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Blank, S.A., Blank, M.M., Luberas, L.R. "Concrete Bridge Construction.

Bridge Engineering Handbook.
Ed. Wai-Fah Chen and Lian Duan
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000
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46.1 Intioduction
46.2 Effective Constiuction Engineeiing
46.3 Constiuction Pioject Management
Geneial Piinciples Contiact Administiation
Pioject Design Planning and Scheduling Safety
and Enviionmental Consideiations Implementation
and Opeiations Value Engineeiing (VE) Quality
Management Paitneiship and Teamwoik Pioject
Completion and Tuinovei of Facility
46.4 Majoi Constiuction Consideiation
46.5 Stiuctuial Mateiials
Noimal Conciete High-Peifoimance
Conciete Steel
46.6 Constiuction Opeiations
Piestiessing Methods Fabiication and Eiection
Stages Constiuction of Segmental Biidges
Constiuction of HPC Biidges
46.7. Falsewoik

This chaptei will focus on the piinciples and piactices ielated to constiuction of conciete biidges
in which constiuction engineeiing contiibutes gieatly to the successful completion of the piojects.
We will fist piesent the fundamentals of constiuction engineeiing and analyze the challenges and
obstacles involved in such piocesses and then intioduce the pioblems in ielation to design, con-
stiuction piactices, pioject planning, scheduling and contiol, which aie the giound of futuie
factoiial impiovements in effective constiuction engineeiing in the United States. Finally, we will
discuss piestiessed conciete, high-peifoimance conciete, and falsewoik in some detail.
The constiuction industiy is a veiy competitive business and many companies who engage in this
maiketplace develop piopiietaiy technology in theii feld. In ieality, most piactical day-to-day issues
aie veiy common to the whole industiy. Constiuction engineeiing is a combination of ait and


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science and has a tendency to become moie the ait of applying science (engineeiing piinciples) and
appioaches to the constiuction opeiations. Constiuction engineeiing includes design, constiuction
opeiation, and pioject management. The fnal pioduct of the design team effoit is to pioduce
diawings, specifcations, and special piovisions foi vaiious types of biidges. A fundamental pait of
constiuction engineeiing is constiuction pioject management (pioject design, planning, scheduling,
contiolling, etc.).
Planning staits with analysis of the type and scope of the woik to be accomplished and selection
of techniques, equipment, and laboi foice. Scheduling includes the sequence of opeiations and the
inteiielation of opeiations both at a job site and with exteinal aspects, as well as allocation of
manpowei and equipment. Contiolling consists of supeivision, engineeiing inspection, detailed
pioceduial instiuctions, iecoid maintenance, and cost contiol. Good constiuction engineeiing
analysis will pioduce moie valuable, effective, and applicable instiuctions, chaits, schedules, etc.
The objective is to plan, schedule, and contiol the constiuction piocess such that eveiy constiuc-
tion woikei and eveiy activity contiibutes to accomplishing tasks with minimum waste of time and
money and without inteifeience. All constiuction engineeiing documents (chaits, instiuctions, and
diawings) must be cleai, concise, defnitive, and undeistandable by those who actually peifoim the
woik. As mentioned befoie, the biidge is the fnal pioduct of design team effoits. When all phases
of constiuction engineeiing aie completed, this pioduct - the biidge - is ieady foi to take seivice
loading. In all aspects of constiuction engineeiing, especially in piestiessed conciete, design must
be integiated foi the most effective iesults. The histoiical aitifcial sepaiation of the disciplines -
design and constiuction engineeiing - was set foith to take advantage of the concentiation of
diffeient skills in the woikplace. In today`s woild, the design team and constiuction team must be
membeis of one team, paitneis with one common goal. That is the ieason paitneiing iepiesents a
new and poweiful team-building piocess, designed to ensuie that piojects become positive, ethical,
and win-win expeiiences foi all paities involved.
The highly technical natuie of a piestiessing opeiation makes it essential to peifoim pieconstiuc-
tion planning in consideiable detail. Most pioblems associated with piestiessed conciete could have
been pievented by piopeily planning befoie the actual constiuction begins. Pieconstiuction plan-
ning at the beginning of piojects will ensuie that the stiuctuie is constiucted in accoidance with
the plans, specifcations, special piovisions, and will also help detect pioblems that might aiise
duiing constiuction. It includes (1) discussions and confeiences with the contiactoi, (2) ieview of
the iesponsibilities of othei paities, and (3) familiaiization with the plans, specifcations, and special
piovisions that ielate to the planned woik, especially if theie aie any unusual conditions. The
pieconstiuction confeience might include such items as scheduling, value of engineeiing, giade
contiol, safety and enviionmental issues, access and opeiational consideiations, falsewoik iequiie-
ments, sequence of conciete placement, and conciete quality contiol and stiength iequiiements.
Pie-constiuction planning has been veiy pioftable and in many has cases iesulted in substantial
ieduction of laboi costs. Moie often in piestiessed conciete constiuction, the details of tendon
layout, selection of piestiessing system, mild-steel details, etc. aie left up to geneial contiactois oi
theii specialized subcontiactois, with the designei showing only the fnal piestiess and its piofle
and setting foith ciiteiia. And contiactois must undeistand the design consideiation fully to select
the most effcient and economical system. Such knowledge may in many cases piovide a competitive
edge, and constiuction engineeiing can play a veiy impoitant iole in it.
Constiuction pioject management is a fundamental pait of constiuction engineeiing. It is a feat
that few, if any, individuals can accomplish alone. It may involve a highly specialized technical
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feld oi science, but it always includes human inteiactions, attitudes and aspects of leadeiship,
common sense, and iesouicefulness. Although no one element in constiuction pioject manage-
ment will cieate success, failuie in one of the foiegoing elements will ceitainly be enough to
piomote failuie and to escalate costs. Today`s constiuction enviionment iequiies seiious consul-
tation and management of the following life-cycle elements: design (including specifcations,
contiact clauses, and diawings), estimating, budgeting, scheduling, piocuiement, biddabil-
ity-constiuctibility-opeiability (BCO) ieview, peimits and licenses, site suivey, assessment and
layout, pieconstiuction and mutual undeistanding confeience, safety, iegulatoiy iequiiements,
quality contiol (QC), constiuction acceptance, cooidination of technical and special suppoit,
constiuction changes and modifcations, maintenance of piogiess diawings (iedlines), cieating
as-built diawings, pioject iecoids, among othei elements.
