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LUCHMUNPERSAD RITISH HND TEL YEAR 2

Trainer: v.virah sawmy

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Introduction Analog cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth in Europe during the early 1980s. Each country developed its own system, but it was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation. The mobile equipment was limited to operation within national boundaries, and there was also a very limited market for each type of equipment. The Europeans realized this early on, and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system. The proposed system called the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) had to meet certain criteria: y Good subjective speech quality y Low terminal and service cost y Support for international roaming y Support for range of new services and facilities y Spectral efficiency y Ability to support handheld terminals y ISDN compatibility

HISTORY

In 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI).Currently GSM is one of the worlds most widely deployed and fastest growing digital cellular standard. It is one of the most successful digital mobile telecommunication systems. There are over 250 million GSM subscribers world-wide two thirds of the worlds digital mobile population - and this figure is increasing by nearly
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four new users per second. GSM covers every continent, being the technology of choice for 357operators in 142 countries. The industry predicts that there will be nearly 600 million GSM customers by 2003. After GSMs successful entrance in the mobile communication mass-market, the ETSI has been working to improve its performance and to offer new services. GSM developments via GPRS provide a better use of the radio resources with regards to increase capacity in number of subscribers, and consequently to reduce tariffs.

HISTORY OF GSM IN MAURITIUS YEARS


1989

EVOLUTION
Emtel is the first cellular operator in the Southern hemisphere. Cellplus Mobile Communications was the first operator to offer GSM mobile services in Mauritius. Emtel Ltd introduce prepaid system for its customers hence booming the cellular market and creating massive accessibility to mobile communication. Emtel introduces new modes of communications with SMS, mobile email and 6-party conferencing. Emtel Ltd was the first to introduce the Short Message Service (SMS). Cellplus network coverage covers up to 99% of the Mauritian Territory. the launch of the first mobile internet portal in Mauritius bringing interaction between web and cellular phone. Emtel Ltd was the first to offer the roaming facility to its Prepaid customers.

1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

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2004

y Emtel brings a new way of communicating to Mauritius through Multimedia Messaging. y Emtel launches its International Call Gateway, y November 29th, Emtel launches the first 3G (UMTS) Network in Africa.

2006 2007 2008 2009

March, Emtel initiates the Video Surveillance service which allows customers using a 3G mobile to keep a watch on the place of their choice January, Emtel introduces the Emtel BlackBerry which enables customers to have access to a wide range of applications which include e-mail, phone, intranet, Internet, operating over Emtel's GSM and GPRS network. Rebranding of Cellplus to Orange Orange launches HSPA or 3G+

OVERVIEW GSM is a wireless platform that uses radio frequencies, and this way user can be fully mobile, and do wireless data computing anywhere, without worrying about adapters, telephone jacks, cables, etc. The unique roaming features of GSM allow cellular subscribers to use their services in any GSM service area in the world in which their provider has a roaming agreement. GSM-enabled phones have a "smart card" inside called the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The SIM card is personalized to the user. It identifies the users account to the network and provides authentication, which allows appropriate billing.GSM has been designed for speech services. It uses circuit switched transmission, reserving one radio channel for the users traffic. It also uses cells which enables it to reuse different frequencies.GSM, provides almost complete coverage in Western Europe, and growing coverage in the Americas, Asia and elsewhere. GSM networks presently operate in three different frequency ranges. These are GSM 900 (also called GSM) - operates in the 900 MHz frequency range and is the most common in Europe and the world.GSM 1800 (also called PCN (Personal Communication Network), and DCS 1800) -operates in the 1800 MHz frequency range and is found in a rapidly-increasing number of countries including France, Germany, UK, and Russia.GSM 1900 (also called PCS (Personal Communication Services), PCS 1900,and DCS1900) - the only frequency used in the United States and Canada for GSM.GSM standard circuit is a digital data bearer service offering 9.6kb/s. This data transmission in these networks is regarded as too slow and often too expensive for many applications. The cost is the total time that the user occupied that channel Even though he was using the channel all the time. The performance of services such as Internet Applications in a cellular environment is typically characterized by the low
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available bandwidth, and an inefficient use of the rare air link capacity. Furthermore, long connection setup delay is a problem for bursty services requiring occasional data transfers.

