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INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

ITALIAN LYRIC DICTION WORKBOOK


A graded method of phonetic transcription which employs frequently occurring words from Italian art song literature
Third Edition

Cheri Montgomery

S.T.M. Publishers Nashville, TN

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful for excellent guidance from Dr. Corradina Caporello, Professor of Italian diction at the Juilliard school of Music. Her authority and clarity in helping me finalize the rules for transcription and guidelines for enunciation are much appreciated. I wish to thank my colleague, Dr. Jonathan Retzlaff, Chair of the Voice Department at the Blair School of Music at Vanderbilt University for his advice concerning wording and for his recommendation of lyrics by Vincenzo Righini. Dr. Elsa Filosa, Senior Lecturer in Italian at Vanderbilt University, provided expertise concerning current spoken Italian with knowledge of Old Italian grammatical style and usage. Her contributions to the new versions include: editing word lists, phrases and English translations and assisting with rules related to grammar as applied to the function of truncation and apocopation. I am thankful for my dear friend Ida Di Stefano and for her help with the final selection and translation of lyric phrases.

iv PREFACE The Italian Lyric Diction Workbook provides a means for application of textbook rules. Transcription and enunciation guidelines are based on Evelina Colornis Singers Italian with clarification of the rules by Dr. Corradina Caporello, Professor of Italian Diction at the Juilliard School of Music. Requests for a closed vowel version of the original text led to adjustments in the third edition. Enhancements include a closed vowel transcription of e and o in the unstressed syllable and bright [a] transcription of a. Word lists and quizzes are expanded to include a broader word base, interesting vocabulary, challenging words for enunciation and words with various vowel groups for transcription of diphthongs, triphthongs and words in hiatus. Transcription within the phrase is divided into three units: phrasal diphthongs, phrasal triphthongs and double diphthongs, and phrasal doubling of consonants. Additional exercises for the phrase and enhanced indications within the lyrics provide necessary opportunities for implementation of specific phrasal rules. Exercises were created from the lyrics of over 800 Italian art songs. Source words were placed in list format and arranged by frequency of occurrence. The most common words are short in length and appear in enunciation exercises. Other frequently occurring words are introduced in graded order and categorized according to Italian speech sounds as defined by the International Phonetic Alphabet. A study of articulatory phonetics is provided and includes consonant and vowel charts for student application and definition of terms. Each unit highlights a specified group of symbols and provides: enunciation instructions with exercises, rules for phonetic transcription, in-class application of the rules, and individually assigned word lists. Units progress in cumulative order culminating with exercises which allow students to enunciate lyrics from Italian art song literature. A standard repertoire of over 35 lyrics is included with phonetic indications and translation. Italian phonetic transcription requires dictionary reference with knowledge of the grammar. A course in diction can not replace the language study needed. For this reason, all worksheets indicate the stressed syllable, pronunciation of z and transcription of e and o in the stressed syllable. Accurate transcription can then be assessed through in-class enunciation. Practice quizzes, a summary of rules and flash cards are included for easy reference and review. The answer key is available for alternate lesson plans which would employ student grading and group engaging board work. A note concerning enunciation: instructions for articulation of consonants and vowels are geared toward accurate speech formation. This avoids differences which may arise in the studio regarding various approaches to the sung application of correct pronunciation. The Italian Lyric Diction Workbook familiarizes singers with standard lyric vocabulary through exposure to numerous words. It introduces transcription within defined categories while highlighting attributes of the Romance languages through specifically designed enunciation exercises. The Italian workbook serves consecutively within our series of texts created for lyric diction courses. Cheri Montgomery

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit
1

Topic
Classification of symbols

Section
Terms Pronunciation guide Consonant charts Application of rules Vowel charts/Application Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Practice quiz Truncation and the apostrophe Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Division of syllables Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Practice quiz Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Frequently occurring words Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual Exercises Practice quiz Review of long vowels and glides Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Practice quiz Rules for transcription

Page
2 3 6 7 8 10 13 14 15 22 24 25 26 32 34 35 39 40 41 48 49 50 51 52 58 60 61 62 63 70 71 72 73 74 80 82 83 84 85 92 93 94 106 108

Dental consonants, closed front [i] semiconsonant [j] and r

Closed front [e], open front [D], plosive consonants and s

Review 4

Units 1 - 3 Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C], silent h and truncation

Closed back [u], semiconsonant [w], z and division of syllables

Review 6

Units 4 - 5 Bright front [a], velar nasal [E], prepalatal nasal [Q] and prepalatal lateral [3]