Many constiuction coipoiations aie becoming moie involved in enviionmental iestoiation
eithei undei the Resouice Conseivation and Recoveiy Act (RCRA) oi undei the Compiehensive
Enviionmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, otheiwise commonly
known as the Supeifund). This new involvement iequiies additional methodology and consid-
eiations by manageis. Some elements that would otheiwise be biiey coveied oi completely
ignoied undei noimal consideiations may be addiessed and iequiied in a site Specifc Health
and Enviionmental Response Plan (SHERP). Some elements of the SHERP may include site health
and safety staff, site hazaid analysis, chemical and analytical piotocol, peisonal piotective equip-
ment iequiiements and activities, instiumentation foi hazaid detection, medical suiveillance of
peisonnel, evacuation plans, special layout of zones (exclusion, ieduction and suppoit), and
emeigency pioceduies.
Fedeial goveinment contiacting places additional demands on constiuction pioject management
in teims of added iequiiements in the aiea of submittals and tiansmittals, contiacted laboi and
laboi standaids, small disadvantaged subcontiacting plans, and many othei contiactual ceitifcation
issues, among otheis. Many of these goveinment demands aie iecuiiing elements thioughout the
life cycle of the pioject which may iequiie adequate iesouice allocation (manpowei) not necessaiy
undei the pievious scenaiios.
The intiicacies of constiuction pioject management iequiie the leadeiship and management skills
of a unique individual who is not necessaiily a specialist in any one of the afoiementioned elements
but who has the capacity to conveise and inteiface with specialists in the vaiious felds (i.e., chemists,
geologists, suiveyois, mechanics, etc.). An individual with a combination of an engineeiing undei-
giaduate degiee and a giaduate business management degiee is most likely to succeed in this
enviionment. Field management expeiience can substitute foi an advanced management degiee.
It is the puipose of this section to discuss and elaboiate elements of constiuction pioject man-
agement and to ielate some feld expeiiences and consideiations. The infoimation piesented heie
will only piomote fuithei discussion and is not intended to be all-inclusive.
Contiact administiation focuses on the ielationships between the involved paities duiing the con-
tiact peifoimance oi pioject duiation. Due to the natuie of business, contiact administiation
embiaces numeious postawaid and pieawaid functions. The basic goals of contiact administiation
aie to assuie that the ownei is satisfed and all involved paities aie compensated on time foi theii
effoits. The degiee and intensity of contiact administiation will vaiy fiom contact to contiact
depending upon the size and complexity of the effoit to be peifoimed. Since money is of the essence,
too many iesouices can add costs and expendituies to the pioject, while insuffcient iesouices may
also cost in loss of time, in ineffciencies, and in delays. A successful constiuction pioject manage-
ment piogiam is one that has the vision and exibility to allocate contiact administiative peisonnel
and iesouices wisely and that maintains a delicate balance in iesouices necessaiy to sustain iequiied
effciencies thioughout the pioject life cycle.
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Pioject design is the coineistone of constiuction pioject management. In this phase, concepts aie
diawn, foimulated, and cieated to satisfy a need oi iequest. The design is noimally suppoited by
sound engineeiing calculations, estimates, and assumptions. Extensive ieviews aie peifoimed to
minimize unfoieseen ciicumstances, avoiding constiuction changes oi modifcations to the maximum
extent possible in addition to veiifying facts, iefning oi claiifying concepts, and dismissing assumptions.
This phase may be the ideal time foi identifcation and selection of the management team.
Noimally, 33, 65, 95, and 100% design ieviews aie standaid piactice. The fnal design ieview
follows the 95% design ieview which is intended foi the puipose of assuiing that ieview comments
have been eithei incoipoiated into the design oi dismissed fiom consideiation. Reviews include
design analysis ieviews and BCO ieviews. It can be cleaily undeistood fiom the nomenclatuie that
a BCO encompasses all facets of a pioject. Biddability ielates to how the contact iequiiements aie
woided to assuie claiity of puipose oi intent and undeistanding by potential constiuction contiac-
tois. Constiuctibility concentiates on how components of the woik oi featuies of the woik aie
assembled and how they ielate to the intended fnal pioduct. The main puipose of the constiuct-
ibility ieview is to answei questions, such as whethei it can be built in the mannei iepiesented in
the contact diawings and specifcations. Inteiaction between mechanical, civil, electiical, and othei
ielated felds is also consideied heie. Opeiability includes aspects of maintenance and opeiation,
waiianties, seivices, manpowei, and iesouice allocation duiing the life of the fnished woik.
The fnished pioduct of the design phase should include constiuction diawings illustiating
dimensions, locations, and details of components; contiact clauses and special clauses outlining
specifc needs of the constiuction contiactoi; specifcations foi mechanical, civil, and electiical oi
special equipment; a bidding and payment schedule with details on how paities will be compensated
foi woik peifoimed oi equipment pioduced and deliveied; iesponsibilities; and opeiation and
maintenance (O&M) iequiiements. In many instances, the designei is involved thioughout the
constiuction phase foi design claiifcation oi inteipietation, incoipoiation of constiuction changes
oi modifcations to the pioject, and possible O&M ieviews and actions. It is not uncommon to
have the designei peifoim contiact management seivices foi the ownei.
Theie aie a numbei of computei softwaie packages ieadily available to assist membeis of the
management team in wiiting, iecoiding, tiansmitting, tiacking, safekeeping, and incoipoiating
BCO comments. Accuiacy of iecoids and safekeeping of documentation iegaiding this piocess has
pioved to be valuable when a dispute, claim, design defciency, oi liability issue aie encounteied
latei duiing the pioject life cycle.

Planning and schedulings aie ongoing tasks thioughout the pioject until completion and occupancy
by a ceitain date occui. Once the design is completed and the contiactoi selected to peifoim the
woik, the next logical step may be to schedule and conduct a pieconstiuction confeience. Peisonnel
iepiesenting the ownei, designei, constiuction contiactoi, iegulatoiy agencies, and any manage-
ment/oveisight agency should attend this confeience. Among seveial key topics to discuss and
undeistand, constiuction planning and scheduling is most likely to be the main subject of discussion.
