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Calgary Pump Symposium 2005

How to Specify the Operating Conditions for a Slurry Pump


J. A. Sharpe President J.A.S. Solutions Ltd.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005


Presentation Outline
Background to the use of slurry pumps in oil sands processing Particle size and settling velocities Range of flows and pressure drops ANSI/HI Standard for Slurry Pumps Wear rates Conclusions

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005


In the beginning was the dragline

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005


Followed by the bucketwheel

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14 2.4 m3 buckets

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And then miles of conveyors

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Dumping onto a surge pile

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Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water

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Trucks and Shovels
In the mid 1990s trucks and shovels replaced the draglines and bucketwheels

Benefits
Lower capital cost Ability to switch units between ore and waste Flexible for blending ore composition to extraction Additional capacity is readily available

Concerns
Labour intensive High unit cost ($/tonne_km) Maintenance of haul roads

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Hitachi Shovel at Albian Sands Muskeg River Mine

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Shovel Loading a 320 T truck

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Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper

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Conveyor from Crusher to Surge Pile

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Hydrotransport replaced tumblers - Slurry Preparation Towers

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Conveyor Discharging Oil Sand into the Cyclofeeder

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Hydrotransport feed Pumpbox

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Weir Hydrotransport Pumps at Syncrudes North Mine

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3 km later the final destination, the primary separation cell

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Particle Size and Settling Velocities
Deposition velocity in a pipeline is a function of:
D50 of the particles in the slurry Pipe diameter Particle size distribution Slurry density

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Typical Particle Size Distribution
100 90 80
Low Average High

Percent Passing

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 100 1000 10000


Coarse High

Particle Size (microns)

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Calculation of Deposition Velocity (based on D50 and dia.)

Deposition-Limit Nomograms for Particles of Various Densities in Pipeline Flow, K.C. Wilson, Queens University, Hydrotransport 6, September 1979

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Saskatchewan Research Council Pipeflow Programme
Inputs Flowrate Pipe - internal diameter, wall roughness and slope Slurry - specific gravity and temperature Solids density Water - density and viscosity D50 of coarse particles > 75 Fraction of fines < 75 Carrier fluid viscosity Outputs Pipeline velocity Deposition velocity Pressure gradient Solids volume fraction Parameters outside the range of the database

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Fines % vs Deposition Velocity
(29" I.D. pipe, data from SRC Pipeflow 2003 Programme ) 5.5

Deposition Velocity (m/s)

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 D50 = 150 D50 = 200 D50 = 250 D50 = 400

D50 = 300

Fines %

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Slurry Density vs Deposition Velocity
( 2 9 " id line, f ines f r act io n = 2 0 %, D 50 = 2 0 0 micr o n
SR C Pip ef lo w p r o g r amme)

1650 1600 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.80 4.85 4.90 4.95 5.00

Reduction in density of 0.1 t/m3 results in approximately 3% increase in deposition velocity


D ep o sit io n V elo cit y ( m/ s)

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Range of Flows and Pressure Drops
Need to strike a balance between:
Exceeding the deposition velocity in the worst case scenario, which is usually the highest d50 with the lowest fines (MUST) Minimizing the overall wear, which has to take into account the relative concentrations of the different ores and minimizing the overall pressure drop and therefore the power required for the transportation. That is minimize velocity. Maximizing the allowable turndown to achieve flexible operation Optimizing the overall processing capability balanced against the capital and operating costs

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29 id pipe, slurry density 1.55 t/m3 Ore Grade
Low
D50 80, 30% fines

Deposition velocity m/s

Flow rate at deposition velocity 3,068 m3/h 3,220 t/h oil sand 4,295 m3/h 4,510 t/h oil sand 6,750 m3/h 7,087 t/h oil sand 8,130 m3/h 8,535 t/h oil sand

% of ore body

<2 2.8 4.4 5.3

20 60 17 3

Average
D50 180, 15% fines

High
D50 250, 10% fines

Coarse high
D50 400, 5% fines

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MUST provide sufficient pumping capacity to process the coarse high grade 400 at a velocity of 5.3 m/s Capital requirements are based on oil sand tonnage processed, therefore reduce rate on coarse high grade to 8,000 t/h by decreasing the slurry density, maintaining the same velocity Increase the slurry density on other grades to minimize flow requirements and increase available turndown Increase tonnage processed to 8,000 t/h on all grades so that overall throughput is maximized and turndown increased

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Resultant design basis, 8,000 t/h all grades, 29 id pipe Ore Grade
Low
D50 80, 30% fines

Slurry density t/m3

Operating velocity m/s

Turndown %

1.58 1.58 1.55 1.52

4.7
(7,230 m3/h)

57 40 12 0

Average
D50 180, 15% fines

4.7
(7,230 m3/h)

High
D50 250, 10% fines

5.0
(7680 m3/h)

Coarse high
D50 400, 5% fines

5.3
(8,130 m3/h)

