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AGGREGATES: BULK DENSITY, SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND VOIDS BULK DENSITY River sand Fine Medium Coarse Beach

or river shingle Broken stone Stone screenings Broken Granite 1.44 1.52 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.44 1.68

Trap Granite Gravel Sand

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.9 2.8 2.66 2.65

VOIDS, PERCENT, AVERAGE River sand Fine Coarse Mixed and moist Mixed and dry Broken stone, graded 25 mm maximum size 50 mm maximum size 63 mm maximum size Stone screenings 43 35 38 30

46 45 41 48

Note: Above values are indicative only

2. AGGREGATES: LIMITING VALUES OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES LIMITING VALUES (PERCENTAGE) FOR WEARING OTHERTHAN FOR SURFACES WEARING SURFACES 30 45 30 45 30 50 When tested with Na2SO4 When tested with MgSO4 10 12 15 18

Crushing value Impact value Abrasion value (Los Angeles) Soundness (Average loss of weight after 5 cycles) Fine aggregates Coarse aggregates *Source- IS: 383 1970

3. APPROXIMATE WATER ABSORPTION OF AGGREGATES, BY WEIGHT Average sand Pebbles and crushed limestone Trap rock and granite Porous sandstone Very light and porous aggregates may absorb as much as 1.0 percent 1.0 percent 0.5 percent 0.5 percent 25 percent by weight

Note: The coarser the aggregate, the less free water it carries.

4. LIMITS OF DELETERIOUS MATERIALS (Percentage by weight, maximum) (Clause 3.2.1 of IS: 383 1970) DELETERIOUS FINE AGGREGATES SUBSTANCES Uncrushed Crushed Coal and lignite 1.00 1.00 COARSE AGGREGATES Uncrushed Crushed 1.00 1.00

Clay lumps Materials finer than 75 micron sieve Shale Total of percentages of all deleterious materials ** **Mica is excluded.

1.00 2.00

1.00 15.00

1.00 3.00

1.00 3.00

1.00 5.00

2.00

5.00

5.00

5. BULKING OF SANDS FOR VARIOUS MOISTURE CONTENTS Moisture, percent 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 17 20 27 Fine sand 16 26 32 36 38 37 35 32 28 22 18 9 0 Percentage bulking in Medium sand 8 16 22 27 29 28 26 22 19 12 7 0 0

Coarse sand 6 12 15 17 18 18 16 12 8 2 0 0 0

6. SURFACE WATER CARRIED BY AGGREGATES AGGREGATES Very wet sand Moderately wet sand Moist sand Moist gravel or crushed rock APPROXIMATE QTY OF SURFACE WATER Percent by mass Ltr./cu.m 7.5 120 5.0 80 2.5 40 1.25 2.5 20 40

Note: Coarser the aggregate, less the water it will carry Source: Table 10 of IS: 456 2000 Related Tags: +bulk density +gravel +aggregate, water absorption limits on river sand, vickers hardness tester pricebheuler , practical for coarse aggregate size, engineering properties of aggregate, soundness properties in brick aggregate, aim of material testing, +bulk density +gravel +aggregate, bulking properties of aggregates, properties of aggregates, grading limit for single size aggregates, average bulk density limits of aggregates,