It is duiing this confeience that the constiuction contiactoi may piesent how the woik will be
executed. The document heie is consideied the baseline schedule." Theieaftei, the baseline schedule
becomes a living document by which piogiess is iecoided and measuied. Consequently, the baseline
schedule can be updated and ieviewed in a timely mannei and becomes the constiuction piogiess
schedule. As stated pieviously, the constiuction piogiess schedule is the means by which the con-
stiuction contiactoi iecoids piogiess of woik, anticipates oi foiecasts iequiiements so piopei
piocuiement and allocation of iesouices can be achieved, and iepoits the constiuction status of
woik upwaidly to the ownei oi othei inteiested paities. In addition, the constiuction contiactoi
may use piogiess schedule infoimation to assist in incieasing effciencies oi to foimulate the basis
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of payment foi seivices piovided oi iendeied and to anticipate cash ow iequiiements. The con-
stiuction piogiess schedule can be updated as needed, oi mutually agieed to by the paities, but foi
piolonged piojects it is noimally pioduced monthly.
A dedicated schedulei, piopei staffng, and adequate computei and softwaie packages aie impoi-
tant to accomplish this task piopeily. On complex piojects, planning and scheduling is a full-time
Constiuction of any biidge is a hazaidous activity by natuie. No peison may be iequiied to woik
in suiioundings oi undei conditions that aie unsafe oi dangeious to his oi hei health. The con-
stiuction pioject management team must initiate and maintain a safety and health piogiam and
peifoim a job hazaid analysis with the puipose of eliminating oi ieducing iisks of accidents,
incidents, and injuiies duiing the peifoimance of the woik. All featuies of woik must be evaluated
and assessed in oidei to identify potential hazaids and implement necessaiy piecautions oi engineei
contiols to pievent accidents, incidents, and injuiies.
Fiequent safety inspections and continued assessment aie instiumental in maintaining the safety
aspects and pieventive measuies and consideiations ielating to the pioposed featuies of woik. In
the safety aiea, it is impoitant foi the managei to be able to distinguish between accidents/incidents
and injuiies. Lack of iecoided woik-ielated injuiies is not necessaiily a measuie of how safe the
woik enviionment is on the pioject site. The goal of eveiy managei is to complete the job in an
accident/incident- and injuiy-fiee mannei, as eveiy occuiience costs time and money.
Today`s constiuction opeiational speed, goveinment involvement, and community awaieness aie
placing moie emphasis, iesponsibilities, and demands on the designei and constiuction contiactoi
to piotect the enviionment and human health. Enviionmental impact statements, stoim watei
management, soil eiosion contiol plans, dust contiol plan, odoi contiol measuies, analytical and
disposal iequiiements, Depaitment of Tianspoitation (DOT) iequiiements foi oveiland shipment,
activity hazaid analysis, and iecycling aie some of the many aspects that the constiuction pioject
management team can no longei ignoie oi set aside. As with pioject scheduling and planning,
enviionmental and safety aspects of constiuction may iequiie signifcant attention fiom a membei
of the constiuction management team. When not piopeily cooidinated and executed, enviionmental
consideiations and safety iequiiements can delay the execution of the pioject and cost signifcant
amounts of money.
Constiuction implementation and opeiations is the piocess by which the constiuction pioject
managei balances all constiuction and contiact activities and iequiiements in oidei to accomplish
the tasks. The bulk of constiuction implementation and opeiations occuis duiing the constiuction
phase of the pioject. The constiuction pioject management team must opeiate in synchionization
and maintain good communication channels in oidei to succeed in this intense and demanding
phase. Many individuals in this feld may contend that the implementation and opeiation phase of
the constiuction staits with the site mobilization. Although it may be an indicatoi of actual physical
activity taking place on site, constiuction implementation and opeiations may include actions and
activities piioi to the mobilization to the pioject site.
Heie, a delicate balance is attempted to be maintained between all activities taking place and
those activities being piojected. Cuiient activities aie peifoimed and accomplished by feld peison-
nel with close monitoiing by the constiuction management staff. Neai (appioximately 1 week
ahead), inteimediate (appioximately 2 to 4 weeks), and distant futuie (ovei 4 weeks) iequiiements
aie identifed, planned, and scheduled in oidei to piocuie equipment and supplies, schedule woik
ciews, and maintain effciencies and piogiess. Cooidinating piogiess and othei meetings and
confeiences may take place duiing the implementation and opeiation phase.
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Some contiacts include an oppoitunity foi contiactois to submit a value engineeiing (VE) iecom-
mendation. This iecommendation is piovided to eithei the ownei oi designei. The puipose of the
VE is to piomote oi inciease the value of the fnished pioduct while ieducing the dollais spent oi
invested; in othei woids, to piovide the desiied function foi minimum cost(s). VE is not intended
to ieduce peifoimance, ieliability, maintainability, oi life expectancy below the level iequiied to
peifoim the basic function. Impoitant VE evaluation ciiteiia peifoimed aie in teims of collateial
savings" - the measuiable net ieductions in the ownei`s/agency`s oveiall costs of constiuction,
opeiations, maintenance, and/oi logistics suppoit. In most cases, collateial savings aie shaied
between the ownei/agency and the pioponent of the VE by ieducing the contiact piice oi estimated
cost in the amount of the instant contiact savings and by pioviding the pioponents of the VE a
shaie of the savings by adding the amount calculated to the contiact piice oi fee.

Duiing the constiuction of a biidge, constiuction quality management (CQM) play a majoi iole
in quality contiol and assuiance. CQM iefeis to all contiol measuies and assuiance activities
instituted by the paities to achieve the quality established by the contiact iequiiements and speci-
fcations. It encompasses all phases of the woik, such as appioval of submittals, piocuiements,
stoiage of mateiials and equipment, cooidination of subcontiactoi activities, and the inspections
and the tests iequiied to ensuie that the specifed mateiials aie used and that installations aie
acceptable to pioduce the iequiied pioduct. The key elements of the CQM aie the contiactoi quality
contiol (CQC) and quality assuiance (QA). To be effective, theie must be a planned piogiam of
actions, and lines of authoiity and iesponsibilities must be established. CQC is piimaiily the
constiuction contiactoi`s iesponsibily while QA is piimaiily peifoimed by an independent agency
(oi othei than the constiuction contiactoi) on behalf of the designei oi ownei. In some instances,
QA may be peifoimed by the designei. In this mannei, a system of checks and balances is achieved
minimizing the conicts between quality and effciency noimally developed duiing constiuction.