Pronunciation and transcription of c, g, and sc and frequently occurring words

Review 8

Units 6 - 7 Syllabic vowel within the phrase Phrasal diphthongs

Syllabic vowel within the phrase Monosyllables, phrasal triphthongs and double diphthongs Units 8 - 9 Art Song Literature - Phrasal doubling

Review 10

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Unit
Literature

Composer
Giovanni Bononcini Giulio Caccini Antonio Caldara

Art Song
Per la gloria dadorarvi Amarilli, mia bella Alma del core Come raggio di sol Sebben, crudele Vittoria, mio core! Danza, danza, fanciulla Vergin, tutto amor Se i miei sospiri Caro mio ben O del mio dolce ardor Che fiero costume Pur dicesti, o bocca bella Non posso disperar Il mio bel foco Lasciatemi morire Nel cor pi non mi sento Se tu mami Affetti, non turbate Aure amiche, ah! Non spirate Dun Genio che maccende Io lo so che il be sembiante Mi lagner tacendo Or che il cielo a me ti rende Placido zeffiretto Pur nel sonno almen talora Se amor labbandona Sol che un istante io miri Tintendo, s, mio cor Vorrei di te fidarmi Gi il sole dal Gange Le violette O cessate di piagarmi Se Florindo fedele Sento nel core Piet, Signore! Tu lo sai Nina Star vicino

Page
109 109 110 110 110 111 112 112 113 113 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 116 117 118 118 119 119 120 120 121 121 122 122 123 123 124 124 124 125 125 126 126 126 127 132 134 136 137 139

Giacomo Carissimi Francesco Durante Franois Joseph Ftis Tommaso Giordani Christoph Willibald von Gluck Giovanni Legrenzi Antonio Lotti S. De Luca Benedetto Marcello Claudio Monteverdi Giovanni Paisiello Alessandro Parisotti Vincenzo Righini

Alessandro Scarlatti

Alessandro Stradella Giuseppe Torelli Composer unknown Review Units 1 - 10

Review of Rules Verb, Noun and Adjective Endings Italian Vowel Chart Flash Cards Index

vii

ANSWER KEY
Unit
1 2 3 Review 4 5 Review 6 7 Review 8 9 Review 10

Topic
Classification of symbols Dental consonants, closed front [i], semiconsonant [j] and r Closed front [e], open front [D], plosive consonants and s Units 1 - 3 Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C], silent h and truncation Closed back [u], semiconsonant [w], z and division of syllables Units 4 - 5 Bright front [a], velar nasal [E], prepalatal nasal [Q], prepalatal lateral [3] Pronunciation and transcription of c, g, sc, frequently occurring words Units 6 - 7 Syllabic vowel within the phrase - Phrasal diphthongs Syllabic vowel within the phrase - Monosyllables, phrasal triphthongs and double diphthongs Units 8 - 9 Italian art song literature - Phrasal doubling Giovanni Bononcini Giulio Caccini Antonio Caldara Giacomo Carissimi Francesco Durante Franois Joseph Ftis Tommaso Giordani Christoph Willibald von Gluck Giovanni Legrenzi Antonio Lotti S. De Luca Benedetto Marcello Claudio Monteverdi Giovanni Paisiello Alessandro Parisotti Vincenzo Righini Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Stradella Giuseppe Torelli Composer unknown

Page
142 143 147 150 151 154 158 158 162 165 166 173 186 187 187 187 188 189 190 191 191 191 192 192 193 193 194 194 194 195 201 203 204 204 205 210

Review Bibliography

Units 1 - 10

UNIT 2:
Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]
TOPIC PAGE

Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Answer key

10 13 14 15 143

10

Enunciation Exercises

UNIT 2: Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]


Guidelines for enunciation:

Flipped [|]
Description: Italian and French sources classify flipped r as dental while English and German sources classify flipped r as alveolar. It is identical to American pronunciation of r in words throne and three. Articulation: With vocalized tone, tap the tongue tip once between the alveolar ridge and upper front teeth. Exercise: British pronunciation of the words very merry would contain flipped r. Replace r with d and repeat the phrase in rapid succession. A rapidly articulated d produces the tongue movement for flipped [|].

