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VARIABILITY (3) OBJECTIVES: When a student completes this chapter, they will be able to: 1.

Define variance and standard deviation. 2. Discuss the difference between X and x. 3. Compute the variance and standard deviation for a population and sample using the deviation method. 4. Compute the variance and standard deviation for a population and sample using the raw score method. 1. Variance is the standard deviation squared. 2. Standard Deviation is the average amount that the scores in a distribution differ from that distributions mean There are three ways to determine variability: 1) range, 2) semi quartile range, (Since this method is not often used, we will not discuss it), 3) standard deviation and variance.

RANGE
The distance between the highest and the lowest score. The range is a rough index of variability. There are problems with using the range. When the variability is determined by only two scores: 1) Both the highest and lowest scores could be extremes. 2) The variability could fluctuate a large amount when even one score is dropped. 3) There is insensitive to the shape of the distribution.

STANDARD DEVIATION AND VARIANCE I. AVERAGE DEVIATION


A. Labeling Variance and Standard Deviation 1. We label the variance of a population 2. 2. We label the standard deviation of a population . B. Deviation of a raw score 1. Tells you how much that raw score varies from the average score of the distribution--the mean or . 2. To find the deviation of a raw score, simply subtract from the raw score. 3. A deviation score is labeled x, as opposed to its raw score X. 4. Example: X (X- ) = x 9 9-5 4 6 6-5 1 5 5-5 0 3 3-5 -2 2 2-5 -3 5. If we wanted to find the AVERAGE DEVIATION of a distribution, we would actually be looking at the average deviation of the raw scores (the mean of the deviation of the raw scores). We call the average deviation.
1

= x N 6. Note that when we sum x, we get 0. So we use the absolute value of x. = lxl N 7. The average deviation is limited because it is based on absolute values in which signs are ignored and is, therefore, nonalgebraic. II. COMPUTATION OF VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION USING THE DEVIATION METHOD A. The problem of having the plus and minus xs cancels each other out is avoided by squaring each x so that all the numbers are positive. Thus instead of , we have 2. To find , we take the square root ( ) of 2. B. Thus the formulas for variance and standard deviation are: 1. Variance of a population: x2 2 = N 2. Standard Deviation of a population N C. Steps to Calculate the Population Variance and Standard Deviation Using the Deviation Method x2 2 = N Variance for a population: X = N 1. Find . 2. Find the deviation of each raw score. (x = X-) 3. Square each deviation. (x2). 4. Sum the squared deviations. (x2).

N 5. Divide the sum of the squared deviations by N. 6. To find the standard deviation, take the square root of the variance.

x
N

D. Example of Finding Variance and Standard Deviation of a POPULATION. X 9 6 5 3 2 25

25 =5 N 5 1. Find 2. Find the deviation of each raw score. (x = X-) = = X 9 6 5 3 2 6-5 5-5 3-5 2-5 (X-) = x 9-5 1 0 -2 -3

0 3. Square each deviation. (x2). X (X-)= x x2 9 9-5 4 16 6 6-5 1 1 5 5-5 0 0 3 3-5 -2 4 2 2-5 -3 9 25 30 4. Sum the squared deviations. (x2). x2=30
x 2 30 2 = = = 6 N 5

5. Find 2 using the formula:

6. Find the standard deviation. Take the square root of the variance

x
N

30 = 5

6= 2.45

III. CORRECTED ESTIMATES OF POPULATION VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION A. If we found the variance and standard deviation samples using the same formula, we would be using biased estimates of 2 and because samples tend to be smaller and thus underestimate the population values. 1. When we add another case (or score), not only does N increase, another x2 also increases the numerator. 2. The two components are not increased proportionately. 3. The more cases we select, the more likely that extremely deviant scores will be included. 4. Thus, because the variance of a sample is smaller than the standard deviation of a population , it does not vary as much as the standard deviation of a population. B. To obtain an unbiased estimate of the population variance from sample data, we use a correction factor. We subtract one from N. (N-1).
3

1.

