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Selected Exercises of Calculus for Scientists and Engineers


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001
1-1 001
1-2 007
1-3 infinity 020
1-4 Continuity 036
1-5 043
1-6 048
1-7 058
067
2-1 067
2-2 082
2-3 92
2-4 95
111
3-1 111
3-2 126
3-3 149
3-4 159
3-5 205
3-6 216
3-7 228
3-8 236
3-9 245

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253
4-1 253
4-2 271
4-3 277
4-4 282
4-5 297
4-6 Gamma Beta 352
367
5-1 367
5-2 374
5-3 390
5-4 402
5-5 406
413
6-1 413
6-2 Partial Derivative 420
6-3 426
6-4 434
6-5 442
6-6 448
6-7 451
6-8 Lagrange 458
481
7-1 481
f x , y dx dy 492

7-2
R

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7-3 516
7-4 540
547
8-1 547
8-2 559
8-3 577
8-4 588
8-5 601
8-6 617
629
9-1 629
9-2 633
9-3 678
693
10-1 693
10-2 713
10-3 729
10-4 736
10-5 745
10-6 756

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1-1


1-1

lim f x = L1 lim f x = L2 x a
x

a+

a x x a a x
a+ x a

a x
a x

a+ x

f x x = a
n x = nn

f x = x n + 1 > x
lim x = 0 lim x =
x

0+

Gauss

x
x
0

f x =

x
f x = x
0

3
3

f x =

3
3

x=3
x

x=3
1
0
1

lim f x

x>3
x=3
x<3

1
3, 0

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1-2

lim f x = 1
3+

lim f x =
x

lim f x lim f x

lim f x
3+

lim x
x

lim x
x

=4

5=

x
1 2 3 4 5

lim x , n
x

lim x = n
n+

lim x = n
x

lim x n
x

lim x2
x

lim x2 lim x2 lim x2 x = 0.9 x2 = 0


x

1+

x
2

= 0 lim x2 x = 1.1 x2 = 1.21 =

lim x
x

1+

1 lim x = 1 lim x2 2 lim x


x

1+

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1-3

x = 4.9 x = 4.9 =4 1 lim 1 x+ x


x

1 x x = 0.9 lim x = 0.49


1
2

lim 1 x + x
x

x lim x + 2 x

f x =

f x =

x
x
0

lim f x
x

x=0

3
+x
2

3
2

x lim f x
x

x 1 2
lim 2

1
x 1 x

f x =

lim

lim

f x =

x<0
x = 0 lim f x
x 0
x>0

x + 10

10

lim f x
x

1
0
1

lim f x
x

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1-4

lim
x

2x +3
1
2x

+1
1 x
1 x

f x =

Q
lim f x
x a
Q'

Q Q'
lim
x

lim
x

lim
x

x 2
+ x+2
x 2

x
+ x
x

x
+ x
x

lim
x

0+

lim

lim
x

x 2
+ x+2
x 2
lim
x

1+

x2
x2

x 2

lim 1
x

x+ x

1 x

=1

1+ 0

0=0

lim x + 2
x

lim x + 2
x

1=1

1=0

1=0+1

1=0

1+

lim x + 2
x

1=0

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1
0
1

f x =

x>0
x=0
x<0

1-5

lim f x = + 1
0+

lim f x =
x

lim f x lim f x
0+

lim f x
x

lim
x

3
+x
2

(
(

lim
x

)
)

