.
mental protection that Beach notes that during research for The traditional approach to transporta-
his report he could locate only two tion and land use planning and envi-
doesn’t address the coastal regions that had utilized digi- ronmental protection invites conflict
cumulative impacts of tized images to project future land-use and lawsuits at the back-end because
projects and con- patterns. there isn’t enough up-front planning to
address issues before a particular
tributes little to the Analysis of the costs and benefits of project or course of action has been
viability of species and growth has been skewed heavily selected. Not only does the traditional
toward development that, according to project-by-project approval process
habitats and ecosys- conventional wisdom, increases local slow down project delivery, it also
tems. An integrated property tax revenues and fuels eco- results in a piecemeal approach to
mapping and compre- nomic expansion. Conservation, on environmental protection that doesn’t
the other hand, is thought to be address the cumulative impacts of
hensive planning expensive, especially when it inhibits projects and contributes little to the
effort involving all economic activities. Only recently have viability of species and habitats and
the costs of development been more ecosystems. An integrated mapping
stakeholders is the key, carefully documented. The aesthetic, and comprehensive planning effort
and these efforts recreational, ecological and other non- involving all stakeholders is the key,
should be showcased. market values of conservation have and these efforts should be show-
yet to be quantified in a manner that cased.
presents local decision-makers with
reliable and balanced information 4) Support informed analysis, educa-
upon which to base decisions. tion and debate on critical public
policy and spending issues - such as
3) Showcase collaborative planning transportation, coastal zone manage-
efforts illustrating that better and ment, and water - at the national,
more comprehensive up-front plan- state, metropolitan and local levels.
ning can reduce costly delays, mitiga- For example, philanthropic support
tion measures and lawsuits. will be crucial to assurethat neces-
sary information analysis, education
Collaborations around the country and public debate occursregarding
show great potential for yielding win- the outcomes that will be advanced
win situations both for advocates con- by the reauthorization ofTEA21.
cerned about smart growth and/or bio-
diversity conservation and for govern- Federal law has special influence over
ment agencies concerned about costly transportation because so many proj-
project delivery delays. The Nature ects include federal funding. For this
Conservancy’s collaborations with reason, federal transportation funding
state departments of transportation is perhaps the most important deter-
show particular promise, as does a minant of regional growth patterns.
community-based comprehensive plan- Passage of the watershed Intermodal
Page 17

Surface Transportation Efficiency Act 5) Provide incentives for interaction


(ISTEA) in 1991 began requiring public between science, policy and
participation in the planning process, activism. Fund fellowships for early
mandated consideration of land use career scientists at non-profit institu-
plans and funding constraints, tions that work on conservation and
required Clean Air Act conformity, and smart growth.
made funding available for projects
that mitigated the impact of trans- Michael Klemens is both a scientist
portation systems. The Transportation and chair of a local planning commis-
Equity Act of the 21st Century (TEA- sion, allowing him to bridge the worlds
21) made more funding available for of science and policy. He believes it’s
environmentally friendly projects, creat- critical that other scientists be willing
ed a special program to link trans- to help interpret data for informed
portation and land use, and asked for decision-making. Unfortunately, he
a study of road density on habitat. says, scientists are typically detached
from the worlds of policy and advoca-
Transportation activists and wildlife cy, preferring to do only the kind of
and wilderness advocates are putting work that gets them published or
together a wish list for TEA-3, and other traditional academic rewards.
state departments of natural
resources are making TEA-3 a top leg- The biggest problem with science as
islative priority because of their con- an institution, he says, is that it refus-
cerns. Environmental streamlining, as es to come to terms with the need to
mentioned above, is a key concern, apply what has been learned. "The
but there will also be opportunity to degree of certainty now required is a
increase funding for mitigation meas- disincentive for scientists to apply
ures and to provide for more compre- what they know," says Klemens.
hensive planning that includes consid- "Scientists believe they can’t be advo-
eration of biodiversity. cates. They can document extinction
but they can’t use that information to
Other federal legislation provides become actors for change."
other opportunities, and should be
monitored. A concerted effort by advo- Funders ought to encourage academic
cates helped double funding for con- institutions to reward those who work
servation programs, including the pur- on applied science instead of only
chase of development rights and con- those who get their work published,
servation easements, in this year’s Klemens says. "We need to develop a
Farm Bill. The Coastal Zone cadre of scientists who have the tech-
Management Act could provide funds nical ability to frame research ques-
for regional land-use analysis, and tions that have both ecosystem man-
work has begun on a water bill that agement and public policy implica-
will, like ISTEA, make funding available tions, develop the research to find the
for environmentally friendly projects, or answer, and communicate those find-
green infrastructure, including open ings by actively engaging decision-
space protection, acquisition of con- makers."
servation easements and buffer
zones, and that will recognize the
water quality/land use connection by
encouraging low-impact development
and smart growth.
Page 18