Trilled or rolled [r]


Description: Also described as a vibrant. The trilled or rolled r maintains an articulatory motion trilling in and through the breath stream against the [alveolar ridge].1 Articulation: Maintain space for r throughout articulatory movements. First, relax tongue and release the jaw. The tongue tip contacts the alveolar ridge while the breath is released. Rapidly articulate a flipped r and extend through vocalized tone. The tongue tip trills between the alveolar ridge and upper front teeth. Allow the breath to activate tongue tips vibration. The lips are free of tension and totally uninvolved in the articulation of r. Warning: No clenching should occur - r needs space for air in order to vibrate. Avoid partial aspiration. Exercise: Rest tongue, enunciate bright [a] and expel a sudden impulse of vocalized tone while lightly articulating alveolar d. Allow an even flow of air to vibrate the tongue tip between the alveolar ridge and upper front teeth.

Enunciate the following lyric words which contain [r] and [|]: (includes apocopated forms)
1. rami ['rami] 2. rupe ['rupe] 3. riva ['riva] 4. riso ['rizo] 5. rime ['rime] 6. resto ['rDsto] 7. Roma ['roma] 8. regio ['rDdFo] 9. resa ['reza] 10. ritmo ['ritmo] 11. rosa ['rCza] 12. remo ['rDmo]
1

(branches) (cliff) (shore) (laughter) (rhymes) (I stay) (Rome) (royal) (surrender) (rhythm) (rose) (oar)

sera ['se|a] vero ['ve|o] dire ['di|e] cara ['ka|a] ora ['o|a] cura ['ku|a] loro ['lo|o] era ['D|a] raro ['ra|o] dura ['du|a] pari ['pa|i] aria ['a|ja]

(evening) (true) (to say) (dear) (hour) (care) (them) (he was) (rare) (hard) (equal) (aria)

cantar [kan'tar] dar [dar] timor [ti'mor] poter [po'ter] dolor [do'lor] goder [go'der] far [far] recitar [retGi'tar] amor [a'mor] pensier [pen'sjDr] venir [ve'nir] star [star]

(to sing) (to give) (fear) (to be able) (pain) (to enjoy) (to do) (to recite) (love) (thought) (to come) (to stay)

Evelina Colorni, Singers Italian (G. Schirmer, Inc., New York 1970), p. 68.

Enunciation Exercises

11

Dental consonants (continued): d, n, t and l


Description: The remaining Italian dental consonants d, n, t and l are contained within the word dental. Articulation: Place the tongue tip lightly against the inside of the upper front teeth. A fully vocalized tone is required for consonants d, n and l. Exert a slight resistance between the articulators for voiced d. Warning: Do not allow the tongue to thicken or movement to become sluggish. The articulation of dental consonants should be quick in order to release and give impulse to the vowel that follows.2

Constrast the following: English t


Voiceless alveolar stop treasure

Italian t

English d
Voiced alveolar stop divine

Italian d
Voiced dental plosive divino [di'vino] diamante [di-a'mante] devoto [de'vCto] disperare [dispe'|a|e] delicato [deli'kato] destino [des'tino] delizia [de'litsja] desolato [dezo'lato] distanza [dis'tantsa] deriva [de'|iva]

tempest timid talent triumph table terror torment touch tremble

Voiceless dental plosive tesoro [te'zC|o] tempesta [tem'pDsta] timido ['timido] talento [ta'lDnto] trionfo [tri'onfo] tavolo ['tavolo] terrore [ter'ro|e] tormento [tor'mento] tocco ['tokko] tremare [tre'ma|e]

diamond devout despair delicate destiny delight desolate distance drift

English l
Voiced alveolar lateral loyalty

Italian l
Voiced dental lateral lealt [le-al'ta] leggenda [led'dFDnda] lampada ['lampada] liuto [li'uto] lamento [la'mento] lilla ['lilla] lezione [le'tsjone] lira ['li|a] lode ['lCde] lettera ['lDtte|a]

English n
Voiced alveolar nasal nature

Italian n
Voiced dental nasal natura [na'tu|a] nido ['nido] neve ['neve] nettare ['nDtta|e] necessit [netGessi'ta] notte ['nCtte] nuovo ['nwCvo] nobile ['nCbile] nessuno [nes'suno] nota ['nCta]

legend lamp lute lament lilac lesson lyre laud letter

nest snow nectar necessity night new noble no one note

Colorni, p. 55.

12

Enunciation Exercises

Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]


Guidelines for enunciation:

Italian vowels - speech formation


Italian vowels are frontal in placement with a more pronounced lip or tongue formation than their English counterparts. Front and back designations refer to arch of the tongue. Open and closed designations refer to space between the articulators. To the English ear, Italian vowels sound strong, precise and deliberate.

