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PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE BRINCC EXPEDITION JANUARY 2012

CONTENTS

Executive summary - biodiversity Executive summary - social About the expedition Aims of the expedition Expedition members Survey site location Gibbons Amphibians Entomology Large Mammals Small Mammals Birds Botany Social Acknowledgements

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When using data from this report please use the following citation: Cheyne SM, Zrust M, Hoeing A, Houlihan PR, Rowland D, Rahmania M, Breslin K (2012). Barito River Initiative for Nature Conservation and Communities (BRINCC) Preliminary Report. In BRINCC Expedition Reports; 74 pages. Palangka Raya, Indonesia: BRINCC Expedition.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The BRINCC expedition surveyed a wide range of biodiversity at three sites and carried out social ecology surveys in two villages in the Murung Raya region of Central Kalimantan.

The Biodiversity Teams results include: Amphibians

A total of 452 individuals from 37 species were identified from 4 families; Bufonidae (9), Megorphrydae (5), Ranidae (17), Rhacophoridae (6).

Birds

223 species were identified including 16 species endemic to Borneo, 3 listed as IUCN Red List Endangered and 7 listed as IUCN Red List Vulnerable.

Entomology

More than 100 species of butterflies were recorded .

Large Mammals

11 species were captured on the camera traps: 10 mammals and one bird. An additional 6 species were recorded from signs or sightings including the clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi).

Primates

8 species identified and density estimates for gibbons are 1.59-3.04 groups/km2.

Small Mammals

10 species were identified including the IUCN Red List Data Deficient Chestnut-Bellied Rat (Maxomys ochraceiventer).

The results show that the area is of high conservation value for biodiversity.

Photo M. Zrust

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Social Teams findings and results include:

A resource map showing the important locations of traditional and modern resources for local communities. Mapping data gathered through participatory mapping to feed into the legal establishment of a community forest. Findings that suggest that in order to fulfil daily needs people from both villages are almost 100% dependent on the surrounding forest and its resources. In both villages people feel that numbers of animals and plant species went down in the past 5 years. Previously sustainable livelihoods in the villages changed to a more market oriented and dependent lifestyle. Commodities include meat, animal parts, fish, birds (rarely), wood, gold and jewels. Commercial timber extraction in the area is likely to be joined by coal mining in the future and coal exploration is on-going. Coal has been found. The government has several programs designed to help the communities.

ABOUT THE EXPEDITION

Tropical forest ecosystems are threatened worldwide by human activity and climate change. This is particularly true of the tropical forests of Borneo, where timber extraction both legal and illegal, coal mining and conversion to agricultural land (oil palm and acacia plantations), as well as increasingly frequent large-scale wildfires threaten one of the richest biodiversity hotspots on Earth. At a time when the protection of Borneos interior forest is uncertain, more information is needed on the state of the forest ecosystems in the region, particularly on the natural diversity which depends on them, in order to raise awareness of the area and inform plans for their conservation. In order to gather data about animal and plant diversity, as well as

hydrological data, we surveyed several sites along the Murung river in the North of the Central Kalimantan region in Indonesia. This area, stretching from the Muller mountains in the North, to the Murung rivers confluence with the Barito river in the South, has only been scientifically surveyed during two short
Photo M. Zrust

surveys. Pilot surveys of large and small mammals, birds, insects, amphibians and reptiles were undertaken at three sites along the Murung river, sampling in a community forest, a primary forest and at a highly disturbed location near the large village of Kelasin. Ape population densities were estimated for a naturally occurring hybrid gibbons (Hylobates muelleri x Hylobates albibarbis) as part of a large-scale comparative project across different sites in Borneo. Together, these data will increase scientific knowledge of the area, complementing extensive research work undertaken by other NGOs in the surrounding river catchments. It is hoped that they will raise the profile of the area and public awareness of the threats that compromise the balance of its ecosystems. In addition, it will help build capacity in conservation techniques and expedition work, for both Indonesian and foreign team members.
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AIMS OF THE EXPEDITION

The expedition addressed the following research questions: 1. What animal and plant species are present along the Murung river? 2. Does their distribution and abundance vary across forest of differing disturbance levels? 3. Are gibbon population densities influenced by vegetation characteristics in the area? 4. What is the level of human disturbance in the area, and how can resource mapping and other social techniques be used to identify local needs along the Murung river?

Photo M. Zrust

EXPEDITION MEMBERS

THE TEAM Dominic Rowland (UK) - Expedition Leader and Medic Dr Susan Cheyne (UK) - Scientific Director and Medic Andrea Hoeing (Germany) - Deputy Expedition Leader (Communties: Social Ecology) Michal Zrust (Czech Republic) - Deputy Expedition Leader (Biodiversity) Mila Rahmania (Indonesia) - Project Leader: Herpetology Iis Sabahudin (Indonesia)- Project Leader: Social Science (Anthropology) Erisa Maranata Muray (Indonesia) - Team member: Social Science (Anthropology) Andhi Suncoko (Indonesia) - Team member: Social Science (Social Politics) Peter Houlihan (USA) - Project Leader: Entomology Juli Setiawan (Indonesia) - Team Member: Birds Katherine Breslin (UK) - Project Leader: Birds Deni Doang (Indonesia) - Team member: Social Science (Economy) Edwin Hermawan (Indonesia) - Team member: Biodiversity M. Yunnus Adrian Saputra (Indonesia) - Team member: Small Mammals Kursani (Indonesia) Leader Botany Suparjan T Uring (Indonesia) District Environment Agency, Puruk Cahu Junaidi Shalat (Indonesia) - District Environment Agency, Puruk Cahu Leni (Indonesia) - Department of Resource Management, Puruk Cahu Jaya (Indonesia) Research assistant from Tumbang Tujang village Pak Bahni (Indonesia) - Research assistant from Tumbang Tujang village Laura D'Arcy (UK) - Scientific Advisor

SURVEY SITE LOCATION

The Murung watershed

Central Kalimantan District

Borneo

GIBBONS - Dr Susan Cheyne


INTRODUCTION

Gibbons are small arboreal apes, of which there are 17 species distributed throughout the forests of South-East Asia, southern China and the Indian subcontinent. Borneo is home to two species of gibbons: the Southern Bornean gibbon, Hylobates albibarbis, and Mllers gibbon, Hylobates muelleri. Both species are threatened principally by the destruction of their habitat or its conversion to agricultural land, and are listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List
Adult female gibbon (H. mulleri x albibarbis) -

of Threatened species 2008 (www.iucnredlist.org). All gibbons are territorial, with family groups formed of a mated pair and their offspring. Using the singing behaviour of pairs of gibbons is a practical, time-efficient method to estimate their density, as groups of gibbons can be counted by listening to their morning duets for a relatively short period of time.

Studies around the world have found that primate densities are influenced by the quality of their habitat. Wildfires and logging have been found to negatively affect the abundance of primates, and to have resulted in lower densities of gibbons, principally because of a decrease in food availability. Findings suggest, however, that gibbons are able to persist in disturbed forests thanks to their dietary flexibility, but their reproductive potential is lowered by this shift towards folivory . Furthermore, primates have been found to be less abundant near forest edges . The density of the Southern Bornean gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis) has been found to be negatively correlated with elevation in the Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, which coincided with fewer large trees and lower availability of gibbon food items while detailed data on the Mllers gibbon (Hylobates muelleri) are not available. All gibbon species are now listed as at least Endangered on the IUCN Red list, including the species we work with, Hylobates muelleri, the endemic Bornean gibbon. The main objectives of this programme are to monitor gibbon population size, density and distribution. On a wider scale, we are also investigating the effects of anthropogenic disturbance and conservation measures on the gibbon population. In addition, gibbon density surveys were conducted at a number of locations for monitoring purposes.
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GIBBONS
METHODS

Gibbon density was estimated using fixed-point counts, as described by Brockelman and Ali (1987), at three distinct survey sites within the research area. This method has been recommended for the survey of gibbons for the following reasons: first, because the gibbons inconspicuous behaviour and preference for high canopy makes the use of line transects for surveying unsuccessful *Brockelman and Ali 1987; Brockelman and Srikosamatara 1993b; O'Brien et al. 2004; Nijman and Menken 2005; Cheyne et al. 2007; Hamard et al. 2010+. Secondly, because the territorial efficient behaviour mapping of of gibbons enables points

triangulated

(Sutherland, 2000). The animals loud calls, audible from a considerable distance, enable their detection from greater distances than by using sightings *Davies 2002+. Finally, fixedpoint counts enable quick, time-efficient
Photo M. Zrust

surveys, with more reliable results than a line transect survey conducted within the same time frame (Nijman and Menken, 2005). The density estimates were obtained with the following formula, developed by Brockelman and Ali (1987): D = n / *p(m) x E+ where n is the number of groups heard in an area as determined by the mapping, p(m) is the estimated proportion of groups expected to sing during a sample period of m days, and E is the effective listening area *Brockelman and Ali 1987; Nijman and Menken 2005; Cheyne et al. 2007+. The correction factor p(m) was determined at each site with the formula: p(m) = 1 *1- p(1)+m with p(1) being the singing probability for any given day, and m being the number of survey days. The effective listening area was calculated for each site using a fixed radius of 1km around each listening post, and was defined by the area in which at least two of the listening posts could hear gibbons singing.
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GIBBONS
RESULTS

The production forest in Kalasin and the Community Forest of Tumbang Tujang had similar densities of about 2 gibbon groups/km2, whereas the Tumbang Tujang Ladang (fragmented farming area) had the lowest density of 1.55 gibbon groups/km2. The primary forest sites in Sungai Borah were home to the highest densities of gibbons (2.6-3 groups/km2). The table below presents the results of each study site.

Hylobates muelleri muelleri female (photo from a rescue centre Susan M. Cheyne)

Adult female H. mulleri x albibarbis mid-swing Susan M. Cheyne

Site No

Location

Species

Groups/ Individuals/ km2 km2 2.05 2.04 1.59 2.00 3.04 2.67 20 20 16 32 36 32

Lone gibbons/km2 1 1 0.8 1.6 1.8 1.6

Total gibbons/km2 21 21 16.8 33.6 37.8 33.6


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1 2 3 4 5 6

Kalasin S. Jalo Kalasin Ladang Tumbang Tujang (South) Ladang Tumbang Tujang North (Camp) Sungai Muring x Borah South Sungai Borah Pondok (North)

Mulleri and Hybrid Mulleri Mulleri and Hybrid Mulleri Mulleri and Hybrid Mulleri

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GIBBONS

SPECIES LISTALL PRIMATES

Species

English Name

Indonesian name Owa-owa (Kalaweit) Bekantan

IUCN Status

Hylobates muelleri

Mllers Gibbon

Endangered

Nasalis larvatus

Proboscis monkey

Endangered

Presbytis frontata

White-fronted langur

Lutung dahi putih Binatang hantu/ inkir

Vulnerable

Tarsius bancanus ssp. Borneanus

Western/Horsfields tarsier

Vulnerable

Nycticebus menagensis

Bornean Slow loris

Kucang

Vulnerable

Macaca nemestrina

Pig-tailed macaque

Beruk

Vulnerable

Presbytis rubicunda

Maroon langur

Luting merah/ kelasi Kera

Least Concern

Macaca fascicularis

Long-tailed macaque

Least Concern

Hylobates muelleri x H. albibarbis

Hybrid gibbon

Owa-owa (Kalaweit)

Not listed

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AMPHIBIANSMila Rahmania

INTRODUCTION As well as being an important component in the food chain of tropical forest ecosystems, amphibians especially those from the order Anura are highly sensitive to environmental change and thus can be used as bio-indicators of environmental

degradation. There is currently no data on amphibian diversity in the Murung Raya region available in the public domain, so this study
Leptobrachium abbotti

represents the most comprehensive in the region.