x
3
+x
2

3
2
x

3
+x
2

lim
x

3
2

= lim

3
2

= lim
x

1
x

=0

1
x

=0

=0

0
3.equivalent
lim
x

1 = 0 lim

1+

lim
x

lim x + 10
x

x =9+

10

9 = 10

10

lim
0+

lim
x

x =

lim
x

x = 0 lim

x =+1

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1-6

lim
0+

2x +3
1
2x

2x +3

= 1 lim
x

+1

1
2x

=3

+1

2x +3

lim
x

2x +1

f x

1 lim f x
x

lim
x

lim
0+

=1

x
x
= 0 lim
=+
x
x
x 0

lim

1
1
= lim
=
x
x 0 x

lim

x
1

1-1-I-1
x 2
+ x+2
x 2

lim
2+

= lim 1 + x+ 2
x

x
+ x
x

0+

= lim
x

1+

lim

0+

0
x2

x 2
+ x+2
x 2

1 + x+ 2 = 5

3=2

lim
x

= lim x + 1

lim

2+

lim
x

lim
x

x
+ x
x
1

x =2

=0

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1-2

1-7

lim f x = Alim g x = B
x

lim f x g x
x

= lim f x lim g x = A B

= lim f x lim g x = A B

lim f x g x
x

lim f x
A
f x
=x a
= B0
g
x
lim
g
x
B
a

lim
x

lim f x
x

f1 x

f x

f2 x lim f1 x = lim f2 x = L lim f x


x

= L
f x

g x lim f x
x

lim g x
x

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1-8

lim f x x a x
x

x2 4
f 2
x 2

f x =

x+2 x 2
=4
x 2

lim f x = lim
x

x + x2 + + x
x 1
1

lim
x

x
1 x

1 ++ x
x 1

= lim
x

1 + x2

= lim

1
x2
+ lim
1 x 1 x

1
xn
+ +lim
1
x 1 x

1
1

= lim 1 + lim x + 1 + lim x2 + x + 1 +


x

+ lim x n
x

=1+2++n=

1
1

+ xn

+ +x + 1

n n+1
2

sinx
1 cosx 1
x2
=1lim
= lim
2
2
x
0 x
x 0
x 0 1+xsinx

lim
x

cosx

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x2
1 + x sin x

= lim
x

x2

= lim
x

= lim
= lim
x

1 + a1 x 1+ a2 x 1 + an x
x

lim

1 + x sin x + cos x
1 + x sin x + cos x

1 + x sin x + cos x 4
=
3
1 cos x sin x
+
2
x
x

= lim

1-9

1 + x sin x + cos x
1 + x sin x cos x

cos x

1 + a1 x 1+ a2 x 1+ an x
1
x
1+ a1 x 1 + a2 x 1 + anx + 1

1 + a1 + a2 + + an x + a1a2 + a1a2 + a1a2 + x2 + 1


x 1 + a1x 1 + a2x 1 + anx + 1

a1 + a2 + + an
2

lim
16

= lim

= lim
y

y2
y

y
y

x 2
4

4
2 y+2
=
2 y+1
3

4
y= x

lim f x = lim f y
x

16

16

= lim f y
y

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1-10

1 cot3 x

2 cot x cot3 x

lim
x

1 y3
y y3
12

= lim
y

3
1 y 1 + y + y2
=
2
4
1 y y + 2y + 2

= lim
y

= lim
2

y3 8
y 2

3
y= x

= lim y2 + 2y+ 4
y

lim f x = lim f y

x 8

x 2

lim
x

y=

=12

lim
x

1+x n
x

1
n

1+x n=

n
i=0

=1+

(ni) x

n n 1 2 n n 1 n 2 3
n
x+
x +
x +
1
12
123

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1-11


1+nx+
= lim
x

nx+
= lim
x

= lim n +
x

n n 1 2 n n 1 n 2 3
x +
x + + xn
12
123
x

n n 1 2 n n 1 n 2 3
x +
x + + xn
12
123
x

n n 1 n 2 2
n n 1
x+
x + + xn
12
123

=n

x 1
x+1

lim x
x

1
1
y
1
+1
y

1
= lim
y 0 y

= lim
y

1
y

1
= lim
y 0 y

1
y
2
1
1+ y
2

1
1
= lim
y x 0 y
y2
+
8
2
y
+
8

1 y
1+y

1 3
y +
4
y
y2
