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10

ABC abc
a A a AaA a Aa A
N
N+ N+
Z
Q
R

AB A B
AB A B A

B B A

A B B A A B
A B AB
A B B A A
B

ABC A B B C A C

A B A B
AB
ABx|xA xB
A B A B
AB
ABx|xA xB

A U A A
U A CUA
CUAx|xU x

card Aa,b,c card(A)=3


AB
card(A)+card(B)=card(AB)+card(AB)

1 Ax|x Bx|x C
x|x
ABAB
2 C{(x,y)|y=x} yx D={(x,y)|
2x-y=1,x+4y=5} CD
3 A={x|1x3}B{x|(x-1)(x-a)=0} B A a AB

4 ABC
5 A1234nB24682n

axb

[ab]

axb

ab

axb axb

ab]

[ab


[a+) a ax+
(-b) b -xb
(-+)-x+

-+"""",,
0.x- x

2
x y

f y x x
x y y
y x
y=f(x)y=F(x)"f""F" y x

a)

rx2+y2=r2
b)

c)

I x f(x)M

M x f(x) I

cosx (-,+).

(a,b) x

(a,b) x1 x2 x1 x2
(a,b)

(a,b) x

(a,b) x1 x2 x1 x2

(a,b)

=x2 (-,0) (0,+)

x
x

=
=-

2 tgx

y y0

x x0
y .

x
.

(ab)() R

R ().
()()
y=x2(-,+)[0,+). y ,
x=

. y x (-,+

)() x0

y0x=

y=x2 x0

().

y=x

y=x

y u

u x

y u x

(-,+) x u

10

a): x ,y ;

b): x=0 ,y=1.

a): y ,

(1,0)

b): a1 ,(0,1)

(-,+)
.

a=m/n

a): m n ,y

11

b): m,n ,y

;
c): m n ,y (-,0)

()

a): 2

b):

a):,

[-

/2,/2],

12

7
()

a):(-,+)

b)
c)

a):(-,+)

b)
c)(0,1)

13

a):(-,+)

b)
c)
y=1 y=-1

shx thx chx

sinx tanx cosx

14

.
a)

(-,+)

b)

[1,+)

c)

(-1,+1)

a1 a2

n an
a1a2an. n an
.

15

an n an=

A1
A2 A3
( 62n-1 An)
A1A2A3An

An ()
A1A2A3An n( n
)
()

() N nN
a

a .

16

a (a-a+)

nN

(a-a+)( N )

1-11-1(-1)n+1

.
a) b)
x0 A

17

()
a):

()

0 N n 0 X
N

x A

18


b):.

x1 x=1

.
x1 ,:

x1
.

2. x 1

x0

A ( ) 0

xx0 A

xx0
x=x0
x
A

a): 0
b):

19

c): 0

d): 0 0

10

xx0( x)

20

21

,x 0 0 .

x (xx0) x0
A

x (xx0) x0

A A

xx0

xx0

x0 xx0 (
x)

.
.

22

e e=2.718281828459045...

.
.

x=-2t x t

x
t 1/x t0.

23

x0

y=

x=x0

N()

y=

x N( )
M

()

( M)

) x
( x)

24

0..

( x) A

( x)

a) b)

c).


a)

b)

x0

25

c)

( )

x0 x 3x

x0 x2 3x

x0 sinx x

1.

x0 sinaxaxtanbxbx

2.

26

x x1 x2 x2-x1 x
x x=x2-x1 x .

x0 x

x0 x0+x y

27

x y
y

x0

x0

x0 x0

(a,b]
=

b .

[a,b)

a .

(a,b),(a,b) a b
[ab]

28

a)

x0

b)

xx0

c)

xx0

x=0 x0 -1 +1

x=0

29

x0

x=0 x=0

x0
x0

30

x0

x0

x0

x0

a)
b)
c) (

( )

()

31

[-1,1]

xx0 a

u=a

xx0

u=e

x=x0

u=u0

x=x0

32

(
)
y=sinx [02] x=/2 1
[02] x=3/2 1[02]

[ab]

x x t

33

t0 t0 t
t

. t0

t0
t 0 t0
t0 =

x0 x x0

x(x+x )

y x x0

x0

x0

x0

(a,b)

(a,b)

(a,b) x

34

x=x0

x=x0

x0

x0

() ().

uv

35

36

=?

x 2x

37

.(
)

y
.

38

v(t) s(t) t

a v t v t

s t

x .

.
(n-1) n .

39

=a

=0

. y
x y=sinx y=1+3x .
.
F(x,y)=0 x
y F(x,y)=0

x y.