Closed front [i]


Articulation: Tongue tip is placed against the lower row of front teeth while tongue arch is far forward. For speech, teeth maintain a close proximity. For singing, spatial difference and lip formation may be adjusted. With soft palate high, direct vocalized tone toward the upper front teeth. Warning: Do not diphthongize. Avoid on or off-glides by maintaining jaw, lip and tongue position throughout vocalization. Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial [i]. Avoid the medial placement of English [i]. Do not weaken the vowel quality of [i] in unstressed syllables.

Semiconsonant [j]
Description: A semiconsonant sound possesses the non-restrictive qualities of a vowel with the quick initiating properties of a consonant. Italian semiconsonants rapidly introduce the following vowel sound. They are short and articulated more energetically than their English counterparts. Note: semiconsonant [j] is classified as palatal in English and German but prepalatal in Italian and French. The tongue arch is far forward for semiconsonant [j] in the Romance languages. Articulation: Assume the tongue, jaw and lip position for [i]. Add vocalized tone while vigorously moving toward the following vowel sound. Semiconsonant [j] is a rapidly articulated [i]. Warning: Do not divide semiconsonant + vowel combinations into two beats. A quick [j] glide initiates the following vowel sound and both work together to form one syllable.

Enunciate the following lyric words which contain [i] and [j]:
1. fili ['fili] 2. miri ['mi|i] 3. primi ['primi] 4. miti ['miti] 5. vini ['vini] 6. tiri ['ti|i] 7. vidi ['vidi] 8. dici ['ditGi] 9. tipi ['tipi] 10. liti ['liti] 11. ridi ['ridi] 12. vivi ['vivi] (threads) (you aim) (first) (myths) (wines) (you pull) (I saw) (you say) (types) (quarrels) (you laugh) (you live) lieve ['ljDve] siete ['sjDte] diede ['djDde] tiene ['tjDne] piena ['pjDna] miele ['mjDle] lieti ['ljDti] fiere ['fjD|e] chiede ['kjDde] vieni ['vjDni] piede ['pjDde] chiese ['kjDze] (light) (you are) (he gave) (he holds) (flood) (honey) (happy) (proud) (he asks) (you come) (foot) (churches) vicini [vi'tGini] dividi [di'vidi] finiti [fi'niti] ispiri [is'pi|i] dipinti [di'pinti] inchini [iE'kini] ritiri [ri'ti|i] inviti [in'viti] minimi ['minimi] imiti ['imiti] simili ['simili] intimi ['intimi] (neighbours) (you divide) (ended) (you inspire) (pictures) (bows) (retreats) (invitations) (least) (you imitate) (similar) (intimate)

13

RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION


CLOSED FRONT

[i] [i:]

Single i: infinito [infi'nito] il [il] di [di] Accent mark (always): part [par'ti]

LONG CLOSED FRONT

i + vowel in short words with final vowels: sia [si:a] pria [pri:a] Final stressed i + vowel in polysyllabic words: melodia [melo'di:a]
When accented within the phrase, final stressed falling diphthongs of select words may be set musically in separate syllables: sia ['si-a] pria ['pri-a] melodia [melo'di-a]

VOICED PREPALATAL GLIDE [j]


Note: semiconsonant [j] is always unstressed

[j]
*i + vowel chiama ['kjama]
*except in hiatus: violette [vi-o'lette]

[jD]
Stressed ie primiero [pri'mjD|o]

[je]
Unstressed ie spiegare [spje'ga|e]

VOICED DENTAL TRILL

[|]
Intervocalic r lirica ['li|ika] alberi ['albe|i]

[r]
r in all other positions regina [re'dFina] brillar [bril'lar]

ACCENT MARKS
Accent marks: grave , , , , , acute , , and circumflex

Purpose: 1) Indicates stressed syllable (except circumflex )


2) Does not indicate closed or open vowel quality 3) Distinguishes monosyllabic words: s (yes) / si (himself) 4) Indicates syllabic vowel in words like: pu [pwC] and pi [pju] Additional notes: The stressed syllable of a polysyllabic word (without an accent mark) is indicated within the Italian text by an underlined vowel: vita ['vita]. Vowel clusters which occupy the same stressed syllable are underlined: chiesa ['kjDza]. Only one vowel is underlined for words in hiatus: Aida [a'ida]. A vowel group is separated by a dash when hiatus occurs in the unstressed syllable: riunire [ri-u'ni|e]. Transcription of a is [a] (see page 60), c + back vowel or consonant is [k] and g + back vowel or consonant is [g].