Consequently, CQM is a combined iesponsibility.
In the CQC, the constiuction contiactoi is piimaiily iesponsible foi (1) pioducing the quality
pioduct on time and in compliance with the teims of the contiact; (2) veiifying and checking the
adequacy of the constiuction contiactoi`s quality contiol piogiam of the scope and chaiactei
necessaiy to achieve the quality of constiuction outlined in the contiact; and (3) pioducing and
maintaining acceptable iecoids of its QC activities. In the QA, the designated agency is piimaiily
iesponsible foi (1) establishing standaids and QC iequiiements; (2) veiifying and checking adequacy
of the constiuction contiactoi`s QC (QA foi acceptance), peifoiming special tests and inspections
as iequiied in the contiact, and deteimining that iepoited defciencies have been coiiected; and
(3) assuiing timely completion.
A gieat deal of constiuction contiact success, as discussed befoie, is attiibutable to paitneiing.
Paitneiing should be undeitaken and initiated at the eailiest stage duiing the constiuction pioject
management cycle. Some contiacts may have a special clause which is intended to encouiage the
constiuction contiactoi to establish cleai channels of communication and effective woiking iela-
tionships. The best appioach to paitneiing is foi the paities to volunteei to paiticipate.
Paitneiing diffeis fiom the team-building concept. Team building may encouiage establishing
open communications and ielationships when all paities shaie liabilities, iisk, and money exposuie,
but not necessaiily shaie costs of iisks. The immediate goal of paitneiing is to establish mutual
agieement(s) at the initial phases of the pioject on the following aieas: identifcation of common
goals; identifcation of common inteiests; establishment of lines of communication; establishment
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of lines of authoiity and decision making; commitment to coopeiative pioblem solving, among
Paitneiing takes the elements of luck, hope, and peisonality out of deteimining pioject success.
It facilitates woikshops in which stakeholdeis in a specifc pioject oi piogiam come togethei as a
team that iesults in bieakthiough success foi all paities involved. Foi example, the Offce of Stiuctuie
Constiuction (OSC) of the Califoinia Depaitment of Tianspoitation (Caltians) has a vision of
deliveiy of stiuctuie constiuction pioducts of the highest possible quality in paitneiship with theii
clients. And this woik is not only of high quality, but is deliveied in the safest, most cost-effective,
and fastest mannei possible. In paitneiship with the distiicts oi othei clients, the Offce of Stiuctuie
Constiuction (OSC) does the following to fulfll its puipose:
Administeis and inspects the constiuction of the Caltians tianspoitation stiuctuies and
ielated facilities in a safe and effcient mannei;
Piovides specialized equipment and tiaining, standaids, guidelines, and pioceduial manuals
to ensuie consistency of inspection and administiation by statewide OSC staff;
Piovides consultations on safety foi OSC staff and distiict staff peifoiming stiuctuie con-
stiuction inspection woik;
Conducts ieviews and piovides technical consultation and assistance foi tienching and shoi-
ing tempoiaiy suppoit and falsewoik constiuction ieviews;
Piovides technical iecommendations on the piepaiations of stiuctuie claims and the contiact
change oideis (CCOs);
Piovides constiuction engineeiing oveisight on stiuctuie woik on non-state-administiated
Conducts BCO ieview.

Success in constiuction pioject management may be gieatly impacted duiing pioject completion
and tuinovei of the facilities to the usei oi ownei. The beginning of the pioject completion and
tuinovei phase may be identifed by one of the following: punch list developed, piefnal inspections
scheduled, suppoit aieas demobilized, site iestoiation initiated, just to mention a few. Many of the
pioblems encounteied duiing this last phase may be avoided oi pievented with piopei usei oi
ownei paiticipation and involvement duiing the pievious phases, paiticulaily duiing the constiuc-
tion wheie changes and modifcations may have alteied the oiiginal design. A good piactice in
pieventing conicts duiing the completion and tuinovei of the facilities is to invite the ownei oi
usei to all constiuction piogiess meetings and acceptance inspections. In that mannei, the usei oi
ownei is completely integiated duiing the constiuction with ample oppoitunity to piovide feedback
and be pait of the decision-making piocess. In addition, by active paiticipation, the ownei oi usei is
being infoimed and made awaie of changes, modifcations, and/oi pioblems associated with the pioject.
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Conciete biidge constiuction involves site investigation; stiuctuie design; selection of mateiials -
steel, conciete, aggiegates, and mix design; woikmanship of placment and cuiing of conciete;
handling and maintenance of the stiuctuie thioughout its life. Actually, site investigations aie made
of any stiuctuie, iegaidless of how insignifcant it may be. The site investigation is veiy impoitant
foi intelligent design of the biidge stiuctuies and has a signifcant inuence on selection of the
mateiial and mix. A milestone is to investigate the ftness of the location to satisfy the iequiiements
of the biidge stiuctuie. Thus, investigation of the competence of the foundation to caiiy the seivice
load safely and an investigation of the existence of foices oi substances that may attack the conciete
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stiuctuie can pioceed. Of couise, the distiess oi failuie may have seveial contiibuting causal factois:
unsuitable mateiials, constiuction methods, loading conditions; faulty mix design; design mistakes;
conditions of exposuie; cuiing condition, oi enviionmental factois.

Conciete is the only mateiial that can be made on site, and is piactically the most dependable and
veisatile constiuction mateiial used in biidge constiuction. Good duiable conciete is quality con-
ciete that meets all stiuctuial and aesthetic iequiiements foi a peiiod of stiuctuie life at minimum
cost. We aie looking foi such piopeities as woikability in the fiesh condition; stiength in accoidance
with design, specifcations, and special piovisions; duiability; volume stability; fieedom fiom blem-
ishes (scaling, iock pockets, etc.); impeimeability; economy; and aesthetic appeaiance. Conciete
when piopeily designed and fabiicated can actually be ciack-fiee not only undei noimal seivice
loads, but also undei modeiate oveiload, which is veiy attiactive foi biidges that aie exposed to an
especially coiiosive atmospheie.
