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# ANALYSIS OF THE SECTIONS

Introduction
A satisfactory and economic of a

concrete structure rarely depends on a complex theoretical analysis. Wherever possible the analysis should be kept simple, yet it should be based on the observed and tested behavior of reinforced concrete members.
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Assumption
The flexural strength at the ultimate limit state is

determined assuming the following conditions as given in clause 3.4.4.1 BS8110 Part 1: Plane sections remain plane. The compressive stresses in the concrete may be derived from the stress-strain curve in Figure 2.1 The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from the stress-strain curve in Figure 2.2. The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored.
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## Sizing a concrete beam (BS 8110)

Table 1 : Span /effective depth ratio for initial design
Support Condition Cantilever Span/Effective Depth 6

Simply supported
Continuous

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Example 1 A simply supported beam has an effective span 8 m and supported characteristic dead (gk) and live (qk) loads of 15 kN/m and 10 kN/m respectively. Determine suitable dimensions for the effective depth and width of the beam.

Solution Ratio= Span/ Depth = 12 d = 8000/12 = 666.67 mm Take d = 670 mm Total ultimate load = (1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) 8 = 296 kN Design shear force (V) = 296/2 = 148 kN

Solution Design shear stress v = V/bd = 148 x 103/(670 x b) Assuming v is equal to 1.2 N/mm2 , gives width of beam,b,of Check shear stress in beam b =V/dv = 148 x 103/(670 x 1.2) 185 mm
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RECTANGULAR SECTIONS
Singly Reinforced Sections

cu=0.0035 0.9x PN d

(0.67/m)fcu 0.45x Fc

C
h

Z=d-0.45x Fs

T
s

As
b h

## Fig 2.2:Stress Block

x
As d cu s
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fcu

= breadth Fc = total compressive force in concrete = overall depth Fs = total tensile force in steel = depth of neutral axis = area of tension reinforcement = effective depth = max concrete strain = max steel strain = characteristic strength of concrete
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1.

Consider the moment of the compressive force about the line of action of Ft:

Ultimate concrete moment, M = FcZ = [0.45fcub(0.9x)]Z = 0.405fcubxZ from the stress block: Z = d-0.45x then, M = 0.405fcubx(d-0.45x) M = {0.405[x/d]}{1-0.45[x/d]}fcubd2 -------------(1) M = kfcubd2 @ k = M/fcubd2
2.

To enable balance failure to occur (other failures occur without warning), x is limited to 0.5d, then equation 1 becomes:

Mu

## = 0.156fcubd2 ---------------- (2) = kfcubd2 where k=0.156

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3.

Equation 2 represents the moment capacity of the section based on the concrete area in compression.
The value of 0.156 is the limiting value of k and is given the symbol k. To obtain the required area of reinforcement, As : Consider the moment of the tensile force about the line of action of Fc : M = FsZ M = 0.95fyAsZ As = M/0.95fyZ

4. 5.

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## (Z/d)2 (Z/d) + 1.111k = 0 Z = d{0.5 + [0.25 (k/0.9)]} 0.95d

where k M = M/fcubd2 = max design moment

## NB: the value of Z is limited to 0.95d

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Example 2

d = 440

b = 260

Design moment 185kNm. Determine As. Given fy = 460N/mm2 and fcu = 30N/mm2.

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Solution
k = M/bd2fcu = 185x106/(260x4402x30) = 0.122

## = d{0.5 + [0.25 (k/0.9)]} = 440{0.5+[0.25-(0.122/0.9)]}

= M/0.95fyz = 185x106/(0.95x460x369)