14

Application of Rules

Class work #2:


Provide IPA:

Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]

1. lanima

(the soul)

10. rio (o is [o])

(brook)

2. pianti

(tears)

11. simpatia

(pleasantness)

3. tanta

(a lot)

12. divinit

(divinity)

4. via

(street)

13. carini

(dears)

5. spietata

(ruthless)

14. Italia

(Italy)

6. fin

(it ended)

15. calmar

(to calm)

7. maniera

(manner)

16. lieta

(happy)

8. traviata

(led astray)

17. mariti

(husbands)

9. spiriti

(spirits)

18. arnia

(bee hive)

Copyright S.T.M. Publishers ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

33

UNIT 4:
Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h
TOPIC PAGE

Truncation and the apostrophe Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Answer key

34 35 39 40 41 151

34

NOTES TRUNCATED VOWELS


Italian words typically end with a vowel. Frequently occurring exceptions include: ad, al, bel, ben, bon, buon, col, con, dal, del, don, ed, fin, gran, il, in, nel, non, per, qual, quel, sul, un. Other final consonant words are apocopated forms and end with l, r, n or m (learnem). An unstressed final syllable may be truncated (dropped) in final vowel apocopated forms: pi (piede), belt (beltate) and piet (pietate). FREQUENTLY OCCURRING APOCOPATED WORDS final l final r final n final m
sol ciDl vuCl tal gentil mal fedel mortal nCbil val suCl april (sole) (ciDlo) (vuCle) (tale) (gentile) (male) (fedele) (mortale) (nCbile) (vale) (suClo) (aprile) cCr amor pur or fior dolor ancor mar far sospir dir morir (cCre) (amore) (pure) (ora) (fiore) (dolore) (ancora) (mare) (fare) (sospiro) (dire) (morire) son bDn fin suCn men man van pian cagion lontan destin stagion (sono) (bDne) (fine) (suCno) (meno) (mano) (vanno) (piano) (cagione) (lontano) (destino) (stagione) siam insiDm uCm cantiam diciam facciam dobbiam innalziam scherziam vedrem godiam ridiam (siamo) (insiDme) (uCmo) (cantiamo) (diciamo) (facciamo) (dobbiamo) (innalziamo) (scherziamo) (vedremo) (godiamo) (ridiamo)

APOSTROPHE
In vowel groups within the phrase, an apostrophe is used to replace the initial or final vowel of a word and works to combine two words which are connected in meaning. The term elision is used when an apostrophe replaces the vowel of a monosyllabic word:
MONOSYLLABLES FREQUENTLY ABBREVIATED WITH AN APOSTROPHE

Pronouns, articles and prepositions


ci che de, di il in la lo, gli mi ne si ti vi c ch d l n l l, gl m n s t v (us) (that, who) (of) (the) (in) (the) (the) (me) (some) (oneself) (you) (you)

Examples
il d che cincontrammo challumi questa vita dolce spirto damore no l posso dire in versi e n rime laura che tu respiri glimpetuosi cori tu mapri il riso chi n cagion de cos? gi la notte savvicina io tho solo indovinato ma sempre vamer [il di ke tGiEkon'trammo] [kal'lumi 'kwesta 'vita] ['doltGe 'spirto da'mo|e] [nCl 'pCsso 'di|e] [in 'vDrsi en 'rime] ['la:u|a ke tu |es'pi|i] [33impetu'ozi 'kC|i] [tu 'mapril 'rizo] [ki nD ka'dFon de ko'zi] [dFa la 'nCtte savvi'tGina] [i:o tC 'solo indovi'nato] [ma 'sDmpre vame'|C]

An apostrophe may also replace the unstressed vowel of polysyllables. Frequently occurring examples include: bell, ond, quand, quant and quest.