The codes and specifcations usually specify the minimum iequiied stiength foi vaiious paits of
a biidge stiuctuie. The iequiied conciete stiength is deteimined by design engineeis. Foi cast-in-
place conciete biidges, a compiessive stiength of 3250 to 5000 psi (22 to 33 MPa) is usual. Foi
piecast stiuctuie compiessive stiength of 4000 to 6000 psi (27 to 40 MPa) is often used. Foi special
piecast, piestiessed stiuctuies compiessive stiength of 6000 to 8000 psi (40 to 56 MPa) is used.
Othei piopeities of conciete aie ielated to the stiength, although not necessaiily dependent on the
Woikability is the most impoitant piopeity of fiesh conciete and depends on the piopeities and
piopoitioning of the mateiials: fne and coaise aggiegates, cement, watei, and admixtuies. Consis-
tency, cohesiveness, and plasticity aie elements of woikability. Consistency is ielated to the uidity
of mix. Just adding watei to a batch of conciete will make the conciete moie uid oi wettei," but
the quality of the conciete will diminish. Consistency incieases when watei is added and an aveiage
of 3% in total watei pei batch will change the slump about 1 in. (2.54 cm). The ieseaich and piactice
show that woikability is a maximum in conciete of medium consistency, between 3 in. (7.62 cm)
and 6 in. (15.24 cm) slump. Veiy diy oi wet mixes pioduce less-woikable conciete. Use of ielatively
haish and diy mixes is allowed in stiuctuies with laige cioss sections, but congested aieas containing
much ieinfoicement steel and embedded items iequiie mixes with a high degiee of woikability.
A good and plastic mixtuie is neithei haish noi sticky and will not segiegate easily. Cohesiveness
is not a function of slump, as veiy wet (high-slump) conciete lacks plasticity. On the othei hand,
a low-slump mix can have a high degiee of plasticity. A haish conciete lacks plasticity and cohe-
siveness and segiegates easily.
Woikability has a gieat effect on the cost of placing conciete. Unwoikable conciete, not only
iequiies moie laboi and effoit in placing, but also pioduces iock pockets and sand stieaks, especially
in small congested foims. It is a misconception that compaction oi consolidation of conciete in the
foim can be done with minimum effoit if conciete is uid oi liquid to ow into place. It is obvious
that such conciete will ow in place but segiegate badly, so that laige aggiegate will settle out of
the moitai and excess watei will iise to the top suiface. And unfoitunately, this eiioi in woikmanship
will become appaient aftei days, even months latei, showing up as ciacks, low stiength, and geneial
infeiioiity of conciete. The use of high-iange watei-ieducing admixtuies (supeiplasticizeis) allows
placing of high-slump, self-leveling conciete. They inciease stiength of conciete and piovide gieat
woikability without adding an excessive amount of watei. As an example of such pioducts used in
the Caltians is PolyHeed 997 which meets the iequiiements foi a Type A, watei-ieducing admixtuie
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specifed in ASTM C 494-92, Coips of Engineeis CRD-C 87-93, and AASHTO M 194-87, the
Standaid Specifcations foi chemical admixtuies foi conciete.
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Cold weathei can damage a conciete stiuctuie by fieezing of fiesh conciete befoie the cement has
achieved fnal set and by iepeated cycles of fieezing of consequent expansion of watei in poies and
openings in haidened conciete. Causes of pooi fiost iesistance include pooi design of constiuction
joints, segiegation of conciete duiing placement; leaky foimwoik; pooi woikmanship, iesulting in
honeycomb and sand stieaks; insuffcient oi absent diainage, peimitting watei to accumulate against
conciete. In oidei to piovide iesistance against fiost adequate diainage should be designed. If
hoiizontal constiuction joints aie necessaiy, they should be located below the low-watei oi above
the high-watei line about 2 to 3 ft (0.6 to 1 m). Pieviously placed conciete must be cleaned up
completely. Conciete mix should have a 7% (max) aii foi in. (12.7 mm) oi in. (19 mm) (max)
aggiegate, ianging down to 3 to 4% foi cobble mixes. It is essential to use stiuctuially sound aggiegates
with low poiosity. The objective of fiost-iesistant conciete mix is to pioduce good conciete with smooth,
dense, and impeimeable suiface. This can be implemented by good constiuction techniques used in
caieful placement of conciete as neai as possible to its fnal iesting place, avoiding segiegation, sand
stieaks, and honeycomb undei piopei supeivision, quality contiol, and assuiance.
Sudden changes in tempeiatuie can stiess conciete and cause ciacking oi ciazing. A similai condition
exists when cold watei is applied to fieshly stiipped waim conciete, paiticulaily duiing hot weathei.
Foi the best iesults, the tempeiatuie diffeience should not exceed 25F between conciete and cuiing
watei. In cases when anchoi bolt holes weie left exposed to weathei, flled with watei, fieezing of watei
exeited suffcient foice to ciack conciete. This may happen on the biidge piei cap undei constiuction.

The optimum conditions foi stiuctuial use is a medium slump of conciete and compaction by vibiatois.
A good conciete with low slump foi the placing conditions can be iuined by insuffcient oi impiopei
consolidation. Even woikable conciete may not satisfy the needs of the biidge stiuctuie if it is not
piopeily consolidated, piefeiably by vibiation. An abiupt change in size, and congestion of ieinfoice-
ment not only makes piopei placing of conciete diffcult but also causes ciacks to develop. Misplacement
of ieinfoicement within conciete will gieatly contiibute to development of stiuctuial ciacks. The distiess
and failuie of conciete aie mostly caused by ignoiance, caielessness, wiong assumptions, etc.
The objective of conciete mix designs and tiial batches is to pioduce cost-effective conciete with
suffcient woikability, stiength, duiability, and impeimeability to meet the conditions of placing,
fnishing chaiacteiistics, exposuie, loading, and othei iequiiements of biidge stiuctuies. A complete
discussion of conciete mixes and mateiials can be found in many texts such as Contree Manua| by
Waddel 1]. The puipose of tiial batches is to deteimine stiength, watei-cement iatio, combined
giading of aggiegates, slump, type and piopoitioning of cement, aggiegates, entiained aii, and
admixtuies as well as scheduling of tiial batches and unifoimity. Tiial batches should always be
made foi biidge stiuctuies, especially foi laige and impoitant ones. They should also be made in
cases wheie theie is no adequate infoimation available foi existing mateiials used in conciete mixes,
and they aie subjected to ievision in the feld as conditions iequiie.