= 369mm = 1147.3mm2

As

## NB: As is the area of reinforcement required to resist the excess moment.

design

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Example 3

qk = 8 kN/m gk = 12 kN/m

d = 450

7m

b = 275

A simply supported rectangular beam of 7 m carries characteristics dead (including self weight of beam), gk and imposed, qk, loads of 12 kN/m and 8 kN/m respectively. The beam dimensions are breadth, b, 275 mm and effective depth, d, 450 mm. Assuming the following material strengths, calculate the area of reinforcement required. Given fy = 460N/mm2 and fcu = 30N/mm2.
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Solution
Ultimate load (w) = 1.4 gk + 1.6 qk = 1.4 x 12 + 1.6 x 8 =29.6 kN/m Design moment (M) = wl2/8 = (29.6 x 72)/8 = 181.3 kNm Ultimate moment of resistance (Mu) = 0.156fcubd2 = 0.156 x 30 x 275 x 4502 x 10-6 = 260.6 kNm Since Mu > M design as a singly reinforced beam k z = M/fcubd2 = 181.3 x106/(30x275x4502) = d{0.5 + [0.25 (k/0.9)]} = 450{0.5+[0.25-(0.1085/0.9)]} = 386.8 mm 0.95 d (= 427.5) OK
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= 0.1085

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Solution
As = M/0.95fyz = 1073 mm2 = 181.3 x 106/(0.95 x 460 x 386.8)

## NB: As is the area of reinforcement required to resist the excess moment.

design

Hence provide 4T20 (T refers to high yield steel bars, fy =460 N/mm2)

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## Doubly Reinforced Sections

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Happens when the applied design bending moments exceeds the concrete capacity.
b d As cu=0.0035 s 0.9x

(0.67/m)fcu

C
h

Fs 0.45x Fc

PN
d

T
s

d-d

Z=d-0.45x Fs

As

Stress Block

Strain Block

s = strain in the compression reinforcement Fs = force in the compression reinforcement d = depth from the compression face of the concrete to the centroid 20 of the compression reinforcement.
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Consider the moment of the compressive forces about the line of action of Ft:

= FcZ + Fs(d-d) = 0.45fcub(0.9x)(d-0.45x) + 0.95fyAs(d-d) consider balance failure, x/d=0.5 M = 0.156fcubd2 + 0.95fyAs(d-d) the equation can be rewritten as: As = (M-0.156fcubd2)/0.95fy(d-d)
The required area of tension reinforcement can be determined by equating the

Fs = Fc + Fs

## 0.95fyAs= 0.20fcubd + 0.95fyAs As As

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= (0.20fcubd/0.95fy) + As = (0.156fcubd2/0.95fyZ) + As
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Example 4

qk = 5 kN/m gk = 4 kN/m

h = 370

9m

b = 230

The reinforced concrete beam shown in Figure above has an effective span of 9 m carries uniformly distributed dead (including self weight of beam), gk and imposed, qk, loads of 4 kN/m and 5 kN/m respectively. Design the bending reinforcement assuming the following: fy = 460N/mm2 and fcu = 30N/mm2. Cover to main steel = 40 mm
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Solution:
l) Design Moment, M Ultimate design load (W) = (1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) span = (1.4 x 4 + 1.6 x 5) 9 = 122.4 kN = Wl/8 = (122.4 x 9)/8 = 137.7 kNm II) Ultimate moment of resistance, Mu Effective depth, d Assume diameter of tension bars() = 25 mm d = h- /2 cover = 370 25/2 40 = 317 mm
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## Max design moment

Solution:
Ultimate moment resistance Mu = 0.156fcubd2 Mu = 0.156 x 30x 230x 3172) = 108.2 x 106 Nmm = 108.2 kNm Since M > Mu compression reinforcement is required III) Compression Reinforcement Assume diameter of compression bars () = 16 mm d = cover + /2 = 40 + 16/2 = 48 mm As = M - Mu/ 0.95fy(d-d) = (137.7 108.2)(106) /0.95(460)(317 - 48) = 251 mm2 Provide 2T 16 ( As = 402 mm2)
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As

## = d{0.5 + (0.25-k/0.9)} = d{0.5 + (0.25-0.156/0.9)} = 246 mm = [Mu / 0.95fyz] + As

= 108.2 x 106)/0.9 5(460)(246) + 251 = 1258 mm2
d = 48 mm

d = 317 mm

2 T 16
3 T 25
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