Enunciation Exercises

35

UNIT 4: Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h Double Consonants
Italian double consonants occupy at least four times the space of a single consonant or consonant cluster.3 The time needed for lengthening is taken from the preceding vowel. The following example provides a picture of the length of consonants and vowels within the phrase. Lines indicate vowel space while x indicates consonant space. The phrase Affetti, non turbate sung on quarter notes would be articulated:

q
[a

______x x x x______x x x x__________ x__________ x__________ x__________ x__________

f-----'fD

t-----ti

no

ntu

r'ba

te]

Syllabification of double consonants


The first consonant is sung on the pitch of the preceding vowel while the second consonant is sung on the pitch of the following vowel. Sing these examples with correct tonal placement of double consonants:

'0==;=V===W=='=V===V==;=. '0==f====b==. '0==;=f==='=i====h==.


im - mor - ta - le
[im - mor - 'ta - le]

cen - no
['tGen - no]

vil
[vil

- lag - gio
- 'lad - dFo]

Most double consonants require a complete stoppage of sound (exceptions: ff, ss, ll, mm, nn, rr) Enunciate the following lyric words which contain double consonants:

bb
1. nebbia ['nebbja] 2. debbo ['dDbbo] 3. abbia ['abbja] 4. ebbe ['Dbbe] 5. babbo ['babbo] 6. febbre ['fDbbre] 7. dubbiosa [dub'bjoza] 8. ebbene [eb'bDne] 9. rabbuiarsi [rabbu'jarsi] 10. sebbene [seb'bDne] 11. abbassare [abbas'sa|e] 12. conobbe [ko'nobbe]
3

pp
(fog) (I must) (I may have) (he had) (dad) (fever) (doubtful) (well then) (to cloud) (although) (to lower) (he knew) 1. troppo ['trCppo] 2. eppure [ep'pu|e] 3. appena [ap'pena] 4. scoppio ['skCppjo] 5. gruppo ['gruppo] 6. strappo ['strappo] 7. appare [ap'pa|e] 8. supplizio [sup'plitsjo] 9. appresso [ap'prDsso] 10. appieno [ap'pjDno] 11. galoppo [ga'lCppo] 12. appagato [appa'gato] (too much) (and yet) (hardly) (burst) (group) (tear) (it appears) (torment) (near) (fully) (gallop) (contented)

dd
1. addio [ad'di:o] 2. fredda ['fredda] 3. Iddio [id'di:o] 4. ridda ['ridda] 5. Nedda ['nDdda] 6. cadde ['kadde] 7. laddove [lad'dove] 8. addosso [ad'dCsso] 9. suddito ['suddito] 10. raddoppio [rad'doppjo] 11. addurre [ad'durre] 12. soddisfare [soddis'fa|e] (goodbye) (cold) (God) (round dance) (Nedda) (he fell) (where) (on) (subject) (double) (to bring) (to satisfy)

Colorni, p. 51.

38

Enunciation Exercises

UNIT 4: Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h
Guidelines for enunciation:

Closed back [o]


Description: Closed back [o] occurs as a monophthong in unstressed syllables of English words: obey, provide, melody. It is more frequently enunciated as the first vowel of diphthong [ou]: grow, no and shadow. Diphthongization of Italian [o] is to be strictly avoided. Italian [o] possesses more distinct lip rounding and maintains a higher point of resonance than its English counterpart. Enunciation: Speech formation of [o] is similar to closed back [u] (like a whistle) but with a slightly lowered jaw and a minute adjustment of the tongue arch. For speech, the teeth maintain a close proximity and lips rounded with the sensation of no mouth corners. Allow cheek muscles to initiate the lip formation. With soft palate lifted, place tongue tip against lower row of front teeth and direct vocalized tone toward the upper front teeth. Warning: Do not delay lip rounding. Maintain articulatory position throughout vocalization. Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial [o]. Do not weaken the vowel quality of [o] in unstressed syllables. Avoid diphthongization of final [o].

Open back [C]


Enunciation: Italian [C] possesses a distinctly oval feel and maintains a higher point of resonance than its American English counterpart. Tongue arch is similar to [o] with a lower jaw position. Allow cheek muscles to initiate the lip formation. With soft palate lifted, place tongue tip against lower front teeth and direct vocalized tone toward the upper front teeth. Warning: Do not replace [C] with dark [A]. A deliberate and rapid formation is necessary in order to avoid the on-glide of a delayed lip rounding. Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial [C]. Exercise: Gently press the cheek muscles together manually while enunciating [A] - [C]. Differentiation is achieved by means of lip rounding and tongue arch. Maintain a low jaw position for both vowels.