F(x,y)=0

40

a) F(x,y)=0

b) F(x,y)=0

y x

x y x

y=0.

x=0

x=0

41

x0

42

x0 x0+x

x A A x

x x0 x
A A

x0 x

x0 x0+x

A x
x0

x dy

x
x0

43

x dy y

x dy y

x0 ydy.

(x dx,:
)

dy

du

44

dy

2x+1 u

()

45

46

x3

47

1.025( 1.024695)

48

a b (ab)

(a,b)(a,b)

AB AB

P(x=c)

49

[a,b](a,b)

(a,b) c

[a,b](a,b)

50

17

[ab](ab)

51

0(ab) c

0 1

[01](0,1)

0 1 c

0 1

52

xa( x)

"

53

"

(L'Hospital)

(L'Hospital)

xa( x)

(xN)

54

(L'Hospital)

55

56

57

()

(),().

58

[a,b](a,b).

a)(a,b)

[a,b]

b)(a,b)

[a,b].

(,)

x0

0(0,)

x0

0(-,0)

59

x=1 x=2

x=1
x=1 . x=1 ,
, x(x=1 )

x=2

(),

(a,b)x0 (a,b).

60

x0 x(x0 )

x0 x(x0 )

x0

x x0

0 x x0

x0

61

x x0

0 x x0

x0

x0

a)
b)
c)

x=-21-4/5

62

a)

x0
0

x0

b)

x0

c)

=0.

63

0
0

""""""

64

[a,b](a,b)

[-33/2]

x=1

65

H R

V R S

66

67

68

I I

(a,b)(

(a,b)()

(a,b)

69

(a,b)

[a,b]

(a,b)

[a,b]

(0,+)

70

(a,b)

(1)

(2)

=0(a,b)

(3)(2) x0

x0

71

=0 x=02/3

02/3

72

f(x) F(x)

dF'(x)=f(x)dx

F(x) f(x)
sinx cosx

73

f(x)

F(x) f(x)
F"(x)=f(x)
F(x)+C(C f(x)
f(x).

f(x) f(x)

F(x) f(x) f(x)

F(x)+C.

74

=F(x)+C

75


f(u) F(u)u=g(x) F[g(x)] f[g(x)]g'(x)
.
:

u=2x cos2x=cosudu=2dx

x=g(t) g'(t)0 f[g(t)]g'(t)


(t)
[g(x)] f(x).( g(x) x=g(t)
:

.
x=asint(-/2<t</2)

dx=acostdt,

76

u=u(x) v=v(x).

(uv)'=u'v+uv'
uv'=(uv)'-u'v

u=xdv=cosxdx du=dxv=sinx

77


u dv u dv

(1)v
(2)

78

79

u=tan(x/2)

x=u2+1dx=2udu

80

y=f(x)x x=ax=b

A.

f(x)[a,b]

[a,b]

81

[a,b]

f(x)[a,b][a,b]
a=x0<x1<...<xn-1<xn=b

[a,b] n
[x0x1]...[xn-1,xn],

[xi-1,xi] i(xi-1ixi), f(i)


f(i)xi

[a,b] i
S I
I f(x)[a,b]

82

f(x)
1 f(x)[a,b] f(x)[a,b]
2 f(x)[a,b] f(x)
[a,b]

(1)()(.

(2).

(3)[a,b]f(x)g(x)

a<b)

(4) M m f(x)[a,b]
m(b-a)

M(b-a)

(5) f(x)[a,b][a,b]

=f()(b-a)

83

f(x)[a,b] x [a,b].
f(x)[a,x]

, f(x)[a,x]

x [a,b] x
[a,b] (x):

(1) f(x)[a,b]
[a,b]

axb)

84

(2) f(x)[a,b]

f(x)

[a,b]

--
(3) F(x) f(x)[a,b]

-
(
[a,b]
[a,b]

85

--

f(x)[a,b] g(t)[m,n]
t [m,n]x=g(t)[a,b]
g(m)=a,g(n)=b:

86

:
: x=asint, dx=acostdt, x=0 t=0 x=a t=/2.

u(x)v(x)[a,b] u'(x)v'(x)(uv)'=u'v+uv',
[a,b]

87

x=0 t=0 x=1 t=1.

u=t,dv=etdt,
du=dt,v=et.

