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Propeller Design Workshop

Presented by David J. Gall Gall Aerospace

Theory and design of practical propellers, Part 2. Design Methods

Propeller Design Methods

Propeller Aerodynamics Concept
‡ There are two things above all else that I wanted you to learn from yesterday s forum: ‡ Goldstein s function does for propellers what elliptical loading does for wings - efficiency
± Caveat: Different for each advance ratio and number of blades

‡ Each blade is a complete wing unto itself, with a tip vortex from each end, hub and tip
± Hub vortices are additive
Propeller Design Methods

: Scientific method still in infancy ± Helmholtz Theory of Vorticity ‡ Foundation of Hydrodynamics and Aerodynamics ± Froude s and Rankine s Actuator Disc Theory ± Drzwiecki s Blade Element theory ± Wright Bros.History ‡ The development of propeller design methods has mirrored the technologies of the day ‡ 19th c. first to combine them ‡ Predicted and achieved remarkable ~66% efficiency Propeller Design Methods .

C.: Experiment and Analysis ± Scientific method flourished in experiment ‡ Eiffel wind tunnel investigation of wings and airfoils ‡ Lesley & Durand tests of model propellers ‡ See the book What Engineers Know and How They Know It ‡ Prandtl et. al Gottingen tunnel: wings and airfoils ‡ Weick et.A. Variable-density tunnel ± Model and full-scale propeller tests ± Investigation of effect of Reynolds number on wings & props Propeller Design Methods . al Langley propeller tunnel ± Tests of full-scale propellers ‡ N.History ‡ Early 20th c.A.

: Experiment and Analysis ± Analysis flourished in academia and research institutes ‡ Lanchester: Concepts of vortex flow and circulation ‡ Prandtl: Quantified Lanchester s description ± Gave us the concepts of downwash and induced drag ‡ Munk: Applied vortex theory to the optimization of wings ± gave us the elliptic lift distribution ‡ Betz: Applied vortex theory to the optimization of propellers ± described the propeller analog of elliptic lift (thrust) distribution ‡ Goldstein: Exact solution of Betz propeller distribution ‡ Glauert: Comprehensive reformulation and consolidation ‡ Theodorsen: Extended Goldstein s solution.History ‡ Early 20th c. reformulated Glauert Propeller Design Methods .

History ‡ The rest of the 20th century . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Airplane propeller theory all but stopped in 1948 A smattering of papers on Theodorsens s Theory Larrabee s wonderful works (Glauert re-hashed) Some stuff on hub effects and ducted fans Propeller Design Methods .

History ‡ The rest of the 20th century . Theodorsen was a no-show ‡ 1961. ‡ Marine propeller theory did not stop in 1948 ‡ 1952. Kerwin: Vortex-lattice lifting-line solution ‡ But marine engineers have formulated the solution to the optimization problem incorrectly Propeller Design Methods . Lerbs: Non-uniform radial inflow velocity ‡ Larrabee s similar-appearing radially-graded momentum theory is like Lerbs theory in the same way a Yugo was like a real car ‡ 1955.

Kerwin's method." Analytic methods. Conventional and computer design methods. McGinnis' method. 11. 13. Computer design methods. 6. 5. Hepperle/Eppler. Carter propellers. PROPELLER DESIGN METHODS Propeller Design Methods . Spreadsheets. Graphical layout. Part 2. Propellers of "Standard Form. 10. Minimum Induced Loss propellers: Larrabee's method.Outline: Theory and design of practical propellers. 12. 9. Ellippse(TM) propellers. 1. 3.Theodorsen Theory. Betz . 4. Helical pitch. 7. 2.Goldstein . 8. 14.

the computer is only needed to generate some numeric output ‡ Thereafter. a drawing can be made by hand ‡ You might not even need the computer my cell phone could do it if there was an app Propeller Design Methods .1. don t use CAD! Very often. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What is the desired output? Use the tool most appropriate to the task Don t need CAD? Then. Conventional and Computer Design Methods.

etc.Desired Output ‡ Full-size template at each 'X radius station of: ± Pressure-side ( thrust face ) including datum ± Suction-side ( camber face ) including datum ± Profiles modified to account for thickness of subsequent laminations (glass. carbon.) ± X could be linear inches or percent radius ‡ CAD files to send to the jobber ? ‡ G-codes to go directly to the milling machine Propeller Design Methods .

Creating a Master Blade ‡ Templates are glued to 1/8 masonite and mounted in a pressure side and suction side array ‡ Used to make guide cuts in the prop blank using a propeller duplicator .

Creating a Master with a CNC Router .

2. Spreadsheets ‡ I haven t been able to get Excel to do native iteration ‡ Neither have I been able to get it to integrate or interpolate using splines or other nonlinear interpolation schemes ‡ That s why I haven t used my cell phone (Excel) ‡ Spreadsheets can be useful for some preliminary work. but I find them ungainly Propeller Design Methods .

available as: ‡ Design and Build Your Own Propeller by Fred Weick. December 1960 ‡ If you re an EAA member it is free to download from the magazine archive Propeller Design Methods . Sport Aviation.3. Helical pitch ‡ Better to use NACA TN-212.

Helical pitch Propeller Design Methods .3.

4. Graphical Layout Propeller Design Methods .

5. Propellers of "Standard Form" Propeller Design Methods .

Analytic Methods ‡ Archaic.6. obsolete Propeller Design Methods .