Architecture of the GSM network

A GSM network is composed of several subsystems whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure 1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. These are the: 1) Base station subsystem (BSS) 2) Mobile station (MS) 3) Network and switching subsystem (NSS) 4) Operations subsystem (OSS) 5) Operations and maintenance Center (OMC)

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Base Station Subsystem The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. It is mainly composed of the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station Controller (BSC).The BSC-to-BTS link is called the Abis interface which is cable or an optical fibre interface, and allows operation between components made by different suppliers. The BTS is made up of the antenna and the radio transceivers. A BTS houses the radio transceivers that define a cell, and handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. BSC manages the radio resources and handles radio-channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers among a number of different cells. The BSC connection between the MS and the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC) is done through the Translation and Adaptation Unit (TRAU). Usually, 20 to 30 BTS will be controlled by one BSC. Mobile Station The MS, both hand-held (or portables) and traditional mobiles, is carried by the subscriber. The MS is made up of the mobile equipment (ME), also known as the terminal, and a smart card known as the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).The mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).The SIM card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system, a secret key for authentication, and other information. GSM subscriber information are not programmed on the mobile equipment but rather stored in a computer chip on the SIM card. The SIM card can be inserted into another GSM terminal, enabling the user to receive calls at that terminal, make calls from that terminal, and receive other subscribed services. This way personal mobility is provided as the user can have access to subscribed services irrespective of a specific terminals. The SIM card provides subscriber account protection against unauthorized use by a password or personal identity number. The SIM provides assistance with voice and data encryption by deriving the variables for the encryption process. Network Subsystem The Network Subsystem is the MSC. It is an advanced electronic switch that provides all the functionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers (mobility), and call routing to a roaming subscriber. The MSC also has the interface to other networks such as private land
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mobile networks, public switched telephone networks and integrated services digital networks (ISDN). Signalling between functional entities in the Network Subsystem uses Signalling System Number 7 (SS7).The MSC is connected to the HLR. Logically there is only one HLR per GSM network, although it may be implemented as a distributed database. The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network, along with the current location of the mobile. The location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signalling address of the VLR associated with the mobile station. Each MSC will also have a VLR that contains selected administrative information from the HLR, necessary for call control and provision of the subscribed services, for each mobile currently located in the geographical area controlled by the VLR. Usually the VLR is implemented together with the MSC, so that the geographical area controlled by the MSC corresponds to that controlled by the VLR. This way the signalling required is simplified.

Two Main Standards of GSM y GSM 900 (global system for mobile communications in the 900 MHz band) y DCS 1800 (digital cellular system for the 1800 MHz band) GSM 900 is a designed for extensive radio coverage even in rural areas. DCS 1800 is designed for radio coverage in areas with very high subscriber density. GSM frequency bands

System

Band Uplink (MHz)


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Downlink (MHz)

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E-GSM-900

900

880.0915.0

925.0960.0

R-GSM-900

900

876.0915.0

921.0960.0

T-GSM-900

900

870.4876.0

915.4921.0

DCS-1800

1800 1710.01785.0

1805.01880.0

PCS-1900

1900 1850.01910.0

1930.01990.0

This figure represents the uplink and downlink frequencies are given as follows:

Specifications and Characteristics for GSM


y

Frequency bandthe frequency range specified for GSM is 1,850 to 1,990 MHz (mobile station to base station). Duplex distancethe duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart. Channel separationthe separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz. ModulationModulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK). Transmission rateGSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.
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Access methodGSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot. Speech coderGSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter, leaving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.

Advantages of GSM y GSM is mature; this maturity means a more stable network with robust features y Less signal deterioration inside buildings y Ability to use repeaters y Talk-time is generally higher in GSM phones due to the pulse nature of transmission y The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks and handsets at will y GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so international roaming is not a problem. y The subscriber can enjoy the broadest international coverage. It is possible with the GSM roaming service. y Good coverage indoors on 850/900 MHz. Repeaters possible. 35 km hard limit. y Very good due to simple protocol, good coverage and mature, power-efficient chipsets. Disadvantages of GSM y Pulse nature of TDMA transmission used in 2G interferes with some electronics, especially certain audio amplifiers. 3G uses W-CDMA now. y Intellectual property is concentrated among a few industry participants, creating barriers to entry for new entrants and limiting competition among phone manufacturers.
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y GSM has a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km, which is imposed by technical limitations.

