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Original Text Copyright 2003 by Astro, Ltd. Copyright 2003 by MAIK Nauka /Interperiodica (Russia).

K. Machida1, T. Mizushima1, T. Kita2, and T. Isoshima3

1

e-mail: machida@mp.okayama-u.ac.jp

2

Division of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan 3 Materials Physics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2200 (Technical Physics), FIN-02015 HUT, Finland

Received October 4, 2002

AbstractIt is shown theoretically that the MerminHo vortex is stable in a spinor BoseEinstein condensate within extended Bogoliubov theory. The phase diagrams for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spinor BEC in a plane of the magnetization of the system and external rotation frequency are calculated. There are several types of vortices with axisymmetry and nonaxisymmetry. Multiple MerminHo vortex conguration is shown to be stable under higher rotation. We also discuss how to create and how to detect the MerminHo vortex.

1. INTRODUCTION Since optical trapping has succeeded in producing BoseEinstein condensates (BEC) with internal degrees of freedom [1, 2], much studies on the socalled spinor BEC have been done both experimentally and theoretically. The spinor BEC is distinguished from the scalar BEC trapped magnetically [35] where the internal degrees of freedom due to the atomic hyperne states are frozen. Considering its spin freedom, it is expected that a variety of topological defects may exist; in particular, vortices stabilized under rotation may have a quite different structure from that in the scalar BEC [613]. So far two groups produce the spinor BEC: 23Na with the hyperne states F = 1 and F = 2 and 87Rb with F = 1 and F = 2 in an optical trap [1, 2]. We conne our following discussion to F = 1. In 23Na, the spin-dependent interaction gs > 0 is known to be antiferromagnetic while in 87Rb it is estimated to be gs < 0 [14]. Thus these two systems provide us both types of the interaction parameter. In the scalar BEC where the order parameter is described by one component, exhaustive studies on vortices are performed [1521]: (1) conrmation of quantization of circulation, (2) dynamical process of single vortex nucleation, (3) observation of a hexagonal vortex lattice consisting of many single quantized vortices, (4) nding of curved vortices, etc. Here, we present our theoretical efforts to investigate possible vortex structures in order to further accelerate theoretical and experimental studies on spinor BEC. The paper is arranged as follows. First, we give a formulation of the problem within Bogoliubov theory extended to the spinor BEC (F = 1) described by threecomponent order parameters. We examine several com-

peting factors which govern the stability of possible vortex structures, including axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric vortices. MerminHo (MH) and Anderson Toulouse (AT) vortices [22, 23], which are predicted to be realized in superuid 3He, whose order parameter is also multicomponent and has not been identied yet [24], are found to be stabilized in a rather large area of the phase diagram only in the ferromagnetic case under external rotation. We illustrate an example of the vortex array under further high external rotation where four MH vortices are stabilized. The phase diagrams both for antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions are determined in the plane of the total magnetization of the system and the external rotation frequency. 2. EXTENDED BOGOLIUBOV THEORY 2.1. Formulation We focus on the spinor BEC with internal degrees of freedom F = 1 for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic cases. We start with the standard Hamiltonian by Ohmi and Machida [6] and Ho [7]: = dr

{ h(r) }

i i ij

j ij

gn + ---2

i j j ij

(1) .

g + ---s 2 Here,

(F

i j ijkl

) ik ( F ) jl k l

h ( r ) = ----------- + V ( r ) W ( r p ) 2m

(2)

1083

1084

MACHIDA et al.

is a one-body Hamiltonian. The quantity V(r) = 1 -- m (2r)2(x2 + y2) is the external connement poten2 tial, such as an optical potential. The scattering lengths a0 and a2 characterize collisions between atoms through the total spin 0 and 2 channels, respectively, gn = 2 4 a 0 + 2a 2 ----------- ------------------- is the interaction strength through the 3 m 2 4 a 0 a 0 density channel, and gs = ----------- --------------- is that through 3 m the spin channel. The subscripts = (x, y, z) and i, j, k, l = (0, 1) correspond to the above three species. The chemical potentials for the three components i (i = 0, 1) satisfy 1 0 = 0 1. We introduce = 0 and ' = 1 0. F ( = x, y, z) is the spin matrices and can be expressed as 010 1 F x = ------ 1 0 1 , 2 010 0 1 0 i F y = ------ 1 0 1 , 2 0 1 0 . (3)