Amphibians play an important role in ecosystem food chain. Amphibians are nocturnal animals that commonly live in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Frogs, especially from Anura order, are highly sensitive to environmental change. Anura population declines can be caused by pollution, climate change, and the loss of habitats and wetlands.

Murung Raya District was located in north of Central Kalimantan which spread from Muller Mountain in north side to Busang River. Biotic richness, especially amphibian, in this research location wasnt ever observed and studied yet. Thus a biodiversity study, especially about amphibians is needed to know the protection priority that is required for that location. Research about amphibian diversity in several locations of Murung Raya District was carried out to know the diversity of amphibians and the characteristics of habitat types in some research location.
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Megophrys nasuta

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AMPHIBIANS
METHODS

This research was carried out in AugustSeptember 2011 at locations registered in Uut Murung Sub-district; those are Tumbang Tujan village, Bora Forest, and Kelasin village. Collected data included: (i) species name, total individual and total species, SVL (snout-vent length), activity when it found and its position in the environment, (ii) habitat data that including location name, observation time, weather, substrate, and

vegetation. Used observation method was Visual Encounter Survey (VES) based on Heyer et al (1994) that performed for 2 hours at night. Calculated data were including species diversity by Shannon-Wiener index (Brower & Zar, 1977), species evenness index by calculate evenness value (Brower & Zar, 1977), population density, encounter probability, species similarity index between location (Brower &Zar, 977), relative frequency and habitat data that analyzed descriptively.

Surveys were conducted using a Visual Encounter Survey, standardized for survey effort by time primarily in two locations, on the Bora river and around Kalasin. A pilot survey was also conducted in the community forest of Tumbang Tujang. Surveys were conducted along streams and around sources of fresh water as well as transect surveys through the forest. Data was analysed in a variety of ways including species diversity by Shannon-Wiener index, species evenness index by calculating evenness value, population density, encounter probability, species similarity index between location, relative frequency and habitat data were analysed descriptively.
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Photo M. Zrust

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AMPHIBIANS
RESULTS

A total of 452 individuals from 37 species were identified from 4 families; Bufonidae (9),

Megorphrydae (5), Ranidae (17), Rhacophoridae (6). One further species, found in two locations at the Bora river site was not possible to identify in the field and has been taken to the Natural History Museum in Bogor, Java for identification. Species accumulation curves show that

although survey effort was sufficient it did not reach the plateau to suggest it was fully comprehensive. Of the 37 species identified, 25 (67.6%) are listed on the IUCN redlist of endangered species, 4 of which are classified as endemic to Borneo. Of these 25 species, 15 are listed as least concern, 8 as near threatened, 1 as vulnerable and 1 as data deficient (see appendix species list). One species is also listed on the ZSL Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) programme. From 452 individual of 37 amphibian species found, Ranidae family has the highest total individual (45.95%), and then Bufonidae family (24.32%), Rhacophoridae family (16.22%), and Megorphryidae family (13.51%), while species with highest total individual was Limnonectes leporina (28.10%) and Limnonectes kuhlii (10.84%). Amphibian species with lowest total individual were Ansonia minuta, Pedostibes hosii, Pedostibes rugosusu, Leptobrachium abbotti, Leptobrachium nigrops, Leptolalax dringi, Limnonectes blythi, Limnonectes palavanensis, Polypedates colleti, Rhacophorus gadingensis, Rhacophorus pictus that amounted 0.22%.

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AMPHIBIANS
SPECIES LIST
Family Bufonidae Species Author Other Names Whitebelly Stream Toad, White-lipped Slender Toad Brown Slender Toad, Matang Stream Toad Long-fingered Stream Toad IUCN Status Near Threatened Notes Endemic to Borneo

Ansonia albomaculata Inger, 1960

Ansonia leptopus Ansonia longidgita

Gunther, 1872 Inger, 1960

Not Listed Near Threatened Endemic and only previously reported from Malaysian Borneo Endemic to Borneo Endemic to Borneo

Ansonia minuta Ansonia spinulifer Pedostibes hosii Pedostibes rugosus Phrynoidis aspera (Bufo asper) Dicroglossidae Limnonectes blythi Limnonectes finchi

Inger, 1960

Tiny Stream Toad, Dwarf Slender Toad

Near Threatened Near Threatened Least Concern

Mocquard, 1890 Spiny Slender Toad, Kinabalu Stream Toad Boulenger, 1892 Tree Toad, Boulenger's Asian Tree Toad Inger, 1958 Gravenhorst, 1829

Green Tree Toad, Near Threatened Inger's Asian Tree Toad River Toad, Malayan Giant Toad Least Concern

Endemic to Borneo

Boulenger, 1920 Giant Asian River Frog, NA Blyth's River Frog Inger, 1966 Rough Guardian Frog, Finch's Wart Frog Tributary Wart Frog, Rough-backed River Frog Greater Swamp Frog, Inger's Wart Frog Large-headed Frog, Kuhl's Creek Frog Least Concern Near Threatened Endemic to Borneo

Limnonectes ibanorum Inger, 1964

Limnonectes ingeri Limnonectes kuhlii Limnonectes laticeps

Kiew, 1978 Tschudi, 1838

Near Threatened Least Concern Least Concern NA Least Concern Near Threatened

Endemic to Borneo

Boulenger, 1882 Corrugated Frog, Rivulet Frog Giant River Frog

Limnonectes leporinus Andersson, 1923 Limnonectes palavanensis Limnonectes parama-

Boulenger, 1894 Smooth Guardian Frog Inger, 1966 Lesser Swamp Frog

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AMPHIBIANS
SPECIES LIST
Family Species Author Cochran, 1926 Berry & Hendrickson, 1963 Dubois, 1987 Matsui, 1997 Schlegel, 1837 Schlegel, 1837 Other Names Lowland Litter Frog Black-eyed Litter Frog IUCN Status Least Concern Least Concern Notes

Megophryidae Leptobrachium abbotti Leptobrachium nigrops Leptolalax dringi Leptolalax hamidi Megophrys nasuta Ranidae Hydrophylax chalconotus (Rana chalconata) Hylarana picturata (Rana picturata) Hylarana raniceps (Rana raniceps) Hylarana signata (Rana signata) Meristogenys macrophthalmus

Dring's Slender Litter Frog Near Threatened Endemic to Borneo White-bellied Slender Litter Frog, Asian Toad Long-nosed Horned Frog, Bornean Horned Frog White-lipped Frog Vulnerable Least Concern Least Concern Endemic to Borneo

Boulenger, 1920 Peters, 1871 Gunther, 1872 Matsui, 1986

Spotted Stream Frog Peters' Malaysian Frog, White-lipped Frog Striped Stream Frog

Least Concern Least Concern Least Concern Data Deficient Endemic and only previously reported from Malaysian Borneo

Odorrana hosii (Rana hosii) Staurois natator Rhacophoridae Nyctixalus pictus (Rhacophorus pictus) Polypedates colletti Polypedates macrotis Rhacophorus pardalis Rhacophorus gadingensis

Boulenger, 1891 Gunther, 1858 Peters, 1871

Hose's Rock Frog, Poisonous Rock Frog Rock Frog White-spotted Tree Frog, Painted Indonesian Treefrog Black-spotted Tree Frog, Collett's Whipping Frog

Least Concern Least Concern Near Threatened

Boulenger, 1890 Boulenger, 1891

Least Concern

Dark-eared Tree Frog, Least Concern Bongao Tree Frog, Brownstriped Tree Frog Gliding Tree Frog Gading Tree Frog Least Concern Data Deficient 17

Gunther, 1858 Das & Haas, 2005

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ENTOMOLOGYPeter Houlihan
INTRODUCTION In threatened ecosystems, identifying areas of high diversity, and understanding the broader ecological process underlying the diversity is essential to ensure any hope of conservation. To this end it is necessary to conduct rapid assessments of a forests diversity and health. Insects, most notably butterflies, are strong indicators of biodiversity, which is often correlated with overall forest health. The diverse and complex life histories as well as widespread phenotypic plasticity of many insects make them an ideal model taxa for monitoring recent changes to forest ecosystems and to understand the ecological differences between forest type, geography (such as elevation and hydrology) and the effect of land use change and forest fragmentation. While there is currently no published data relating to entomological research in the Murung Raya region, it is BRINCCs aim that studies such as ours will contribute towards estimates of overall species richness along the Barito River. In doing so, estimates of insect community diversity will be used to indicate areas likely to support high levels of diversity in other taxa. The high conservation importance of these areas will bring much needed attention and provide predictions for areas at greater risk of forest loss.
Amathuxidia amythaon (Male)

OBJECTIVES

To document the insect species inhabiting the forests along the unprotected and hardly-studied upper reaches of the Barito River.

To sequence the DNA of collected specimens in order to gain further insight on the diversity of life through DNA barcoding

To evaluate phenotypic and genotypic variation of species across an elevation gradient To identify species, subspecies, and phenotypes previously unknown to science

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ENTOMOLOGY
OBJECTIVES CONT.

To estimate the overall species richness of the Barito River insect communities using species accumulation curves and indices of diversity.

To use insects as indicators of biodiversity in order assess which areas are greater risk of forest loss and thus in higher demand of conservation.

To publish the results in peer-reviewed journals, popular science literature, and local media. To train local students and conservation workers in the various methods of surveying insect populations, in order to encourage continued monitoring of the Barito River and other regions of Borneo in high demand of species documentation and conservation.

METHODS

BRINCCs 2011 entomology studies mainly focused on the ecology and diversity of butterflies. Fruit-bait traps and hand netting were used in order to survey the butterfly communities at each site. Traps were set at a height of one meter along streams and ridges using as bait bananas fermented with sugar. Additional sampling methods included the use of malaise traps, pitfall traps, and nocturnal light trapping in order to establish methods for
Night collecting using BioQuip Products

future monitoring and inventory efforts of a greater variety of insect taxa. BioQuip Products generously donated all entomological equipment for the expedition. A total of 23 days of trapping were recorded in the Hutan Desa community forest and 15 days of trapping in the primary forest of the Bora river site.