88

f(x)[a,+) b>a.

f(x)[a,+

89

f(x)(-b] a<b.

f(x)(-b]

f(x)(-,+)

90

f(x)(a,b]

. >0

91

f(x)(a,b]

f(x)[a,b)

. >0

92

f(x)[a,b] c(a<c<b)

(a>0)

x=a

93

94

O O
. x (y ()z ()
. x y z
z
x /2 y z

95

M . M x
y z x y z PQR x

y z xyz. M
x,y,z. x,y,z M x,y z

96

M (

x,y,z M M(x,y,z).
M
x,y,z

.
M yOz x=0zOx y=0
M x y=z=0 M
x=y=z=0

97

M1(x1,y1,z1)M2(x2,y2,z2)
d

A(4,3,1),B(7,1,2),C(5,2,3)ABC
.

ABC

98

P1 P2

Ox,Oy,Oz ,,.

,,

. 0,0,0.

99

100

()

ABC
{ABC}.

101

L1 L2 .
O

L1 L2 .
L1 L2

102

L1 L2

103

Po(x0,y0,z0), n {A,B,C}A2+B2+C20
n

104


L {3-48}(2,1,-4)
L .

Ax+By+Cz+D=0.

x,y,z ABC

105

Ax+By+Cz=0.

x
By+Cz+D=0.

y
Ax+Cz+D=0.

z
Ax+By+D=0.

106

By+Cz=0.

y z
Ax+Cz=0Ax+By=0.

xyz
Ax+D=0By+D=0Cz+D=0.

.,
,.,

L {l,m,n} L Po(x0,y0,z0), L

107

108

.
()

P (x,y,z)
x,y,z

P P

109

110

L C M
L L
C
2

C L
C C L

111

112

r,h `

x y D
z
z x y

z=f(x,y). x y z

113

x y D

.
.
.

D()
M D D

114

,y0.

xy z xOy
z=f(x,y) D D M(x,y) xOy
MP,(x,y) z
M D P z=f(x,y).

D xOy

115

z=f(x,y) x y
z
xOy (x,y)(,)
(x,y)(,)
f(x,y) A

A f(x,y)(x,y)(,)

(,) f(x,y)

116

(x,y)

A f(x,y)(x,y)(,)

x,y)(,)f(x,y)Ag(x,y)B.
(1)f(x,y)g(x,y)AB
(2)f(x,y).g(x,y)A.B

(3)f(x,y)/g(x,y)A/B B0

117

(x,y)(x0,y0) f(x,y) f(x,y)(x0,y0)


f(x0,y0) f(x,y)(x0,y0). f(x,y)
D D
z=f(x,y)(x0,y0)(x0,y0)
f(x,y)

118

x=0 y=0

""
. xOy (x0,y0) f(x,y)
f(x,y)(x0,y0)

119


(x,y) x y
f(x,y)

z=f(x,y)(x0,y0) D . y y0
x x0 x
z=f(x,y)( x )

xz=f(x0+x)-f(x0,y0).

xz x x0

z=f(x,y)(x0,y0) x

120

f'x(x0,y0)

x
z=f(x,y)(x0,y0) x y y0
z=f(x,y0) x0
x x0, y y,

z=(x,y)(x0,y0) y .

f'y(x0,y0)

z=f(x,y)(x0,y0) f'x(x0,y0) f'y(x0,y0)

121

f(x,y)(x0,y0) f(x,y) D
f(x,y) D
D (x,y) x( y)
D
f(x,y) x( y)
z=x2siny

y x

x y

122

y z x

x z y

x y z

z=f(x,y) f'x(x,y) f'y(x,y)

123

z=f(x,y)
f"xxf"xyf"yxf"yy.
f"xy f"yx x
y y x . f"xy f"yx

124

z=f(x,y) f'x(x,y),f'y(x,y)x,y

f'x(x,y)x+f'y(x,y)y

z
0 (

z=f(x,y)(x,y)(x,y)
dz=f'x(x,y)x+f'y(x,y)y
z=f'x(x,y)x+f'y(x,y)y+( 0 )
z

125

(x0,y0)(x0+x,y0+y)(x0,y0)
(x0,y0+y)(x0+x,y0+y).

f'x(x,y),f'y(x,y) z=f(x,y)

126

(x,y), z=F(u,v)(u,v)

,
,

(x,y),

127

128

z=f(u,v)

x .

,.

129

z=u2vu=cosxv=sinx

u=cosxv=sinx

130

(x0,y0)(x,y)
f(x,y)f(x0,y0)

f(x,y)(x0,y0) f(x0,y0)

f(x,y)f(x0,y0)

f(x,y)(x0,y0) f(x0,y0).

