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Machine Components: RollingElement Bearings

ME 72 Engineering Design Laboratory

Function of Bearings
A bearing permits relative motion between two machine members while minimizing frictional resistance. A bearing consists of an inner and outer member separated either by a thin film of lubricant, or a rolling element.

Comparison Table

Rolling-Element Bearings
Pros
Low starting and running friction Easy lubrication Small axial space Radial and axial loads Predictable failure Standards (ABEC) Can be preloaded Easy mounting

Cons
Greater diametrical space More expensive Noisy Finite life Vulnerable to dirt Limited shock loading

Ball Bearings
Ball Bearings
Point contact; support radial and axial loads

Angular Contact Bearings


Designed for axial loading; used in pairs

Self-Aligning Bearings Double Row Bearings


Support higher loads

Thrust Bearings
Designed for pure axial loading

Roller Bearings
Straight
Supports high radial loads; slower speed ratings

Tapered
High radial and axial load ratings; used in pairs

Spherical
Allows for misalignment

Needle
Thrust and radial types; typically no inner race

Terminology
Inner race Outer race Inner and outer diameters Width Options
Open, shielded, sealed grooves, flanges wide inner race

Bearing Specifications
Types, series, options Dimensions Load Ratings
Static (C0): maximum (pre-damage) load Dynamic (C): the load that will give a life of 106 revolutions Axial/Radial

Speed Rating

Single Row Deep Groove Ball Bearings


Principal Dimensions db mm in 2.5 0.0984 5 0.1969 7 0.2756 10 0.3937 da mm in 8 0.3150 11 0.4331 19 0.7480 14 0.5512 19 0.7480 26 1.0236 35 1.3780 24 0.9449 28 1.1024 32 1.2598 32 1.2598 35 1.3780 42 1.6535 bw mm in 2.8 0.1102 3 0.1181 6 0.2362 3.5 0.1378 5 0.1969 8 0.3150 11 0.4331 5 0.1969 7 0.2756 8 0.3150 9 0.3543 11 0.4331 13 0.5118 Basic load ratings dynami c C N lbf 319 71.7 637 143 1720 387 956 215 1380 310 4620 1040 8060 1810 1560 351 4030 906 5590 1260 5590 1260 7800 1750 11400 2560 static C0 Allowable load limit w all rpm 106 23.8 255 57.3 620 139 400 89.9 585 132 1960 441 3400 764 800 180 2040 459 2850 641 2850 641 3750 843 5400 1210 4 0.899 11 2.47 26 5.85 17 3.82 25 5.62 83 18.7 143 32.1 34 7.64 85 19.1 120 27.0 120 27.0 160 36.0 228 51.3 67000 53000 36000 45000 36000 30000 20000 28000 24000 22000 22000 19000 17000 80000 63000 43000 53000 43000 36000 26000 34000 30000 28000 28000 24000 20000 Speed ratings grease oil D b,min mm in 3.7 0.146 6.2 0.244 7 0.276 8.2 0.323 12 0.472 12 0.472 14 0.551 17 0.669 17 0.669 17 0.669 17 0.669 19 0.748 20 0.787 D a,max mm in 6.8 0.268 9.8 0.386 17 0.669 12.8 0.504 17 0.669 24 0.945 31 1.220 22 0.866 26 1.024 30 1.181 30 1.181 31 1.220 37 1.457 r a,max mm in 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 0.3 0.012 0.1 0.004 0.3 0.012 0.3 0.012 0.6 0.024 0.3 0.012 0.3 0.012 0.3 0.012 0.3 0.012 0.6 0.024 1 0.039 Abutment and fillet Dimensions Designation 60/2.5 618/5 635 618/7 61800 6000 6300 61802 61902 16002 6002 6202 6302

15 0.5906

Bearing Life
Bearing Life-Load Equation
L1 F2 = L2 F1
a

L = life, millions of revolutions F = load a = 3 for ball bearings, 3.33 for roller bearings

Design Equation

L1 C = 6 10 F1

Radial and Thrust Loads


Equivalent Radial Load

P = XV Fr + Y Fa
P = equivalent load Fr = applied constant radial load Fa = applied constant thrust load V = rotation factor (1.0 IRR, 1.2 ORR) X = radial factor (provided by manufacturer) Y = thrust factor (provided by manufacturer)

Capacity Formulas for Radial and Angular Bearings


B e ari ng t y p e e S i ng l e ro w b e ari ng s Pa/ Pr< e X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pa/ Pr>e X 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.43 0.41 0.39 0.37 0.35 0.33 Y 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 1 0.87 0.76 0.66 0.57 0.50 Do ub l e ro w b e ari ng s Pa/ Pr< e X Y Pa/ Pr> e X Y Deep groove ball bearings Pl/C0 =0.025 Pl/C0 =0.04 Pl/C0 =0.07 Pl/C0 =0.13 Pl/C0 =0.25 Pl/C0 =0.50 =20 =25 =30 =35 =40 =45 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.44 0.57 0.68 0.80 0.95 1.14 1.33 1.5 x tan 1.5 x tan 1.5 x tan

Angular contact ball bearings

Self-aligning ball bearings Spherical roller bearings Tapered roller bearings

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.40

0.40 x cot

1.09 0.92 0.78 0.66 0.55 0.47 0.42 x cot 0.45 x cot 0.42 x cot

0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.65 0.67 0.67

1.63 1.41 1.24 1.07 0.93 0.81 0.65 x cot 0.67 x cot 0.67 x cot

Mounting Bearings
Mounting Issues
Design to fix relative axial/radial location Avoid misalignment: maintain concentricity Consider preloading (to eliminate backlash) Follow Press/Slip Fit guidelines
Always press to a shoulder

Be aware of shaft hardness requirements NEVER use more than 2 bearings / shaft

Typical Mountings

Classes of Fit
C lass 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 De scription Loose Free Medium Snug Wringing Tight Medium Type Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance Interference Interference Interference Applications Where accuracy is not essential, such as in roadbuilding and mining equipment. In rotating journals with speeds of 600 rpm or greater, such as in engines and some automotive parts. In rotating journals with speeds under 600 rpm, such as in accurate machine tools and precise automotive parts. Where small clearance is permissible and where moving parts are not intended to move freely under load. Where light tapping with a hammer is necessary to assemble the parts. In semipermanent assemblies suitable for drive of shrink fits on light sect ions. Where considerable pressure is needed to assemble and for shrink fits of medium sections; suitable for press fits on generator and motor armatures and for car wheels. Where considerable bonding between surfaces is required, such as locomotive wheels and heavy crankshaft disks of large engines

Heavy force or shrink

Interference

Interference Fits
Pressure created by a press fit
p= 0.5 r ri2 + r 2 r ro2 + r 2 + o + 2 + i Eo ro2 r 2 Ei ri r 2

Torque transmitted
T = 2 r 2 pl

Summary
Sliding bearings use hydrodynamic forces to support loads and lubricant shear to provide low friction. Rolling element bearings are configured to support a variety of axial and radial loads and provide low rolling friction between a shaft and hub. Bearings are typically press fit into a housing and slip fit onto a shaft.

References
Hindhede, U., Zimmerman, J., Hopkins, B., et al., Machine Design Fundamentals: A Practical Approach, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1983. Shigley, J., and Mischke, C., Mechanical Engineering Design, 5th Ed., San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1989. Norton, R., Machine Design: An Integrated Approach, Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 1998. Hamrock, B., Jacobson, B., and Schmid, S., Fundamentals of Machine Elements, San Francisco, WCB McGraw-Hill, 1999.