The DNA of sample specimens will be sequenced in order to provide greater insight on the biogeography of Kalimantans understudied mountain species and the phenotypic variation that occurs throughout the Indonesian archipelago. The majority of butterfly species accounts on the island of Borneo are from Northern or Southern populations. However many of the species recorded throughout the expedition appear unique to these other geographic distributions, suggesting the possible presence of hybrids or entirely new species.
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ENTOMOLOGY
RESULTS While data analysis is yet to be completed, all results will be collated into a series of academic papers published in peer-reviewed journals, as well as in the BRINCC Expeditions full scientific report due to be published in 2012.

In total, more than 100 species of butterflies were recorded and will be compiled into a guide addressing the butterflies of the Upper Barito.

New morphological variations and possible sub-species were identified (subject to confirmation)

This study will provide the first comprehensive butterfly study in the entire Murung Raya region, contributing vital data points into a data blind spot of the island of Borneo. work BRINCCs will entomological greater

provide

understanding of the distribution of Bornean butterflies, especially with respect to elevation. Importantly, these data will address the most fundamental questions of ecology and evolution, aiming to understand more about how species diversify spatially and temporally. At the same time, these results will indicate areas that show potential for being multi-taxa hotspots for biodiversity, supporting necessary efforts in the conservation of these fragile and threatened forests. Genetic data is remarkably sparse on the butterflies of Southeast Asia and this study will lay a crucial foundation for future research. The DNA barcoding that is being conducted as part of this project ensures that this research is at the cutting edge of entomological research and that such data remains in the public domain for the benefit of academics worldwide.

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ENTOMOLOGY
SPECIES LIST (PRELIMINARY*) The list here is tentative and additions/revisions will be made when more specimens from the Lycaenidae, Hesperidae, and Pieridae families are identified. Some individuals that have been classified to the genus level, but have not been identified to species have been excluded from this list. Species were recorded by capture in bait traps or hand nets, and by observation. Thank you to Dr. Rosichon Ubaidillah and Dr. Djunijanti Peggie at LIPI for helping to facilitate the export of many of these species for identification. Specimens will be deposited in the Bogor Zoological Museum after the analysis is completed.
Family Papilionidae Subfamily Papilioninae Species Graphium agamemnon Graphium antiphates Graphium bathycles Graphium doson Graphium evemon Graphium sarpedon Papilio demolion Trogonoptera brookiana brookiana Troides sp. Nymphalidae Charaxinae Agatasa calydonia Charaxes bernardus Charaxes borneensis borneensis Charaxes distanti Charaxes durnfordi Charaxes fervens Charaxes solon Polyura athamas Polyura delphis Polyura hebe Prothoe franck Danainae Euploea mulciber Euploea radamanthus Idea stolli Ideopsis vulgaris Heliconiinae Morphinae Terinos clarissa Terinos terpander Amathuxidia amythaon Faunis kirata Faunis phaon Faunis stomphax Thaumantis noureddin Thauria aliris aliris Author Linnaeus, 1758 Cramer, 1775 Zinnken, 1831 Felder & Felder, 1864 Boisduval, 1836 Linnaeus, 1758 Cramer, 1776 Wallace, 1855 Hbner, 1819 Hewitson, 1854 Fabricius, 1793 Butler, 1869 Honrath, 1885 Distant, 1884 Butler, 1896 Fabricius, 1793 Drury, 1773 Doubleday, 1843 Butler, 1866 Godart, 1824 Cramer, 1777 Fabricius, 1793 Moore, 1883 Butler, 1874 Boisduval, 1836 Hewitson, 1862 Doubleday, 1847 de Nicville, 1891 Erichson, 1834 Westwood, 1858 Westwood, 1851 Frhstorfer, 1902 IUCN: Least Concern Bornean Subspecies 21 IUCN: Least Concern Bornean Subspecies IUCN: Least Concern CITES Appendix II Notes

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ENTOMOLOGY
Family Nymphalidae (continued) Nymphalinae Subfamily Species Zeuxidia amethystus Zeuxidia aurelius Zeuxidia doubledayi Amnosia decora Athyma asura Athyma pravara pravara Athyma reta Bassarona dunya Cirrochroa satellita Cupha arias Dophla evelina Euripus nyctelius Euthalia sp. Kallima buxtoni Kallima spiridiva Lexias dirtea Lexias pardalis Moduza procris Neptis magadha Pandita sinope Rhinopalpa polynice Tanaecia clathrata clathrata Pseuderglinae Satyrinae Dichorragia nesimachus Coelites epiminthia Coelites euptychioides euptychioides Elymnias sp. Lethe sp. Melanitis leda Mycalesis amoena Mycalesis anapita Mycalesis maianeas Mycalesis mnasicles mnasicles Mycalesis oroatis Mycalesis orseis borneensis Mycalesis patiana Mycalesis thyateira Neorina lowii Ragadia makuta Ypthima sp. Author Butler, 1865 Cramer, 1777 Westwood, 1851 Doubleday, 1849 Moore, 1858 Moore, 1857 Moore, 1858 Doubleday, 1848 Butler, 1869 Felder, 1867 Stoll, 1790 Doubleday, 1845 Hbner, 1819 Moore, 1879 Grose-Smith, 1885 Fabricius, 1793 Moore, 1878 Cramer, 1777 Felder & Felder, 1867 Moore, 1858 Cramer, 1779 Vollenhoeven, 1862 Doyere, 1840 Westwood, 1851 Felder & Felder, 1867 Hbner, 1818 Hbner, 1819 Linnaeus, 1758 Druce, 1873 Moore, 1858 Hewitson, 1864 Hewitson, 1864 Hewitson, 1864 Frhstorfer Eliot, 1969 Frhstorfer, 1909 Doubleday, 1849 Horsfield, 1829 Hbner, 1818 Bornean Subspecies Endemic to Borneo Bornean Subspecies Bornean Subspecies Bornean Subspecies Notes

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ENTOMOLOGY

Family Lycaenidae

Subfamily Lycaeninae

Species Amblypodia narada Arhopala sp. Caleta elna Drupadia ravindra Eooxylides tharis

Author Horsfield, 1828 Boisduval, 1832 Hewitson, 1876 Horsfield, 1828 Geyer, 1837 Watson, 1893 Vollenhoven, 1865 Cramer, 1777 Fabricius, 1787 Cramer, 1776 Vollenhoeven, 1865 Boisduval, 1836 Hewitson, 1861 Fabricius, 1793

Notes

Hesperidae Pieridae

Hesperiinae Coliadinae Pierinae

Koruthaialos sp. Eurema tominia Appias lyncida Cepora iudith Pareronia valeria Prioneris cornelia

IUCN: Least Concern

Endemic to Borneo IUCN: Least Concern

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Paralaxita orphna Paralaxita telesia Taxila haquinus

Butterfly trap baited with fermenting bananas 23

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LARGE MAMMALSDr Susan Cheyne


INTRODUCTION Bornean tropical forest contains a guild of five felid species: Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi), bay cat (Pardofelis badia), marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata), flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps), and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). Two are endangered, two threatened, and their presumed primary habitat is rapidly being lost and/or altered in the region. The behavioural ecology of none is wellknown, and the impact of forest destruction and management on each of these species is obscure *Cheyne et al. 2009; Cheyne et al. 2010b; Cheyne and Macdonald 2010; Wilting et al. 2010; Cheyne and Macdonald 2011; Cheyne et al.
Common porcupine

in prep-b+. The perceived decline of cat populations is predominantly

accredited to the usual human disturbances: habitat degradation and fragmentation and hunting (direct and indirect). Cats are widely hunted for their pelts, which are often considered as status symbols *Rabinowitz et al. 1987; Nowell and Jackson 1996; Povey et al. 2009+. Their teeth are also highly prized and their bones and organs are sometimes used in traditional Nijman medicine In *Shepherd addition, clouded and some leopard,

2008+.

restaurants

serve

reputedly catering for

wealthy Asian

tourists *Rabinowitz et al. 1987+. Clouded leopards are also killed as by-catch of hunting for pigs, deer and monkeys
Sambar deer

*Rabinowitz et al. 1987; Wilting et al. 2006+.

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LARGE MAMMALS
METHODS AND RESULTS 10 camera traps were placed individually at 2 study sites: Sungai Borah and Tumbang Tujang. A total of 11 species were captured on the camera traps: 10 mammals and one bird. Species Bearded pig Bornean Muntjac Common porcupine Great Argus Pheasant Greater mouse deer Mouse deer Pig-tailed macaque Red langur Sambar deer Short-tailed Mongoose Squirrel unknown

Despite the cameras being in place for less trapping time in Sungai Borah (primary forest site), the capture rate was higher, % of animal captures was higher and the most diverse (7 species captured v.s. 5). Below is the summary data for the cameras in each location.

Location

Number of cameras

Number of camera nights 24

Number of photos

Tumbang Tujang Sungai Borah

10

465

Number of individual animal photos 8

Capture rate (photos/trap night) 0.33

% of animal captures 1.72

Total number of species 5

10

16

124

0.56

7.26

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LARGE MAMMALS
SPEICES DATA FROM CAMERA TRAPS

SPECIES Squirrel unknown Pig-tailed macaque Bearded pig Sambar deer Bornean Muntjac Short-tailed Mongoose Mouse deer Red langur Greater mouse deer Common porcupine Great Argus Pheasant

Latin Name NA Macaca nemestrina Sus barbatus Rusa unicolor Muntiacus atherodes Herpestes brachyurus Tragulus kanchil Presbytis rubicunda Tragulus napu Hystrix brachyura Argusianus argus

Indonesian Name Tupai Beruk Babi hutan Rusa besar Kijang Luwak Kancil Kelasi Kancil Landak Kuau

IUCN Status NA Vulnerable Vulnerable Vulnerable Least concern Least concern Least concern Least concern Least concern Least concern Least concern

SPECIES DATA FROM OTHER METHODS Species Clouded Leopard Marbled cat Banded palm civet Sun bear Leopard cat Otter Smalltoothed palm civet Latin Name Neofelis diardi Pardofelis marmorata Hemigalus derbyanus Helarctos malayanus Prionailurus bengalensis NA Arctogalidia trivirgata Indonesian Name Macan dahan Kucing batu Musang Beruang madu Kucing liar Berang-berang Musang IUCN Status Vulnerable Vulnerable Vulnerable Vulnerable Least Concern NA Least concern Method of confirmation Visual sighting Foot print Visual sighting Markings Visual sighting Foot print Visual sighting

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SMALL MAMMALSMichal Zrust


INTRODUCTION Small mammals play a key role in forest ecosystems; they disperse seeds, disperse mycorrhizal fungi, and predate on insects and seedlings. Information on the diversity and abundance of small mammals is central to understanding ecological processes; including population dynamics, population demography, community structure, and forest functioning. This information can then help identify areas of high biodiversity, prioritise areas for conservation, and can help us to understand the effects of logging and habitat fragmentation. In addition, different small mammal species exhibit different levels of tolerance to changes in habitat and vegetation structure depending on their life histories and habitat utilization.