131

.(x0,y0).
(x0,y0)

(x,y) f(x,y).

z=f(x,y)(x0,y0).
f(x,y)(x0,y0)

=B2-AC

f(x0,y0)

A0

132

A0

=0

(1,1)

(1,1),(0,0).

133

B2-AC=(-3)2-6.6=-270A=60

(1,1) f(1,1)=-1.

(0,0)

B2-AC=(-3)2-0.0=90

(0,0).

a)

b)

c).

134

3x+4y-z=26
a),

. P , z=3x+4y-26.
:
,-x+,-y+

b)

135

x=3y=4. P ,

z=-1

c)

.
. P(3,4,-1).

3x+4y-z=26

136

z=f(x,y)()
(1)() n (k)(k=1,2,3,,n,k(k=1,2,3,

,n

(2)(k)

137

(3),

(4) d.

n d0 , f(x,y)().

x y f(x,y),f(x,y)d ,()
.

, f(x,y)0 ., f(x,y)0 ,

138

z=f(x,y)() z

f(x,y)()

(1)..

(2)..

139

(3).()(1)(2),()=(1)+(2),:

(4).() f(x,y)g(x,y),:

(5). f(x,y)(),()(,),

().

140

x y
x y x y

141

()(
) y ( x ),()
() y (x ).() y x

,().:

:
(1).() y y x

142

. y () y1(x)
y2(x). x ()
a b.
(2).() x , x y

. x () x1(y)
x2(y). y ()
c d.
(3).()

(4).() y , x ,

y x ,
.

143

()

y x x y

y x

(),
?.
O (),() R1()R2(),,

144

O (),() =R(),02,:

O (), =R(),12,:

145

() a2x2+y2b2

d=dd

146

147

.
f(x,y,z)(V)

u=f(x,y,z)(V) n (V1),(V2),(V3),,
(Vn),Vk(k=1,2,,n).

Vk

n+

(V)

148

f(x,y,z)(V)

149

(V) x=0,y=0,z=0 x+y+z=1 .

I z y x (V)
xOy ,(),

x+y+z=1 xOy x y .
z ,()(x,y), z
,(V)
z=0 z=1-x-y z

150

()x0y0x+y1

() y x

151

P (,), P (,,z).
P (,,z),(,,z)
P .

= z

= z

z = z .

152

153

(1,2) P(x,y)
2x
y=y(x)
y=y(x)

154

155

y=y(x) y=y(x)

y dy x dx

156

157

y u

y=ux

158

u=y/x

y(0)=1

C=1.

159

p,q y,y'

x . y y'

q=0 q0

160

c x

c
c x c

c x
.

161

Lagrange

c x

c'=x(x+1)

162

1. x y"=f(x)

163

y"=cosx

2. y y"=f(x,y')

y'=p p x

164

y'=p.

165

3. x y"=f(y,y')

y'=p p y

166

y=C;

167

p =C1y

y=C

168

y",y',y

C1,C2

169

C1,C2

170

Y
y=y+Y

171

a1a2

eax
eax

172

eax0

eax

1.

c1c2

2.

173

3.

1.

174

2.12

3. 12

175

f(x)
1

a):

b):

c):

m =0

176

a): a20 =0

b): a2=0a10 =0

c): a2=0a1=0 =0

=0

=0

177

a,,v

178

A=-1

179

a1+a2++an+.

=a1+a2++an+ a1,a2,an .

n
S1=a1S2=a1+a2Sn=a1+a2++an

+an

Sn=a1+a2+

1.

180

nSn1. 1.

1.

an n

181


2.

S c

cS.

c0

3.

4.

5.

182

( an0

Sn . Sn

183

p>1 p1

anbn(n=1,2,.

n>1

184

.
.

185

1 .
..

()

186

.
.

187

>1

>1

188

()

189

.
cn(n=0,1,2,).

190

x x0

n I
I sn(x) I :s(x).

s(x)

191

+.

..

R .

192

-55.

x=5 x=-5

.
[-5,5)

=f1(x)-R1<x<R1

193

=f2(x)-R2<x<R2

=f1(x)f2(x)-R<x<R

R=min(R1,R2)

s(x).

s(x)

194

s(x)

,
,,,

195


1 f(x)

2 f(x) cn(n=0,1,2,3,)

. f(x) a
a
cn f(x)
f(x) x=a
f(x).

196

f(x) x=a

197

f(x) x+a .

f(x)
. f(x) x=a

f(x)
f(x)

n. I

f(x) x=a I f(x)

198

f(x) I .

f(x) x=a n+1


x c,c a x

(
a=0

c 0

199


f(x) x=0 .
.

1. ex

2.

200

3.(1+x)m

201