A ij = h ( r ) ij i ij + g n + gs [(F

kl

2 k

ij + i * j

* ) ij ( F ) kl k l

* + ( F ) il ( F ) kj k l ], (7) ) ik k ( F ) jl l ],

B ij = g n i j + g s

[(F

kl

uq(r, i) and vq(r, i) are the qth eigenfunctions with the spin i, and q corresponds to the qth eigenvalue. 2.2. Calculated System The actual calculations are carried out by assuming uniform density along the z axis, namely, in the cylindrical symmetric system. Then, the spinor order parameter and quasiparticle wave functions can be written by this symmetry reason as j ( r ) = j ( r )e u q ( r, j ) = u q ( r )e

i j

, , . (8)

i ( q + j )

10 0 Fz = 0 0 0 0 0 1

v q ( r, j ) = v q ( r )e

i ( q j )

Following the standard procedure, the extended GrossPitaevskii (GP) equation in rotation frame is obtained as h ( r ) i + gn + gs (F

kl

2 l

ij j = 0.

(4)

* ) ij k ( F ) kl l

Here, we take the external rotation as W = z and assume uniformity along the z direction. We can also dene the local stability, which means the linear stability for a small perturbation. This is done by solving the extended Bogoliubov equations to the three components under the axisymmetric situation [25, 26]:

We have performed an extensive search to nd stable vortices, starting with various vortex congurations, covering a wide range of the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic interaction strength, gs /gn = 0.20.2, and examining various axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric vortices (see [25, 26] for the classication of possible vortices in the axisymmetric case). We use the following parameters: the mass of a 87Rb atom m = 1.44 1025 kg, the trapping frequency r = 200 Hz, and the particle number per unit length along the z axis nz = 2.0 103/m. The results displayed here are for gs /gn = 0.02 (ferromagnetic case) and gs /gn = 0.02 (antiferromagnetic case). The external rotation frequency is normalized by the harmonic trap frequency. 3. COMPETING EFFECTS In order to nd the most stable vortex conguration under the given total magnetization M/N (N is the total number) and external rotation , we must take into account three mutually competing effects: (1) The spin-dependent interaction energy is written 2 as gs |211 0 |2. For the antiferromagnetic case gs > 0, the so-called polar state (1, 0, 1) = (0, 1, 0) is stable in a uniform case. For the ferromagnetic case gs < 0, the full polarized state (1, 0, 0) is stabilized [6, 7]. (2) The harmonic conning potential which gives the maximum density at the potential minimum is important when placing the vortex center; if the vortex

LASER PHYSICS Vol. 13 No. 8 2003

{A

j j

ij u q ( r,

j ) B ij v q ( r, j ) } = q u q ( r, i ),

(5)

{ B * u ( r, j ) A * v

ij q ij

q ( r,

j ) } = q v q ( r, i ),

(6)

where

1085

0 x, m

2 0 y, m 2 4 4 Density, 1020 m3

0 x, m (c)

1 0 4 2 4 2 0 2 y, m 4 4

0 x, m

Density, 1020 m3 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 x, m 2 3 +1 1

(d)

Fig. 1. Density proles of the axisymmetric 1, x, 0 vortex in the antiferromagnetic situation (gs = 0.02gn): at = 0.35 and M/N = 0.65. 3D plots of (a) the total density

j , (b) |1|2, and (c) |1|2. The cross section is shown in (d). The bold line denotes the

total density, and the thin lines show the densities of the three components.

core where the condensates are empty is placed at the potential minimum, the condensation energy is lost maximally. Thus the vortex core seeks a lower density region, leading to the vortex spiraling out effect and ultimately giving rise to the intrinsic vortex instability in the scalar BEC [13, 2628]. (3) The energy term W L associated with the external rotation is also decisive, in particular, in a higher rotation region. The larger angular momentum of the system, the more this energy is gained. It is noted that the total angular momentum is maximal when the vortex core is placed at the potential minimum position, and thus the factor (2) and (3) are mutually competing.

LASER PHYSICS Vol. 13 No. 8 2003

4. POSSIBLE VORTEX TYPES We can classify the possible vortex types into two categories: axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric vortices. 4.1. Axisymmetric Vortices For axisymmetric vortices, the combination of the winding numbers 1, 0, 1 of three components (1, 0, 1) is restricted to 20 = 1 + 1. Since each winding number should be small because a vortex with a larger winding number decays spontaneously into multiple vortices with a smaller winding number, the possible axisymmetric vortices are enumerated as 1, 1, 1,

0 x, m

2 0 y, m 2 4 4 (c)

0 x, m

Density, 1020 m3 1 0 4 2

Density, 1020 m3 1 4 0 4 2

0 x, m

2 0 y, m 2 4 4

0 x, m

4 2 0 2 y, m 4 4

Density, 1020 m3 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 x, m 2 3 4 +1 1 (e)

Fig. 2. Density proles of the axisymmetric 1, 1, 1 vortex in the ferromagnetic situation (gs = 0.02gn): at = 0.35 and M/N = 0. 3D plots of (a) the total density, (b) |1|2, (c) |0 |2, and (d) |1|2. The cross section is shown in (e).