Enunciate the following lyric words which contain [o] and [C]:
1. molto ['molto] 2. dopo ['dopo] 3. onore [o'no|e] 4. giorno ['dForno] 5. volo ['volo] 6. adoro [a'do|o] 7. solo ['solo] 8. dolore [do'lo|e] 9. sono ['sono] 10. fondo ['fondo] 11. sotto ['sotto] 12. dono ['dono] (a lot) (after) (honor) (day) (flight) (I adore) (alone) (pain) (I am) (deep) (under) (gift) orti ['Crti] forza ['fCrtsa] colta ['kClta] modi ['mCdi] dote ['dCte] cosa ['kCza] porti ['pCrti] corda ['kCrda] forte ['fCrte] prova ['prCva] volta ['vClta] sorte ['sCrte] (gardens) (force) (cultured) (ways) (dowry) (thing) (ports) (chord) (strong) (proof) (time) (sort) vostro ['vCstro] novo ['nCvo] sposo ['spCzo] tosto ['tCsto] moro ['mC|o] povero ['pCve|o] trono ['trCno] bosco ['bCsko] torto ['tCrto] nostro ['nCstro] poco ['pCko] collo ['kCllo] (yours) (new) (groom) (at once) (dark haired) (poor) (throne) (forest) (wrong) (ours) (little) (neck)

39

RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION


CLOSED BACK VOWEL
*DICTIONARY REQUIRED:

[o]

o, , of stressed syllable are [o] or [C] mondo ['mondo]

o of unstressed syllables: giocondo [dFo'kondo] incoronar [iEko|o'nar]

OPEN BACK VOWEL


*DICTIONARY REQUIRED:

[C]

o, , of stressed syllable are [o] or [C]: porto ['pCrto]

Final - is always open: vivr [vi'vrC]

LONG BACK VOWEL

[C:] [o:]

o + vowel within same syllable: poich [po:i'ke] coi [ko:i] suoi [swC:i]
When accented in the phrase, final stressed falling diphthongs of select words may be set musically in separate syllables: coi ['ko-i]

GLOTTAL FRICATIVE h
h is always silent: hai [a:i] h affects pronunciation of consonants
(see page 72)

DOUBLE CONSONANTS
Consonants which are doubled in spelling are also doubled in transcription: fiamma ['fjamma] stesso ['stesso] torre ['torre]
*A dictionary is needed in order to determine the closed or open quality of stressed o (see page 134). Following worksheets underline the vowel or vowel group in stressed syllables with quality of o indicted in monosyllabic words and underlined Italian text.

40

Application of Rules

Class work #4:


Provide IPA:

Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h

1. apprCdo

(landing)

10. dCrme

(he sleeps)

2. splendore

(splendor)

11. novDlla

(short story)

3. torrDnti

(torrents)

12. colombetta

(little dove)

4. accClto

(welcomed)

13. apparire

(to appear)

5. noi

(we)

14. hai

(you have)

6. obbligare

(to oblige)

15. stanno

(they stay)

7. caCtico

(chaotic)

16. profondo

(deep)

8. sC

(I know)

17. commise

(committed)

9. ineffabile

(inexpressible) 18. rosse

(red)

Copyright S.T.M. Publishers ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

141

ANSWER KEY

142

Instructors Manual

Classification of Symbols: Worksheet #1: Consonants


Provide IPA to complete the following chart for Italian consonants:
Bilabial Plosive voiced voiceless Fricative voiced voiceless Affricate voiced voiceless Nasal voiced Lateral voiced *Trill voiced Glide voiced Labiodental Dental Alveolar Prepalatal Palatal Velar Glottal

[b] [p] [v] [f]

[d] [t] [z] [s] [dz] [ts]

[g] [k]

[G] [dF] [tG] [Q] [3] [E]

[m]

[n] [l] [r] [|]

[w]

[j]

Provide IPA to complete the following chart for English consonants:


Bilabial Stop voiced voiceless Fricative voiced voiceless Affricate voiced voiceless Nasal voiced Lateral voiced Trill voiced Glide voiced Retroflex voiced Labiodental Dental Alveolar Prepalatal Palatal Velar Glottal

[b] [p] [v] [f] [D] [T]

[d] [t] [z] [s] [F] [G] [dF] [tG]

[g] [k]

[/]

[]

[h]

[m]

[n] [l] [|]

[E]

[w] []

[j]

*Formation of Italian r is initiated with the tongue tip touching the alveolar ridge and trilling between the ridge and upper front teeth. For this reason, sources differ concerning the point of articulation for r.