Computer Design Methods ‡ Blade-element theory + momentum (classical) ‡ Vortex-lattice lifting line theory (Kerwin.7.) ± Some lit. et seq. on corrections for blade curvature ‡ Vortex lattice lifting surface theory (panel) ± Low-order panels use linear approximation ± Requires lots and lots of panels (fine grid) ± Higher-order panel methods now investigated ‡ RANS Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD Propeller Design Methods .

Computer Design Methods ‡ Larrabee s method is technically a bladeelement method + momentum theory ‡ Larrabee laments that a lifting-line theory of the propeller does not exist ‡ I guess Larrabee hadn t read Kerwin! ‡ It doesn t matter because at the design point the two will give nearly identical results ‡ And we re only using it for design at that point Propeller Design Methods .7.

Marc Drela ‡ DFDC Ducted Fan Design Code Sorry. Larrabee ‡ Xrotor Dr. my internet is down so I can t fact-check this morning Propeller Design Methods .7. Marc Drela with Dr. Susan French Commercial version of Larrabee s method for wind turbines ‡ Q-Prop Dr. Computer Design Methods ‡ Helice With Dr.

Martin Hepperle s JavaProp ± Does Adkins and Liebeck s version of Larrabee ± Doesn t do the hub correctly (tapers to nothing) ± Doesn t do Theodorsen ‡ Bates Engineering Prop Optimizer Pro ± Appears to be a Monte Carlo method ‡ Other web resources: ± Be careful what you believe Propeller Design Methods .7. Computer Design Methods ‡ Dr.

7. GNU tools. Processing. (TK! Solver) NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions Java. Octave Propeller Design Methods . SmallBasic. Mathematica. Computer Design Methods ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ NISA Software (free evaluation version) Alibre Design (low-cost full 3D like SolidWorks) Google Sketch-Up MatLab. Mac WolframAlpha.

10. Vol.-Oct. Computer Design Methods ‡ Larrabee s method as implemented here is actually the algorithm from Design of Optimum Propellers by Adkins & Liebeck. Gall to include Theodorsen s theory (abridged) ‡ And to include physical (structural) constraints Propeller Design Methods . 1994 ‡ As modified by David J. published in Journal of Propulsion and Power. Sept. No. 5.7.

well worth the $35 from www.7.ScienceDirect. Wald. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 42 (2006) 85-128 ‡ An excellent article. Computer Design Methods ‡ Additional Guidance from The Aerodynamics of Propellers by Quentin Propeller Design Methods .

translated from the original German and published as NACA Technical Memorandum No. Computer Design Methods ‡ Wake occurs ahead of airplanes as well as behind them it influences inflow to the prop ‡ The wake adaptation algorithm used here is an implementation of a method given in Influence of Fuselage on Propeller Design by Theodor Troller. 492 (replete with typos!!) Propeller Design Methods .7.

the skin friction drag.7. and the BL wake drag Propeller Design Methods . Computer Design Methods ‡ Based on work by Fuhrmann before WWI ‡ This work was immensely important in reconciling theoretical and practical aerodynamics ‡ It solved d Alembert s Paradox (complaint) ‡ It showed that the parasite drag is the sum of the (theoretically calculated) pressure drag.

Computer Design Methods ‡ Troller s body wake adaptation algorithm employs von Karman s adaptation of Prandtl s line distribution of Rankine s source-sink method to approximate a body of revolution ‡ This is probably the first instance of CFD that worked.7. yet it s a footnote in history ‡ Let s talk about spinners and inlets and outlets Propeller Design Methods .

Ellippse Propellers 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 -5 -10 Propeller Design Methods .8.

solving for the shape of the distribution curve as a function of the Betz condition ‡ Ignores the fundamental importance and the overarching achievement of Goldstein s work Propeller Design Methods .8. Ellippse Propellers ‡ Arbitrarily forces an elliptical lift distribution from tip-to-tip (across the hub) without regard for the reversal of circulation across the hub ‡ Arbitrarily imposes an elliptical distribution vs.

Betz condition of aft-ward velocity being constant ‡ Static thrust measurement is not adequate to predict in-flight performance Propeller Design Methods . Carter Propellers ‡ Apparently designed using the idea that the aft-ward acceleration of air should be constant along the blade.9. vs.

10. McGinnis Method ‡ Designed for constant Reynolds Number (Re) along the blade from hub to tip ‡ I don t know whether there s any consideration for the loading distribution along the blade ‡ I can do a constant Re prop very easily using Larrabee s method while still retaining consideration for the optimum loading Propeller Design Methods .

Theodorsen Theory ‡ Minimum Induced Loss (MIL) Propellers: Larrabee's method ‡ Lerbs radially non-uniform inflow method ‡ Kerwin's method Vortex Lattice Lifting Line and Vortex Lattice Lifting Surface Propeller Design Methods .11.Goldstein . Computer Design Methods ‡ Betz .

11. Computer Design Methods ‡ What s your input? ± Power ± Physical constraints ± Design operating conditions (design points) ‡ What s your DATA ± Good Goldstein numbers are hard to find ‡ I m using values published by Wald ± What s your interpolation scheme ‡ Original DTMB documents have complex interpolation Propeller Design Methods .

com .Propeller Design Workshop David J. Gall Gall Aerospace David@Gall.