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EUTHENICS 11O2 LEADERSHIP

THE PROMINENT LEADERS AND HEROES OF THE PHILIPPINES

SUBMITTED BY: Bea Camille V. Villas BSA-I SUBMITTED TO: Mrs. Arlene P. Carmona

THE PRESIDENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

(From the current to the first Philippine President)


Fourth Philippine Republic Presidents (Parliamentary Government)
Benigno "Noynoy" S. Aquino III 15th President of the Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: February 8, 1960 Term: 2010 - Present Description: His father is Benigno Ninoy Aquino Jr. (Vice Governor of Tarlac province) and Mother is Former President Corazon Aquino. His siblings are 5 (Noynoy is the third child and He has four sisters, Maria Elena ("Ballsy"), Aurora Corazon ("Pinky"), Victoria Eliza ("Viel"), and Kristina Bernadette ("Kris")) Fifth Philippine Republic Presidents (Under the new Constitution). GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO Fourth President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines and 14th Philippine President Birthdate: April 5, 1947 Term: 2001 - June 2010 Description: The daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal. The second woman to be swept into the Presidency by a peaceful People Power revolution (EDSA II).

"People's Power"

JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA Third President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: April 19,1937 Term: 1998 - 2001 Filipino film actor and director, later politician. He resigned after the impeachment trial against him collapsed.

FIDEL VALDEZ RAMOS Second President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines

Birthdate: March 18, 1928 Term: June 30, 1992 - June 30, 1998 As head of the State his administration centerpiece program is the Philippines 2000; which aim to uplift the Philippines as a newly industrialized country by the year 2000.

CORAZON COJUANGCO AQUINO First President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines and the first woman president of the Philippines. Birthdate: January 25, 1933 Term: February 25, 1986- June 30, 1992 Political leader and the First Woman President of the Philippines. She succeeded her murdered husband, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr.(a popular critic of the Marcos administration), as leader of the opposition to President Ferdinand Marcos.

The New Republic (Martial Law)

FERDINAND EDRALIN MARCOS Sixth and last President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: September 11, 1917, Died- September 28, 1989 Term: December 30, 1965- December 30, 1973 President of the Fourth Republic of the Philippines Term: June 30, 1981 - February 25,1986 Philippine lawyer and politician who ruled by martial law and was ousted by a peaceful People Power Revolution in 1986.

The Third Philippine Republic Presidents


DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL Fifth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Term: December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965 Poet, politician, lawyer, diplomat, statesman, economist and intellectual, Diosdado Macapagal was born to poverty but rose due to diligence and brilliance.

CARLOS POLESTICO GARCIA Fourth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: November 4, 1896, died- June 14, 1971 Term: March 18, 1957- December 30, 1961 Famous for his austerity program and policy. He maintained the strong tradition ties with the United States and sought closer relation with non-communist Asian countries.

RAMON MAGSAYSAY (Born- August 31, 1907, died- March 17, 1957) Third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines (Term: December 30, 1953- March 17, 1957) Best known for successfully defeating the communist led Hukbalahap (Huk) Movement. Idol of the masses, champion of democracy, and freedom fighter.

ELPIDIO QUIRINO Second President, Third Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: November 16, 1890 Died: February 28, 1956 Term: April 17, 1948- November 10, 1953 Political leader and second president of the Independence Republic of the Philippines.

MANUEL ACUA ROXAS Birthdate: January 1, 1892, died- April 15, 1948 Last President of the Commonwealth Term: May 28, 1946- July 4, 1946 First President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Term: July 4, 1946- April 15, 1948 Political leader and first president of the independence republic of the Philippines.

The Second Philippine Republic Presidents (Japanese Occupation)


JOSE LAUREL President of the Japanese Sponsored Republic Birthdate: March 9, 1891, died- November 6, 1959 Term: October 14, 1943- August 15, 1945 Became the President of the Philippines during the Japanese occupation of World War II.

(Commonwealth of the Philippines Presidents- American Period)


SERGIO OSMEA Second President of the Commonwealth Birthdate: September 9, 1878, died- October 19, 1961 Term: August 1, 1944- May 27, 1946 Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.

MANUEL LUIS QUEZON First President of the Commonwealth Birthdate: August 19, 1878, died- August 1, 1944 Term: November 15, 1935- August 1, 1944 Filipino statesman, leader of the independence movement, and first president of the Philippine Commonwealth established under United States tutelage in 1935.

First Philippine Republic President (Revolutionary Government/The Philippines under Spanish colonization)
GENERAL EMILIO FAMY AGUINALDO President of the First Philippine Republic Birthdate: March 22, 1869, died- February 6, 1964 Term: 1898- 1901 Filipino leader who fought first against Spain and later against the United States for the Independence of the Philippines.

The Philippine National Heroes


DR. JOSE PROTACIO RIZAL (1861-1896) The Philippines' national hero. Born in Calamba, Laguna, on June 19, 1861. Published his masterpiece Noli Me Tangere in Berlin(Germany) in 1887 and his second novel El Filibusterismo in Ghent(Belgium) in 1891. His two novels stirred the conscience of his people. He contributed various literary works to La Solidaridad. For his leadership in the reform movement and for his incendiary novels, Rizal was arrested and later killed by musketry in Bagumbayan, Manila, on December 30, 1896. His execution was the last straw for other Filipinos who called for a bloody revolution against Spain.