CONCLUSION ON GSM GSM is a wireless platform that uses radio frequencies. It has been designed for speech services and uses circuit switched transmission. GSM standard circuit is a digital data bearer service offering 9.6kb/s. This data transmission in these networks is regarded as too slow and often too expensive for many applications. The cost is the total time that the user occupied that channel even though he may not be using the channel all the time.

GPRS INTRODUCTION OF GPRS GPRS is a standard for wireless communications which runs at speeds up to 150 kilobits per second, compared with current GSMs systems' 9.6 kbps. GPRS is an efficient use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and receiving
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small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data. The GPRS services reflect the GSM services with an exception that the GPRS has a higher transmission rate which makes a good impact in the most of the existing services and creates the opportunity for the introduction of new services as operators. This paper first introduces the two systems and then states and compares the architecture of the two systems. It then goes over the protocols of both systems and describes any differences and/or similarities. HISTORY OF GPRS GPRS was developed to support packet switching. The work on the GPRS specification beganin 1994 as a part of GSM phases 2+ specification. GPRS is a separate packet data network within GSM which provides a packet base platform both for the data transfer and signalling. GPRS is compatible with the GSM architecture. Voice and GPRS services coexist in the same environment with the minimum changes in the system.GPRS focused strongly on the development of a service, which overcomes these drawbacks of a mobile Internet Access. It allows allow reduced connection setup-times, supports existing packet oriented protocols like X.25 and IP, and provides an optimized usage of radio resources. The main idea is to allocate resources depending on the GPRS demand. This feature operates in a capacity-on-demand mode. The capacity-on-demand concept has been introduced in order to keep compatibility with the existing GSM circuit-switched resources. Resources for GPRS may be dynamically allocated depending on how many users require them with a given quality of service and depending also on how many resources are available at the moment. The operator can decide whether to permanently dedicate some physical resources for GPRS. Load supervision is carried out in the MAC layer to monitor the load of the GPRS physical resources, and it's the function that will allow increasing or decreasing the number of allocated resources according to the existing demand. The operator has also the choice to dedicate temporarily physical resources for GPRS as long as no other higher-priority GSM services require them. Since GPRS is packet oriented it enables volume based charging in contrast to GSM like charging of online time. It therefore allows users to stay constantly online while only paying for the occasional data transfer. Another important factor is the Quality of Service (QoS) offered by these services. The QoS can be negotiated when starting the session and can be renegotiated if it is required. The QoS agreed between the user and the network can be used to charge the service .In addition, GPRS increases the capacity of the system and reduces the idle periods of the radio channels. This is done by allowing for multiple users per physical channel and using a channel only when it is needed, and releasing it immediately after the transmission is complete.
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GPRS in Mauritius Orange and Emtel provide GPRS data connections up to 140.8 Kbit/s but due to the fact that the GPRS networks in Mauritius are mostly packet switched and not circuit switched the typical rates are closer around 56 Kbit/s.

GPRS ARCHITECTURE GPRS is an addition to the existing GSM infrastructure. As a result the GPRS architecture is very similar to the GSMs. The existing GSM nodes are upgraded with GPRS functionality. The same transmission links can be reused for both GSM and GPRS. E.g. the link between BSCs and BTSs.The GSM network provided only circuit- switched services and thus two new network nodes were defined to give support for packet switching. This way packet data traffic separated from traditional GSM speech and data traffic. The two nodes are the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)(see figure3). SGSN and GGSN are mobile aware routers and are interconnected via an IP backbone network. The SGSN is responsible for the communication between the mobile station (MS) and the GPRS network. It carries out the basic functions of GSMS BSC of providing authentication, ciphering and IMEI check, mobility management, logical link management towards the MS, and charging data. It also connects to the HLR, MSC, and BSC and handles packet data traffic of GPRS users in a geographical area. The traffic is routed from the SGSN to the BSC via the BTS to the MS. The SGSN like the GSMs MSC provides packet routing to and from the SGSN service area.