Thus, the formula for variance becomes: x2 s2 = N 1

2. The formula for standard deviation becomes: s= C. Example: X 9 6 5 3 2 25 1.Find X = X 25 = =5 N 5

N 1

2. Find the deviation of each raw score. (x = X- X ) X (X- X ) = 9-5 6-5 5-5 3-5 2-5 x 4 1 0 -2 -3

9 6 5 3 2 25 3. Square each deviation. (x2). X 9 6 5 3 2 (X- X )= 9-5 6-5 5-5 3-5 2-5

x 1 0 -2 -3

x2 4 1 0 4 9

16

25 4. Sum the squared deviations. (x2). x2=30 2 5. Find the variance s using the formula:
2 2 = x = 30 = 30 = 7.5 s N 1 5 1 4

30

6. The formula for standard deviation becomes:


s = 2 x = N 1 30 = 4 7.5 2.74 =

IV. COMPUTATION OF VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION FROM RAW SCORES A. This formula is used to avoid inaccuracies due to rounding and B. The formula for the variance for a population is: 1. Variance of a POPULATION

N 2. Variance of a SAMPLE:

=
2

(X)
N

N 1 a. Find each X2. b. Find X2. c. Find X d. Find (X)2. C. Standard Deviation for a POPULATION: 1. For a population:

s =
2

(X)
N

(X)
N N

2. Standard Deviation of a SAMPLE


s=

(X)
N 1 N

D. Example: X 9 6 5 3 2 25

X2 81 36 25 9 4 155

1. VARIANCE OF A SAMPLE: a. Find X2 (see second column). b. Find X2 = 155 c. Find X = 25 d. Find (X)2= (25)2 = 625. e. Use formula

s2 =

(X)
N 1 N

155

( 25 )

51

5 =

155

625 5 = 155 125= 30= 7.5 4 4 4

2. STANDARD DEVIATION OF A SAMPLE: a. Find X2 (see second column). b. Find X2 = 155 c. Find X = 25 d. Find (X)2= (25)2 = 625. e. Use formula

s=

(X)
N 1 N

( 25 ) 155
5 1 5

155 4

625 5 =

155 125 = 4

30 = 4

7.5 2.74 =

SUMMARY: VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION


A. DEFINITIONS 1. variance the standard deviation squared. 2. standard deviation the average amount that the scores in a distribution differ from that distribution's mean. B. DEVIATION METHOD 1. Variance of a POPULATION x2 2 = N 2. Standard Deviation of a POPULATION

x
N

3. Variance of a SAMPLE: x2 2 s = N 1 4. Standard Deviation of a SAMPLE s=

N 1

(x is a deviate score. x= X- X ). C. RAW SCORE METHOD: 1. Variance of a POPULATION

N 2. Standard deviation of a POPULATION

2 =

(X)
N

N N 3. Variance of a SAMPLE:

(X)
2

N N 1 4. Standard deviation of a SAMPLE s =


2

(X)

s=

(X)
N 1 N

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS CHAPTER 3 1. a. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following population using the deviation method. b. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following SAMPLE using the deviation method. 2. a. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following population using the RAW SCORE method. b. Find the variance and standard deviation for the following SAMPLE using the Raw SCORE. Score (X) 39 31 30 26 25 23 3. Define the following: a.

b. c. s 2 d. s e. N f. g. x h. X
i. j.

(X)
2

k. X l. variance m. standard deviation 1. Answer the following questions. a. Why is standard deviation important? b. What does it mean if the standard deviation is large? c. What does it mean if the standard deviation is small?

SOLUTIONS 1. Score (X) 39 31 30 26 25 23


x 2 166 2 = = = 27.67 N 6 a.

x=X- X 10 2 1 -3 -4 -6

x2 100 4 1 9 16 36 166

x
N
2

166 = 6

27.67= 5.26

b.

x =

N 1

166 = 33.2 5
166 = 6 1 166 = 5 33.2 5.76 =

s=

N 1

2.

39 31 30 26 25 23 174

a.

2 =

(X)
N N
2

1521 961 900 676 625 529 5212


2

( 174 ) 5212
6 6

5212

30276 6 = 5212 5046 = 166 = 27.67 6 6 6 30276 6 = 5212 5046 = 166 = 27.67 = 5.26 6 6 6

(X)
N N

=
2

5212

( 174 )
6

=
2

5212

b.

s2 =

(X)
N 1 N

( 174 ) 5212
6 1 6

5212

30276 6 = 5212 5046 = 166 = 33.2 5 5 5

s=

(X)
N 1 N

( 174 ) 5212
6 1 6

5212

30276 6 = 5212 5046 = 166 = 33.2 = 5.76 5 5 5