6) The biggest challenge to conserv- PDR programs help with inheritance


ing biodiversity is on private lands; tax dilemmas.)
support strategies, like the purchase
of development rights, that result in PDR programs report their biggest
non-regulatory, voluntary or incentive- challenge is meeting demand. The
based stewardship and help maintain American Farmland Trust reports that
working landscapes. Unless rural for every landowner who sold ease-
economies are maintained, ranchers ments in 1995, six were turned away.
and farmers have no choice but to sell By showcasing these strategies, fun-
to developers. ders can help build political support
for more funding.
Since 1997 more than 20 states have
enacted laws that provide state funds 7) Help to bridge the rifts that are
for acquisition of development rights developing between environmental-
(PDR) or that encourage the donation ists and New Urbanists, and those
of conservation easements through that already exist between environ-
income tax credits. PDR programs mentalists and traditional land-based
enable land conservation at greatly cultures. If shared values can be
reduced expense because the cost of identified and differences overcome,
PDR is less than the outright purchase the potential for powerful collabora-
of lands, and costs associated with tions can be realized instead.
The most politically subsequent land management remain
successful PDR pro- the responsibility of the landowner. As The watersheds of New Mexico and
grams provide match- a component of growth management Southern Colorado are a stronghold of
strategies, PDR programs can also land-based culture and traditional envi-
ing grants to local provide a hedge against sprawl, and ronmental knowledge. "Acequia"
governments in prevent the loss of prime farmland means irrigation ditch but also the
and ranchland and the fragmentation community of farmers who own them
partnership with of habitat. in common and manage them as a
nonprofit groups, participatory democracy. These hand-
further emphasizing These cooperative, public-private part- dug earthen canals are important to
nerships are especially valuable in the local ecology, and they have supported
local, private land West, where property rights protection a land-based way of life over genera-
stewardship. has stalled the protection of open tions and indigenous farming methods
lands, and where acquisitions are that have enhanced agro-ecological
expensive due to the large size of land biodiversity.
parcels. The most politically success-
ful PDR programs provide matching But in recent years the demand for
grants to local governments in partner- water has reached unprecedented lev-
ship with nonprofit groups, further els, and efforts to maintain sufficient
emphasizing local, private land stew- water levels in rivers to support
ardship. endangered fish have pitted environ-
mentalists against land-based vil-
PDR programs keep farmers and lagers who need the water to irrigate.
ranchers on the land, contributing to The real problem is the transfer of
the local tax base. Moreover, PDR pro- water rights to large irrigation district
grams enable landowners to exercise that support agribusiness interests to
their personal choice, make financially the south. Neither environmentalists
advantageous decisions and preserve nor land-based villagers want to see
an important legacy for future genera- the kind of rampant growth and frag-
tions. (Since property values are typi- mentation of habitat that is occurring
cally reduced by 40-75 percent when all over the West. A facilitated process
development rights are extinguished, would help all parties realize their
Page 19

common interests, and to collaborate urban and suburban design without


instead of fight. sacrificing urbanism.