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The GGSN connects to outside data networks and to other GPRS networks. The GGSN provides the interface to external packet data networks like X.25 and external IP networks which are not supported by GSM. It routes incoming packets to the appropriate SGSN for a particular mobile station. It also provides mobility management, access server functionality, and routing to the right SGSN and protocol conversion. The GPRS protocols are limited to just setting up an IP bearer, a logical link, between the MS and the Access Server. It translates data formats, signalling protocols and address information permitting communication between the different networks and enabling compatibility with the GSM network. GGSN is a host owning all IP addresses of all subscribers served by the GPRS network thus replacing the functionality of GSMS VLR. GPRS uses the GSMS BSS but with enhanced functionality to support GPRS (see figure 3). The GSMs BSS is used as a shared resource of both circuit switched and packet switched network elements to ensure backward compatibility and keep the requirements for the introduction of GPRS at a reasonable level. The main change that GPRS brought compared to GSM is the addition of the packet control unit (PCU) into the BSC which controls the packet channels, separating the data flows of circuit and packet switched data. Circuit switched data are send through the A-interface on the MSC whereas packet data are send to the SGSN into the GPRS backbone. The BSC of GSM is given new functionality for mobility management, for handling GPRS paging. The new traffic and signalling interface from the SGSN is terminated in the BSC. GPRS uses the MSC/VLR interface provided by GSM, between the MSC and SGSN co-ordinated signalling for mobile stations which have both circuit switched and packets witched capabilities.
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GPRS INFRASTRUCTURE

The HLR of GSM is modified to contain GPRS subscription data and routing information and is accessible from the SGSN. It also maps each subscriber to one or more GGSNs. The HLR may be in a different PLMN than the current SGSN for roaming terminals. The GSM interfaces are re-used except that they are enhanced to support GPRS nodes (see figure 4). The existing Abis interface transmission towards BSC is reused .In the GSMs BTS new protocols supporting packet data for the air interface and functions for resource allocation for slot and channel allocation are implemented. GPRS uses the same pool of physical channels as speech. This way GPRS channels (PDCH) are mixed with circuit switched channels (TCH) in one cell. A TCH is allocated to one single user whereas several users can multiplex their traffic on one and the same PDCH.

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CONCLUSION ON GPRS GPRS is a separate packet data network which provides a packet base platform both for the data transfer and signalling. It enables volume based charging in contrast to GSM like charging of online time. It therefore allows users to stay constantly online while only paying for the occasional data transfer. GPRS increases the capacity of the system and reduces the idle periods of the radio channels. This is done by allowing for multiple users per physical channel and using a channel only when it is needed, and releasing it immediately after the transmission is complete.

EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) Introduction EDGE is the next step in the evolution of GSM and IS- 136. The objective of the new technology is to increase data transmission rates and spectrum efficiency and to facilitate new applications and increased capacity for mobile use. With the introduction of EDGE in GSM phase 2+, existing services such as GPRS and high-speed circuit switched data (HSCSD) are
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enhanced by offering a new physical layer. The services themselves are not modified. EDGE is introduced within existing specifications and descriptions rather than by creating new ones. EGPRS is capable of offering data rates of 384 kbps and, theoretically, of up to 473.6 kbps. A new modulation technique and errortolerant transmission methods, combined with improved link adaptation mechanisms, make these EGPRS rates possible. This is the key to increased spectrum efficiency and enhanced applications, such as wireless Internet access, e-mail and file transfers. GPRS/EGPRS will be one of the pacesetters in the overall wireless technology evolution in conjunction with WCDMA. Higher transmission rates for specific radio resources enhance capacity by enabling more traffic for both circuit- and packet-switched services. As the Third-generation Partnership Project (3GPP) continues standardization toward the GSM/EDGE radio access network (GERAN), GERAN will be able to offer the same services as WCDMA by connecting to the same core network. This is done in parallel with means to increase the spectral efficiency. The goal is to boost system capacity, both for real-time and best-effort services, and to compete effectively with other third-generation radio access networks such as WCDMA and cdma2000. EDGE is a method to increase the data rates on the radio link for GSM. Basically, EDGE only introduces a new modulation technique and new channel coding that can be used to transmit both packet-switched and circuit-switched voice and data services. EDGE is therefore an add-on to GPRS and cannot work alone. GPRS has a greater impact on the GSM system than EDGE has. By adding the new modulation and coding to GPRS and by making adjustments to the radio link protocols, EGPRS offers significantly higher throughput and capacity. GPRS and EGPRS have different protocols and different behavior on the base station system side. However, on the core network side, GPRS and

