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# CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 2 THE GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS THE GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS

2-1 Introduction. Turning from the properties of x-rays, we must now 2-1 Introduction. Turning from the properties of x-rays, we must now consider the geometry and structure of crystals in order to discover what consider the geometry and structure of crystals in order to discover what there is about crystals in general that enables them to diffract x-rays. there is about crystals in general that enables them to diffract x-rays. We must also consider particular crystals of various kinds and how the very must also consider particular crystals of various kinds and how the very

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number of crystals found in nature are classified into a relatively number of crystals found in nature are classified into a relatively will examine the ways in which the number of groups. Finally, number of groups. Finally, we will examine the ways in which the

way do not possess the essential requirement of periodicity. all solids are do not possess the essential requirement of periodicity. Not all solids are not have any crystalline, however; some are amorphous, like glass, and do not have any crystalline, however; some are amorphous, like glass, regular interior arrangement of atoms. There is, in fact, no essential is, in fact, no essential regular interior arrangement of atoms. is difference between an amorphous solid and a liquid, and the former is solid difference between an amorphous liquid, often referred to as an "undercooled liquid." liquid." often referred to as an "undercooled

orientation of lines and planes in crystals can be represented in terms of orientation of lines and planes in crystals can be represented in terms of symbols or in graphical form. symbols or in graphical form. crystal may be defined as a solid composed of arranged in a patA crystal may be defined as a solid composed of atoms arranged in a pattern periodic in three dimen8ions. such, crystals differ in a fundamental tern periodic in three dimensions. As such, crystals differ in a fundamental way from gases and liquids because the atomic arrangements in the latter from gases and liquids because the atomic arrangements in the latter

2-2 Lattices. In thinking about crystals, it is often convenient to igig2-2 Lattices. In thinking about crystals, it is often their periodic arrangenore the, actual atoms composing the crystal and their periodic arrangeactual atoms composing the crystal nore the, has ment in space, and to think instead of a set of imaginary points which has ment in Space, and to think instead of a set of imaginary points of the crystal a fixed relation in space to the atoms of the crystal and may be regarded regarded a fixed relation in space to the the actual crystal is built up. as a sort of framework or skeleton on which the actual crystal is built up. as a sort of framework or skeleton divided This set of points can be formed as follows. Imagine space to be divided This set of points can be formed as follows. Imagine space to by three sets of planes, the planes in each set being parallel and equally equally three sets of planes, the planes in each set being parallel by set of cells each identical in spaced. This division of space will produce a set of cells each identical in This division of space will produce spaced. Each cell is a parallelepiped, size, shape, and orientation to its neighbors. Each cell is a parallelepiped, size, shape, and orientation to its neighbors. since its opposite faces are parallel and each face is a parallelogram._ The since its opposite faces are parallel and each face is a parallelogram.^ The space-dividing planes will intersect each other in a set of lines (Fig. 2-1), space-dividing planes will intersect each other in a set of lines (Fig. 2-1), and these lines in turn intersect in the set of points referred to above. A and these lines in turn intersect in the set of points referred to above. A set of points so formed has an important property: it consti.tutes a point set of points so formed has an important property: it constitutes a point in space so arranged that each lattice, which is defined as an array of points in 8pace so arranged that each lattice, which is defined as an array of points "identical surroundings*' we mean point has identical 8urroundings. By "identical surroundings" we mean By point has identical surroundings. that the lattice of points, when viewed in a particular direction from one that the lattice of points, when viewed in a particular direction from one lattice point, would have exactly the same appearance when viewed in the lattice point, would have exactly the same appearance when viewed in the same direction from any other lattice point. same direction from any other lattice point. Since all the cells of the lattice shown in Fig. 2-1 are identical, we may Since all the cells of the lattice shown in Fig. 2-1 are identical, we may choose anyone, for example the heavily outlined one, as a unit cell. The choose any one, for example the heavily outlined one, as a unit cell. The
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