Rifts have also developed between 8) Fund the creation of models and
New Urbanists and environmentalists, communication efforts that distill and
who argue that nature is being sacri- disseminate the benefits of "biodiver-
ficed on the altar of urbanism. Andres sity friendly communities" that pro-
Duany, co-founder of the Congress for tect ecological resources and pursue
New Urbanism, is fond of saying we smart growth strategies.
couldn’t build Olmsted’s necklace of
parks along the Chicago Lakefront or Communities and regions all over the
create Barcelona’s Ramblas because U.S. are attempting to integrate con-
environmentalists would insist on leav- cerns about biodiversity conservation
ing the lakefront undisturbed and the into land use planning efforts – in the
creek under the Ramblas exposed. Willamette Valley in Oregon, in Pima
Duany’s hyperbole has an element of County, Arizona, in Massachusetts.
truth, but it’s no less true that even in The planning of a biodiversity-sensitive
environmentally sensitive cities like expansion of the urban growth bound-
Portland there’s a tendency to write-off ary in Portland is one such effort;
habitat and species in order to solve another is the discussion in the
other problems. Willamette Valley that should be care-
fully watched.
Significant biodiversity exists in cities
and suburbs, and proper design and The Consortium on Biodiversity
planting makes a difference. The Conservation and Land Use Planning –
Congress for New Urbanism, the which includes the Environmental Law
Natural Resources Defense Council Institute, Defenders of Wildlife, Nature
and the U.S. Green Building Council Serve and Island Press – is conduct-
are all meeting to better understand ing research into why this work is so
how new urbanism interacts with the difficult, with the intent of creating a
natural environment. A key part of this toolbox that will help advance these
collaboration should be to develop a efforts.
better understanding of the ways
designers can integrate habitat into
Page 20

Conclusion: The Tipping Point?


Could this be the tipping point? Coalition for A Livable Future, the
Developers, landowners, advocates design process will consider issues
and government agencies all want cer- regarding water, transportation, biodi-
tainty about which lands can be devel- versity, aesthetics, a sense of commu-
oped and which cannot. Notes the nity, food production, the economy -- to
Sonoran Institute’s Ray Rasker, "We cite just a few of the goals and objec-
don’t want to conserve it all – and tives – in one planning process.24
“We’d have to spend that’s the perfect message for devel-
some money. And opers." It’s a textbook example of the ideal
process outlined by Harvard planner
provide real incen- Back in Oregon, a team of scientists and author Richard Forman, who
tives to landowners to has recently concluded that habitat acknowledges the looming crises of
manage for ecological and environmental quality in the sprawl and biodiversity loss but con-
Willamette Basin around Portland cludes development and nature are
value. We’d have to could be improved even if population not incompatible. What it does, he
engage the public in doubles in the next 50 years.23 writes, is put land use at center
Oregon Biodiversity Project Director stage, and positions land planners in
a dialogue about the Sara Vickerman ponders what it would key roles to effect change.
future. And articu- take:
late a bold new "Indeed a spatial solution is emerging
"More regulations aren’t politically . . .," he writes in Landscape Ecology.
vision. But I’m untenable. We’d have to spend some But we must plan and manage the
convinced we could money. And provide real incentives to urban landscape as only one of sever-
landowners to manage for ecological al linked landscapes that must be
do it.” value. We’d have to engage the public considered together, he writes, in an
in a dialogue about the future. And approach that demands a willingness
articulate a bold new vision. But I’m to address all environmental and
convinced we could do it – in Oregon human issues in one comprehensive
and elsewhere." planning process.

Meantime, in Portland, as Metro, the "We plan for the short term but rarely
regional government, contemplates plan over human generations,"
expanding the urban growth boundary, Forman writes in Land Mosaics.
a community-based comprehensive "Landscapes and regions . . . are a
planning effort is taking place, to surrogate for long-term . . . when we
design an urban growth expansion make wise decisions for landscapes,
area that will actually improve habitat and especially regions, we manifest
and salmon-bearing streams. Mounted sustainable thinking and act for
by 1000 Friends of Oregon and the human generations."
Page 21