1, 0, 1, 1, x, 0, and 2, 1, 0, where x means that this component is absent. The 1, x, 0 Alice vortex as a typical example of the axisymmetric vortex is shown in Fig. 1, where the density proles for two components |1(r)|2 and |1(r)|2 are displayed in Figs. 1b and 1c. It is seen from these that the 1 component with no winding is tted in the vortex core region of the 1 component with the unit circulation at the center (see Fig. 1d for the cross-sectional structure). The resulting total density prole in Fig. 1a shows an almost bell-shape structure, which is advantageous in gaining the condensation energy. 4.2. Nonaxisymmetric Vortices There are several vortex types which break axisymmetry. We try to nd some of them by starting with an axisymmetric vortex as an initial conguration of

numerical computation. In Fig. 2, we display an example where the vortex cores of the three components align linearly along a line passing through the potential minimum point. Each component has unit circulation. Since the cores of the 1 and 1 components avoid the potential minimum point, the condensation energy loss due to placing the core at this point is saved while the total angular momentum is decreased. The cross-sectional prole in Fig. 2e is depicted along the line where the vortex cores are aligned. 5. MERMINHO VORTEX Among the axisymmetric vortices enumerated before, the 2, 1, 0 or 0, 1, 2 vortex is nothing but the so-called MerminHo vortex or the AndersonToulouse vortex, which are predicted in connection with superuid 3He [24]. The density proles are shown in

LASER PHYSICS Vol. 13 No. 8 2003

1087

0 x, m

2 0 y, m 2 4 4 (c)

0 x, m

Density, 1020 m3 1 0 4 2

Density, 1020 m3 1 4 0 4 2

0 x, m

2 0 y, m 2 4 4

0 x, m

4 2 0 2 y, m 4 4

Density, 1020 m3 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 x, m 2 3 4 0 +1 (e)

Fig. 3. Density proles of the axisymmetric 0, 1, 2 vortex in the ferromagnetic situation (gs = 0.02gn): at = 0.35, M/N = 0, 3D plots of (a) the total density, (b) |1|2, (c) |0 |2, and (d) |1|2. The cross section is shown in (e).

Fig. 3. It is seen from these that the 1 component with zero winding occupies the central region, the 0 with unit winding is in the intermediate region, and the 1 with winding 2 is in the outer region. In this axisymmetric structure, each component is situated concentrically. This structure is advantageous because (1) the potential minimum region is lled in the condensates, (2) the total angular momentum can be large by having the higher winding number 2, and (3) the ferromagnetic spin interaction term favors phase separation, yielding a concentric layered structure. This MH vortex only appears in the ferromagnetic case. Note that in the antiferromagnetic case the doubly quantized vortex of the 1 component tends to become two singly quantized vortices since the antiferromagnetic spin interaction favors the mixture of the components exemplied by the polar state in the uniform case. The spin texture in the MH vortex is illustrated in Fig. 4. As seen from Figs. 4a and 4b, where the spatial

LASER PHYSICS Vol. 13 No. 8 2003

dependences of the l vector, which is dened as l * ( F ) ij j ( = x, y, z), are displayed in threeij i dimensional manner (Fig. 4a) and two-dimensional manner (Fig. 4b), the l vector is frared out radically. The magnitude of the lz component decreases outwardly to zero (a negative value) for the MH vortex (AT vortex) as shown in Fig. 4c. We can control two vortices by merely changing the total magnetization (in superuid 3He, the boundary condition for a bucket wall controls it). The dotted line indicates the analytic form lz = cos(r) with (r) = r/R (R = 2.85 m) for comparison.

6. PHASE DIAGRAM We construct the phase diagrams both for ferromagnetic (Fig. 5) and antiferromagnetic (Fig. 6) cases in the plane: vs. M/N. There appear both axisymmetric and

1088 (a)

MACHIDA et al.