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EGPRS share the same packet-handling protocols and, therefore, behave in the same way. Reuse of the existing GPRS core infrastructure (serving GRPS support node/gateway GPRS support node) emphasizes the fact that EGPRS is only an add-on to the base station system and is therefore much easier to introduce than GPRS (Figure 1). In addition to enhancing the throughput for each data user, EDGE also increases capacity. With EDGE, the same time slot can support more users. This decreases the number of radio resources required to support the same traffic, thus freeing up capacity for more data or voice services. EDGE makes it easier for circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic to coexist, while making more efficient use of the same radio resources. Thus in tightly planned networks with limited spectrum, EDGE may also be seen as a capacity booster for the data traffic. EDGE Modulation Technique The modulation type that is used in GSM is the Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK), which is a kind of phase modulation. This can be visualized in an I/Q diagram that shows the real (I) and imaginary (Q) components of the transmitted signal (Figure 3). Transmitting a zero bit or one bit is then represented by changing the phase by increments of + _ p. Every symbol that is transmitted represents one bit; that is, each shift in the phase represents one bit.

To achieve higher bit rates per time slot than those available in

GSM/GPRS, the modulation method requires change. EDGE is specified


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to reuse the channel structure, channel width, channel coding and the existing mechanisms and functionality of GPRS and HSCSD. The modulation standard selected for EDGE, 8-phase shift keying (8PSK), fulfils all of those requirements. 8PSK modulation has the same qualities in terms of generating interference on adjacent channels as GMSK. This makes it possible to integrate EDGE channels into an existing frequency plan and to assign new EDGE channels in the same way as standard GSM channels.

The 8PSK modulation method is a linear method in which three consecutive bits are mapped onto one symbol in the I/Q plane. The symbol rate, or the number of symbols sent within a certain period of time, remains the same as for GMSK, but each symbol now represents three bits instead of one. The total data rate is therefore increased by a factor of three.

The distance between the different symbols is shorter using 8PSK modulation than when using GMSK. Shorter distances increase the risk for misinterpretation of the symbols because it is more difficult for the radio receiver to detect which symbol it has received. Under good radio conditions, this does not matter. Under poor radio conditions, however, it does. The extra bits will be used to add more error- correcting coding, and the correct information can be recovered. Only under very poor radio environments is GMSK more efficient. Therefore the EDGE coding schemes are a mixture of both GMSK and 8PSK.

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ARCHITECTURE OF EDGE

EGPRS does not bring about any direct architecture impacts. The packet control unit may still be placed either in the base station, the base station controller or the GPRS support node, and the central control unit is always placed in the base station. However, since the radio link control automatic repeat request function on the network side is located in the packet control unit, any delay introduced between the PCU and the radio interface will directly affect the radio link control acknowledged/unacknowledged round-trip times. This, in turn, results in a higher risk of stalling the radio link control protocol. To mitigate this risk and to allow the operator to optimize network behaviour, the maximum radio link control automatic repeat request window size has been extended for GPRS.

EGPRS benefits
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Capacity and performance

EGPRS introduces a new modulation technique, along with improvements to the radio protocol, that allows operators to use existing frequency spectrums (800, 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz) more effectively. The simple improvements of the existing GSM/GPRS protocols make EDGE a cost-effective, easy-to implement add-on. Software upgrades in the base station system enable use of the new protocol; new transceiver units in the base station enable use of the new modulation technique. EDGE triples the capacity of GPRS. This capacity boost improves the performance of existing applications and enables new services such as multimedia services. It also enables each transceiver to carry more voice and/or data traffic. EDGE enables new applications at higher data rates. This will attract new subscribers and increase an operators customer base. Providing the best and most attractive services will also increase customer loyalty.