Very little public domain data is available on the small mammals of the

Murung Raya.

Therefore,

studying small mammals on BRINCC Expedition allows us to add key information to the known distribution of species across Borneo, develop important baseline
Photo M. Zrust

population estimates from which future changes can

be monitored, and gain an understanding of which species are most vulnerable to habitat loss and land use change.

Monitoring small mammal diversity is a relatively quick and cheap method of indicating healthy/ unhealthy functioning of the ecosystem. Importantly, an understanding of these dynamics allows conservationists to suggest practical methods of reducing negative impacts from habitat alteration when it does take place.
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SMALL MAMMALS
METHODS

This study employed a trapping grid system using 128 locally made wire mesh traps, broken up into eight grids of sixteen traps each. Two sites were used in this study: a Hutan Desa (a community forest sustainably utilised by the local villagers) and a primary forest site along the Bora River. In each site,
Photo M. Zrust

trapping was conducted at 18 consecutive days giving a total of 2304 trap nights at each site. In the Hutan Desa, grids were alternately baited with fresh coconut and dried fish, however due to the surprisingly low uptake of dried fish, all traps were baited with coconut at the Bora site. Upon capture all individuals were be anesthetised with ether, weighed, measured, and data on sex, and sexual development noted. Capture location was recorded and individuals were uniquely

marked using Monel ear tags for recapture purposes.

Ectoparasites were collected from each new species caught and stored in alcohol to be identified by experts at a later date.
Photo M. Zrust

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SMALL MAMMALS
RESULTS

Data analysis is not yet complete, and will be included in the full BRINCC Expedition Scientific Report. However, early analysis and observation allows us to draw some early preliminary findings.

The species number was relatively similar between our two study sites (see text box) however there were far fewer individuals caught at the primary forest site (56) as opposed to the Hutan Desa (127). The primary forest however yielded many more Long-Tailed Giant Rats, Whiteheads Rat, and Brown Spiny Rats the latter two listed vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.

Analysis will calculate average territory sizes as well as range and distribution of territory sizes, diversity indicies, habitat and forest type comparisons and other ecological analysis.

Methodological analyses will contribute to debate regarding the effect of different bait types, washing traps, anaesthetization by ether, and the effect of territory sizes on trapping design. It is likely that due to the findings of this study, widely used trapping designs will need to be altered, at least for the region under expedition scenarios.

Photo M. Zrust

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SMALL MAMMALS
Bait The effectiveness of a trap is decided by the effectiveness of the bait and this was clearly shown in our Hutan Desa trapping. Dried fish is often quoted as a suitable (and often as preferred) bait for small mammal trapping. However we found that dried fish did not catch one individual and therefore was not suitable in this instance. The reasons behind this are not known, but this has a significant impact on future expeditions. Under expedition circumstances, bait needs to be light-weight, compact, long lasting, relatively inexpensive and, importantly, easy to acquire in potentially remote locations. Dried fish has all these attributes and therefore would serve as the perfect bait, unfortunately our study found this bait not to attract small mammals. To some extent, coconut fulfils this role well, however it can be bulky and heavy. Its longevity in the jungle is also approximately a month. Territory size This part of the study will require far more data analysis. One interesting result is that whilst most rats were caught within a small area and confined to only a few traps if re-caught, some individuals were able to travel between grids in the Borah. One marked juvenile Brown Spiny Rat was caught over 160m from initial point of capture by an opportunistic trap placed in our camp. There was also an elevational difference of

approximately 60m between the two points of capture. Whilst this was the case for only three captures in our study, this demonstrates that
Photo M. Zrust

the trapping design will have to be altered in

the future to account for what may potentially be larger territory sizes than previously thought. Effect of smell Whether to wash traps or not after a trapping session has often been debated. We used the opportunity provided by the failure of the fish bait to undertake this experiment in our second site. There was a
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SMALL MAMMALS
significant difference between the capture rates of the traps that had had animals in them before and the traps that had not. Whilst a more complicated analysis will need to take place to tease out the details, it is clear that traps that have had animals in them before (and thus smell of other rats) caught many more animals right from the start. In fact it was not until day eight that the two sets started to catch comparable numbers. This is again an important aspect of trapping that needs to be taken into account when developing a trapping study. Other results Many other interesting results have come out of this study which will go towards improving our practical knowledge of how to conduct small mammal studies under expedition conditions. We have found for example that Chestnut-Bellied Rats are much more susceptible to anaesthetization by ether than other rats; locally made wire traps using chicken wire are only suitable for approximately a months use in the jungle as the wire rusts and allows for rats to escape more easily; Dark-Tailed Rats are far more aggressive than others and are unwilling to go into a holding bag. These are just some examples of the knowledge that expeditions such as this can provide for future work. We will be publishing all of these in our final expedition report which will be

publically available. Conclusions and the Future This study has yielded some important as well as interesting results and full data analysis will most probably reveal even more interesting details. This information will also be shared with the IUCN, ZSL, and the publishers of
Photo M. Zrust

the Mammals of Borneo ID book in order to disseminate our results. We hope that the information will help conservation managers work more efficiently in the region, create more targeted research and provide the local government and NGOs with greater knowledge to help understand the possible environmental impact created by companies wishing to extract resources in the region.
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SMALL MAMMALS
SPECIES LIST AND IUCN STATUS

Brown Spiny Rat (Maxomys rajah), Hutan Desa (HD), Bora (B), Vulnerable Red Spiny Rat (Maxomys surifer) HD, B, Least Concern Whiteheads Rat (Maxomys whiteheadi) HD, B, Vulnerable Long-Tailed Giant Rat (Leopoldamys sabanus) HD, B, Least Concern Chestnut-Bellied Rat (Maxomys ochraceiventer) HD, B, Data Deficient Grey Tree Rat (Lenothrix canus) HD, Least Concern Dark-Tailed Tree Rat (Niviventer cremoriventer) HD, Vulnerable Mullers Rat (Sundamys muelleri) HD, B, Least Concern Whiteheads Rat subspecies (Maxomys whiteheadi piratae) B, No data on Redlist Large Treeshrew (Tupaia tana) B, Least Concern

Photo M. Zrust

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33

BIRDSKatherine Breslin
INTRODUCTION

Despite generally appearing at relatively low densities, the role of birds as indicators of biodiversity is well established, mainly due to well documented taxonomy and the fact that they can be easily identified within the field. Birds fulfil a wide range of ecological roles within the forest ecosystem; pollination, seed dispersal and predation, and as such examining the assemblage of avian communities can indicate wider ecological processes.

Within Indonesian Borneo there have been a few studies that have taken place around the Barito River, carried out by Project Bartio Ulu. But the work done in this area was conducted many years ago spending a very small amount of time in the upper regions. Many distributions of birds in Borneo have been estimated from those seen in the Malaysian Peninsula but more recently it was found that these distributions were inaccurate.

Photo Peter Houlihan

Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet) 33

34

BIRDS
METHODS

This study used independent point counts and transect walks across the three sites of varying altitudes. Point counts are

frequently used throughout the world in order to determine relative abundance and

densities. At the first 2 sites independent point counts were carried out during the hours of
Photo M. Zrust

5.00 and 8.00 in the morning. The point counts were located at least 150m apart, 38 point counts were completed at each site. At each point count there was a 5 minute period before recording to allow the birds settle. At each station the birds were recorded for 10 minutes with the distance to each bird being estimated. At the third site and during the rest of the day at the other 2 sites transect walks were conducted in order to create a species inventory of the area. This involved walking transects slowly at different times of day recording the birds via song and sight in order to maximise the number of species encountered. Vegetation data was collected at the first 2 sites by plotting in 100m x 4m plots, measuring and identifying all the trees with a dbh greater than 10cm. RESULTS A) Species encounters

Overall 222 species of birds were identified by sight and from all three of the sites. At the Hutan Desa of Tumbang Tujang there were 157 different species of birds observed, on the River Bora there were 153 and only 98 species recorded in Kalasin. The number of species found at each site, not found at either of the other two were 51, 42 and 23 respectively. Although, both Tumbang Tujang and the River Bora have

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BIRDS
RESULTS similar numbers of species, there were found to be 45 species at the River Bora but not at Tumbang Tujang. There were 19 species recorded at Kalasin which had not been recorded at either Tubang Tujang or the River Bora. B) Endemic birds

There are over 50 species of endemic birds in Borneo, 15 of which were identified during the research period, with 8 sighted at the Bora site, followed by 6 in the community forest and 3 in Kalasin. C) Marketable Birds

Marketable birds from Borneo range from song birds which are often used in competitions to mynas and parrots which are popular as pets due to their ability to imitate. Analysis is being conducted in conjunction with the social teams research to look at the effect of the song bird trade on populations of songbirds in the region. D) Threatened Species

From the 222 bird species recorded from this area, 154 are deemed least concern, 2 under review and 3 not yet evaluated by the IUCN Red List. There were 55 species listed as near threatened including species encountered frequently such as the Rhinoceros Hornbill. Other near threatened species such as the Bornean Ground Pheasant, were recorded at all three sites and very frequently at the Bora river site. There were 7 species classified as vulnerable identified at the three sites, including the Straw-Headed Bulbul whose trade as a songbird species in the villages is being investigated. Two species were identified listed as endangered, The Bornean Peacock Pheasant and the Storms Stock, both of which were found at the primary forest site at the Bora.

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BIRDS
RESULTS

A graph showing the species accumulation curves from Tumbang Tujang, the River Bora and Kalasin.