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SG = 1.5 k = 70 Pipe id =29 Typical DSRC = 180 cPf = 3 Fines 23% Coarse DSRC = 400 cPf = 2 Fines 15% Section AB is upstream of section CD
Performance of Sand Slurry Pipelines in the Oil Sands Industry, R. Sean Sanders, Jason Schaan, Roxby Hughes and Clifton Shook, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 82, Aug 2004

Pressure Drop in a Hydrotransport Pipeline

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Calculated Pressure Drops

Ore grade
Low turndown Average High Coarse high

Flow rate m3/h (USgpm) Pressure drop kPa/m Velocity m/s (m slurry/km) 4620 (20,300) 3.0 7230 (31,800) 4.7 7680 (33,800) 5.0 8130 (35,800) 5.3 0.085 (8.7) 0.19 (19.4) 0.225 (22.9) 0.29 (29.6)

Relative Pressure Drop

0.29 0.66 0.72 1.0

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Coarse high grade head adjusted to 40 m (131 ft) and other points pro-rated

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Pump Spacing Considerations
No.of pumps required = (static head + frictional head) head developed per pump The greater the number of close coupled pumps, the higher the required pressure rating of the pump casing The more spaced out the pumps are the lower the required pressure rating, but the higher the infrastructure costs

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Pipeline profile
200 180 160 140

Elevation (m)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Distance from Plant (km)

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Coarse high grade head adjusted to 50 m (164 ft) and other points pro-rated

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ANSI/HI Standard for Slurry Pumps 12.1-12.6-2005

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Standard viscosity correction procedures can be used for homogeneous nonsettling slurries provided the apparent viscosity is known

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For heterogeneous slurries use Fig 12.20 and: Correct for solids sg = Cs = ((Ss-1)/1.65)0.65 Fines fraction = Cfp = (1 - fraction<75micron)2 Solids volumetric conc. = Ccv = (Cv%/15) Modified Rh = Rh*Cs*Cfp*Ccv Efficiency reduction follows head reduction Reff = Rh

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Wear Rates in Slurry Pumps
Influenced by: Rotational speed Developed head Particle size distribution Slurry density Flowrate The first two items are controllable, the last three are process design issues

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Main Wear Components GIW TBC Slurry Pump

Shell

Hub liner

Suction side liner

Impeller

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Worn Impeller from a Hydrotransport Pump

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Relative Costs
Initial Capital compared with Cost of Wear Components Pump + gearbox + couplings + motor + baseplate = 100 units Cost Annual usage Total Suction side liner 3 3 9 Impeller 4.5 1.5 6.8 Shell 20 1 20 Hub liner 2 1.5 3 Spare parts cost per year 38.8

In approximately 21/2 years spare parts cost (excl. labour and downtime) = initial capital

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Cost of Downtime
Oil sand rate = Ore grade = Recovery = Bitumen density = Conversion from m3 to barrels = Value of bitumen = One hours production 8,000 t/h 11% bitumen 90% 1 t/m3 6.29 Cdn$30/bbl

= 8000*0.11*0.9*6.29*30

Cdn$149,450

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Effect of Solids Size on Casing Wear Rate

A four fold increase in solids size results in 20x casing wear rate
Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear and Cost, A. Sellgren, G. Addie, R. Visintainer and K. Pagalthivarthi. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference, Houston, 2005

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Effect of Pump Head on Liner Wear Rate 85% increase in pump head results in 3x increase in suction liner wear rate
D2 = impeller outside diameter D1 = impeller inside diameter

Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear and Cost, A. Sellgren, G. Addie, R. Visintainer and K. Pagalthivarthi. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference, Houston, 2005

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Parts Replacement as per the Sales Brochure

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GIW TBC 57 Slurry Pump Installation

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Impeller Replacement on GIW Pump

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GIW LSA 44 Slurry Pump

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Slurry Pumps Installed in Series

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GIW WBC - 64 diameter impeller slurry pump

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Cutaway View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump
Outer casing Volute Liner

Impeller

Back liner

Throatbush

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Exploded View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump

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Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump Installation

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Parts Replacement on a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump

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Conclusion
The steps required to successfully specify the operating conditions of a slurry pump are: Establish the particle size distribution of the ore body and split it out into suitable fractions, say 20, 60, 20 Determine the settling velocities for the full range of slurries at the rates required in various pipe diameters Establish the most appropriate pipe diameter

Adjust the flow conditions (density) to balance the conflicting requirements of settling velocity, wear rates and turndown

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Conclusion (continued)
Calculate the total pressure drop for the system using an appropriate programme Establish the Service Class for the slurry Specify the number of pumps required in series Select the pump based on: hydraulic fit anticipated wear rates time required to overhaul spare parts cost and lastly the initial capital cost

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005


Acknowledgements
The assistance provided by the following companies in the preparation of this presentation is greatly appreciated

Albian Sands Energy Inc. GIW Industries Ltd. Syncrude Canada Ltd. Weir Slurry Group Inc.