Instructors Manual WORKSHEET #1: Classification of Vowels Provide vowel descriptions for the following symbols:

143

Italian Vowels IPA Quality [i] closed [e] closed [D] open [u] closed [o] closed [C] open [a]

Peak tongue arch front front front back back back front

English Vowels IPA Quality [i] closed [N] open [D] open [u] closed [L] open [o] closed [C] open [W] [A] [B] [] []

Peak tongue arch front front front back back back back front back central central central

Class work #2: Dental consonants, closed front [i], semiconsonant [j] and r ['lanima] (the soul) 1. lanima 2. pianti ['pjanti] (tears) 3. tanta ['tanta] (a lot) 4. via [vi:a] (street) [spje'tata] (ruthless) 5. spietata 6. fin [fi'ni] (it ended) 7. maniera [ma'njD|a] (manner) 8. traviata [travi'ata] (led astray) 9. spiriti ['spi|iti] (spirits) 10. rio (o is [o]) [ri:o] (brook) 11. simpatia [simpa'ti:a] (pleasantness) 12. divinit [divini'ta] (divinity) 13. carini [ka'|ini] (dears) [i'talja] (Italy) 14. Italia 15. 16. 17. 18. calmar lieta mariti arnia [kal'mar] ['ljDta] [ma'|iti] ['arnja] (to calm) (happy) (husbands) (bee hive)

Copyright S.T.M. Publishers ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Instructors Manual
Class work #4: Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C], and silent h 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. apprCdo splendore torrDnti accClto noi obbligare caCtico sC ineffabile [ap'prCdo] [splen'do|e] [tor'rDnti] [ak'kClto] [no:i] [obbli'ga|e] [ka'Ctiko] [sC] [inef'fabile] ['dCrme] [no'vDlla] [kolom'betta] [appa'|i|e] [a:i] ['stanno] [pro'fondo] [kom'mize] ['rosse] (landing) (splendor) (torrents) (welcomed) (we) (to oblige) (chaotic) (I know) (inexpressible) (he sleeps) (short story) (little dove) (to appear) (you have) (they stay) (deep) (committed) (red) #2 promessa voi dramma lhC snDllo colonna dove intorno addiDtro cos vittima mCrbido sDppe risponde secco affamato scorre poDma [pro'messa] [vo:i] ['dramma] [lC] ['znDllo] [ko'lonna] ['dove] [in'torno] [ad'djDtro] [ko'zi] ['vittima] ['mCrbido] ['sDppe] [ris'ponde] ['sekko] [affa'mato] ['skorre] [po'Dma] (promise) (you) (drama) (I have it) (slender) (column) (where) (around) (back) (so) (victim) (soft) (he knew) (he answers) (dry) (hungry) (he raids) (poem) stesso peccato volto pastorDlla dDh! lopposto noioso vDrranno trCvo sorride rammarico lo rispDtto coi fronde scCsso Dbbro affDrra ['stesso] [pek'kato] ['volto] [pasto'|Dlla] [dD] [lop'posto] [no'jozo] ['vDrranno] ['trCvo] [sor'ride] [ram'ma|iko] [lo] [ris'pDtto] [ko:i] ['fronde] ['skCsso] ['Dbbro] [af'fDrra] (the same) (sin) (face)

151

10. dCrme 11. novDlla 12. colombetta 13. apparire 14. hai 15. stanno 16. profondo 17. commise 18. rosse #1

Worksheet #4: Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C], and silent h

(shepherdess) (oh!) (the opposite) (tedious) (they will come) (I find) (he smiles) (regret) (the) (respect) (with the) (branches) (shaken) (bliss) (he seizes)

209

BIBLIOGRAPHY

210

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Colorni, Evelina. Singers Italian. New York: G. Schirmer, 1970. Dizionario dOrtografia e di Pronuncia. B. Migliorini, C. Tagliavini, and P. Fiorelli. Torino: ERI/Edizioni RAI, 1981. Garzanti italiano / [progettazione e coordinamento generale: Pasquale Stoppelli]. CD-ROM. Milano: Garzanti Linguistica, 2003. Il Nuovo Zingarelli: Vocabolario della Lingua Italiana di Nicola Zingarelli. 11th Edition; general revision by Miro Dogliotti and Luigi Rosiello. Milano: Zanichelli, 1983. Righini, Vincenzo. Twelve Ariettas. Edited by Edwin Penhorwood. San Antonio, TX: Southern Music Company, 1991. Twenty-four Italian Songs and Arias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. New York: G. Schirmer, 1948.