TOTAL SPECIES Endemic Species IUCN Endangered Species IUCN Vulnerable Species

222 16 3 7

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BIRDS
SPECIES LIST BY FAMILY

English Name Ardeidae Javan Pond-heron Ciconiidae Storm's Stork Accipitridae Jerdon's Baza Brahminy Kite Grey-headed Fish-eagle Crested Serpent-eagle Changeable Hawk-eagle Phasianidae Long-billed Partridge Blue-breasted Quail Crested Partridge Crestless Fireback Bulwer's Pheasant Bornean Peacock-pheasant Great Argus Charadriidae Little Ringed Plover Columbidae Pink-necked Green Pigeon Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ruddy Cuckoo-dove Little Cuckoo-dove Psittacidae Blue-rumped Parrot Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Blekok sawah

Ardeola speciosa

Bangau Storm

Ciconia stormi

Endangered

Baza jerdon Elang bondol Elang-ikan kepala kelabu Elang-ular bido Elang brontok

Aviceda jerdoni Haliastur indus Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Spilornis cheela Spizaetus cirrhatus

Puyuh siul-selanting Puyuh batu Puyuh sengayan Sempidan merah Sempidan Kalimantan Kuau-kerdil Kalimantan Kuau raja

Rhizothera longirostris Coturnix chinensis Rollulus rouloul Lophura erythrophthalma Lophura bulweri Polyplectron schleiermacheri Argusianus argus Vulnerable Endangered Y Y

Cerek-kalung kecil

Charadrius dubius

Punai gading Pergam gunung Uncal buau Uncal kouran

Treron vernans Ducula badia Macropygia emiliana Macropygia ruficeps

Nuri tanau Serindit Melayu

Psittinus cyanurus Loriculus galgulus

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BIRDS

English Name Cuculidae Moustached Hawk-cuckoo Malaysian Hawk-cuckoo Indian Cuckoo Oriental cuckoo Banded Bay Cuckoo Plaintive Cuckoo Rusty-breasted Cuckoo Violet Cuckoo Drongo Cuckoo Asian Koel Black-bellied Malkoha Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Raffles's Malkoha Red-billed Malkoha Chestnut-breasted Malkoha Bornean Ground-cuckoo Short-toed Coucal Greater Coucal Lesser Coucal

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Kangkok kumis Kangkok Melayu Kangkok India ? Wiwik lurik Wiwik kelabu Wiwiwk uncuing Kedasi ungu Kedasi hitam Tuwur Asia Kadalan beruang Kadalan saweh Kadalan selaya Kadalan kembang Kadalan birah Tokhtor Sunda Bubut teragop Bubut besar Bubut alang-alang

Cuculus vagans Cuculus fugax Cuculus micropterus Cuculus optatus Cacomantis sonneratii Cacomantis merulinus Cacomantis sepulcralis Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus Surniculus lugubris Eudynamys scolopaceus Rhopodytes diardi Rhopodytes sumatranus Rhinortha chlorophaea Zanclostomus javanicus Rhamphococcyx curvirostris Carpococcyx radiatus Centropus rectunguis Centropus sinensis Centropus bengalensis Near Threatened Vulnerable Y

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BIRDS

English Name Strigidae Reddish Scopsowl Collared Scopsowl Barred Eagle-owl Brown Boobook Brown Wood-owl Podargidae Sunda frogmouth Javan Frogmouth Caprimulgidae Malaysian Eared Nightjar Large-tailed Nightjar Savanna Nightjar Apodidae Glossy Swiftlet Silver-rumped Swift Little Swift Hemiprocnidae Grey-rumped Tree-swift Whiskered Tree-swift Dicruridae Hair-crested Drongo

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Celepuk merah Celepuk reban Beluk jampuk Punggok coklat Kukuk beluk

Otus rufescens Otus lempiji Bubo sumatranus Ninox scutulata Strix leptogrammica

Paruh-kodok tanduk Paruh-kodok Jawa

Batrachostomus cornatus Batrachostomus javensis

Taktarau Melayu Taktarau besar Cabak kota

Eurostopodus temminckii Caprimulgus macrurus Caprimulgus affinis

Walet sapi Kapinis-jarum kecil Kapinis rumah

Collocalia esculenta Rhaphidura leucopygialis Apus affinis

Tepekong jambul Tepekong rangkang

Hemiprocne longipennis Hemiprocne comata

Srigunting jambul-rambut

Dicrurus hottentottus Dicrurus paradiseus 39

Greater Raquet-tailed Drongo Srigunting batu

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BIRDS

English Name Trogonidae Red-naped Trogon Diard's Trogon

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Luntur kasumba Luntur diard

Harpactes kasumba Harpactes diardi Harpactes orrhophaeus Harpactes duvaucelii Harpactes oreskios

Cinnamon-rumped Trogon Luntur tunggir-coklat Scarlet-rumped Trogon Orange-breasted Trogon Alcedinidae Blue-eared Kingfisher Blue-banded Kingfisher Stork-billed Kingfisher Banded Kingfisher Collared Kingfisher Rufous-backed kingfisher Rufous-collared kingfisher Meropidae Red-bearded Bee-eater Bucerotidae White-crowned Hornbill Bushy-crested Hornbill Wrinkled Hornbill Wreathed Hornbill Black Hornbill Asian Pied Hornbill Rhinoceros Hornbill Helmeted Hornbill Enggang jambul Enggang klihingan Julang jambul-hitam Julang emas Kangkareng hitam Kangkareng perut-putih Rangkong badak Rangkong gading Cirik-cirik kumbang Raja-udang meninting Raja-udang kalung-biru Pekaka emas Cekakak batu Cekakak sungai Udang punggung-merah Cekakak-hutan Melayu Luntur putri Luntur harimau

Alcedo meninting Alcedo euryzona Pelargopsis capensis Lacedo pulchella Halcyon chloris Ceyx rufidorsa Actenoides concretus Vulnerable

Nyctyornis amictus

Berenicornis comatus Anorrhinus galeritus Rhyticeros corrugatus Rhyticeros undulatus Anthracoceros malayanus Anthracoceros albirostris Buceros rhinoceros Rhinoplax vigil

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BIRDS

English Name Capitonidae Gold-whiskered Barbet Red-crowned Barbet Red-throated Barbet Mountain Barbet Yellow-crowned Barbet Golden-naped Barbet Blue-eared Barbet Black-throated Barbet Brown Barbet Picidae Rufous Piculet Rufous Woodpecker Crimson-winged Yellownape Banded Woodpecker Common Goldenback Olive-backed Woodpecker Buff-necked Woodpecker Great Slaty Woodpecker White-bellied Woodpecker Grey-capped Woodpecker Grey-and-buff Woodpecker Maroon Woodpecker

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Takur gedang Takur tutut Takur warna-warni Takur gunung Takur topi-emas Takur tengkuk-emas Takur tenggerat Takur leher hitam Takur ampis

Megalaima chrysopogon Megalaima rafflesii Megalaima mystacophanos Megalaima monticola Megalaima henricii Megalaima pulcherrima Megalaima australis Megalaima eximia Calorhamphus fuliginosus Least Concern Y Least Concern Y

Tukik tikus Pelatuk kijang Pelatuk sayap-merah Pelatuk merah Pelatuk besi Pelatuk Raffles Caladi badok Pelatuk kelabu-besar Pelatuk ayam Caladi belacan Caladi tikotok Pelatuk pangkas

Sasia abnormis Celeus brachyurus Picus puniceus Picus miniaceus Dinopium javanense Dinopium rafflesii Meiglyptes tukki Mulleripicus pulverulentus Dryocopus javensis Dendrocopos canicapillus Hemicircus concretus Blythipicus rubiginosus Reinwardtipicus validus

Orange-backed Woodpecker Pelatuk kundang

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BIRDS

English Name Eurylaimidae Dusky Broadbill Black-and-red Broadbill Banded Broadbill Black-and-yellow Broadbill Green Broadbill Pittidae Banded Pitta Garnet Pitta Blue-headed Pitta Hirundinidae Pacific Swallow Campephagidae Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Bar-winged Hemipus Irenidae Green Iora Greater Green Leafbird Lesser Green Leafbird Blue-winged Leafbird Asian Fairy Bluebird Sturnidae Hill Myna

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Madi kelam sempur-hujan sungai Sempur-hujan rimba Sempur-hujan darat Madi-hijau kecil

Corydon sumatranus Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos Eurylaimus javanicus Eurylaimus ochromalus Calyptomena viridis

Paok pancawarna Paok delima Paok kepala-biru

Pitta guajana Pitta granatina Pitta baudii Vulnerable Y

Layang-layang batu

Hirundo tahitica

Kepudang-sungu Sumatera Jingjing bukit

Coracina striata Hemipus picatus

Cipoh jantung Cica-daun besar Cica-daun kecil Cica-daun sayap-biru Kacembang gadung

Aegithina viridissima Chloropsis sonnerati Chloropsis cyanopogon Chloropsis cochinchinensis Irena puella

Tiong emas

Gracula religiosa 42

43

BIRDS

English Name Pycnonotidae Straw-headed Bulbul Black-and-white Bulbul Black-headed Bulbul Bornean Bulbul Grey-bellied Bulbul Puff-backed Bulbul Yellow-vented Bulbul Olive-winged Bulbul Cream-vented Bulbul Red-eyed Bulbul Spectacled Bulbul Finsch's Bulbul Ochraceous Bulbul Grey-cheeked Bulbul Yellow-bellied Bulbul Hook-billed Bulbul Buff-vented Bulbul Hairy-backed Bulbul Common Streaked Bulbul Cinereous bulbul Turdidae Chestnut-capped thrush Oriental Magpie-robin White-rumped Shama Chestnut-naped Forktail Bornean forktail

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Cucak rawa Cucak sakit-tubuh Cucak kuricang Cucak kuning Cucak kelabu Cucak rumbai-tungging Merbah cerukcuk Merbah belukar Merbah corok-corok Merbah mata-merah Merbah kacamata Empuloh leher-kuning Empuloh ragum Empuloh janggut Empuloh irang Empuloh paruk-kait ? Brinji rambut-tunggir Brinji bergaris Brinji kelabu

Pycnonotus zeylanicus Pycnonotus melanoleucos Pycnonotus atriceps Pycnonotus montis Pycnonotus cyaniventris Pycnonotus eutilotus Pycnonotus goiavier Pycnonotus plumosus Pycnonotus simplex Pycnonotus brunneus Pycnonotus erythropthalmos Criniger finschii Criniger ochraceus Criniger bres Criniger phaeocephalus Setornis criniger Hypsipetes charlottae Hypsipetes criniger Hypsipetes malaccensis Hemixos cinereus

Vulnerable

Least Concern Y

Vulnerable

Endangered

Anis kembang Kucica kampung Kucica hutan Meninting cegar ?