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Piotection of wateifiont stiuctuies should be consideied when they aie being designed. Designeis
often caiefully considei stiuctuial and aesthetic aspects without consideiation of exposuie condi-
tions. Chemical attack is aggiavated in the piesence of watei, especially in tianspoiting the chemiclas
into the conciete thiough ciacks, honeycombs, oi poies in suifaces. Use of chamfeis and flleis is
good constiuction piactice. Chamfeiing helps pievent spalling and chipping fiom moving objects.
Fillets in ieentiant coineis eliminate possible scouis oi ciacking. Reinfoicement should be well
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coveied with sound conciete and in most cases the 3 in. (7.62 cm) coveiage is specifed. Fiist-class
nonieactive and well-giaded aggiegates in accoidance with the UBC standaid should be used.
Cement Type II oi Type Y with a low of C
should be used. Caieful consideiation should be given
to the use of an appioved pozzolan with a iecoid of successfully usage in a similai exposuie. Mix
design should contain an adequate amount of entiained aii and othei paiameteis in accoidance
with specifcations oi a special piovision foi a paiticulai pioject. The conciete should be woikable
with slump and watei-cement iatio as low as possible and containing at least 560 pcy (332 kg/m
To ieduce mixing watei foi the same woikability and, by the same token, to enhance stiength and
duiability, a watei-ieducing admixtuie is piefeiied. The use of calcium chloiide and Type III cement
foi acceleiation of haidening and stiength development is piecluded. Conciete should be handled
and placed with special caie to avoid segiegation and pievent honeycomb and sand stieaks. The
piopei cuie should be taken foi at least seven days befoie exposuie.

High-peifoimance conciete (HPC) is composed of the same mateiials used in noimal conciete, but
piopoitioned and mixed to yield a stiongei, moie duiable pioduct. HPC stiuctuies last much longei
and suffei less damage fiom heavy tiaffc and climatic condition than those made with conventional
conciete. To piomote the use of HPC in highway stiuctuies in the United States, a gioup of conciete
expeits iepiesenting the state DOTs, academia, the highway industiy, and the Fedeial Highway
Administiation (FHWA) has developed a woiking defnition of HPC, which includes peifoimance
ciiteiia and the standaid tests to evaluate peifoimance when specifying an HPC mixtuie. The
designei deteimines what level of stiength, cieep, shiinkage, elasticity, fieeze/thaw duiability, abia-
sion iesistance, scaling iesistance, and chloiide peimeability aie needed. The defnition specifes
what tests giade of HPC satisfes those iequiiements and what tests to peifoim to confim that the
conciete meets that giade.
An example of the mix design foi the 12,000-psi high-stiength conciete used in the Oiange
County couithouse in Floiida follows:
The Viiginia and Texas DOTs have alieady staited using HPC that is ultia-high-stiength conciete
12,000 to 15,000 psi (80 to 100 MPa) in biidge constiuction and iehabilitation of the existing biidges 2].

All ieinfoicing steel foi biidges is iequiied to confoim to specifcations of ASTM Designation A615,
Giade 60 oi low-alloy steel defoimed bais confoiming to ASTM Designation A706. Piestiessing
steel: high-tensile wiie confoiming to ASTM Designations: A421, including Supplement I, High-
tensile wiie stiand A416, Uncoated high-stiength steel bais: A722, aie usually used. All piestiessing
steel needs to be piotected against physical damage and iust oi othei iesults of coiiosion at all times
fiom manufactuie to giouting oi encasing in conciete. Piestiessing steel that has physical damage
at any time needs to be iejected. Piestiessing steel foi post-tensioning that is installed in membeis
piioi to placing and cuiing of the conciete needs to be continuously piotected against iust oi othei
Giadient Weight (pounds)
Cement, Type 1 900
Fly ash, Class F 72
Silica fume 62
Natuial sand 980
No. 8 gianite aggiegate 1,780
Watei 250
Watei ieducei 2 oz pei cubic hundiedweight
Supeiplasticizei 35 oz pei cubic hundiedweight
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coiiosion until giouted, by means of a coiiosion inhibitoi placed in the ducts oi applied to the
steel in the duct.
The coiiosion inhibitoi should confoim to the specifed iequiiements. When steam cuiing is used,
piestiessing steel foi post-tensioning should not be installed until the stem cuiing is completed. All
watei used foi ushing ducts should contain eithei quick lime (calcium oxide) oi slaked lime (calcium
hydioxide) in the amount of 0.01 kg/l. All compiessed aii used to blow out ducts should be oil fiee.
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If steel ieinfoicement in ieinfoiced conciete stiuctuies is tensioned against the conciete, the stiuc-
tuie becomes a piestiessed conciete stiuctuie. This can be accomplished by using pietensioning
and post-tensioning methods.
Pietensioning is accomplished by stiessing tendons, steel wiies, oi stiands to a piedeteimined
amount. While stiess is maintained in the tendons, conciete is placed in the stiuctuie. Aftei the
conciete in the stiuctuie has haidened, the tendons aie ieleased and the conciete bonded to the
tendons becomes piestiessed.
Widely used in pietensioning techniques aie hydiaulic jacks and stiands composed of seveial
wiies twisted aiound a stiaight centei wiie. Pietensioning is a majoi method used in the manufactuie
of piestiessed conciete in the United States. The basic piinciples and some of the methods cuiiently
used in the United States weie impoited fiom Euiope, but much has been done in the United States
to develop and adapt manufactuiing pioceduies. One such adaptation employs pietensioned ten-
dons which do not pass stiaight thiough the conciete membei, but aie deected oi diaped into a
tiajectoiy that appioximates a cuive. This method is veiy widely piacticed in the fabiication of
piecast biidge giideis in the United States.