4 3 2 1

0 1 x, m 2

0 1 3 2 1 y, m 44 3 (b)

nonaxisymmetric vortices. We focus on the low-frequency region < 0.36 where the single vortex is stable in the scalar BEC. By comparing the energies for several vortex congurations, we select the lowest energy vortex at a given and M/N. In the ferromagnetic case (Fig. 5), the 0, 1, 2 vortex, namely, the MH vortex, is stable for a rather large area. The upper boundary denoted by the dotted line signies the boundary above which the collective modes become the negative eigenvalue. Below this line, the MH vortex is stable globally and locally; that is, MH has the lowest energy among the various vortex congurations and all the collective modes have positive eigenvalues. The large empty region in Fig. 5 means that there is no stable conguration, indicating the tendency toward phase separation in the ferromagnetic case. As for the antiferromagnetic case shown in Fig. 6, the entire region is covered by individual states, excluding the empty region. Except for the narrow region along M/N ~ 0 where the nonaxisymmetric 1, 1, 1 vortex becomes stable, only the axisymmetric vortices appear. The detailed local stability analyses are done for these vortices [25, 26]. Basically, these are shown to be locally unstable. 7. HIGHER ROTATION It is rather difcult to systematically investigate the higher rotation region because the variety of the possible multiple vortex congurations to be examined increases further. Here, we pick up an example which becomes stable under a set of particular parameter values. Figure 7 shows the spin texture of the four MH vortices, which are arranged regularly to form a square lattice. The four MH vortices are seen to have different l vector structures. This spin texture with the square arrayed MH vortices is similar to that proposed by

, trap unit 0.36

Fig. 4. The spin textures of the 0, 1, 2 vortex are displayed. The l vector in the (x, y) plane is shown in (a). The arrows correspond to the l-vectors, and the small circles are perpendicular to each l vector. (b) (lx , ly) and (c) spatial dependence of the lz component along the radial direction.

, trap unit 0.36 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 M/N 1, 1, 1 0, 1, 2 1, 0, 1

1, 1, 1 triangle 1, x, 0 1, 1, 1 spilit-(I) 0, x, 1 1, 0, 1

Fig. 5. Phase diagram for the ferromagnetic state (gs = 0.02gn). The dashed line denotes the boundary where the lowest eigenvalue of the 0, 1, 2 vortex becomes negative.

Fig. 6. Phase diagram for the antiferromagnetic state (gs = 0.02gn). Nonaxisymmetric vortices are stable in the shaded area near M/N ~ 0. LASER PHYSICS Vol. 13 No. 8 2003

1089

4 (b) 6

0 x, m

(c)

y, m

y, m

6 6 0 x, m (d) 6 6 6 0 x, m (e) 6

y, m

6 6 0 x, m 6 6 0 x, m 6

Fig. 7. Properties of the four MerminHo vortices at nz = 1.0 104/m and = 0.4. (a) The direction of the l vector in the (x, y) plane and contour plots of (b) the total density, (c) |1|2, (d) |0 |2, and (e) |1|2 are displayed.

Fujita et al. [29] in connection with the superuid 3HeA phase under rotation. The density topomaps are shown in Figs. 7b7e. The density prole has a quite smooth bell shape in spite of the intricate density proles for each component.

LASER PHYSICS Vol. 13 No. 8 2003

8. CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY We have shown that the MerminHo vortex and AndersonToulouse vortex can be realized in a spinor BEC of atomic clouds, such as 87Rb of hyperne state