Zoothera interpres Copsychus saularis Copsychus malabaricus Enicurus ruficapillus Enicurus borneoensis Not Listed Y

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BIRDS

English Name Timaliidae White-browed Shrike babbler Black-capped Babbler Short-tailed Babbler White-chested Babbler Ferruginous Babbler Horsfield's Babbler Abbott's Babbler

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Ciu besar Pelanduk topi-hitam Pelanduk ekor-pendek Pelanduk dada-putih Pelanduk merah Pelanduk semak Pelanduk Asia

Pteruthius flavicapis Pellorneum capistratum Trichastoma malaccense Trichastoma rostratum Trichastoma bicolor Trichastoma sepiarium Trichastoma abbotti Garrulax mitratus Malacopteron magnirostre Malacopteron affine Malacopteron cinereum Malacopteron magnum Malacopteron albogulare Pomatorhinus montanus Napothera crassa Napothera epilepidota Stachyris rufifrons Stachyris nigriceps Stachyris poliocephala Stachyris maculata Stachyris leucotis Stachyris nigricollis Stachyris erythroptera Macronous gularis Macronous ptilosus Least Concern Y Near Threatened Y

Chestnut-capped Laughing-thrush Poksai genting Moustached Babbler Sooty-capped Babbler Scaly-crowned Babbler Rufous-crowned Babbler Grey-breasted Babbler Asi kumis Asi topi-jelaga Asi topi-sisik Asi besar Asi dada-kelabu

Chestnut-backed Scimitar-babbler Cica-kopi Melayu Mountain Wren-babbler Eye-browed Wren-babbler Rufous-fronted Babbler Grey-throated Babbler Grey-headed Babbler Chestnut-rumped Babbler White-necked Babbler Black-throated Babbler Chestnut-winged Babbler Striped Tit-babbler Fluffy-backed Tit-babbler Berencet gunung Berencet berkening Tepus dahi-merah Tepus kepala-hitam Tepus kepala-kelabu Tepus tunggir-merah Tepus telinga-putih Tepus kaban Tepus merbah-sampah Ciung-air coreng Ciung-air pongpong

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BIRDS

English Name Sylviidae Oriental Reed Warbler Mountain tailorbird Dark-necked Tailorbird Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Ashy Tailorbird Yellow-bellied Warbler Muscicapidae Grey-chested Rhinomyias Verditer Flycatcher Indigo flycatcher Little pied flycatcher Rufous-chested Flycatcher Dark Blue Flycatcher Hill Blue Flycatcher Bornean Blue Flycatcher Sunda Blue Flycatcher Malaysian Blue Flycatcher Pygmy Blue Flycatcher Grey-headed Flycatcher Acanthizidae Flyeater

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Kerakbasi besar Cinenen gunung Cinenen belukar Cinenen merah Cinenen kelabu Cikrak bambu

Acrocephalus orientalis Orthotomus cuculatus Orthotomus atrogularis Orthotomus sericeus Orthotomus ruficeps Abroscopus superciliaris

Sikatan-rimba dada-kelabu Sikatan hijau-laut Sikatan ninon Sikatan belang Sikatan dada-merah Sikatan besar Sikatan cacing Sikatan Kalimantan Sikatan biru-langit Sikatan Melayu Sikatan kerdil Sikatan kepala-abu

Rhinomyias umbratilis Eumyias thalassina Eumyias indigo Ficedula westermanni Ficedula dumetoria Cyornis concretus Cyornis banyumas Cyornis superbus Cyornis caerulatus Cyornis turcosus Muscicapella hodgsoni Culicicapa ceylonensis Least Concern Vulnerable Y

Remetuk laut

Gerygone sulphurea

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BIRDS

English Name Monarchidae Rufous-winged Philentoma Black-naped Monarch Asian Paradise-flycatcher White-throated Fantail Pied Fantail Spotted Fantail Sittidae Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Dicaeidae

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Philentoma sayap-merah Kehicap ranting Seriwang Asia Kipasan gunung Kipasan belang Kipasan mutiara

Philentoma pyrhopterum Hypothymis azurea Terpsiphone paradisi Rhipidura albicollis Rhipidura javanica Rhipidura perlata

Munguk beledu

Sitta frontalis

Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Pentis raja Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker Pentis pelangi Pentis Kalimantan

Prionochilus maculatus Prionochilus percussus Prionochilus xanthopygius Prionochilus thoracicus Dicaeum chrysorrheum Dicaeum trigonostigma Dicaeum cruentatum Least Concern Y

Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecke Pentis kumbang Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Zosteropidae Everett's White-eye Estrildidae Dusky Munia Scaly-breasted Munia Chestnut Munia Bondol Kalimantan Bondol Peking Bondol Rawa Kacamata belukar Cabai rimba Cabai bunga-api Cabai merah

Zosterops everetti

Lonchura fuscans Lonchura punctulata Lonchura malacca 46

47

BIRDS

English Name Nectariniidae Plain Sunbird Brown-throated Sunbird Red-throated Sunbird Ruby-cheeked Sunbird Purple-naped Sunbird Olive-backed Sunbird Crimson Sunbird Scarlet Sunbird Little Spiderhunter Thick-billed Spiderhunter Long-billed Spiderhunter

Indonesian name

Species Name

IUCN status

Endemic

Burung-madu polos Burung-madu kelapa Burung-madu leher-merah Burung-madu belukar Burung-madu rimba Burung-madu sriganti Burung-madu sepah-raja Burung-madu ekor-merah Pijantung kecil Pijantung kampung Pijantung besar

Anthreptes simplex Anthreptes malacensis Anthreptes rhodolaema Anthreptes singalensis Hypogramma hypogrammicum Nectarinia jugularis Aethopyga siparaja Aethopyga temminckii Arachnothera longirostra Arachnothera crassirostris Arachnothera robusta Arachnothera affinis

Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter Pijantung gunung Corvidae Common Green Magpie Crested Jay Black Magpie Bornean treepie Slender-billed Crow Large-billed crow Ekek layongan Tangkar ongklet Tangkar kambing Tangkar-uli Kalimantan Gagak hutan Gagak kampung

Cissa thalassina Platylophus galericulatus Platysmurus leucopterus Dendrocitta radiceus Corvus enca Corvus macrorhynchos Near Threatened Y

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THE TEAM Kursani, Dr Susan Cheyne, Dominic Rowland

Surveys of all trees over 10cm diameter at breast height were carried out at 2 of the 3 locations (Hutan Desa Tumbang Tujang and Bora River). Systematic surveys of the trees were carried out by experienced members of the team and all identifications were made to species where possible by Kursani. Local names were also recorded where they were available.

Measuring dbh

The forest was surveyed in 3 habitats: ridge, valleys and riparian zones. All plots were 100x10m wide and at least 2 plots were surveyed per habitat.

Table of summary data from Tumbang Tujang SITE Hutan Desa Ridge Hutan Desa Valley Hutan Desa Riparian Tujang Ladang Side Mammal Plot 1 Mammal Plot 2 Mammal Plot 3 Number of species 68 53 66 55 26 14 11 Number of families 35 25 15 21 21 14 10 Average height (m) 15.39 19.12 16.3 16.8 12.71 13.44 14.33 Height range (m) 6-40 6-35 6-40 6-40 6-25 6-26 6-28 average dbh 20.21 24.20 27.97 25.25 15.25 19.37 16.05 dbh range 10.06 84.07 10.38 64.07 10.44 100.82 9.84 119.84 10.19 40.76 8.56 - 52.8 8.73 - 32.1

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SPECIES LIST FROM TUMBANG TUJANG
Family Achariaceae Species Hydnocarpus sp 1 Hydnocarpus woodii Anacardiaceae Gluta malayana Gluta motleyana Gluta sp Koordersiodendron pinnatum Mangifera pajang Parishia maingayi Pentaspadon motleyi Annonaceae Cyanthocalyx sp Mezzetia havilandii Polyalthia glauca Polyalthia sumatrana Xylopia malayana Apocynaceae Alstonia sp Dyera costulata Gymnacranthera contracta Bombacaceae Durio sp Kostermansia sp. Kayu sampun Lobi Lobi Malajujut Masubak Pantung Kumpang Durian Palajau Critically Endangered Critically Endangered Anjem Kelau Rangsan Rangsan Rangsan Local Name IUCN

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Family Burseraceae

Species Canarium littorale Canarium sp Dacryodes rostrata Santiria laevigata Santiria rubiginosa Santiria tomentosa

Local Name Mahusum

IUCN Least concern

Calophyllaceae

Calophyllum sp. Calophyllum sp. 1 Pinaga Nahum

Cannabaceae Celastraceae Centroplacaceae Chrysobalanaceae

Gironniera nervosa Kokoona sp. 1 Bhesa paniculata Maranthes corymbosa Parinari sp. 1

Kayu batu Manggis Manggis Mundar Gandis

Clusiaceae

Garcinia havilandii Garcinia mangostana Garcinia sp. Garcinia dulcis Garcinia grandifolia

Crypteroniaceae Dilleniaceae

Crypteronia griffithii Dillenia bornensis Dillenia sumatrana Jamehing Tampuru Critically endangered

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Family Dipterocarpaceae

Species Dipterocarpus cornutus Dipterocarpus fagineus Dipterocarpus pachyphyllus Dipterocarpus palembanicus Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Dryobalanops aromatica Dryobalanops oblongifolia Hopea mengerawan Hopea nutans Hopea semicuneata Hopea sp 1 Hopea sp 1 Hopea sp 2 Hopea sumatrana

Local Name Bajan Bajan Bajan Bajan Bajan Salompeng Salompeng Bangkirai

IUCN Least concern

Endangered

Bangkinang Rasak Rasak Bangkirai Bangkirai Vulnerable Least concern - varieties

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Family

Species Shorea agamii Shorea atrinervosa Shorea beccariana Shorea crassa Shorea hemsleyana Shorea kunstleri Shorea laevis Shorea leprosula Shorea macroptera Shorea maxwelliana Shorea multiflora Shorea parvifolia Shorea pauciflora Shorea platyclados Shorea sagitatta Shorea scrobiculata Shorea seminis Shorea sp Shorea sp 1 Shorea sp 1 Shorea stenoptera Vatica bella Vatica micrantha Vatica oblongifolia Vatica sp 1 Vatica umbonata

Local Name Parupuk Kayu batu Kakawang Kayu batu Lampung Kayu batu Kayu batu Nyaru Bolu Kayu batu

IUCN

Least concern Malcut Kayu batu Tahan Konot Tuntung Saluang Tahan Lutup Kayu batu Palepek Mangkabang Kayu batu Kayu batu Data deficient

Rasak Rasak Rasak

Rasak

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Family Ebenaceae

Species Diospyros argentea Diospyros confertiflora Diospyros sp

Local Name Merung Menong Menong Bangkinang

IUCN

Elaeocarpaceae Euphorbiaceae

Elaeocarpus griffithii Blumeodendrom sp Blumeodendrom tokbrai Macaranga beccariana Macaranga hosei Macaranga hypoleuca Macaranga triloba Mallotus leucodermis Mallotus muticus Meuallotus echinanthus Moultonianthus sp Moultonianthus sp 2 Merrah Neoscortechinia sp

Endangered Least concern Data deficient Critically endangered

Mahang baputi Mahang Balanti Balanti

Fagaceae

Castanopsis megacarpa Castanopsis sp 1 Castanopsis sp 2 Lithocarpus sp1

Kayu Ampit Takolok Ampit Tabalien Ampit Pampaning Least concern

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Family Gentianaceae Hypericaceae Lauraceae

Species Fagraea racemosa Cratoxylum arborescens Beilschmiedia palembanica Beilschmiedia sp. Cryptocarya benangensis Cryptocarya crassinervia Cryptocarya sp. 1 Dehaasia incrassata Dehassia sp. Eusideroxylon zwageri Phoebe grandis