ANDRES BONIFACIO (1863-1897) He founded the secret society, Katipunan, on July 7, 1892, to fight Spain. He was also president of the Tagalog republic from August 24, 1896 to May 10, 1897. Born in Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and never knew the benefits of a prosperous life. He married Gregoria de Jesus in 1892. He was killed on May 10, 1897, near Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite. GENERAL GREGORIO DEL PILAR (1875-1899) Hero of Tirad Pass. Born on November 14, 1875, in Bulacan, Bulacan. Died on December 2, 1899, in the battle of Tirad Pass, to enable Aguinaldo to escape from the Americans. One of the youngest and bravest generals ever produced by the Philippines. APOLINARIO MABINI (1864-1903) Sublime paralytic and the brain of the revolution. Born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas, on June 22, 1864. He joined La Liga Filipina in 1892 and Aguinaldo's revolutionary government from June 1898 to May 1899. He was captured by the American forces in December 1899 and deported to Guam in January 1901. He died in Manila on May 13, 1903.

Father Mariano Gomez (1799-1872)

GOMBURZA Three intellectuals who crusaded for reform. Killed by garrote in Bagumbayan, Manila on February 17, 1872, for allegedly instigating Father Jose the Cavite mutiny. Burgos (1837-1872)

Father Jacinto Zamora

EMILIO JACINTO (1875-1899) Brains of the Katipunan. Born in Trozo, Manila, on December 15, 1875. He joined the Katipunan in 1894 and became Bonifacio's trusted friend and adviser. He wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan, the primer of the Katipunan which embodied the teachings of the organization. He founded and edited the Katipunan newspaper, Kalayaan, whose first issue came out in January 1896. Died on April 16, 1899. He was one of the heroic figures in Philippine history. GENERAL ANTONIO LUNA (1866-1899) The greatest general of the revolution. Younger brother of Juan Luna, the famous painter. Editor of La Independencia, whose first issue came out on September 3, 1898. Born in Binondo, Manila, on October 29, 1866. He was one of the propagandists in Spain who were working for political reforms in the Philippines. He contributed articles to La Solidaridad. He was assassinated in Cabanatuan City, on June 5, 1899.

MELCHORA AQUINO (1812-1919) B etter known as Tandang Sora. Born in Banlat, Kalookan City, on January 6, 1812. She helped the Katipuneros under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio by providing them food, shelter, and other material goods. She is recognized as the Grand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak. She died on March 12, 1919.

GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA (1856-1896) Founder and first editor of the newspaper La Solidaridad, which became the vehicle of expression for Filipino propaganda in Spain. Together wtih Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar, he undertook propaganda campaigns in Spain. Born in Jaro, Iloilo, on December 18, 1856. He died on January 20, 1896, in Barcelona, Spain.

FELIPE AGONCILLO (1859-1941) Outstanding diplomat of the Philippine revolution. Born in Taal, Batangas, on May 26, 1859. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo appointed him as Minister Plenipotentiary to the peace conference in Washington and Paris. Died on September 29, 1941, at the Manila Doctor's Hospital.

JUAN LUNA (1857-1899) A genius of the brush and a patriot of the highest order. Creator of the world-famous painting, SPOLARIUM, which was awarded the gold medal in the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in 1884. It is also known as the greatest painting of all times. Born in Badoc, Ilocos, Norte, on October 23, 1857. He was closely associated with the Reform Movement, together with Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, Ponce, etc. He died in Hongkong on December 7, 1899.

RAFAEL PALMA (1874-1939) Orator, statesman, scholar, educator, and writer. Born in Tondo, Manila, on October 24, 1874. He was involved in the propaganda campaign against the Spaniards. He cofounded with Gen. Antonio Luna the revolutionary newspaper, La Independencia. Later, he also founded El Nuevo Dia, Cebu's first daily. Died in Manila on May 24, 1939.

MARCELO H. DEL PILAR (1850-1896) Political analyst of the Filipino colony in Spain. Born in Kupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, on August 30, 1850. In 1882, he founded the nationalistic newspaper, Diariong Tagalog. In December 1889, he became the editor of La Solidaridad and became the moving spirit behind the propaganda movement. Died on July 4, 1896.

PEDRO PATERNO (1858-1911) Statesman, poet, writer, and peacemaker. Born in Manila on February 27, 1858. He was the negotiator/mediator of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. He helped prepare the Malolos constitution. Died on April 26, 1911.

ARTEMIO RICARTE (1866-1945) The unconquerable hero of the revolution. Born in Batac, Ilocos Norte, on October 20, 1866. Known as Viborra, he was a gentle public school teacher who became a dashing revolutionary general. Died in the jungles of Sierra Madre on July 31, 1945.

ISABELO DE LOS REYES (1864-1938) Last of the propagandists. Gifted son of Leona Florentino, first poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, on July 7, 1864. He aroused the hostility of the friars and government officials when he openly criticized the evils of the Spanish rule and he advocated reforms. He was the founder of the first Philippine labor union, as well as the first independent Filipino Catholic church. Died on October 9, 1938