+
1+
2
8
y

1 2
y +
4
=
= lim
y
y2
y 0
+
1+
2
8
1

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1-12

L'Hospital lim
x

lim ( x
x

a /

n+1 x+n

x 1 2

x2

a2a > 0

lim
x

a+

xn + 1

1
x

( 4 +1 x

16

x3 + x2 5x
x2 4
2

lim
x

sinx sina

a
a sin x

lim
x

sin x
cos x cos 3 x
1 cos x
= 1 lim
lim

2
x
x
x2
0
x 0
x 0

lim
x

1+ 2+x
x 2

lim
x

lim
x

lim
x

1 x 3

2+ 3 x

27

x3 / 2

lim (1
x

3 /

x2 + 3

1+x

lim
x

1+ 3 x 2

x 27

lim
x

1 + x + x2

lim
x

1+x
1+x
2+x
4x+1

1
1

lim

3x 2

5x 1

lim

2x

1 x2

x2
x

1+x

2 x

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x
x

lim
x

16

lim 1
x

1
11

22. lim
x

3
x

lim

x 1

x
3
x

1
1

x
5
x

23. lim
x

1
1

x
7
x

y2 8

3
6+ y 2
4

1+x
1+x

28. lim
x

1
3
1

30. lim
x

1 + x5
5
1 x2

5
5

27. lim
x

cos x 3
sin2x

x+2

16
x

6
1
x 2
25. lim 3

x
64
1
x + 2 x 12

26. lim
y

x/ 1

4
1+ 3 x
x
21.
lim

5
x
11+ x
x 16

x 1

3
x+ x 2

24. lim
x

x 1

lim
x

x 1

1-13

2 sin2x + sin x 1

2sin2x 3 sin x +1

lim
x

29. lim
x

1+x
1 x
1 + x5

1
5

1 + x3
x3

1+x

1 x
1
3

1 + x2

1 x

= lim
x

x xn

= lim
x

nx
12

1 x xn

= lim
x

1
x

xn + x n

1
1

+ xn 2 + + x + 1
x 1 2

+ + x2 + x
x 1

n n n+1
=
2

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1-14

x
x2

= lim
x

x
x2

= lim
x

= lim
x

1
x
x

= lim
x

1
x + a)
+
2a
x+ a

a
a2

1
1
x a
=
+
x+a x+ a
2a
2a

= lim
x

a
1
+ lim
2
a x a x+a

8 x + x2
16 4 + x

8+x
=
16 4 + x 2

) = lim

1
32

11
2 x2 + 3 x + 1
=
x 2 x+2
4

sin x sin a
x a
cos a
=
= cos a
= x a
sin x a
sin y
lim
lim
x a
x a
y 0 y
lim

= lim
x

4 cos3 x
x2

cos x

= 4 lim
x

cos3x + cos x
cos x sin2x
= 4 lim
2
x
x2
x 0

= 4 lim cos x lim


x

lim
x

1+

lim
x

2+x
x 2

sin x 2
=4
x

1+ 2+x+ 3
1+ 2+x+ 3

x 2

2+x 2
1+ 2+x+ 3

x 2

x 2
1+ 2+x+ 3

= lim
x

1
cos x
sin2 x
1
=
= lim 2
2
1 + cos x 2
x
x 0 x

= lim
x

3 cos x

=
2+x+2

1
8 3

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= lim
x

27

27

8+x
3
2+ x
1

lim
x

27
2

= lim
x

1
1

1+x
x
= lim 3
x 0
1+x
x

lim
x

0
3

lim
x

1+x
x

1+x
x

1+x

= lim
x

x
3

lim
x

lim
x

4 + 3 x2 2 3 x
=
8
1 x+3

x2 + 3

=6

x2 + x 2
2
1 + x + x2 + 3

1+x
1+x

1
108

1 x+2
1+x+ 2
= 6
2
1+x+x + 3 x 1

= lim

1+ x+2

x+3

1+x

= lim

x 3 2 + x2 + 3
1 + x + x2 2
= lim
2
1+x
1 x
x 1

= lim

1-15

3
1+ 3 x+2

1
3 x +3 x+9

= lim

x
x

x
x
3
1 x
x

1
lim
2 x 0

1
3

1
1+x
1

x
x

1
=

1
1

1
1
1

1+x
2
3

1
3

1
1

x
x

2
3

+ 1+x
1
3

+ 1+x
lim
x

1
2

1
3

+1

1=

+1
3

1+x
1+x

1
1

1
3

x 3
=
x 2

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1-16

= lim
x

x2
x

2x

2+x
4x+1

= lim
x

1+x

3x
5x

1
1

2
1

2x
2x

x2 + 1 + x
=
x2 + 1 + x

2+x+ 3x 2