Local Name

IUCN

Erat

Bahunei Daun Besar

Penguan Pangwan Tabalien (Ulin) Critically endangered (endemic to Malaysia)

Lecythidaceae

Barringtonia lanceolata Planchonia grandis

Prutap Gunung

Leguminosae

Dialium indum Dialium patens Koompassia malaccensis Millettia albiflora Ormosia sp Parkia speciosa Parkia sp. Sindora beccariana Sindora coriacea

Kurangi Kurangi Ompas Tampung Vulnerable

Petai

Endangered Endangered

Marijang Merijang

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Family Lythraceae Malvaceae Melastomataceae

Species Lagerstroemia sp Sterculia sp Astronia masubak Memecylon sp Memecylon sp Memecylon sp Memecylon sp Memecylon sp (daun besar merah) Memecylon sp1 Memecylon sp1 Memecylon sp1 Pternandra coerulescens Pternandra sp

Local Name

IUCN

Kayu Gadang Masubak Tameas Putih Tameas Putih Tameas Putih Tameas Putih tamias Tameas Tameas Tameas Brunsolan Jambu Burung Katatiwar Hutan Vulnerable

Meliaceae

Aglaia ganggo Sandoricum beccariana

Moraceae

Artocarpus anisophyllus Artocarpus elasticus Artocarpus integer Artocarpus kemando Artocarpus nitidus Artocarpus odoratissimus Parartocarpus bracteatus

Papuan Tarap Tiwadak Tiwadak Banyo Tumpang Bintorong Bintorong

Endangered

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Family Myristicaceae

Species Horsfieldia sp. Knema hookerana Knema laurina Myristica lowiana Myristica villosa

Local Name Kumpang Kumpang Kumpang Kampang Kumpang Barun Sulan Jambu Mundu Jambu Burung Jambu burung Kangkuhis Hutan Jambu Jambu

IUCN

Myrtaceae

Rhodamnia cinerea Syzygium bankense Syzygium polyanthum Syzygium sp. 1 Syzygium sp. 2 Merrah Syzygium sp. 2 Merrah Syzygium sp. 3 Syzygium sp. 4

Olacaceae Oxaridaceae Pentaphylacaceae Pentaphylacaceae

Strombosia sp. Santiria griffithii Ternstroemia javanica Ternstroemia wallichiana Vulnerable

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Family Phyllanthaceae

Species Aporosa lunata Aporosa sp 1 Aporosa sp 2 Baccaurea bracteata Baccaurea macrocarpa Baccaurea reticulata Baccaurea sp Glochidion superbum

Local Name Mulok Molok Molok Sungai

IUCN

Critically Endangered

Puwak/Mawi Kalibun

Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllum affine Xanthophyllum amoenum Xanthophyllum obscurum Xanthophyllum palembanica Xanthophyllum rufum Xanthophyllum stipitatum Mallalin Least concern

Proteaceae Putranjivaceae Rosaceae Rubiaceae

Heliciopsis sp1 Drypetes pendula Prunus javanica Canthium glabrum Gardenia tubifera Neolamarckia cadamba Porterandia anisophylla Pternandra anisophylla Benkel Hutan Kori Kopian

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Family Sapindaceae

Species Arytera sp Nephelium cuspidatum Nephelium sp Xerospermum noronhianum

Local Name

IUCN

Mariti Hutan (Rambutan) Tangkuis

Sapotaceae

Madhuca magnifolia Madhuca kingiana Madhuca motleyana Palaquium maingayi Palaquium sp Payena lucida Pouteria sp

Puntik Least concern Puntik Puntik Puntik Puntik Critically endangered Least concern

Theaceae Thymelaeaceae Tiliaceae

Adinandra dumosa Gonystylus sp Microcos sp Pentace borneensis Pentace glauca Pentace kingiana Senek Sengek Ramin Jirak Danum

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SUMMARY FROM BORA RIVER SITE


SITE Number of species 68 22 48 12 12 4 62 25 30 Number of families 11 21 12 7 8 3 15 15 13 Average height (m) 15.035 17.785 14.725 13.27 12.905 18.375 14.725 17.88 18.065 Height range (m) 6-45 6-50 8-38 6-32 6-25 8-30 3-38 8-37 6-45 average dbh dbh range

Bora Gibbon Site (opposite) Bora Ridge Plot Bora S.M. Plot 1 Bora S.M. Plot 2 Bora S.M. Plot 3 Bora S.M. Plot 4 Bora Sungai Satai Bora Valley Plot Murung gibbon site

24.4586 28.92675 19.48726 18.83758 14.82166 29.85669 28.40446 24.34395 23.28025

10.19-91.08 9.55-152.86 10.31-58.59 9.87-46.49 10.5-20.95 11.14-64.64 10.19-116.24 10.44-85.98 5.98-81.4

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Anacardiaceae Species Buchaniania sp. Campnosperma auriculata Pentaspadon motleyi Spondias cythera Spondias sp. Annonaceae Mezzetia havilandii Polyalthia glauca Apocynaceae Gymnacranthera contracta Gymnacranthera euginifolia Gymnacranthera sp. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Arecaceae Oncosperma horridum Pholidocarpus majadum Bombacaceae Durio kutejensis Durio oxleyanus Kostermansia malayana Burseraceae Canarium sp. Dacryodes rostrata Dacryodes rugosa Calophyllaceae Cannabaceae Celastraceae Centroplacaceae Chrysobalanaceae Mesua sp. 1 Gironniera nervosa Kokoona sp. Bhesa sp. Licania sp. Parinari oblongifolia Kayu abu handiung Sirang Papakin Karatungen Vulnerable Lobui Kumpang Kumpang Kumpang Bajan Local Name Bakah Garih biowau Tarangtang IUCN

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Cluseaceae Species Garcinia mangostana Garcinia sp. 1 Garcinia dolcis Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpus conaserum Dipterocarpus elaeocarpus Dipterocarpus elongatus Dipterocarpus fagineus Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Dipterocarpus lowii Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Dipterocarpus pachyphyllus Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Hopea mengerawan Hopea sp. 1 Shorea angustifolia Shorea antrinervosa Shorea atrinervosa Shorea beccariana Shorea crassa Shorea kunstleri Shorea macroptera Shorea palembanica Kakawang Gambir Kayu Batu Jangaan Kakawang Critically endangered - Light Red Meranti Critically endangered Kayu Batu Kacuhui Bajan Bajan Critically Endangered Bajan Ohit Bajan Gandis Local Name Mangis IUCN

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Dipterocarpaceae Species Shorea parvifolia Shorea scrobiculata Shorea sp. Shorea sp. Shorea sp.1 Shorea sp.2 Merrah Shorea stenoptera Shorea uliginosa Shorea xanthophyla Vatica cinerea Vatica mangachapoi Vatica micrantha Vatica oblongifolia Vatica sumatrana Vatica umbellata Ebenaceae Diospyros merung Diospyros siamang Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus griffithii Elaeocarpus sp.1 Merung Bangkinang Bangkinang Rasak Rasak Rassk Rasak Least concern Rassak Endangered Lampung Local Name Lampung behas Kayu batu Mangkabang Mangkabang Kayu batu Kalapeh Critically endangered Vulnerable Critically endangered IUCN Endangered

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Euphorbiaceae Species Macaranga conifera Macaranga hosei Macaranga hosei Macaranga hypoleuca Mallotus echinanthus Mallotus leucodermis Mallotus sp. Moultonianthus esinatus Moultonianthus sp Neoscortechinia forbesii Blumeodendrom sp. 1 Fagaceae Castanopsis inermis Lithocarpus sp. Lamiaceae Lauraceae Teijsmanniodendron sp. Ctenophyllum sp. Dehaasia firma Dehassia incrassata Lecythidaceae Abdulmajidia chaniana Barringtonia lanceolata Planchonia grandis Planchonia sp. Panguwan Pangwang Vulnerable Pampaning Kalumpai pohing Balanti Balanti Mahang bahangdang Mahang bahangdang Local Name IUCN

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Leguminosae Species Dialium indum Dialium keranji Dialium patens Dialium sp. Koompassia malaccensis Millettia albiflora Sindora beccariana Lythraceae Malvaceae Duabanga sp. Heritiera simplicifolia Sterculia rubiginosa Melastomataceae Memecylon laurinium Pternandra barunsulan Pternandra sp. 1 Pternandra sp. 2 Astronia sp. Meliaceae Meszetia sp. 1 Sandoricum beccariana Moraceae Artocarpus elasticus Artocarpus kemando Artocarpus nitidus Artocarpus sp. Parartocarpus aurophilus Tiwadak Banyo Tampang Barun Sulan Salompeng Ompas Tampang marijang Binuang Lambing Data deficient Least concern Local Name Kurangi Kurangi Kurangi IUCN

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Myristicaceae Species Horsfieldia irya Knema hookerana Knema latifolia Myristica eliptica Myristica sp Myristica villosa Knema percourisa Myristica gigantea Myrtaceae Eugenia griffithii Eugenia polyantha Eugenia polyantha Syzygium sp 1 Putih Syzygium sp 2 Syzygium sp daun kecil Syzygium sp2 Merrah Tristaniopsis merguensis Pentaphylacaceae Phyllanthaceae Ternstroemia sp Aporosa sp Baccaurea bracteata Baccaurea macrocarpa Mollok Rambui hutan Maui Kumpang jambu burung Mundu Mundu Jambu Burung Jambu Burung Jambu burung Jambu Burung Palawan Near Threatened Kumpang Kumpang Kumpang Kumpang Kumpang daraya Local Name IUCN Least Concern Vulnerable Least Concern Least Concern

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SPECIES FROM BORA RIVER SITE
Family Polygalaceae Species Xanthophyllum vitellinum Xanthophyllum apinea Xanthophyllum bullatum Xanthophyllum griffithii Xanthophyllum obscurum Xanthophyllum palembanica Xanthophyllum rufum Xanthophyllum stipitatum Proteaceae Helica robusta Helica sp 1 Rubiaceae Sapotaceae Canthium peralabum Planchonella obovata Pouteria sp Palaquium sp1 Symplocaceae Thymelaeaceae Symplocos ramosissima Amyxa pluricornis Puntik Puntik Hangkang Jirak bangkai Local Name IUCN

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SOCIAL Andrea Hoeing


SOCIAL TEAM Iis Sabahudin, Erisa Maranata Muray, Andhi Suncoko, Deni Doang and Andrea Hoeing

INTRODUCTION The social science part of BRINCC was conducted in two villages along the Barito/ Murung river: Tumbang Tujang and Kalasin, which belong both to the Murung Raya regency, sub-district Uut Murung, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

The social team stayed from 10th of July- 17th August 2011 in Tumbang Tujang and from 18th August to 22nd September 2011 in Kalasin. The team consisted of five members (4 Indonesian students (2 from Universitas Indonesia (UI), Jakarta and 2 from Institute Pertanian Bogor (IPB), Bogor and 1 German student from Georg-August Universitt, Gttingen).