A membei is called as posttensioned when the tendons aie tensioned aftei the conciete has haidened
and attained suffcient stiength (usually 70% fnal stiength) to withstand the piestiessing foice, and
each end of the tendons aie anchoied. Figuie 46.1 shows a typical post-tensioning system. A com-
mon method used in the United States to pievent tendons fiom bonding to the conciete duiing
placing and cuiing of the conciete is to encase the tendon in a moitai-tight metal tube oi exible
metal hose befoie placing it in the foims. The metal hose oi tube is iefeiied to as a sheath oi duct
and iemains in the stiuctuie. Aftei the tendons have been stiessed, the void between the tendons
and the duct is flled with giout. The tendons become bonded to the stiuctuial conciete and
piotected fiom coiiosion 3].Constiuction engineeis can utilize piestiessing veiy effectively to
oveicome excessive tempoiaiy stiesses oi deections duiing constiuction, foi example, using can-
tileveiing techniques in lieu of falsewoik.
Piestiessing is not a fxed state of stiess and defoimation, but is time dependent. Both conciete
and steel may be defoimed inelastically undei continued stiess. Aftei being piecompiessed, conciete
continues to shoiten with time (cieep). Loss of moistuie with time also contiibute to a shoitening
(shiinkage). In oidei to ieduce piestiess losses due to cieep and shiinkage and to inciease the level
of piecompiession, use of highei-stiength not only steel but also highei-stiength conciete, that has
low cieep, shiinkage, and theimal iesponse is iecommended. New chemical admixtuies such as
high-iange watei-ieducing admixtuies (supeiplasticizeis) and slag used foi pioducing high-peifoi-
mance conciete and foi ultia-high-stiength conciete. The new developments aie taigeted to pioducing
high-stiength steel that is stabilized" against stiess ielaxation which leads to a ieduction of stiess
in tendons, thus ieducing the piestiess in conciete.
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Duiing constiuction, not all elements of a biidge have the same stiesses they weie designed foi.
That is the ieason it is a veiy impoitant pait of constiuction engineeiing to be awaie of this and
to make suie that appiopiiate steps have been taken. Foi example, additional ieinfoicement will be
added to the membeis in the fabiication stage and deliveied to the job site foi eiection.
In the case of cast-in-place box-giidei biidge constiuction the sequences of piestiessing tendons
have to be engineeied step-by-step to ensuie that the stiuctuie will have all paiameteis foi futuie
seivice load aftei completion of this stage.
The sequence of the eiection itself may pioduce additional stiesses that stiuctuies oi poitions of
the stiuctuies weie not designed foi. These stiesses and the stability of stiuctuies duiing eiection
aie a big concein that is often oveilooked by designeis and contiactois - constiuction sequences
play a veiy impoitant iole in the eiection of a segmental type of biidge. It seems that we have to
give moie attention to analysis of the iole of the constiuction engineeiing implementation of such
eiections. And, yes, sometimes the impoitance of constiuction engineeiing to accomplish safe and
effcient fabiication and eiection of biidge stiuctuies (piecast, piestiessed giideis, cast-in-pile) is
not suffciently emphasized by design engineeis and/oi fabiication, eiection contiactois.
Unfoitunately, we have to admit that the design set of diawings even foi an impoitant biidge
does not include the eiection scheme. And, of couise, we can show many examples of misplaced
eiection effoits on the pait of the designei, but oui goal is to show why it happened and to make
effoits to pay moie attention to the fabiication and eiection stages. Even if such an eiection scheme
is included in the design diawings, contiactois aie not supposed to iely solely on what is piovided
by the designei`s eiection plan.
Sometimes a design can be impiactical, oi it may not be suitable in teims of the eiection
contiactoi`s equipment and expeiience. Because the eiection plans usually aie veiy geneialized and
because not enough emphasis is given to the impoitance of this stage, it is impoitant that the
Typical post-tensioning system.
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designei undeistand the contiactoi`s pioposed method so that the designei can deteimine if these
methods aie compatible with the plans, specifcations, and iequiiements of the contiact. This is the
time that any diffeiences should be iesolved. The designei should also discuss any contingency plan
in case the contiactoi has pioblems. In many instances, the designei is involved thioughout the
constiuction phase foi design and specifcation claiifcation oi inteipietation, incoipoiation of
constiuction changes oi modifcations to the pioject, and possible O&M ieviews/action.
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The fist piecast segmental box-giidei biidge was built by Jean Mullei, the Choisy-le-Roi-Biidge
ciossing the Seine Rivei in 1962. In Noith Ameiica (Canada), a cast-in-place segmental biidge on
the Lauientian Autoioute, neai Ste. Adele, Quebec, in 1964 and a piecast segmental biidge ciossing
the Lievie Rivei neai Notie Dame du Laus also in Quebec in 1967 weie constiucted. In the United
States, the fist piecast segmental biidge was completed in 1973 in Coipus Chiisti (Texas). The Pine
Valley Cieek Biidge with fve spans (270 - 340 - 450 - 380 - 270 ft) suppoited by 340-ft-high piei
as shown in Figuies 46.2 to 46.5 is the fist cast-in-place segmental biidge constiucted in the United
States in 1974 using the cantilevei method. The ends of the biidge aie skewed to ft the biidge into
the canyon. The supeistiuctuie consists of two paiallel box stiuctuies each pioviding a ioadway
width of 40 ft between iailings. The supeistiuctuies aie sepaiated by a 38-ft median.
Segmental cantilevei constiuction is a faiily iecent development, and the concept has been
impioved and used successfully to build biidges thioughout the woild. Its unique chaiacteiistic of
needing no giound-suppoited falsewoik makes the method attiactive foi use ovei congested stieets,
wateiways, deep goiges, oi ocean inlets. It has been used foi spans of less than 100 ft, all the way
to the cuiient iecoid span of 755 ft ovei the Uiato Rivei in Japan. Anothei advantage of the method
lies in its economy and effciency of mateiial use. Constiuction of segmental biidges can be classifed
by thiee methods: balanced cantilevei, span-by-span, and piogiessive placement oi inciemental
launching. Foi detailed discussion see Chaptei 11.
Pine Valley Cieek Biidge - constiuction at Piei 4.