4 x + 1 + 5 x 1)
4 x + 1 + 5 x 1)
2+x+ 3x 2

= lim
x

4 2x 3
=3
2 x
2
x

= lim
x

x2

= lim

2 1
= 4 x = t
4 4

1y

1 x2 + 2 x
x2 + 2 x 2
=
=
lim
3
2
2 x x2 + 2 x) x 1 x + x + x + 2 5

2 y2 + y 1
=
2 y2 3 y + 1

y = sin x = lim
1
2

k
1

xk 1
y 1
= lim
lim
1 y 1 yk 1
x 1 x
= lim
y

lim
x

y
y

yk

1
1

1
1 1

= lim
x

x
x

1
+ yk

+ + 1
n

x 1
n

1
1 1

lim

1
k

1
3

1
1 1

lim
x

1
1
1
1
=
2
3
n n!
1

y = x 6

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1-17

y3
1 + y + y2 1 y 3
=
lim
=
2
y2 y 1 1 + y 1 y

1
11

= lim
y

y =x 15 = lim
y

1 + y5
3
1 1+y

= lim
y

1+y 1
1+y

y +y2 y3 + y4 5
=
3
1 y + y2

21. y = 4 x
y y2 + 2
= lim
4
16 y 2 y
2 y

= lim
y

2 y+1
=
y + 2 y2 + 4

3
32

22. y = 6 x
6
y6 1
y 1 y + 1 y4 + y 2 + 1
= lim
=
3
5
2 x 1
y 1 y2+ 2 y + 2
1y +y

= lim
y

23. y =

x
y 3y
z3
2 = lim
1 y
y 11

= lim
y

z=
24. lim
x

lim
x

y =

1
12

x
3
x

1
y3
= lim 2
y 1y
1

1 3
= y = 6 x
1 2

1
y5
= lim 4
y 1y
1

1 5
= y = 20 x
1 4

1
y7
= lim 6
1 x 1y

1 7
= y = 42 x
1 6

x
5
x
6

lim

z2
z6

x
7
x

= lim
x

x
3
x

1
lim
1 x 1

x
5
x

1
lim
1 x 1

6
7

x
x

1
1

35
16

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1-18

25. y = 6 x
= lim
y

2y

y 2
+ y3 12
y

= lim
y

1
2
=
16
y2 + 3 y + 6

26. x = y
= lim
x

= lim
x

x3 8
6+x 2

x2 + 2 x + 4

2
3

= lim x2 + 2 x + 4
x

6+x 2+2
6+x 8

6+x 2+2

6+x+4

6+x+4

= 144

27. 1 + x

1
2

1
x
2
=1+ +
2
=1+

1+x

1
3

1
2

=1

x
2
x
2

x2 +

1
3
2

1
x2 +

x2
+
9

x
3

=1+

x2
+
8

x
2

1
x 3
=1+ +
3
=1+

1
2
2

1
2

1
2
2

1
x 2+

x2
+
8

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1
3

=1+

1+
= lim
0

= lim
x

28. 1

1
4

1
x2
x
6
72
=
1
x2
x
+
6
72

x
4

=1

1+
x

x 2+

1+
1

x
3
x
3

x2
+
9
x2
+
9

1
x 2+

3 2
x +
32
x
2

x
4

1
1

x
3

3 2
x +
32
x2
+
9

x2
+
9
32
=
10
x2
+
72

3
x
4
= lim
x 0 5
x
6

29. = lim

1
4
2

x2
+
8
x
x2
+
1+
2
8

1+
= lim

x2
+
8
x2
+
8

x
2
x
2

1
x 4
+
4

=1

1
3
2

1-19

x2
+
9

x
3

=1

1
3

x3
3

x5
x6
+ + 1+
9
5
x3

2 10
x +
25

1/3

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1-20

1+
30. = lim
x

2 10
x +
25
2 4
x + )
25

1-3

x2
5
x
5

2 4
x + )
25
2 2
x + )
25

infinity

lim f x =
x

1+

2 2 2 4
x +
x +
5
25
=0
x
3 x2
+
5
25

= lim
x

x5
5
x2
5

lim
x

1
x

= lim
x

1
x

lim f x = L N
x

x > N f x

N=N

L < lim f x =
x

L lim f x = L
x

lim

= lim
x

x 1
5x 1

x 3 x
5x 1 5

x 2
5x 1

x 3
5x 1

x 4
5x 1

x 5
5x 1

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.
., 2012.01
.
ISBN 978-957-11-6536-3 ()
1.
314.1

100027466

5Q02

SELECTED EXERCISES OF CALCULUS


FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS







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