The aim of the work of the social team was to get a better idea of the life of the communities in the two villages, to learn about the village history, livelihoods, the local perception of the importance of nature; the work further included mapping of stakeholders, as well as learning about already existing programs in the area. Needs and potential threats to communities and their environment were assessed. Further the team facilitated the villagers to create a sketch map of the area in which they draw important places for their lives and trained some persons in each village how to use a GPS which was then borrowed to the community for ~1 year so that they get the possibility to create more detailed maps. With the help of sketch maps BRINCC created professional GIS maps including all the information the villagers want to be presented in the map which are now returned to the villages for rechecking if everything is right. When the final maps are confirmed by the communities, they can be used for example to support the spatial planning process in the area or to claim community forest areas..

All data from Focus group discussions were left in the village, in the house of the BPD representative of the village (T.Tujang) and the SekDes secretary of the village (Kalasin).

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Additional information were collected by the Indonesian students with focus on their interests about traditions and culture by Erisa Maranata Muray and Iis Sabahudin, on environmental politics by Andhi Sucoko and on social economics by Deni Doang .

METHODS After introducing the whole team in the villages asking for permission to carry out the research and talking about aims and perspectives of the expedition, the forest team left and the social team started their work. In the first days the main task was to socialise with the villagers and to collect general information about life in the villages. Therefore informal chatting and interviews were conducted. At the same time the introductory meeting of the social team was conducted where the villagers were invited. This meeting included:

the introduction of the team (what we planned to do in the next weeks and why we came) discussion about the maps (what kind of maps they want/need and what are areas of interest to be mapped)

creating a time line of the village history dividing in different focus groups (regarding their work) to continue with focus group discussions in the next days to weeks

Focus group discussions We divided the different kind of jobs into 4 main categories in which we met for Focus group discussions in which we facilitated (which meant we tried to interact as little as possible, we explained the exercise and helped if there were questions, but the exercise was carried out by the community) 3 exercises: Mata Pencaharian livelihood (in this exercise the group started filling in a table: different kind of job, commodity, working steps, tools and materials used and the involvement of different actors: community, trader, NGO, government) Kalender Musim seasonal calendar (the seasonal calendar shows in which months the people can conduct their work + which months are preferred, problems which occur and other things which can influence the work were also listed) .
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METHODS

Peta sketsa sketch map (the sketch map was started with a blank sheet of paper in which the first focus group draw the basic elements for orientation such as rivers, lakes,

mountains, the village, roads, etc.. Those information could be corrected any time or by any focus group. After general information the group draw the areas where they work and could add any other area of interest for example sacred sites, springs, anything which was not included yet).
A focus group discussions in Kalasin

In the end we asked if everybody agrees with the map and said that it is a dynamic map which can be changed if people remember places which were forgotten.

Questionnaires Another part of the research which the team conducted were Questionnaires to collect individual opinions on different topics: such as the level of life, livelihood, perception on nature, perception on outsiders coming to the village, etc.. We asked a minimum of 5 people per each of the five groups (groups were divided in woman and man and age classes (20-39, 40-open end) plus one group with people in leading positions in the village.

Pebble Distribution Method Another game was conducted in which we looked for a mixed group of people (male and female, young and old) in an informal meeting, mostly while they were gathering in the afternoon or evening on the street or in front of houses. We then evaluated the relative importance of different habitat types to fulfil different needs. The Pebble distribution method was used for collecting this data.

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GPS training We parallel trained villagers who were interested in learning how to use the GPS device and one person each village how to backup the data. We then conducted several trips to GPS reference the sketch map and to be able to create a GIS map.

Children and BRINCC The social team did additionally work for example teaching school children (mainly in the primary school, which was present in both villages, as well as teaching children which were on holiday from junior high school) English and do games (for example the gibbon game from the BRINCC
GPS training afternoon with villagers in Kalasin.

booklet) to involve environmental education. These task

were in Kalasin (where the social team consisted of two people in the meantime) heavily supported by the forest team. Learning from and teaching the children (especially in Tumbang Tujang where we had more time and a bigger team) further included teaching how to make bracelets and learning from the children, who took us on a forest walk, about their knowledge of plants, animals, hunting and farming methods.

Teaching English to school kids in Tumbang Tujang (left) and Kalasin (right)

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RESULTS Mapping and the hutan desa In the first meeting, we discussed about the points of interest to the local communities. In Tumbang Tujang we found out that the villagers already established an area which is called hutan desa village forest which is managed in a sustainable way mainly to protect the spring where the villagers get their drinking water supply from. The villagers now need to map the boundaries to get it formally acknowledged as hutan desa. In Kalasin people were not sure about the definition of a hutan desa as in their opinion all the forest within the village boundaries would be the hutan desa and should belong to them. We had some discussion with what kind of map they want to start and mapped the spring on the other side of the village which is most important for drinking water supply.

The water problem In both villages the water from the Barito river cannot be drunk any more. People complained about stomach problems after drinking Barito water. To get access to the springs people from both villages need boats. In Kalasin the water can be taken from the small river opposite of Kalasin. In Tumbang Tujang the villagers have to use a boat with engine and drive up to 15 minutes down stream to collect water from a spring in the hutan desa. There are some small springs around Tumbang Tujang, which cannot be used to support the whole village and which are therefore often assigned to several families or neighbourhoods. Some people who cannot afford to use a boat (petrol is very expensive) have to drink Barito river water and get sick. In Tumbang Tujang there is already a plan with the help of the government to establish a water pipe from the spring in the hutan desa for better water supply in the village.

Nature and Communities To full fill their daily needs people from both villages are almost all 100% dependent on the surrounding forest. For water supply as mentioned above, for hunting, collecting firewood, wood for building their houses, searching for traditional medicine, fishing in estuaries of small rivers and the Barito river and for farming which is necessary for their rice and vegetable supply.

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In both villages people feel that numbers of animals and plant species declined in the past 5 years. Rarely people felt there was an increase of species. In Kalasin people already feel a change in nature and got problems with pests in their forest gardens since 2006. Thus most people of both communities are very aware of the necessity for nature conservation.

Influence of markets Both villages are already connected to the national and international market. The influence from outsiders changed the nature-people interaction. The previously sustainable livelihoods in the villages changed to a more market oriented and dependent lifestyle. Commodities include meat, animal parts, fish, birds (rarely), wood, gold and jewels. In Tumbang Tujang the main sources of income are gold, jewels and Gaharu (Agar wood or Eagle wood) in Kalasin main sources are Ulin (Iron wood)/Meranti and Gaharu. Companies acting in the area were previously mainly timber companies, but surveys for coal mining are now taking place as well. People from both villages felt that companies in the past did not care about customary laws and cut down customary wood without asking for permission. The government has several programs to help the communities, for example are schools for children in Murung Raya free of school fees.

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Some potential outcomes of the social projects After finishing all the analysis, we hope to have a better overview on needs and threats to the community and nature. We will further have a map showing the social importance of the area as well as combined with the biodiversity teams results areas of high conservation value regarding the species abundance. Other outcomes of this study are capacity building and training of (this time just few people, but hopefully in the future more) villagers to use GPS devices.

Hopefully the maps BRINCC creates will help the

communities to claim their hutan desa, so that their water supply will be secured for the future. A possibility for Kalasin would be to track the boundaries of the hutan adat traditional land

protected by customary law, already descendants estate


M. Zrust

from their ancestors, even though it cannot be protected formally (e.g. if there is already a logging concession). Operating companies could still be asked to respect traditions and avoid those areas with exact boundaries.

After assessing main needs and threats to both communities and nature we hope through data sharing and collaboration with local governments, NGOs to develop a conservation program for the area.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Barito Initiative for Nature Conservation and Communities would like to thank the following people and organizations (in no particular order) without whom the expedition could not have happened:

AZA Ape Tag, WildCRU (Professor David McDonald), Clouded Leopard Project, Lewin Education, Fauna &Flora International (Godwin Limberg and Darmawan Liswanto and Ratu), The Zoological Society of London (Laura DArcy), Centre for the International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (Dr Suwido and Yunsiska Ermiasi , Bupati Murung Raya, OuTrop (Simon Husson), BioQuip (Celia Whitman), LIPI (Dr Rosichon Ubaidillah and Dr Djunijanti Peggie), The Maryland Entomological Society (Fred Paras, Phil Kean and Eugene Scarpulla), German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), Dr Matthias Waltert, Laura D'Arcy, Dr Irendra Radjawali and Emeline, Indonesian Ministry of Science and Technology and the Indonesian Department of Forestry, Jaringan Kerja Permetaan Partisipatif (JKPP Palangkaraya), Yayasan Tambuhak Sinta (Horma), Institute Pertanian Bogor (Pak Sadiwibowo), Pak Bani, Ibu Bani, Ibu Rita, Ibu Yetti, Pak Hadi, Marie Hammard, Nick Brickle, WWF Palangkaraya (Pak Ambang), Waldhofschule in Templin, Pak Sion, Pak Jaya, Pak Cali, Royal Geographical Society (Shane Winser), Steve Oliver, Dr David Chivers, Rupert Ridgeway, Stephen Edwards, Dr Gregory Ball, Lindy Thompson, Dr Konstans Wells, Dr Erik Meijaard, Professor Shukor Md. Nor, Andy Royle, Dr Jay Malcolm, Dr Robert Anthony, Dr Robert Parmenter, and Dr Eric Rexstad, Professor Dankmar Bhning, Dr Murray Efford, Dr David Borchers, Professor Steve Buckland, and Dr Paul M. Lukacs. Of course we would like to thank those who joined our research: Leni Mentari Dewi, Suparjan, Junaidi Shalat, Andhi Suncoko, Iis Sabahudin, Deny Doang, Erisa Maranata Murray, Laurio Leonald, Edwin Hermawan, Mila Rahmania, Muhammad Saputra (Yunus), Juli Setiawan, Kursani. We are indebted and forever grateful to the communities of the villages of Tumbang Tujang and Kalasin without whose support the research would not have been possible. You made us feel at home and let us become family and friends. Our corporate sponsors: "BioQuip Products is pleased to have our collecting gear and books be part of the BRINCC Expedition. As the premier producer of entomological supplies, BioQuip has been dedicated to advancing the study of insects by providing quality products, books and customer service for 64 years" LED Lenser are proud to support this exciting expedition to the Bornean Highlands. Such gruelling expeditions deserve the very best equipment and that is why LED Lenser torches will be on the journey. LED Lenser - the world's best technology in the world's best torches. Heightecs rope access equipment will be essential in the vital work of surveying small mammals on BRINCC Expedition. The state of the art equipment will allow the biodiversity team access to the canopy with equipment that is safe, reliable and can withstand the jungle environment
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