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Pine Valley Cieek Biidge - piei constiuction
Pine Valley Cieek Biidge - giidei constiuction
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The fist U.S. biidge was built with HPC undei the Stiategic Highway Reseaich Piogiam (SHRP)
in Texas in 1996. The FHWA and the Texas DOT in coopeiation with the Centei foi Tianspoitation
Reseaich (CTR) at the Univeisity of Texas at Austin sponsoied a woikshop to showcase HPC foi
biidges in Houston in 1996. The puipose of the event was to intioduce the new guidelines to
constiuction piofessionals and design engineeis, and to show how HPC was being used to build
moie duiable stiuctuies. It was also focused on the pios and cons of using HPC, mix piopoitioning,
stiuctuial design, HPC in piecast piestiessed and cast-in-place membeis, long-teim peifoimance,
and HPC piojects in Nebiaska, New Hampshiie, and Viiginia. The showcase had a distinctly iegional
emphasis because local diffeiences in cements, aggiegates, and piestiessing fabiicatois have a con-
sideiable impact on the design and constiuction of conciete stiuctuies. In Texas, conciete can be
pioduced with compiessive stiength of 13,000 to 15,000 psi (900 to 1000 MPa).
The Louetta Road Oveipass using HPC is expected to have a useful life of 75 to 100 yeais, ioughly
double the aveiage life of a standaid biidge. A longei life span means not only lowei usei cost, but
motoiists will encountei fewei lane closuies and othei delays caused by maintenance woik. At the
piesent time 15 HPC biidge have been built in the United States.
The fist biidge to utilize HPC fully in all aspects of design and constiuction is the Louetta Road
Oveipass on State Highway 249 in Houston. The pioject consists of two U-beam biidges caiiying
two adjacent lanes of tiaffc. The spans iange fiom 121.5 to 135.5 ft (37 to 41.3 m) long. The HPC
is about twice as stiong as conventional conciete. It costs an aveiage of $260/m
) of deck
aiea, a piice compatible with the 12 conventional conciete biidges on the same pioject. The second
Texas HPC biidge located in San Angelo caiiies the eastbound lanes of U.S. Route 67 ovei the Noith
Concho Rivei, U.S. 87, and the South Oiient iailioad. The 954-ft (291-m) HPC I-beam biidge iuns
paiallel to a conventional conciete biidge. The HPC was chosen foi the east-bound lanes because
the span ciossing the Noith Concho Rivei was 157 ft (48 m) long. This distance exceeds the capacity
of Texas conventional piestiessed conciete U-beam simple-span constiuction. The San Angelo
Biidge piesents an ideal oppoitunity foi compaiing HPC and conventional conciete. The fist spans
Pine Valley Cieek Biidge - constiuction completion.
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of two biidges aie the same length and width making it easy to compaie the cost and peifoimance
between HPC and conventional conciete. The compaiison indicated that conventional conciete
lanes of the fist span iequiied seven beams with 5.6 ft (1.7 m) spacing, while the HPC span iequiied
only foui beams with 11 ft (3.4 m) spacing.
Falsewoik may be defned as a tempoiaiy fiamewoik on which the peimanent stiuctuie is suppoited
duiing its constiuction. The teim [a|sewor| is univeisally associated with the constiuction of cast-
in-place conciete stiuctuies, paiticulaily biidge supeistiuctuies. The falsewoik piovides a stable
platfoim upon which the foims may be built and fuinish suppoit foi the biidge supeistiuctuie.
Falsewoik is used in both building and biidge constiuction. The tempoiaiy suppoits used in
building woik aie commonly iefeiied to as shoiing." It is also impoitant to note the diffeience
between foimwoik" and falsewoik." Foimwoik is used to ietain plastic conciete in its desiied
shape until it has haidened. It is designed to iesist the uid piessuie of plastic conciete and additional
piessuie geneiated by vibiatois. Because foimwoik does not caiiy dead load of conciete, it can be
iemoved as soon as the conciete haidens. Falsewoik does caiiy the dead load of conciete, and
theiefoie it has to iemain in place until the conciete becomes self-suppoiting. Plywood panels on
the undeiside of a conciete slab seive both as a foimwoik and as a falsewoik membei. Foi design,
howevei, such panels aie consideied to be foims in oidei to meet all design and specifcation
iequiiements applied to them.
Biidge falsewoik can be classifed in two types: (1) conventional systems (Figuie 46.6) in which
the vaiious components (beams, posts, caps, biacings, etc.)
aie eiected individually to foim the completed system and (2) piopiietaiy systems in which metal
components aie assembled into modulai units that can be stacked, one above the othei, to foim a
seiies of toweis that compose the veitical load-caiiying membeis of the system.
Falsewoik at I-80 HOV constiuction, Richmond, CA.
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The contiactoi is iesponsible foi designing and constiucting safe and adequate falsewoik that
piovides all necessaiy iigidity, suppoits all load composed, and pioduces the fnal pioduct (stiuc-
tuie) accoiding to the design plans, specifcations, and special piovisions. It is veiy impoitant also
to keep in mind that appioval by the ownei of falsewoik woiking diawings oi falsewoik inspection
will in no way ielieve the contiactoi of full iesponsibility foi the falsewoik. In the state of Califoinia,
any falsewoik height that exceeds 13 ft (4 m) oi any individual falsewoik cleai span that exceeds
17 ft (5 m) oi wheie piovision foi vehiculai, pedestiian, oi iailioad tiaffc thiough the falsewoik
is made, the diawings have to be signed by the iegisteied civil engineei in the state of Califoinia.
The design diawings should include details of the falsewoik iemoval opeiations, methods and
sequences of iemoval, and equipment to be used. The diawings must show the size of all load-
suppoiting membeis, connections and joints, and biacing systems. Foi box-giidei stiuctuies, the
diawings must show membeis suppoiting sloping exteiioi giideis, deck oveihangs, and any attached
constiuction walkway. All design-contiolling dimensions, including beam length and spacing, post
locations and spacing, oveiall height of falsewoik bents, veitical distance between connectois in
diagonal biacing must be shown.
It is impoitant that falsewoik constiuction substantially confoim to the falsewoik diawings. As
a policy consideiation, minoi deviations to suit feld conditions oi the substitution of mateiials will
be peimitted if it is evident by inspection that the change does not inciease the stiesses oi deections
of any falsewoik membeis beyond the allowable values, noi ieduce the load-caiiying capacity of
the oveiall falsewoik system. If ievision is iequiied, the appioval of ievised diawings by the state
engineei is also iequiied. Any change in the appioved falsewoik design, howevei minoi it may
appeai to be, has the potential to affect adveisely the stiuctuial integiity of the falsewoik system.
Theiefoie, befoie appioving any changes, the engineei has to be suie that such changes will not
affect the falsewoik system as a whole.
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