Resources
People who helped with preparation of this report (in addition to those quoted):
American Farmland Trust, John McCall
American Rivers, Betsy Otto
American Wildlands, Kim Davitt
Biodiversity Project, Cindy Coffin
Defenders of Wildlife, Laura Hood Watchman, Trisha White
Endangered Habitats League, Dan Silver
Florida Wildlife Federation, Manley Fuller
National Wildlife Federation: Kevin Doyle, Jan Hasselman, John
Kostyak, Brad Nunley and Caron Whitaker
Natural Resources Defense Council, Deron Lovaas
The Nature Conservancy, Steve McCormick , Michael O’Connell
New Mexico Acequia Association, Paula Garcia
Smart Growth America, Don Chen
Surface Transportation Policy Project, David Burwell and Kevin
McCarty
1000 Friends of Washington, Tim Trohimovich
The Wilderness Society, Thea Levkowitz and Janice Thompson
Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, Bethanie Wilder
University of California at Davis, Institute for Transportation Studies,
Dan Sperling
Books
Balancing Nature and Commerce in Gateway Communities, by Jim
Howe, Ed McMahon, and Luther Probst, the Conservation
Fund and the Sonoran Institute, Island Press, 1997.
Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions, by Richard
Forman, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Landscape Ecology: Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land Use
Planning, Wenche Dramstad, James Olson and Richard
Forman, Island Press, 1996.
Oregon’s Living Landscape: Strategies and Opportunities to Conserve
Biodiversity, by the Oregon Biodiversity Project, a Defenders of
Wildlife Publication, 1998.
Toward a Sustainable Future: Addressing the Long-Term Effects of Motor
Vehicle Transportation on Climate and Ecology, Transportation
Research Board Special Report 251.
Page 22

Reports and Papers


"A Citizen’s Guide to Transportation Planning and Wildlife Issues in the U.S. Northern
Rockies," by Kim Davitt, American Wildlands, September 2001.
"Coastal Sprawl: The Effects of Urban Design on Aquatic Ecosystems in the U.S.," by
Dana Beach of the South Carolina Coastal Commission for the Pew Oceans
Commission, 2001.
"The Ecological Effects of Roads," by Reed Noss for Wildlands Center for Preventing
Roads.
"The Forgotten Landscape: Ecosystem Conservation at the Suburban-Rural Frontier," by
Michael Klemens, Metropolitan Conservation Alliance.
"A Fragile Cornucopia: Assessing the State of U.S. Biodiversity," by Bruce Stein,
Environment, September 2001.
"Frayed Safety Nets: Conservation Planning Under the Endangered Species Act," by
Laura Hood for Defenders of Wildlife.
"The Global 200: A Representative Approach to Conserving the Earth’s Distinctive
Ecoregions," the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. Conservation Science Program,
October 2000.
"Humans and Other Catastrophes: Perspectives on Extinction," the Center for
Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History
"Innovative State Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation," Environmental Law Institute
First State Biodiversity Symposium Research Report, 001.
"Measures Across Sites: A Preliminary Summary," The Nature Conservancy,
September 2000.
"National Stewardship Initiatives: Conservation Strategies for U.S. Landowners," by Sara
Vickerman, Defenders of Wildlife.
"Our Built and Natural Environments: A Technical Review of the Interactions between
Land use, Transportation, and Environmental Quality, the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, 2000.
"No Place for Nature: The Limits of Oregon’s Land Use Program in Protecting Fish and
Wildlife Habitat in the Willamette Valley," by Pam Wiley for Defenders of
Wildlife and the Oregon Biodiversity Project, 2001, at www.Biodiversity
partners.org/Wiley.
"Paved Over and Pushed Out," by Eddie Nickens, in the National Wildlife Federation
National Wildlife magazine, August/September 2001.
"Paving Paradise: Sprawl’s Impact on Wildlife and Wild Places in California," National
Wildlife Federation, February 2001.
"Preserving Working Ranches in the West," The Sonoran Institute, 1997.
"The Purchase of Development Rights," Western Governor’s Association, Trust for
Public Land, National Cattleman’s Beef Association.
"Restoring a River of Life: The Willamette Restoration Strategy," the Willamette
Restoration Initiative, February 2001.
"Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities, by
Stephen Trombulak and Christopher Frissell, Conservation Biology, Vol. 14,
No. 1, February 2000.
"State Biodiversity Strategies," by Susan George, State Biodiversity Clearinghouse,
Defenders of Wildlife, January 2001.
"The Value of Agriculture and Agricultural Land in Maintaining Biodiversity," James
McDougal and Michael Klemens, Metropolitan Conservation Alliance.
"Where Property Rights and Biodiversity Converge: Lessons From Experience in Habitat
Conservation Planning," by Greg Thomas, the Natural Heritage Institute,
March 2000.
Page 23