Conclusion on edge

This has presented an overview of EDGE with particular focus on the physical layer and the data link layer. The goal of EDGE is to provide a packet data network that provides operating rates that are of adequate speed for most applications. EDGE achieves this increase in throughput rate mainly through enhancements to the physical layer and the RLC/MAC layer of the GPRS system.
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UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile telecommunications technologies, which is also being developed into a 4G technology. The first deployment of the UMTS is the release99 (R99) architecture. It is Specified by 3GPP and is part of the global ITU IMT-2000 standard. The most common form of UMTS uses W-CDMA (IMT Direct Spread) as the underlying air interface but the system also covers TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA (both IMT CDMA TDD).Being a complete network system, UMTS also covers the radio access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN) and the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP), as well as authentication of users via USIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module). History of UTMS

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October 1, 2001 NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial WCDMA 3G mobile network. November 1, 2001 Nokia and AT&T Wireless complete first live 3G EDGE call.

December 19, 2001 Nortel Networks and Vodafone in Spain (formerly Airtel Movil) completed first live international UMTS 3GPP standard roaming calls between Madrid (Vodafone network) and Tokyo (J-Phone network). January 28, 2002 SK Telecom in Korea launched the world's first commercial CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. February 8, 2002 Nokia claims to have made the first end-to-end 3G WCDMA standard level 3GPP Release 99 June 2001 packet data calls between its commercial network infrastructure and terminals in its laboratories in Finland. The Nokia 3G WCDMA network and terminal used were based on the commercial version.

February 18, 2002 Motorola unveils the companys first GSM/GPRS and 3G/UMTS product, the A820. September 24, 2002 Ericsson announces the first live, dual mode WCDMA/GSM calls with seamless handover between the two modes and high data rate in live networks September 26, 2002 Nokia introduces the "worlds first handset [6650] for WCDMA [UMTS] and GSM networks". November 18, 2002 Nokia introduces the worlds first GSM/EDGE 3G mobile phone; Nokia 6200. February 10, 2003 LG introduced the world's first dual band, dual mode phone for both CDMA and WCDMA

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February 2003, Korean mobile operator KTF announced plans to begin transmitting TV pictures direct to 3G mobile phones via the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO system.

UMTS architecture

A UMTS network consists of three interacting domains, Core Network (CN), UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and User Equipment (UE). The core network consists of nodes (switches) with connecting lines. The main function of the core network is to provide switching, routing and transit for user traffic. Core network also contains the database and network management functions. The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is bases on GSM network with GPRS. All equipment has to be modified for UMTS operation and services. The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC), Visitor location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Some network elements, like EIR, HLR, VLR and AUC are shared by both domains. Wide band CDMA technology was selected for UTRAN air interface. UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasirandom bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes. In UMTS, in addition to channelization, Codes are used for synchronization and scrambling. WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD).

Hierarchical cell structure of UMTS to offer global radio coverage.

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UMTS offer global radio coverage and world-wide roaming. For that purpose the URAN will be built in hierarchical way in layers of varying coverage as depicted in Fig. 2. A higher layer will cover a larger geographical area than a lower layer. In the highest layer there will be satellites covering the whole planet, the lower layers form the UMTS terrestrial radio access network UTRAN. They are divided in to macro, micro, pico-layer. Each layer is divided into cells. The lower the hierarchical level, smaller the cells. Smaller cells allow for a higher userdensity. Therefore macro-cells are used for land-wide coverage; additional micro-cells are installed in areas with higher population density and picocells in buildings and for so called hot spots (e.g. airports, railway stations).

CONCLUSIONS UMTS has been specified as an integrated solution for mobile voice and data with wide area coverage. Symmetry b/w up-link and down-link data rates when using paired (FDD) spectrum also means that UMTS is ideally suited for applications such as real-time video telephony- in contrast with other technologies such as ADSL where there is a pronounced asymmetry b/w up-link and down-link through-put rates.