y, m

y, m

1090

MACHIDA et al. 9. Busch, Th. and Anglin, J.R., 1999, Phys. Rev. A, 60, R2669. 10. Marzlin, K.-P., Zhang, W., and Sanders, B.C., 2000, Phys. Rev. A, 62, 013602. 11. Tuchiya, S. and Kurihara, S., 2001, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 70, 1182. 12. Martikainen, J.-P., Collin, A., and Suominen, K.-A., 2002, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 090404. 13. Mizushima, T., Machida, K., and Kita, T., 2002, Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 030401. 14. Klausen, N.N., Bohn, J.L., and Greene, C.H., 2001, Phys. Rev. A, 64, 053602. 15. Matthews, M.R., Anderson, B.P., Haljan, P.C., Hall, D.S., Wieman, C.E., and Cornell, E.A., 1999, Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 2498. 16. Madison, K.W., Chevy, F., Wohlleben, W., and Dalibard, J., 2000, Phys. Rev. Lett., 84, 806. 17. Abo-Shaeer, J.R., Raman, C., Vogels, J.M., and Ketterle, W., 2001, Science, 292, 476. 18. Haljan, P.C., Coddington, I., Engels, P., and Cornell, E.A., 2001, Phys. Rev. Lett., 87, 210403. 19. Hodby, E., Heckenblaikner, G., Hopkins, S.A., Marag, O.M., and Foot, C.J., 2001, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 010405. 20. Leanhardt, A.E., Grlitz, A., Chikkatur, A.P., Kielpinski, D., Shin, Y., Pritchard, D.E., and Ketterle, W., 2002, Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 190403. 21. See for review, Fetter, A.L. and Svidzinsky, A.A., 2001, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 13, R135. 22. Mermin, N.D. and Ho, T.-L., 1976, Phys. Rev. Lett., 36, 594. 23. Anderson, P.W. and Toulouse, G., 1977, Phys. Rev. Lett., 38, 508. 24. Salomaa, M.M. and Volovik, G.E., 1987, Rev. Mod. Phys., 59, 533. 25. Isoshima, T., Machida, K., and Ohmi, T., 2001, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 70, 1604. 26. Isoshima, T. and Machida, K., 2002, Phys. Rev. A, 66, 023602. 27. Yip, S.-K., 1999, Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 4677. 28. Mizushima, T., Machida, K., and Kita, T., 2002, Phys Rev. A, 66, 053610. 29. Fujita, T., Nakahara, M., Ohmi, T., and Tsuneto, T., 1978, Prog. Theor. Phys., 60, 671. 30. Nakahara, M., Isoshima, T., Machida, K., Ogawa, S., and Ohmi, T., 2000, Physica B (Amsterdam), 284288, 17. 31. Isoshima, T., Nakahara, M., Ohmi, T., and Machida, K., 2000, Phys. Rev. A, 61, 063610. 32. Leanhardt, A.E., Shin, Y., Kielpinski, D., Pritchard, D.E., and Ketterle, W., 2003, Phys. Rev. Lett., 90, 140403. 33. Kita, T., Mizushima, T., and Machida, K., 2002, Phys. Rev. A, 66, 061601.

F = 1, which is considered to be the ferromagnetic case. These vortices with a nonsingular core are characterized by calculating the spin textures. The stability of these vortices are examined by comparing other possible vortex congurations (global stability) and by evaluating collective modes whose eigenvalues are positive in their stable region of the phase diagram (linear stability or local stability). The total angular momentum per particle is given by Lz /N = 1 M/N for MH and AT vortices. The above calculations are performed within the framework of Bogoliubov theory extended to BEC with spin degrees of freedom, namely, the three-component BEC. In response to our earlier proposal [30, 31] that a vortex with the winding number 2 can be created by adiabatically reversing a magnetic eld utilizing the Berry phase change, Leanhardt et al. [20] have succeeded in producing a vortex by this topological vortex formation. During the eld reversing process at exactly the half-way point of this process, the MH vortex is formed (see Fig. 2b in [31]). In this sense, the MH vortex has already been created. In fact, this has been conrmed [32]. In order to conrm the MH vortex, we point out the SternGerlach experiment, which can probe the density proles for each spin component separately. This method is ideally suited for this case because, as is seen from Fig. 3, each component is arranged concentrically around the harmonic potential minimum. We have shown that MH vortices become stable in higher rotation. This study leads ultimately to our investigation of many vortex congurations under very high rotation [33]. REFERENCES

1. Stenger, J., Inouye, S., Stamper-Kurn, D.M., Miesner, H.-J., Chikkatur, A.P., and Ketterle, W., 1998, Nature, 369, 345. 2. Barrett, M., Sauer, J., and Chapman, M.S., 2001, Phys. Rev. Lett., 87, 010404. 3. Anderson, M.H., Ensher, J.R., Matthews, M.R., Wieman, C.E., and Cornell, E.A., 1995, Science, 269, 198. 4. Bradley, C.C., Sackett, C.A., Tollett, J.J., and Hulet, R.G., 1995, Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 1687. 5. Davis, K.B., Mewes, M.-O., Andrews, M.R., van Druten, N.J., Durfee, D.S., Kurn, D.M., and Ketterle, W., 1995, Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 3969. 6. Ohmi, T. and Machida, K., 1998, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 67, 1822. 7. Ho, T.-L., 1998, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 742. 8. Al Khawaja, U. and Stoof, H.T.C., 2001, Nature, 411, 918; 2001, Phys. Rev. A, 64, 043612.

LASER PHYSICS

Vol. 13

No. 8

2003

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