Websites
American Farmland Trust, www.aft.org
American Wildlands, www.wildlands.org
Biodiversity Project, www.biodiverse.org
Center for Transportation and the Environment,
www.itre.ncsu.edu/cte (for information on the International
Conference on Ecology and Transportation on ecologically sound
transportation practices)
Conservation Fund, www.greeninfrastructure.org
Craighead Environmental Research Institute, www.grizzlybear.org
Defenders of Wildlife, www.defenders.org
Environmental Law Institute, www.eli.org
Gap Analysis Program, www.gap.uidaho.edu
Greater Yellowstone Coalition, www.greateryellowstone.org
Land Trust Alliance, www.lta.org
Metropolitan Conservation Alliance, www.wcs.org
Montana Smart Growth Coalition, www.msgc.org
The Nature Conservancy, www.tnc.org
NatureServe, www.natureserve.org.
National Wildlife Federation, www.nwf.org
Oregon Biodiversity Project, www.biodiversitypartners.org
Sierra Business Council, www.sbc.org.
Sonoran Institute, www.sonoran.org
Trust for Public Land, www.tpl.org
Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, www.wildlandscpr.org
Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative, www.rockies.ca/y2y
Endnotes (continued)

1. Edward O. Wilson, Harvard University, in his introduction to colleague and planner Richard Forman’s book, Land Mosaics:
The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
2. "Our Built and Natural Environment: A Technical Review of the Interactions Between Land Use, Transportation, and
Environmental Quality," The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000, publication # EPA 231-R-01-0002, available at
www.smartgrowth.org.
3. Ibid., except for the statement that " development has consumed a third of our most productive farmland," which is from
"Farming on the Edge: A New Look at the Importance and Vulnerability of Agriculture Near American Cities," 1994,
American Farmland Trust.
4. "Gateway Communities," by Edward T. McMahon, Planning Commissioners Journal, No. 34, spring 1999.
5. Ibid.
6. "Measures Across Sites: A Preliminary Summary," the Nature Conservancy, Site Conservation Program, Conservation
Science Division, September 25, 2000.
7. "Coastal Sprawl," prepared for the Pew Oceans Commission by Dana Beach of the Southern California Coastal
Conservation League, 2001.
8. "Our Built and Natural Environment," EPA.
9. Ibid.
10. "Paving Paradise: Sprawl’s Impact on Wildlife and Wild Places in California," National Wildlife Federation, February 2001.
11. "Humans and Other Catastrophes: Perspectives on Extinction," prepared by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at
the American Museum of Natural History. The report is a summary of presentations and discussions at a two-day
symposium on extinction at the center in April 1997.
12. Mike Houck, Audubon Society of Portland, speech at the "Grow Smart Washington" conference sponsored by 1000 Friends
of Washington and the National Wildlife Federation.
13. "Coastal Sprawl," Pew Oceans Commission.
14. Oregon Biodiversity Project, www.biodiversitypartners.org/obp.html.
15. "No Place for Nature," by Pam Wiley for Defenders of Wildlife, www.biodiversitypartners.org/Wiley/.
16. "A Citizens Guide to Transportation Planning and Wildlife Issues in the U.S. Northern Rockies," 2001, by Kim Davitt for the
Wildlands Project, www.wildlands.org.
17. "The Ecological Effects of Roads," by Reed Noss for Wildlands CPR, www.wildlandscpr.org/resourcelibrary/reports/
ecoleffectsroads.html
18. Ibid.
19. The Land Trust Alliance, www.lta.org.
20. The Conservation Fund, www.conservationfund.org.
21. The Sonoran Institute, www.sonoran.org.
22. Defenders of Wildlife "Habitat and Highways" campaign, www.defenders.org/habitat/highways.
23. The Willamette Restoration Initiative, www.oregonwri.org.
24. Damascus Community Design Workshop Goals and Objectives, March 2002, 1000 Friends of Oregon.

Hooper Brooks, Chair


L. Benjamin Starrett, Executive Director
Working to strengthen funders’
individual and collective abilities to
support organizations promoting smart
growth and creating livable communities
Collins Center for Public Policy, Inc.
150 SE 2nd Avenue, Suite 709
Miami, Florida 33131
Phone: 305-377-4484, ext. 15
Fax: 305-377-4485
Email: bstarrett@collinscenter.org
www.fundersnetwork.org