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TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a set of standards developed by the European Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI) that describes a common mobile radio communications infrastructure throughout Europe. This infrastructure is targeted primarily at the mobile radio needs of public safety groups (such as police and fire departments), utility companies, and other enterprises that provide voice and data communications services. All of these groups have been high-end users of private/professional mobile radio (PMR) or public access mobile radio (PAMR) technology. This is especially true in the areas of law enforcement and public safety, where fast and accurate field communications to and from a central office or dispatchers are often critical. TETRA is a standard solution for groups that use both PMR and PAMR.

TETRA radio features TETRA radio offers many new and valuable features and in this way it is a major step forwards over previous private mobile radio communications systems. These include a fast call set-up time, which is a particularly important requirement for the emergency services. It also has excellent group communication support, direct mode operation between individual radios, packet data and circuit data transfer services, better economy of frequency spectrum use than the previous PMR radio systems and in addition to this it provides advanced security features. The system also supports a number of other features including call hold, call barring, call diversion, and ambience listening. The TETRA radio standard has undergone an evolutionary development to ensure that it is able to keep up with the needs of the users.
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There have been two releases of the TETRA radio standard: y TETRA Release 1: As would be envisaged this was the first release of the TETRA radio standard which occurred.

y TETRA Release 2: This release of the TETRA radio standard occurred in 2005 as a result of work dating back to 1999. It introduced a number of new features into the TETRA radio standard: o o o o TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS) Mixed Excitation Liner Predictive, enhanced (MELPe) Voice Codec Adaptive Multiple Rate (AMR) Voice Codec Trunked Mode Operation (TMO) Range Extension

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Main TETRA Features and Parameters

TETRA has some unique features: Direct push-to-talk (PPT), to groups and with priority setting Centralized call control, for priority and queuing. Direct mode, portable to portable without central radio coverage (DMO) Relay mode, one portable can use another mobile device to link to the central radio. Use of one or several timeslots for (low speed) Data. Voice encryption, different algorithms available. Advantages
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y The much lower frequency used, which permits very high levels of geographic coverage with a smaller number of transmitters, cutting infrastructure cost. y Fast call set-up - a one to-many group call is generally set-up within 0.5 seconds (typical less than 250 millisecond for a single node call) compared with the many seconds that are required for a GSM network. y The fact that its infrastructure can be separated from that of the public mobile phone network, and made substantially more diverse and resilient by the fact that base stations can be some distance from the area served. y Unlike most cellular technologies, TETRA networks typically provide a number of fall-back modes such as the ability for a base station to process local calls in the absence of the rest of the network, and for 'direct mode' where mobiles can continue to share channels directly if the infrastructure fails or is out-of-reach. y Gateway mode - where a single mobile with connection to the network can act as a relay for other nearby mobiles that are out of contact with the infrastructure. y TETRA also provides a point-to-point function that traditional analogue emergency services radio systems didn't provide. This enables users to have a one-to-one trunked 'radio' link between sets without the need for the direct involvement of a control room operator/dispatcher.

Disadvantages y It can only support a much lower tele-density in a given area, compared to GSM and similar technologies (which is not a problem in the applications for which it is used, but mostly limits it to these applications). y Data transfer is slow at 7.2 Kbit/s per timeslot (3.5 Kbit/s net packet data throughput), although up to 4 timeslots can be combined into a single data channel to achieve higher rates, due to need to fit into 25kHz bandwidth channel plans.
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y Due to the pulsed nature of TDMA employed by the protocol, handsets can interfere with sensitive electronic devices such as heart pacemakers and defibrillators, as can other RF transmitting equipment when used in close proximity. y Handsets are more expensive than cellular.

DECT Architecture

Four application examples of DECT WLL (Wireless Local Loop) connection, instead of wired access lines for connecting users to the PSTN/ISDN.
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Cordless system (residential use), only one base station => only intracell handover. PABX wireless extension (business use, e.g. HUT), several base stations => intracell and intercell handover. CTM (Cordless Terminal Mobility), wide area Mobility.

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35

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